2 ó

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 ó or dil.ie/33365


Forms: otbert, otchuala, ótconnairc, ót[h], óthá, ós, ósa, obsa, órba, obtar, ó

conj. Orig. the prep. ó governing a subord. noun-clause and itself belonging in syntax to the main clause, but later felt as a conj. belonging to the subord. clause. See Thurn. Thurn. Hdb. § 466 , Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii § 511 Anm. It must be distinguished from ó n- (= prep.+ rel.) preceding a subord. clause, e.g. hua mbi from which is, Tur. 10 ; hua n-erbirmis, Ml. 135d3 ; ho torgab whereby he committed, 32a23 . The form ua is not used as conj. (but cf. hu-batar, Ml. 63a4 ).

Lenites the follg. vb.: o chretsit, Wb. 31c7 . o chaithes, PH 4799 . o dhoriachtatar, 190 . In Mid.Ir. often causes elision of initial a in vbs. compounded with ad- (at-): otchí, PH 4606. otbert, 6566 . otchuala, 1008 . ótconnairc, TBC-LL¹ 3889 , cf. 3913 (both St.); but: o atchuala, PH 491 , cf. 96 , 100 . o atcondcatar, 355 . Cf. otnocbat (= o don-ocbat), TBC-LL¹ 5674 , an analogous form. Occas. eclipsis occurs in pret. forms of the subst. vb.: o mboi, PH 689. ó mbátar, 5035 , cf. 1719 , 5110 .

Folld. by the deuterotonic form of compd. vbs.: ó dom- anicc, Wb. 12c9 . ó do-ánic, Ériu iv 28.18 . o doraitne, PH 1349 . Later conjunct forms come into use, ó thánic, etc. The preverb ro retains its accent after ó, except with cop. (see below); but: ór fhég, LL 142a11 .

With the pres. tense of the subst. vb. ó is employed like a preverb, forming a virtual compd.: 1 s. ót[h], LU 2985 , LL 249b3 ( TBFr. 133 ), ZCP vii 301 § 10. 3 s. óthá (which early develops into a prep., see óthá).

With cop.: pres. 3 s. o as, LU 1514 ( MU 52.8 ); generally with elision ós; ósa (common in PH and later Mid.Ir.). pret. 1 s. ? obsa, IT iii 68.3 . (with ro-) or bam, IT i 120.23 . LL 282a12 . 3 s. órba, BColm. 96.4 . 3 pl. obtar, ZCP xii 378.22 . With neg.: ó nach (ná); ó nár.

I As temporal conj., the orig. sense being distance from a certain point (event, etc.) expressed by the subord. clause.

(a) the ó-clause states the point of time at which the action (state) of the main clause began, since , Lat. ex quo. Folld. by a pret. in O.Ir. (in Mid.Ir. sometimes perf.). hó boí mo chland is oc frecur ceill Dae atáa since my clan came into being, it has been engaged in worshipping God, Wb. 29d6 . hu batar sidi i nEgipt (gl. ab Egypto [usque adhuc]), Ml. 63a4 . tri chét bliadna . . . o bāte and Eocho find since E. was drowned, LU 2986. ni ḟuilet trí thráth and o thucus-[s]a trí laíchcind uait, IT i 102.9 . cosindiu . . . ó gabus-sa Crúachna, FB 44. atú-sa sunn . . . o rogenar since my birth, IT i 120.20 . atu-sa or bam noídiu cot ḟognam since my childhood, LL 282a12 . coic laithe deg o do benadh iad from the time they were cut, Fl. Earls 196.1 . ní tháinig fear ó fearadh an díle, Keat. Poems 822.

When the action of the ó-clause is conceived as still con- tinuing, the pres. tense is used: ó tú-sa isin dún-sa as long as I have been here, LL 249b3 ( TBFr. 133 ). tri chét bliadna o tú sund, LU 2985. is cían o as fásach it has long been waste, 1514 ( MU 52.8 ). nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí | o tú ar síth mo Righ amuigh as long as I am outside my King's peace (?), ZCP vii 301 § 10 .

(b) the action of the ó-clause is anterior to that of the main clause, when, after = Lat. postquam; with a vb. in perf. tense. (If the vb. of the main clause is past, that of the ó-clause represents pluperf.) o adcuaid ruín ícce in cheneli doíne . . . asber iarum after declaring the mystery . . . he then says, Wb. 21d11 . ho desid forlán . . . tanicc iarum gratia when [sin] had been superabundantly established . . . then came `gratia', 3a7 . ho imrordai nech . . . dolbthai [= dolbaith-i] dano iarum, PCr. 64a1 ( Thes. ii 229.32 ). o desid ógi na cretmi la firu Herend and ┐ o ro pridcastar Patraic soscela dóib . . . conid íarum ro chreti Loegaire, LU 9735. o ro glé a imrádud . . . dolluid, FB 8 . o ro taisfeóin Bricriu in fled . . . forócrad do B., ib. 13 . is mor for fācsam do maith | o ro chrādsam ar n-ardflaith, SR 1486 . o doriachtsat . . . ro chelebairset a tratha, PH 579. o atchuala in ríg na gaire . . . ro iarfacht, 395 . otrubairt in demun sin, boí ina thost iarum, 1980 . o dubairt A. sin, ra laigastair . . . , TTebe 1215 . ó ro aitcheatar ainm Colmáin . . . ternatar slán, BColm. 94.12 .

Folld. by perfective pres.: o doréccu Cuirrech cain . . . dobeir mac[h]dath when I gaze upon the fair Curragh, Hail Brigit § 3 ( LL 49b15 ). is ann is lestar spirto noib in duini, o dondigsed na sualchi tar esse na ndualche when virtues come to him instead of vices, ZCP iii 454.26 (perf.-pres. subj. = dodigthet, R). In PH 928 : o ro dígset for a sét, the vb. is prob. to be regarded as a spurious perfect.

(c) the action of the ó-clause is simultaneous with that of the main clause, when, as soon as, often while ; folld. by pres., past and fut. tenses. In Mid.Ir. the rel. form of 3 s. pres. and fut. is commonly used in this sense. With pres.: ticc mo tráth ó ticc an samh when summer comes, ZCP viii 222 z . otchí Isu in ṅduine ic comallnad a thimna . . . faídid chuice na suailche, PH 4606. o thecait na sualchi . . . dochumm in duine, fuaslaicit a chorp ┐ a anmain, 4615 . o dfhéchas [leg. déchas] in fíren brechtrad na sualach . . . togaid in sualaig, 7101 . o chaithes in choland in mbiad, is sásad . . . di he, 4799 . With subj. pres.: cuin is tualaing coisc alanali? O chanasca [cutnasca v.l.] fadesin when is he able to control another? When he can control himself, ZCP iii 451.26 .

With fut., answering to a Lat. fut. perf., Eng. pres. or perf.; common in Laws Comm. beirid cach dibad . . . o bias in cuic raith cetach acu ┐ o bus ac oen flaith beit `when they have the five stocks of a hundred head of cattle and are under one chief', Laws iv 42 y = Stud. in E. Ir. Law 149.5 . forrgid as anim dō o rachas as a daghfēr fein (the calf) is called `f.' when it leaves its own good grass, 110.29 (t.). o roinnfes in tir, nochan egin do . . . when he has divided, 8.4 . o fasbus [= fásfas] fogail when damage arises, 8.12 . donither trocaire ris o rosia lan in marbhta `when (the fine) reaches the full amount for kill- ing', 250.2 . is e dobēra ola a throcaire do cách . . . o ragus fen artús fo baithis, PH 3813.

With past, gen. to express an action (state) during which something occurred: o mbatar na fir isin uamaid, . . . tanic in t-imper, PH 1002. o mbatar icon cosnum sin, ro pritchastar P. dóib, 1719 . Cf. 5035 . o rabadar som amlaid sin . . . adchualadar, TTebe 2938 .

II As causal conj., as, since, inasmuch as (not in Glosses); esp. common with cop.

tescthar a thengaid o na hadrand na dee since he does not worship the gods, PH 733. atbert in popul . . . in t-apstal do crochad o nar fhétsat bás ele dó, 2555 . o nach fil nech ar slicht Ádaim acht braithre since all of Adam's race are brethren, 7502 . ní dhéan ris acht léimreach tar líne . . . ó nach féadtar réad do ríomh air as it is impossible, Keat. Poems 755. os e in t-anumm is uaisle since the soul is the nobler, PH 7367. os iat na céimenda since these are the steps, 7807 . ro chedaigset do Sir B. imdecht, os edh ba tol do, ZCP iv 383.26 . os olc bó . . . do goit, is messa . . . duine do goit since it is wrong . . . it is worse, PH 7778. osa dáll a chride, berid diabul leis . . . he, 7755 . dentur do thoil féin dim-sa, osa me dorinde in gnim, ZCP vi 277.12 . osa lim Albain cen fheill as I am ruler of Alba, MR 60.15 = FDG 518. osa cara don naduir an fuil since blood is the friend of nature, Rosa Angl. 18.5 .