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50 2 a In O.Ir. also á (see Celtica ii 339 - 40 ), e ( Thurn. Gramm.
285 ). Poss. adj. (proclitic form of , q.v.) of 3 s. m. and n.
(leniting), 3 s. f. (geminating) and 3 pl. of all genders (nasal-
ising). When a numeral intervenes between poss. and noun
the usage fluctuates. The older is represented by a nda ara.
55 LU 4729 , the later by a da nduma, LL 1541 , where the
initial of the noun is mutated independently of the numeral.
The poss. of the third person is also used in combinations
such as adám my two, adád your two, adár our two. Similarly
with trí. See Ériu xi 146 ff. and the numerals , trí.
60For the forms in combination with prepositions see the
several prepositions.
I Denoting possession, ownership, relationship, connection,
etc. (a) a thuaithe of his folk, Wb. 5a23 . a bullu `His members',
9d4 . a chnámi, 4d15 . á luum `their pilot', 4a14 . irroimed
65cách a chéele, 6d4 (see céile). ní diá geneluch, Trip.² 78 .
a hétach her clothes, TBFr. 232 . a mmod ┐ a fit `her portion',
Mon. Tall. 149.14 (§ 60) . inna mbossán LU 3231 ( SC § 2 ).
al-lorga ┐ a mbachla their croziers, PH 5103 . gan fios a gcéille,
Donl. vi 9 . co cend a seacht mbliadan till he was seven,
70 ZCP xi 134. 31 .
With adjj. used substantivally. iss é a fír `that is the truth
of it
', BColm. 100.7 . ēill ngēisi . . . cia de bud ferr la hUltu a
mbeō na a mmarb do brith dōib, TBC² 692 (perh. to be
referred to II). bit lía a mairb and andat a mbí, LU 8266
75( FB 21 ).
(b) With copula in relative clauses expressing genitival
relation ( Thurn. Gramm. 321 - 2 ). Cf. issa gl. quorum, Ml.
90c3 . intí asa ainm bís isnaib titlaib, 2c3 . Tenobi ata
(= ata a) scél ro-c[h]lotha `of Tenobius whose tidings have
been heard
', Fél. Aug. 24 . in fer asa erbaid aire, Trip.² 408 .
bennachais in ríg bá (= ba a) gaisced he blessed the king
whose armour it was
, LU 5048 (TBC). an mhaighden-so
5'sa hainm an Tnūith this maiden whose name is envy, Desid.
1652 . Occasionally also with intervening adj.: na féle assa
fortrén taitnem `of the feasts whose radiance is mighty',
Fél. Prol. 330 . ata (= ata a) n-aidbli bríga `whose vigours are
vast
', Ep. 34. nocon ḟetar cúich in Cu/Culaind asa caini
10clú, LU 4561 (TBC). Note also: a bronnad aineclann cháich
as a aí the honour price of each person who owns it (of a mill),
Críth Gabl. 240 , ( Thurn. Gramm. 322 ).
With dat. of accompaniment, a oenur, a ndíis, a triur etc.,
see these words. On the construction tá sé ina ríg see
15Dillon ZCP xvii 307 ff. and prep. i.
(c) With nouns indicating quantity, portion (of something),
likeness, etc. (for fuller treatment see the nouns concerned):
ni ro-pheccaig . . . a becc in the smallest degree, PH 2622 . a
bheag nó a mhór do thoirthibh, TSh. 3751 . denum-ne a
20choibes ┐ a macsamla, PH 119 . a thri chomméit three times as
much
, LU 8248 ( FB 19 ). nochon accasa riam a chutrumma
anything to equal it, TBFr. 50 . ní áirmhim a leth nó a thrían
gach a fúaras ó sin siar, ZCP viii 220 § 22 . tria tharmcruth-
ugud a letheti `the like of it', PH 3091 . ara lin do gablaibh i
25fodlait(h)er grā[d] túa[i]the, Críth Gablach 4 . is e a mét
ro-s-lín oman, PH 1121 . a shamail-seo do clochad, 7328 .
dā dabaigh décc do lionn maith/a thrí urdāil do deghbraith,
ZCP viii 116.1. i n-urmhōr the greater part of them, ML². 1825 .
So also with adjj. compounded with com- e.g. a chomglan
30so, Maund. 22 .
II As objective gen. with vnn. of transitive verbs: á híc
`his salvation' (that he has been saved), Wb. 2b11 . a marbad
`killing them', 4a12 . ní arilset geinti a fírianugud, `the gen-
tiles have not deserved to be justified
' 4d10 . a chomalnad
35`to fulfil it', 5d10 . ma ad-ced torbe inna thec[h]t `if ye should
see benefit in its going
' (i.e. in so going), 11b22 . a bronnad,
Críth Gabl. 240 . a indarpae `he must be banished', Mon. Tall.
147.32 (§ 54). dénam-ne an degaithris, let us worthily imitate
them
, ZCP viii 216.15 . dutracht lim a nguidhe I wish to pray
40to them
, Ériu i 226. § 1 . ro-gab Petar uad-som a chairiugud
Peter accepted his reproval (of himself) from him, PH 5892 .
ada fis . . . araen . . . ada nanfis . . . imaraen, the knowledge
. . . ignorance of both of them
, Laws iii 276.18 . Hence in
construction OC + vn.: occá sirḟegad imme anair, LU 2028
45( FA 10 ). aga thabhairt fo dera coimhéud na bochtaine,
RSClára 41a .
With DO introducing agent: massu ed béso mó a fius
dúibsi `the knowledge of it that ye have', Wb. 19b11 . act cuit a
scribint domsa, 13a23 . ní fitir nech díb for araile a n-imch-
50ossait do Bricrind, LU 8251 ( FB 20 ). in pendit nopeinebad
ind laoch . . . a denam do a mac tar a cend, Mon. Tall.
163.17 (§ 86) . With LA: ro aduim Sinoip a claí la hErcuil
`that she had been defeated', St. Ercuil 1138 . With ó: ro-p
áil dó a aimsiugud o diabul, PH 2020 .
55With other nouns (with wide variation in the force of the
poss.): a lóg the reward for it, Wb. 5d35 . a lúach soin don rí
ní rug, IGT Decl. ex. 1271 . ricfaither a les do gille, Sc.M²
§ 7 (see less). dommanic amh a hadbur cause for it, Ériu
v 72.15 . go dtugsad a rige do D. they gave the kingship of it
60to D.
, Ériu i 102 § 60 . bid lia turim a chath the combat for him,
Sc.M² § 3 . nī cōir a chuma to grieve for him, Arch. iii 221.24 .
a húamun fear of him, ZCP viii 218 § 20 . co naca fir Erenn
. . . a reir uaimsea so that the men of Ireland may see me
submitting to him
, Ériu v 240.132 . d'fulair a grádh ar
65hIrúath by imposing love for herself on Herod, Ériu iv 178 § 29 .
ferr les a sidh na a cocudh `that he would rather be on peaceful
than on hostile terms with them
', St. Ercuil 1859 . a aitherrach
sin do fregra, Maund. 27 . aenduini nach fuair a soludh
who did not profit by him, CCath. 1188 . pontifex a grēc
70 p. is the Greek for it, ZCP viii 113.25 .
As subjective gen. with vnn. of intrans. vbs.: á buid
`that it is', Wb. 11d3 . a mbith samlaid, Laws iv 212.2 . a éc he
died
, Ann. Inisf. 1075.2 . a ndul coríg Locha Léin that they
should go
, ZCP viii 316.7 . in gabul tirimm a beth fo blath,
75 PH 1317 .
III In prolepsis. (a) With follg. noun in gen. a dénum
in maid sin, Wb. 1d7 . a masse in choirp `its, the body's, beauty',
28c25 . a n-athir inna fer, 4c1 . a ndírmann / in tríir imrádam,
Fél. Oct. 11 . a cathim na raod sin, Mon. Tall. 132.22 (§ 13) .
a n-andord mac n-Usnig, IT i 72.4 . dia fholcud a chind,
TBFr. 256 . romórad dano a ainm Dé ┐ Colmáin, BColm. 54.6 .
Later also with nom.: nipa mor a glanad deitsiu ind
5chomairle dobeir Findio deit, Mon. Tall. 154.5 (§ 67) . mairg
dá dtig a seac[h]na so / an teaghdhais i dtá Íosa, Dán Dé v 31 .
a innisin . . . na hoibreacha, RS Clára 19a . With follg. DI
(partitive): a foróil bess lib dinaib anib, Wb. 16c22 . is mór
a thorbe de dúnni, 1a3 .
10(b) With abstract noun forming adverbial phrase modify-
ing verb of follg. rel. clause: is e a erat fritammiurat `that is
the
(lit. its) length of time they will hurt me', Ml. 33a1 . a lére
ropridchissi, Wb. 24c17 . ba sed a barbardacht atraachtatar,
MU² 494 . ara ḟoillsi ┐ ara imchuibde ro indis scéla Crist,
15 Trip.² 13 . a imisle ro bui sé isin comlunn, St. Ercuil 1134 .
a dhoimhne do chuaidh an cló, Dán Dé xxiii 24 . fo bhīthin a
onōraighi airmitnighi rothaisspēin a s[h]upāilce mōr-
thrōcairecha dhōip, Fl. Earls 170.22 . In the follg. the phrase
is adjectival rather than adverbial: a lomnachtaighe
20fhágbhas an bás iad, TSh. 657 . a threise atá an chlí, Dán
Dé xxiii 10 .
(c) Anticipating a following clause. With finite verb:
is mó a fius deitsiu a ndo-rigeni di maith, Wb. 30a8 . a dérbad
co n-id fír na hí atberimsi, PH 2036 . a lorgairecht cionnus
25congbhaidhther . . ., RSClára 135b . a mheas gur dlisdionach,
Donl. vi 20 . Note also: aní rongéni ho gnimaib á epert,
Ml. 31b24 . With vn.: dorucadar a buideachus risna deithib
Ercuil d'iaraidh a n-ingine, St. Ercuil 937 . a thecht dim bas
d'faghail don te, 2549 . a theacht de sin é do chailleamh an
30ghill, TSh. 10638 .
Common in compd. prepp., see dáil, degaid, deóin, dochum,
éis, muin, son, etc.

3 a geminating particle used before numerals when predicative
or substantival and not otherwise defined, see Thurn. Gramm.
35 243 , 679 ; Sc. G. St. v 42f. a hoen, a dó, a trí trel / a do friu
conid cuicḟer, SR 741 . a deich, Fél. Oct. 9 v.l. nach sal
aslénna ainech duini biit a trí ocá díunuch, Críth Gabl. 308 .
cis lir fodhla for cintaib . . . a secht, Laws iv 240.1 . a tri inda
degaid cach caocait, Mon. Tall. 140.30 (§ 33) . arna hathleagad
40fecht for a sé i.e. seven times, CCath. 4679 . atáid a dó
dheag re a n-áireamh, TSh. 1554 . cá mhéid obair . . . ann?
a cethair deug, Donl. 194.23 . a cūig dhíobh ar son esbuidhe
na hegluise ┐ an sesiodh . . ., RSClára 152b .

4 a prondemonstrative relative, nasalising, that which, what . On
45the spelling á see Celtica ii 339 - 40 . Orig. neut. art., Thurn.
Gramm. § 473 (cf. 5 a). Combines with ro to form arro
(in later lang. ar): arrolegais, Wb. 28d7 , but an- (the usual
form before vowels) is also found: anrogadammar, Wb.
15c22 . anró gad, Trip.² 1370 . an ro-ráidis, PH 726 . an raibhe,
50 Keat. ii 265 . In later language also spelt i n-: i n-atconnarc,
LU 3322 . ind digní, Mon. Tall. 134.20 (§ 21) . Also ina n-:
ina mboí, LU 8416 (H). ina fuaratar, Ann. Conn. 1235.13 . na
n-: na tongat, Sc.M² 16 . na n-dingentar, TBC 6179 . na
ndenaid, Auraic. 58 . In O.Ir. folld. by absolute and deu- terotonic form of vb. a n-asbiur, Wb. 17d12 ; but later the
conjunct and prototonic forms become common (see Bergin,
Ériu xi 139 n.1 ): a taibred, Sc.M² 1 . a sir, Dán Dé xxiii 37 .
a ndenat, PH 2858 . When the demonst. rel. is plural in
meaning personal pronouns referring to it are plural: a
60n-as sīrem diib, Ériu ii 130 § 102 . The vb. may also be pl.
a mbid . . . de neithibh, Desid. 5724 . a rabhadar do liagaibh
cloch, Keat. ii 3504 . a bhfuilti corrtha those of you who are
tired
, Donl. 216.6 .
Frequently cecha n- whatever, however much, etc., see cech.
65(a) As nom.: an as suthin, Wb. 13d9 . anasberthar ho giun
what is spoken, 5d14 . for nem a (an v.l.) conrúalae . . . as mó
mílib míle, Fél. Ep. 25 . arrobúi isind tsaltir nuli the whole
contents of the Psalter
, Mon. Tall. 133.11 (§ 16) . a nas aithgin
do airechaib feda iseadh is dire do athechaib feadha, Laws iv
70152.5 Comm. seachnuim a mbí a n-éintigh, Desid. 6426 . a
dtarla dá chóir, TSh. 762 .
(b) As accus.: á fil etarru what is between them, Wb.
27d19 . tuicci an gaibes in salm, 12d42 . a pridchimmeni what
we preach
, 15b14 . a forchongair do chomalnad, 5c23 . a
75ndogensa what I shall do, LU 8082 ( FB 6 ). tongu-sa a toinges
mo thúath, MU² 928 . mā rosaigh a broth a n-rosaig a blas
`if its broth attains what its taste attains', RC xii 86 § 91 . ar
ordaigh an t-aingeal-sain, Dán Dé xiv. 14 .
(c) With follg. partitive DI: a ndudesta . . . di foirbthetu,
80 Wb. 1a9 . a césme di cach imniud, 13c7 . anrofiugrad di Críst
`what has been figured of Christ', 15a34 . a mbaī di mnāib . . .
hi Cūailṅge, TBC² 868 . a nrobíth leis día slōgaib, 1657 . an
fogebed in gilla di scothaib, Trip.² 365 . ni hairemthar ar'
marbad do macaib rí, RC xviii 173.13 . With different order
85of words: a n-du imnedaib . . . fo-daimi, Ml. 55d11 . a ndo
ligdath doadbat, Ériu ii 114 § 39 .
With copula and superl.: a n-as sirem diib `the longest of
them
', Ériu ii 130 § 102 . a n-romba dech do thimthagaib
flatha fer nGaoidel the best of the garments . . ., Corm. Y 1059 .
an-as dech foruaradar do echraidh in righ, Marco P. 35 . i mba
5fearr do cach berla ┐ a nba leithiu ┐ a mba caemu `what was
best
. . .', Auraic. 1053 . in rop messa día muintir, RC x. 184.24 .
Note also: is a mbeo beres a n-as beodu ┐ i na[s] segondo,
TBC² 693 (compar. for superl.?). Less frequently with par- titive gen.: doberat a n-as dech sét in dúine, TBFr. 419 .
10 con-aitcetar ferann fair .i. an ba dech Mide, Dinds. 78
( RC xv. 478 ).
(d) With prec. prep. (frequent in later lang.): do-farget
(sic leg.) a rro-fera ar-a ferthar fris `he offers what he has
given for what is given to him
', Laws v 502.22 (see however
15 Thurn. Gramm. 680 ). ni tabair dír[e] asa n-gatass, Ir.Recht
22 § 24 (see Thurn. Gramm. 298, 680 ). farnan bechtae on what
is not certain
, Bürgschaft 20 § 60 ( Thurn. Gramm. 298, 680 ).
bui dliged . . . fora raibhi do Thartraidhibh, Marco P. 82 . nach
smuainid air a nabruid, Donl. 468.13 . Gort an Óir ghairthear
20don Mhaigh . . . ó n-ar bronnadh d'ór lais-sean . . . ann
`from the quantity of gold', Keat. ii 4470 . tré n-ar imreadar
d'ulc air `on account of the injury they had done him', 4634 .
tréas a ndearnsad do bhagar air, Desid. 3429 . Most frequent-
ly with DI, giving mod. dia, approximating to a new rel.
25particle: duine d'a marand indíu any man of those now living,
PH 7318 . gach ní dā ndubrais, Feis TC 105 . na h-uili obuir
trocuire diar mol in eglus, ZCP vi 25.4 . ni ternō nech dona
tainic anoir `of those that came . . .', Dinds. 23 ( RC xv. 323 ).
an aenridiri is lugha dob olc da roibhi ina aimsir, ZCP vi
30100.12 . gach aon dár fhás ┐ dá bhfásfaidh every one who has
sprung and will spring
, TSh. 13 . Also with acht: co tuctha
a longa leó acht a ndechaidh ar éicin, RC xvii 361.17 (Tig.).
(e) When the antecedent is a noun the rel. clause is
syntactically gen.: ar comalnad andotairrngert `to fulfil
35what he had promised
', Mon Tall. 146.20 (§ 51) . i farrad na
n-dingentar innossa, TBC 6178 . cuirter fesa uathaib co hAth
Cliath ar cend ar ḟacsat and do Gallaib, RC xviii 289.30 (Tig.).
ag soin críoch ar chanamor `that is the sum of what I have
sung
', TD 15.54 . ag clos a ndoirtid, Desid. 4282 . ar son a
40ndéineann, 731 .