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amsaine n iā, f. = amsae. amhsaine f., IGT Decl. § 3 . ro
naisc sium a munter . . . a n-a. ¤ for rig A., RC xx 430.4 . in
lanamain bis i n-a. ¤ , Laws ii 356.24 Comm. do chuaid . . . for
fecht do dol a n-a. ¤ co rig Connacht, Fél. 48.z . atá sin ac
85rí Albun a n-a. ¤ , RC v 200 § 13 . battar acc reicc a n-amhsaine
. . . le hUltoibh, FM v 1564.12 . a haithli m'amhsuine,
Prolegomena 44 § 11 . aes ámsaine, LB 236 marg. inf. a
nduasaib dligthech re hamsaib gabus greim a. ¤ re deth-
berus uile . . . ┐ re hamsaib na gaibh greim a. ¤ ┐ an gein
tuillmidhachta, O'C. 2318 ( Eg. 88, 24a ) `? compositions for
5military service
', Plummer MS notes. duine . . . denaid
a. ¤ no faichill fris, O'D. 781 (H 3.17, c. 560-1). amhsoine
as fhada iarmuirt `campaign', Studies 1921, 76.22 . cuairt
a. ¤ , Grail 2523 . Fig. muinter an mōrchoimdeg . . . tāt ina a. ¤
gan aos, gan ḟás, ZCP viii 201 § 13 . innmhe is uaisle / go
10dtibhre uaimse ar amhsaine, Dán Dé xvi 6 . adj
In transferred meaning: gnúis úathmhar na hamhsoine
` of the soldiery ', Studies 1919, 256 § 2 .

amsainecht n= amsaine: mad maith libh coimhdecht no
amhsainecht, RC xxix 112 § 8 .

15 amsán ndimin. of amus: amsáin ísil Ísu, Fél. Prol. 152 .

amthend adj(tend): Elill aebh nach a. ¤ `not unaustere ', Gorm.
June 25 .

? amtorc: n a. ¤ (torc v.l.) atchíu argairgabair, IT iii 13 § 24 .

? amtrocht: n ni fid cailli thall a chorp / acht olletig is a. ¤ ,
20 LL 3405 ( Ériu xiv 160 § 32 ).

amuda xsee madae.

ámuill xsee ámaill(e).

amul(ch)ach adj(ul(ch)ach) beardless: cesu amulach is óc, LU
3799 ( SC 37 ). techt for cend siriti amulaig, 5958 = amul-
25chaich , TBC² 1492 . ni moethgilla amulach, TTr.² 1528 .
taurcbat iltonna fri níach n-amaulach di Ultaib ticfa, LU
5463 = amulach, TBC² 987 . in serriti óc amulchach sain,
TBC 861 . ni geib fer amulchach ollamnacht i nEmuin, RC
xxvi 12.10 . ní hobair gille óic amulchaig, SG 324.7 . gach
30aon ba hamhulchach .i. gach aon ar nach raibhe féasóga,
Keat. ii 3364 .

? amulintig: ind masa da gnim is cu amulintigh ┐ letheneclann;
mas én gnim uil aicce is trian neneclainne ┐ cu amulintigh . . .
mas da gnim uil aicce, is letheneclann ┐ cu hinmuilintigh
35mas aen gnim . . . cu amulintigh . . . is cu amul intigh aga
leghes, O'D. 2449 - 2450 ( Rawl. B 506, 61a ). ? Cf. inmuillid.

amus n o, m. amhus m. (g s. and n p. -uis), IGT Decl. § 17 .
a p. amsa, FM iii 290.20 .
Hireling, servant, attendant: amos .i. am-ḟos īarsinnī nāt
40gaib fos, sed de loco ad locum .i. ō luc .i. ō t[h]igerna
dialailiu, Corm. Y 12 . na n-a. ¤ gl. satilitum, Goid. 69.5 . amuis
ríg a king's attendants, Críth Gabl. 577 . cía lín di amsaib as
choir do ríg? 582 . a dhair ┐ a dhicinn ┐ a amhais, O'C. 2500
( Eg. 88, 40(41)d ). aicde amhus .i. ni hinaitire ┐ ni hinraith,
45 509 (H 3.18, 258). in t-a. ¤ dona fes mathair nó athair,
Ériu xii 144.4 (TE2). amhus no rechtaire, BCrólige 22 gl. 5 .
a riocht amhois dorīacht Tadhg, ZCP viii 223 § 15 . asbert
Feradach ní thibred a ingen do a. ¤ , LL 287b2 . otá a. ¤ co roich
ríg, 204a35 . in tech mór milib a. ¤ , 3549 . ? grengsait Laigniu
50laichaib d'amsaib / assa tírib, 4965 . a trí (sc. dath) i n-éadach
an amhais, Keat. ii 1918 . cruadh-dháil na n-amhus crude-
litas ministrantium
, TSh. 6385 . aon amhus do rachadh im
íolchruthaibh (of a poet), Hackett xx 10 . As abusive
epithet: a amais anuasail ┐ a muidh modurdha `hireling',
55 ZCP vi 282.10 . amhus `a reprobate' (of an unscrupulous
administrator), E. O'Rahilly xvii § 26 . a. ¤ aen-tigi indoor
or resident servant
, Laws v 72.25 Comm. a. ¤ ruin no raid
no imacallma confidential servant, 24 Comm. , 74.13 Comm.
See also under airéirge, ben compds., coímthecht, coindmed,
60 fer compds., 2 leth, mías, ríg, 1 taithigid.
In special sense of hired soldier, mercenary: a Goill 's a
amais imdha, ZCP viii 226 § 18 . amais ana imglici co
laignib, Alex. 3 . imut Fiann imut amhus, ZCP xi 44 § 61 .
iter . . . amsu ┐ anrada, CCath. 4531 . rucsat . . . amhsa righ
65Muman fair, FM ii 946.13 . bró amhus, IGT Decl. ex. 598 .
Possibly collect. in following: a. ¤ urrud . . . a. ¤ deorad
native hirelings, hirelings from outside the territory , Laws v
74.1 Comm. torchratar a n-a. ¤ imdegla `household guard',
Fianaig. 92.28 . thusa ┐ do mhuinntir: sgol amhas, ucairí,
70ghresuidhthe, etc., Luc. Fid. 5031 .

1 an xsee 1 in.

2 an n water: bior ┐ a. ¤ ┐ dobhar trí hanmann uisge in domhuin,
Met. Gl. 12 § 15 . a. ¤ .i. uisge, O'Cl. an-bruich (= bruith)
.i. uisci ┐ broth, Harl. 5280, fo. 11b ( Met. Gl. p. 43 ). a beith
75cen a. ¤ cen uisci, Acall. 3535 v.l. 'san druim si ata leth re ha. ¤
.i. leith re huiscce (etym. gloss on Druim Lethan), BNnÉ
193.29 . Perh. also in onchú otter q.v.

? 3 an n(Lat. or Romance loanword) year: atbér frib co
húain iar n-a. ¤ (:fírglan) `for a year and a day', Met. Dinds.
80 iii 378.1 . a. ¤ a year, O'R.

4 an n(á-?): an (án v.l.) [.i.] áoibhnios, Met. Gl. 14 § 30 . an .i.
áineas no áoibhneas no ailne no fós áoibhinn no álainn,
O'Cl. See 2 án.

5 an: n an .i. anacal, O'Cl. See aingid.

85 an- neg. pref. (IE vocalic *n-), appearing as an-, am-, in-,
im-(?), é- before different initials. See Thurn. Gramm. § 869
ff. , Dillon, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1944, 94 ff. Even in O. Ir. the
original phonetic distribution has been disturbed by ana-
logical formations, e.g. an- for in- before d, g (andach,
anglan); an- for é- before c in nouns (aincél, aincride);
5both an- and am- before vowels (anecne, amulach). This
becomes more widespread in later lang., where in addition
to regular formations of the type éccóir, étrócar we find the
unphonetic édaingen, édána, édlúith, édóchas, édóig,
édomain, éiderb, éidrímtha (with extension of -d-), éigrinn,
10éscus (scís), étriad (anríad, v.l.): énirt occurs in Wb. The
form in-, regular before d-, g- (indles, with recomposition
indíles, ingnad, also ingnáth) appears later in inḟebda,
inḟoltach (= anfoltach), inísel, inmall, inmálla, innáire,
intinne (teinne), inúath; note extension of -d- in ind(ḟ)úar,
15while imbil is a possible ex. of im- before b- (see Thurn.
Gramm. p. 543 ).
The forms an- and am- eventually become for all intents
and purposes interchangeable in meaning (a), and many
doublets arise (aindeóin, aimdeóin; anglan, amglan). But
20there are no exx. of an- before p- nor of am- before m-, s-,
and t- (before i- only in amaires, before p- only in amprom,
where prom is a loanword). Acc. to Thurn. Gramm. p. 104
the neutral quality of the nasal seems to have been preserved
before palatal vowels in the early language (note also
25 amraid, anbal, etc.). The later tendency is for m and n
to be palatalized before front vowels and palatal consonants.
Cf. ainfírinne, Wb. 2a17 . The form am- presumably lenited
l, r, n. In the case of initial b- the group -mb- later becomes
-m(m)- (aimbrit aimrid). In its later extension am- lenites
30all other consonants before which it occurs. The original
mutation after an- in the case of f, g(?), c was nasalization
(anbal, anglan, aincride). In the later language an- lenites
b c f g m (cf. aincreitem later ainchreitem, etc.); t apparently
remains unchanged (ainteist aintenn); an- before d gives
35 an(n)-, this combination falling together with original an-
before n- (aindeoin, -nn-; aindíaraid, -nn-; ainnert). In old
compds. a long vowel in the second element is shortened
(anbal, amraid with subsequent recomposition ainfíal,
aimréid) (cf. indles, ingnad above).
40In frequent composition with nouns and adjj., and rarely
with vbs. (ainlenaid, anadnaid, anaibsigid).
Though a few forms like aineóil strange occur fairly
frequently these seem to be g s. of the nouns rather than
adjj. of the type sochineóil etc. However, énirt is no doubt
45correctly given as adj. i-stem. The same may apply to the
later aimnirt. See also aindeis, aindílis (see aindíles),
ainféich, ainéitid.
(a) not, non-, un- (aimecna, aimles, ainbthen, aincreitem,
aindebaid, aindeóin, aindíbad, aindliged, aineól, ainétgud,
50 ainféile, ainfis, ainteist, amaires; aimbil, aimdis, aimglicc,
ainfessach, anglan, amraid etc. For exx. with é-, in- see
Fasc. E, I).
(b) The (later?) meaning bad, undesirable, unsuitable (with
nouns) is found e.g. in ainben, ainbreth, aindía, aindíl,
55 anduine, ainécht, 1 ainfine, anflaith, anfolad, aingním,
ainimme, ainmían, 1 ainrecht, ainríad, ainricht, ainríge,
aintír, anchruth, antocad. Words with a(i)m- in this sense
are less frequent (aimbés, aimbéscna, aimles(?), aimricht;
the adj. ainíarmartach is derived from a noun.
60(c) As intensive prefix great, very (see Dillon ad loc. cit.).
Though this meaning becomes common only in the later
language there are some early formations; inglan is found in
SR, ind(ḟ)úar, innáire in LL, ingarg in Todd Nenn., though
inḟebda, iníchtar etc. are late. The form. a(i)m- is not found
65with this meaning (aimlesc is for aidlesc), in which a(i)n- has
the widest extension and is still current in the spoken language.
The follg. are early exx.: anfann (usual from the mid. Ir.
period on), 2 aingel (Corm. Y), ainéitig (LL), ainecla (CCath.).
The follg. are later: anbrath, ainching, andána, aindíchell,
70 aindíummus, andóchas, ainfergach, ainnert, aintreise. Some
forms are of doubtful origin. Cf. an-, am-, dīultadaig
gāidilge, amail rongab . . . nert ┐ amnert, Corm. Y 23 . is
inund in t-am fil ann ┐ mors nó . . . nem (etym. explanation
of amrad), ACC § 140 ( RC xx 414 ). am .i. aigheadh, H 3.18,
75 416b23 . amh .i. olc, O'Cl. amh .i. diultadh, ib. Emain .i.
amhaon; amh, aga dhiultadh nach aon rug Macha . . . acht
dias, Keat. ii 2426 . ? and .i. deliugadh nó dethbir, Ériu
xiii 81 § 291 .