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85 an- neg. pref. (IE vocalic *n-), appearing as an-, am-, in-,
im-(?), é- before different initials. See Thurn. Gramm. § 869
ff. , Dillon, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1944, 94 ff. Even in O. Ir. the
original phonetic distribution has been disturbed by ana-
logical formations, e.g. an- for in- before d, g (andach,
anglan); an- for é- before c in nouns (aincél, aincride);
5both an- and am- before vowels (anecne, amulach). This
becomes more widespread in later lang., where in addition
to regular formations of the type éccóir, étrócar we find the
unphonetic édaingen, édána, édlúith, édóchas, édóig,
édomain, éiderb, éidrímtha (with extension of -d-), éigrinn,
10éscus (scís), étriad (anríad, v.l.): énirt occurs in Wb. The
form in-, regular before d-, g- (indles, with recomposition
indíles, ingnad, also ingnáth) appears later in inḟebda,
inḟoltach (= anfoltach), inísel, inmall, inmálla, innáire,
intinne (teinne), inúath; note extension of -d- in ind(ḟ)úar,
15while imbil is a possible ex. of im- before b- (see Thurn.
Gramm. p. 543 ).
The forms an- and am- eventually become for all intents
and purposes interchangeable in meaning (a), and many
doublets arise (aindeóin, aimdeóin; anglan, amglan). But
20there are no exx. of an- before p- nor of am- before m-, s-,
and t- (before i- only in amaires, before p- only in amprom,
where prom is a loanword). Acc. to Thurn. Gramm. p. 104
the neutral quality of the nasal seems to have been preserved
before palatal vowels in the early language (note also
25 amraid, anbal, etc.). The later tendency is for m and n
to be palatalized before front vowels and palatal consonants.
Cf. ainfírinne, Wb. 2a17 . The form am- presumably lenited
l, r, n. In the case of initial b- the group -mb- later becomes
-m(m)- (aimbrit aimrid). In its later extension am- lenites
30all other consonants before which it occurs. The original
mutation after an- in the case of f, g(?), c was nasalization
(anbal, anglan, aincride). In the later language an- lenites
b c f g m (cf. aincreitem later ainchreitem, etc.); t apparently
remains unchanged (ainteist aintenn); an- before d gives
35 an(n)-, this combination falling together with original an-
before n- (aindeoin, -nn-; aindíaraid, -nn-; ainnert). In old
compds. a long vowel in the second element is shortened
(anbal, amraid with subsequent recomposition ainfíal,
aimréid) (cf. indles, ingnad above).
40In frequent composition with nouns and adjj., and rarely
with vbs. (ainlenaid, anadnaid, anaibsigid).
Though a few forms like aineóil strange occur fairly
frequently these seem to be g s. of the nouns rather than
adjj. of the type sochineóil etc. However, énirt is no doubt
45correctly given as adj. i-stem. The same may apply to the
later aimnirt. See also aindeis, aindílis (see aindíles),
ainféich, ainéitid.
(a) not, non-, un- (aimecna, aimles, ainbthen, aincreitem,
aindebaid, aindeóin, aindíbad, aindliged, aineól, ainétgud,
50 ainféile, ainfis, ainteist, amaires; aimbil, aimdis, aimglicc,
ainfessach, anglan, amraid etc. For exx. with é-, in- see
Fasc. E, I).
(b) The (later?) meaning bad, undesirable, unsuitable (with
nouns) is found e.g. in ainben, ainbreth, aindía, aindíl,
55 anduine, ainécht, 1 ainfine, anflaith, anfolad, aingním,
ainimme, ainmían, 1 ainrecht, ainríad, ainricht, ainríge,
aintír, anchruth, antocad. Words with a(i)m- in this sense
are less frequent (aimbés, aimbéscna, aimles(?), aimricht;
the adj. ainíarmartach is derived from a noun.
60(c) As intensive prefix great, very (see Dillon ad loc. cit.).
Though this meaning becomes common only in the later
language there are some early formations; inglan is found in
SR, ind(ḟ)úar, innáire in LL, ingarg in Todd Nenn., though
inḟebda, iníchtar etc. are late. The form. a(i)m- is not found
65with this meaning (aimlesc is for aidlesc), in which a(i)n- has
the widest extension and is still current in the spoken language.
The follg. are early exx.: anfann (usual from the mid. Ir.
period on), 2 aingel (Corm. Y), ainéitig (LL), ainecla (CCath.).
The follg. are later: anbrath, ainching, andána, aindíchell,
70 aindíummus, andóchas, ainfergach, ainnert, aintreise. Some
forms are of doubtful origin. Cf. an-, am-, dīultadaig
gāidilge, amail rongab . . . nert ┐ amnert, Corm. Y 23 . is
inund in t-am fil ann ┐ mors nó . . . nem (etym. explanation
of amrad), ACC § 140 ( RC xx 414 ). am .i. aigheadh, H 3.18,
75 416b23 . amh .i. olc, O'Cl. amh .i. diultadh, ib. Emain .i.
amhaon; amh, aga dhiultadh nach aon rug Macha . . . acht
dias, Keat. ii 2426 . ? and .i. deliugadh nó dethbir, Ériu
xiii 81 § 291 .

1 án xsee áin.

80 2 án I adj o, ā. See O'Rahilly, Early Ir. Hist. and Myth. 286 ff.
Pokorny, Jn. Celt. St. i 129 - 130 . fiery, bright, glowing:
saigtea ana gl. sagitas . . . ardentes, Ml. 24c3 . cosind saigit
áin, 133a4 . ar licc áin tentidi, TBC 3384 . Appar. also in
compd. derc (= derg?)-á. ¤ : for licc dercain, RC xi 444.25 .
85 amal sladar iasc mbrec for licc dergáin co sústaib iarind,
LU 8655 ( FB 48 ). uaim ifirn áin fiery(?), Ériu ii 229 § 6 .
grían á. ¤ (or similar phrase) frequ. used of a person: ān
grīan grīssach / goires brēoda B., Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 15 . in
grían á. ¤ (of Moling), Fél. June 17 . lassar gréne áne (of St.
Patrick), Mar. 17. Cf. Senac[h] á. ¤ mar oebill, Gorm. Feb. 11 .
5Perh. also: buidne ana do ainglib shining(?), LU 1993 ( FA
6 ). áes án bright (or splendid) folk applied to otherworld
people and synonymous with áes síde: aes á. ¤ nó sithc[h]aire,
O'Dav. 1600 . do brigh go millthighe leisan aois áin (sic)
no leisna siodh-bhruighibh gach mac, BNnÉ 164.4 . Cf.
10 poc aosáin `a fairy stroke', RC iv 178 .
In more general sense as eulogistic adj. brilliant, splendid,
glorious: an .i. uasal, O'Cl. hān flaith for Temair, Ériu xvi
147.15 . dend Eoganacht áin sin, Fél. Oct. 20 . Ailill á. ¤ ,
TBC 483 . a Emer á. ¤ folt-buide, LU 3946 ( SC 44 ). it āna
15ind ōic, TBC² 165 . ni rubaim níth n-erred n-á. ¤ , LU 6230
(TBC). gillai óca ána airegda, MU² 74 . co trebur co
caomar cembedha ana airccecha, O'D. 2201 ( Nero A vii,
140a ). amais ana immglicca, Alex. 3 . Of a place: Emain
á. ¤ , LL 7515 . Ailbhe Imligh áin, Cog. 96.27 . Of water:
20 ri c[ria]thras usce n-an n-úar, SR 41 . for in n-ocian
n-ucht-lethan n-á. ¤ , Auraic. 5353 . Very frequ. as epithet
of Ireland: ōs Ēirinn āin, Bruchst. 56 § 125 . Hérend áine,
Met. Dinds. iv 150.8 , etc. Of feats, games: co clessaib ana,
TBC 1851 . na cleasa ána iolordha, ITS xxiv 46.34 . bá
25há. ¤ aircech aibind nobítis láith gaile . . . isin tig sin, LU
10131 . Of speech , etc. mad sulbair ┐ mad á. ¤ in precept
`brilliant', Wb. 8a5 . ba suī, ba ān, ba airdirc, Bruchst.
41 § 7 . ogh-briathra ána, MR 160.7 .
Appar. also swift, speedy (see O'Rahilly loc. cit. and p.
30 517 ): for a ndíb neachaibh ána udmalla, FM vi 1920.18 .
rogres a eochu ana athloma, TTebe 2862 . fer á. ¤ athlamh,
TBC 5324 . am tren, am an, am athlum, IT i 141.19 .
con- facatar na cet[h]a ana imtroma ┐ na casrac[h]a ana im-
luat[h]a, CCath. 4953 . tucadar cuir ana athluma d'aroile,
35 CF 491 . Hence in glossaries: a. ¤ .i. luath ut est airgiu ána
.i. it luatha do airrechtain, O'Dav. 13 . a. ¤ .i. ésgaid no luath,
O'Cl. fir conoencosaibh ana (.i. luatha) (: lāna), Leb. Gab.
52.1 .
Compar. is áiniu dúibsi a n-asbiursa `it is nobler for you
40what I say
', Wb. 5a10 . dírimm bas choímiu ná bess áiniu,
TBFr. 47 . ? is edh doberiud bruith isna hōgaib no-gontais
ann, comtar aniu iarnauārach, RC xii 94 § 123 . co nād būi
i fēin Find [fer] bad áiniu ┐ bad escaidiu ō sain [im]mach
`swifter', Four Songs 22.7 .
45 Superl. is é rí as ánem ┐ as ordnidhem . . . tánic in domun
uile, BDD² 1070 . In phrase in tan ba háinem (do) x when
x was at the height of his performance, at his best:
intan ba
hánem dó, BDD 109 . in tan tra ba h-aínium doib beith
for sin luindi sin when their anger was at its fiercest, BB
50 437b26 . an tan ba háinemh dona Gallaibh foran abairt
atrubhramor, Hugh Roe 36.11 (fo. 10a) . an tan bá h-aínemh
dóibh isuidhe `when they were here making merry', FM v
1862.17 . Compar. used as superl.: in tráth rop ániu doib
oc ól when their feast was at its height, LL 14637 . intan ba
55haniu flaith Cuirc hi Caisiul, Anecd. iii 59.30 . in tan tra
b'aine in gleo sin when that noise was at its height, Aen.
2830 . in tan tra ba h-aine ic tafann na fiadmil, 727 . in tan
ba haine do o[c] cathugadh fri lucht na long, BB 419a8 .
Adv. gabait ar a ól co h-á. ¤ , LL 207b15 . go hā. ¤ , ZCP viii
60115 § 28 . nert Erenn ni gab co han, Fen. 64.19 . ? ro
gerradh . . . co roan .i. co ro-luath, Leb. Gab. 102 n.2 .
II As subst. glory, splendour, etc. orgin. o, n. ni ain something
of splendour
, Auraic. 1585 . Aimirgen indse Gáedel / ar
n-ór, ar n-á. ¤ , ar n-óebel `our glory', Ériu iv 136.18 . As o, m.
65 splendid person: gach á. ¤ is éigeas, Keat. ii 1752 ( BB 43a 56 ).
Compds. ? ¤ -bó: caeca an bó a hO. ` fine cows ', BR 64.1 .
¤ -breó bright flame , Fél. June 2 . ¤ -chainnel bright torch:
da ánchaindil gascid Gaedel, TBC 3771 ( LL 10730 ) = anch.,
3769 ( 10729 ). ? ¤ -chend: doluid Eocho anchend ed, LL
70 375a28 (no rhyme). la hEochaid Ānchend, ZCP xi 65 § 16 .
¤ -ḟer: bītis āinfir (: fáilid) maille frim glorious men, Ériu ii
95 § 4 . ¤ -loise: dā ānloise `splendid flames' (of heroes), TBC²
3313 . ¤ -rí splendid king: Maicc Cairpri, cāine ānrīg, Ält. Ir.
Dicht. ii 18 § 2 . ¤ -spirut: án spirut nóeb nert nime `splendid
75holy spirit
', Thes. ii 351.2 (Hy. vi).