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A B C D1 D2 E F G H I L M N O P R S T U

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5 attá (ad-tá) subst. vb. is . The distinction betw. subst. vb.
and copula is in the first place syntactical, and cases are
found where there is no distinction of form. Cf. the type,
common in ACC: boe sab he was a leader, ACC 26 . See further
below, and the discussion by Bergin, Ériu xii 208 - 211 (cia
10taísiu, cia bé, etc.), who refers to cases like: is uera pictura
ro bai sin, Thes. ii 6.32 as emphatic. See also Ériu xvi 46 ,
Thurn. Gramm. 475 . For nimtha laám, Wb. 12a21 , nímptha
fírion, 8d24 (copula ?) see Thurn. Gramm. 487 . Note also
the form of the pron. in (later): matait tall iat, Laws iv
15 86.8 Comm. , atá ar conair é, Arch. iii 216.z . bí N. eices
cecinit, RC xvii 175.14 is perh. a mistake. In follg. use of
subst. vb. perh. due to infl. of Latin: mar nobéind athair
doib = pater eram pauperum, PH 6107 . ata in innsci
ordugud etc. = oratio est. . ., Auraic. 591 .
20Apart from the ordinary indic. pres. all forms of subst.
vb. are from a root beginning with b-. In indic. pres. the
stem tá (in absol. position attá) is used in non-rel. sentences
without conj. particle, after conj. particles with inf. pron.
dat. and when the conj. particle consists of a preposition
25and rel. (s)a n-. Absolute inflexion of tá- is found in oldaas,
indaas, etc. than (is), in meaning is angry, and with follg.
suff. pron. The uninflected form fil (with accus.) is used
after conj. particles where no dat. inf. pron. is present,
in leniting rel. clauses and often in answers to questions
30containing subst. vb., and in archaic texts in absol. position
in meaning there is . For fuller details see Thurn. Gramm.
476 - 483 and exx. below. See also Ped. ii 419 ff. , Strachan,
Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899, 1 - 82 , Ó Máille, Ériu vi 1 ff. Forms
of gaibid, do-coissin, -díxnigedar and ad-cumaing also have
35the force of the subst. vb. in certain uses, see separate
entries.
Note further that attá is usual after hóre (see Wb. 19a19 ,
22d14 and compare Thurn. Gramm. § 781 ) and occurs later
after amal ( LU 7072 , Laws iii 90.18 ). Fil is somet. found in
40sense there is in mid. Ir.: fail crois d'ór in cach dorus, SR 361 .
TBC² 2561 . Note also: fil derg it is red, Marco P. 173 .
The use of accus. after fil continues into the classical
period, see IGT Introd. § 129 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 92 - 93 . A few
exx. of forms other than fil with accus. occur: ni raibi deilb,
45 TTr.² 1664 , ní raibi . . . mhnái, 370 , ní bhiadh mnaoi,
Ó Bruad. ii 252.z (with assonance). Note also with inf. pron.
rosṁbai inna tass, SR 5107 . ? nim tha maith . . . do chath
fri firu, LU 3343 ( SC 13 ). From the mid. Ir. period on fil
takes personal endings except in 3 s., and occurs occasionally
50as an independent verb: faeilfit (fut. 3 pl. absol.), Caithr.
Thoirdh. 120.26 . In rel. function attá is found side by side
with fil from an early period: is heiside attá hi S., Trip.² 534 ,
a lucht atá istig, RC vii 298.131 , the form fil finally
disappearing in this use.
55In mid. Ir. fil occurs for earlier -tá with dat. inf. pron.:
nichar fail tlacht, SR 1560 , ni-s-fil biad, PH 1310 . Also
in rel. clause after prep.: bale hi fail, LU 7516 , fors fil, Im.
Brain 43 (see also Strachan, Stories fr. Táin 3rd ed. p. 1
note).
60The consuet. pres. 1 s. conj. -bíu has in classical Ir. the
force of a future: biad ní biú, IGT Verbs § 7 , see also TBC
882 , Acall. 6179 , Duan. Finn i 43.4 .
Early forms (for fuller lists see Strachan loc. cit.). Indic.
pres. 1 s. atóo, Wb. 12a21 . attó, 21c19 . attóo, 26d8 . ató,
65 26d17 . -táu, 32a10 , -ttóo, 17d24 , -tó, Ml. 92b8 . 2 s. atái,
Wb. 5b27 . attái, Ml. 110d15 (sic MS, see Ériu xiv 30 ). -tái,
5b38 . 3 s. adta, Laws v 390.10 (see ZCP xxv 247 ). ata,
Wb. 13c26 , atá, 27a11 , atáa, 6a19 , attáa, 32a6 , ataa, 26b31 ,
attá, 4b11 . -tá, 31c7 , -ta, 2b12 , -táa, 13a35 . Impers.
70 -dathar (see Thurn. Gramm. 477 - 478 ), Wb. 21c9 . 1 pl. ataam,
Wb. 15a13 , attaam, 32a28 . 2 pl. ataid, Wb. 4a4 , ataaith,
20b16 , ataaid, 23c28 , ataad, 22d14 . -taid, 19d26 . 3 pl.
ataat (trisyll.), Blathm. 471 . ataat, Ml. 55d11 , 37a10 . -tat,
42b10 . -taat, Sg. 71b3 .
75With suff. pron. tathum, Met. Dinds. iv 284.3 . tathut,
Fél. July 24 . táithi (tathai, v.l.), Críth Gabl. 197 . táthus,
Fél. Feb. 5 . táthunn, Prol. 217. taithiunn, Thes. ii 293.19 .
tathuib, Rawl. 88b51 .
For rel. s. without preverb (taas, tás) see atás, indaas, 4 ol.
80The form fil, etc. As conj. form: fil, Wb. 16b9 , Ml. 92a8 ,
Sg. 193b7 . feil, Wb. 24c4 . Ml. 60b2 . fel, Wb. 3c38 , Ml.
27d10 . fail, 44b10-11 , Sg. 32a1 . As rel.: fil, Ml. 121c8 , file
Wb. 23a5 , Ml. 51d11 , Sg. 151b7 . fel, Wb. 4c1 , fele, Ml. 93c7 .
feil, Wb. 33b18 . fail, BCr. 18c4 .
85Consuet. pres. 1 s. biuu, Wb. 16d8 . -bíu, 20a3 . 2 s. -bí,
Ml. 135d1 . Arch. iii 312 § 4 . 3 s. biith, Wb. 29a26 . biid,
4d33 . bíid, Sg. 150b4 . -bii, Wb. 28b25 , -bí, Ml. 103c3 .
With ro: robīi, TBC² 1730 . -rubi, Wb. 11c17 , -rubai, Ml.
20d4 , Sg. 7b3 . -ruba, 3b28 . Rel. bíis, Wb. 13a12 . biís,
28b28 . bis, Ml. 61a33 . bís, Sg. 140b2 . Impers. bithir,
5 Ml. 56b15 . rel. bither, 108b4 , -bither, 100c21 . -rubthar,
cited Thurn. Gramm. § 784 . Par. and Gl. 69 . 1 pl. bímmi,
Ml. 15a4 . -biam, Wb. 16a8 . Rel. bimme, Wb. 12c11 . 3 pl.
biit, Wb. 29a28 . bíit, Sg. 217a1 . robiat, 138a5 . -biat,
Ml. 59d7 . -bíat, Sg. 148a4 . -rubat, 138a5 . Rel. bíte,
10 Wb. 9d28 .
Indic. impf. 1 s. -bíinn, Ml. 108b1 , -biinn, 58d9 . 3 s. -bíid,
LU 5080 (see Ériu xvii 121 ), -bíth, Sg. 148b6 . -bid, Ml. 33a5 .
-bith, Vita Br. 12 . Impers. no bithe , CCath. 3971 . 1 pl.
-bímmis, cited Thurn. Gramm. § 785 . 3 pl. -bitis, Ml. 86d6 .
15 -bítis, Sg. 5a15 .
Ipv. 2 s. bī, TBC² 2391 . 3 s. bíth, Wb. 10a8 , 25 , bíith, 8d9 ,
bíid, 5d33 , biid, Ml. 74d3 . bíd, Wb. 3a14 . With suff. pron.
bithom, Fél. Ep. 404 n.17 . 2 pl. biid, Wb. 23c11a . bith,
22b26 . 3 pl. biat, Ml. 51d13 .
20 Subj. pres. 1 s. beo, Wb. 23b41 . beu, Ml. 53b8 . -béo,
Fél. Prol. 273 . 2 s. bee, cited Par. and Gl. 70 and see
Thurn. Gramm. 482 . bé, ZCP viii 311.z (see xxiv 122 ).
-bee (perh. absol.), ZCP vii 494 (Enchir. Aug.). -bē, Fing.
R. 82 . With ro: robhe (restored as ro-bé), Blathm. 92 § 9 .
25 3 s. beith, Ml. 108a11 . beid, Wb. 14c23 . bed, 3c10 . beth,
Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr. Hom.). -bǽ, Wb. 22b14 . -bé, Sg.
29b14 . -bée, Wb. 12c43 . With suff. pron. bethum-sa, Fél.
Ep. 384 n.14 . With ro: robé, Wb. 5d30 , robe, 18c4 , rubé,
Ml. 20d4 , robǽ, Wb. 28a23 , robbé, Sg. 169a1 . -roib, Wb.
30 16c24 , Ml. 118c5 . Rel. bess, Wb. 5d14 . bes, Ml. 77d3 .
Impers. bethir, Wb. 5d33 . rel. bether, Ml. 107d8 . -bether,
Wb. 10a18 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 31c11 . beimmi, 19a16 . -bem,
24a10 . -robam, 26c10 . 2 pl. beithe, Wb. 18b16 . bethe,
24b13 . -beith, Ml. 46a10 . -beid, Wb. 27c9 . With ro:
35 -robith, Wb. 26a28 . 3 pl. beit, Wb. 10b5 . rubet, 26a23 .
ro be(i)t , Vita Br. 35 . -bet, Wb. 9d27 . -robat, 11d9 . Rel.
bete, Wb. 10c22 .
Subj. impf. 1 s. -beind, TBC² 1856 . -beinn cited Thurn.
Gramm. § 787 . 2 s. -betha, Wb. 4c24 . 3 s. nobed, Wb.
40 3b10 . nobeth, Ml. 27b1 . -bed, Wb. 9d1 . -beth, Ml. 88b15 .
-robad, Wb. 17a13 . -rabad, 34a4 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.²
2828 . 1 pl. -bemmis, Wb. 9a3 . -beimmis, 29d23 . -bemis,
Vita Br. 23 . 2 pl. -bethe, Wb. 9c20 . 3 pl. -betis, Sg. 138a9 .
-[ro]ibtis, Wb. 28a1 .
45 Fut. 1 s. bia, Ml. 137b7 . 2 s. bie, cited Thurn. Gramm.
§ 788 , Par. and Gl. 70 . 3 s. bieid, Wb. 4d6 . bied, 14c1 .
-bia, 5d35 . -bia (disyll.), Blathm. 572 . -bia and -bía,
Thurn. Gramm. § 788 . With suff. pron. bethiumm. Ériu
xiii 20.6 . bethib, ZCP viii 316.5 (see xxix 174 ). Rel. bias,
50 Wb. 23b38 . bies, Ériu iii 102 § 32 . Impers. beithir, TBFr.
248 . -bether, Aisl. MC 61.4 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 9c10 .
beimmi, 21b7 . -biam, 15a1 . -piam, 30b17 . 2 pl. bethe,
cited Thurn. Gramm. § 788 . bethi, Trip.² 1589 . -bied, Wb.
9a21 . -bieid, 26d26 . 3 pl. biet (disyll.), Blathm. 472 . bieit,
55 Wb. 4c40 . biet, 9d27 , Sg. 198b6 (also bíet, Thurn. Gramm.
§ 788 ). -biat, 9c28 . -bíet, 40b14 . Rel. bete, Wb.
13c26 . beite, 4c40 .
Condit. 1 s. nombeinn, Ml. 59a22 . 3 s. nobiad, Ml. 32d5 .
-bíad, Wb. 9d1 . 1 pl. nobemmis, Ml. 134b3 . 3 pl. nobetis,
60 Ml. 100c7 .
Pret. 1 s. bá, LU 9407 . 2 s. -bá, cited Thurn. Gramm.
§ 789 , Par. and Gl. 71 , see perf. 2 s. below. 3 s. bói, Wb.
31c18 . bái, 27a16 . -bói, 17d17 , Ml. 78a4 . Rel. boie,
Thes. ii 242.11 (Ardm.). boīe, Ériu xvi 46.10 (see note and
65 Celtica vi 223 ). Cf. cech nóeb bói, fil, bías, Fél. Ep. 289
(where six sylls. required). With suff. pron. boithus, IT
i 137.8 = boithius, 21 . boíthi, Sc. M² 3 . ? baísu, Thurn.
Zu ir. Hdschr. i 37.5 . Impers. *both(a)e, postulated Thurn.
Gramm. § 789 , botha, TBC² 1572 . -both(a), Vita Br. 33 .
70 1 pl. bamar, SR 1558 . bámar, 3286 , Im. Brain i 48.5 .
2 pl. -baid (baïd ?), cited Thurn. Gramm. § 789 , Par. and Gl.
71 . 3 pl. bātir, TBC² 217 . -batar, Ml. 55c2 . Rel. batar,
Ml. 123b5 . See Thurn. Gramm. § 789 .
Perf. 1 s. robá, Wb. 28a9 . -roba, Ml. 44c4 . -raba, TBC²
75 3068 . 2 s. robá, LL 14442 . 3 s. robói, Wb. 5c10 . rambái,
2c13 . robui, Ml. 93c3 . -robae, Ml. 41a5 , -robe, Wb. 18d7 ,
-rabae, Ml. 28d3 . Impers. romboth, Wb. 19a9 . rombod,
5b31 . -rabad, Ériu iv 146.4 . 1 pl. robámmar, Wb. 20d12 .
-robammar, Ml. 105b16 . 2 pl. rubaid, Wb. 3b19 . -robaid,
80 Ml. 46a8 . 3 pl. robatar, Wb. 24c5 . robbátar, Sg. 57b1 .
-rabatar, Ml. 100c11 . -robatar, Sg. 45b1 . -rabtar, Ml.
37a16 .
Vn. buith.
Vbl. of necess. buithi.
85Later forms (see also Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish,
Ériu vi 1 ff. ; Mulchrone, Verbalformen der Vita Tripartita,
ZCP xvi 440 ; Falconer, Verbal System of LU Táin, Ériu
xvii 116 ; Strachan, Verbal System of SR, Phil. Soc. Trans.
1895, 1 - 76 ; O Daly, Verbal System of LL Táin,
Ériu xiv 80 ; Mac Eoin, Verbalsystem von Togail Troi,
5 ZCP xxviii 125 ; Sommerfelt, Le système verbal dans In Cath Catharda,
RC xxxviii 41 ; Nuner, Verbal System of the Agallamh na
Senórach, ZCP xxvii 272 ; PH Glossary; Lloyd, Impersonal
passive forms of the Irish substantive verb, Ériu i 49 ff. ;
TD Introd. lxxv ; IGT Verbs § 7 ).
10 Indic. pres. 1 s. atáu, Trip.² 1412 . atú, 2578 . itu, SR
1187 . itó, TBC 434 . atú, IGT Verbs § 7 . ataim, Fier. 14 .
-tú, Acall. 4516 . 2 s. -tái, SR 3102 . -toi, TBC² 937 . taoi,
TD 15.48 . cia doaisiu mac? RC xxvi 30 § 128 . 3 s. -tá, Trip.²
744 . atá, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. attá, Trip.² 534 , ata, SR 7708
15 etc., atá, Acall. 429 . Impers. atáthar, TBC 3316 . dáthar
(: máthar), IGT Verbs ex. 99 . atass, Ériu iv 114 § 17 (:as).
-das (: as), IGT Verbs ex. 104 . 1 pl. itám, SR 1727 . tám,
3493 . ataum, PH 1556 . ataim, TBC 874 . atamaoit,
TBC St. 121 . atámaoid, atám, IGT Verbs § 7 . -taum, PH 1506 .
20 -dtám (: ár), IGT Verbs ex. 111 . 2 pl. atathai, PH 2734 .
atathi, 597 . atáithi (: fáithi), IGT Verbs ex. 105 . -táithi
(: sáithi), ex. 96 . -dathai, Alex. 190 . -taidh, Ériu ii 118 § 53 .
3 pl. itāt, TBC² 3132 . atáit, CCath. 1215 . ataut, PH 1064 .
táid, TD 8.5 . -táit, CCath. 1701 . Rel. itat, Trip.² 882 ,
25 atat, SR 7949 . For later forms in meaning than (is) see
atás, indaas, 4 ol. See also II (d) below and daas.
The form fil. 1 s. ni ḟuilim, ni ḟoilim, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s.
-fhile, PH 8116 . -fhuile, 3335 , -fuili, Acall. 3217 . -ḟoili,
-ḟuile, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. fail, TBC² 60 , SR 353 etc. ro fail ,
30 TBC 263 , fuil, 3072 . -fail, Trip.² 2764 , -fuil, 872 , -uil, PH
3181 , -ḟil, Acall. 3709 . -ḟuil, -ḟoil, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. fil,
Trip.² 842 , fail, SR 392 , no fail , 933 . With impers. ending:
filter, Aisl. MC 31.25 . -fuiltear, TD 2.42 . 1 pl. ra fuilemm ,
TBC 2971 . -failmet, SR 6320 , -ḟuilmíd, Acall. 5101 .
35 -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl.
-bhḟuilti, Acall. 962 . 3 pl. failet, SR 345 . filet, 477 . fuilet,
TBC 4739 . -failet, Trip.² 1119 . -filet, TBC² 1848 , -fileat,
CCath. 1270 . -fuilet, 427 . -fuilid TD 7.23 . Rel. failet,
SR 400 . ra failet , TBC 5225 . fuilet, 4709 . filet, PH 435 .
40See also do-fil.
Consuet. pres. 1 s. bim, PH 6393 . bím, -bím, IGT
Verbs § 7 . ?-ruibim, SG 373.29 . 2 s. -bi, SR 2035 . bí, ní
bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bíd, TBC² 1453 (LU). biid, SR 4537 .
bíd, 4588 . -bí, TBC² 472 . -bíonn, TD 22.12 . -bind, RC
45 xlix 37.13 . bídh, -bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bither, PH
7441 . -bithar, Laws iv 234.2 Comm. 1 pl. bímit, Acall.
886 . bídmaid, 5481 . bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, IGT Verbs § 7 .
2 pl. bíthí, Acall. 6139 . 3 pl. bīd, TBC² 1075 (bít, LU).
-bíat, TTr.² 330 . -bít, PH 4189 , -bíd, TD 5.5 . Rel. bit
50(= bíït), SR 7259 . bít, TBC 1320 .
Indic. impf. 1 s. do bhínn , TD 23.7 . 3 s. nobīth, TBC²
593 (nobíid, LU cited above). robíth, TBC² 1903 (LU). do
bhíodh , TD 14.23 . do bhíoth , 26.12 . Impers. bithi, Auraic.
5286 = -bithi, RC xx 150.y (ACC Pref.). no bithea , Acall.
55 156 . 3 pl. naboitis, TBC² 855 LU (nobitís, Y). nobīdis,
3621 (Y). bítís, 1898 (LU). no beitis , LL 407a27 . ro bitis ,
PH 1957 . do bhítís , Acall. 830 . do bhídís , TD 15.18 . Rel.
tri cnuasa bítís ann, Acall. 455 .
Ipv. 1 s. bír (: gním), IGT Verbs ex. 94 . 2 s. bí, Parrth.
60Anma 3871 . 3 s. bīdh, ZCP vi 271.z . bíodh, TD 16.2 .
bíoth, 17.1 . 1 pl. bíom, Dán Dé xiv 17 . 2 pl. bíthe (: -chíthe),
IGT Verbs ex. 95 . bídh, ex. 109 . bidhí, Luc. Fid. 3430 .
3 pl. bíod, TD 16.19 .
Subj. pres. 1 s. ber, SG 172.15 . uér, Ériu ii 92.9 . beor,
65 v 222.46 . bheith mé, TD 8.9 . -ra bur , TBC 1112 . -rabor,
ZCP xii 401.30 . ? -rabhus, ZCP v 523.27 = rabasa, Ériu
xii 144.12 (TE). -rabar, ZCP iii 32.37 . bear, rabhar, -bear,
-rabhar, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bé, SR 1607 . beir, BNnÉ
288.29 . Acall. 592 . -rab(a)i, BDD² p. 80 . -rabha, Ir.
70Texts iv 75 § 16 . -rabhair, Fing. R. p. 13 note 86 . -mbéis
(: Céis), IGT Verbs ex. 100 . -beis(se) (: meise), Dán Dé
xiv 20 . -rabais, Fing. R. 86 , BDD² 363 (see
ZCP xxvii 75-8 ). beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. beth,
TBC² 270 (beith, v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 101 . -bé, TBC² 1671 .
75 -raib, Trip.² 2753 . -rab, TBC² 1430 . -raibhe, Parrth. Anma
2616 . rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel.
bess, TBC² 1104 (beis, Y). beas, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers.
bethur, Laws ii 36.20 Comm. 1 pl. beme, Snedgus u. Mac
R. 9.14 . bemmit, TBC 2137 . bemait, Acall. 5478 . -bém,
80 CCath. 1124 . -beam (: leam), Dán Dé xii 10 . -ruibem,
SR 5540 . -rabum, PH 7899 . bheam, rabham, IGT Verbs
§ 7 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 1233 . rabthai, PH 1977 . 3 pl. beit,
Trip.² 1653 . -bet, TBC² 1053 . -beat, Lism. L. 4702 .
-rabat, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. -rabut, PH 994 . -rabhait,
85 BNnÉ 269.4 . -rabhaid, Parrth. Anma 2836 . -rabheid,
RC xxix 136 § 51 .
Subj. impf. 1 s. do beinn , do rabainn , IGT Verbs § 7 .
2 s. no beithi , Trip.² 2972 . no beithe , 2983 = no bethe ,
Trip. 252.21 . do beitheá , TD 1.44 . 3 s. no beith , Trip.²
2967 . nobith, TBC² 3543 . dá mbeadh , TD 29.6 . -mbeath,
5 IGT Verbs ex. 97 . -rabad, RC iii 184.24 . Impers. -bethe,
Trip.² 2828 . -bette, Met. Dinds. iii 382.19 . rabtha, TBC (C)
1675 . 1 pl. dá mbiadh sinn, TD 28.25 . 3 pl. nobeitis, SR
7855 . nobeidis, TBC² 3557 . dá mbeith siad, TD 26.36 .
Fut. (see Bergin, Ériu ii 46-8 ) 1 s. bíat, TTr.² 89 . biat,
10 PH 1244 . biad (bíatt v.l.), CCath. 5137 . bhead, Parrth.
Anma 6378 . bed, ZCP vi 41.10 . bét, 69.2 . bett, BNnÉ
52 § 42 . -biu, TBC 882 . -bhiú, Dán Dé xiv 20 . biad,
-biú, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bía, Trip.² 1593 . biae, SR 1599 .
-bíai, BNnÉ 291 § 2 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . bía, -bía, IGT
15 Verbs § 7 . bethair, ZCP ii 225.4 . 3 s. bied, LU 10362 .
biaid, Trip.² 1071 . biáid, TBC² 169 (LU). biaidh, -bia,
IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bíes, Trip.² 2671 . bés, CCath. 300 ,
bes, 657 . bess, PH 4666 . bhias, TD 3.50 . do biass , L. Chl.
Suibhne 1 . Impers. beither, Acall. 5259 . beithir,
20 ZCP x 415.11 . 1 pl. bemit, LU 9753 , PH 1501 . bemait, CCath.
1467 . -bem(ni), LU 9753 . beimíd, -biam, IGT Verbs § 7 .
-biaim(ne) (: siairni), ex. 108 . ? -ben, BCC 396.19 . 2 pl.
bethi, SR 3083 . beitte (: eiti) (beththi, bete v.l.), IGT
Verbs ex. 102 . -bed, Trip.² 1590 . 3 pl. biait, Trip.² 2665 ,
25 TBC² 2057 (beite, LU). biat, Trip.² 1288 . beit, TBC² 80 .
beiti, TBC² 2078 . beti, SR 8157 . betit, SR 853 . TBC 246 ,
TTr.² 760 . beidid, ZCP x 338 § 1 . -bīat, TBC² 1132 . beidíd
síad, BCC 290.12 . beid, -bíad, IGT Verbs § 7 .
Condit. 1 s. no-béind, PH 6107 . dobeind, 7489 . do
30beinn, -beinn, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. do bheitheá , TD 19.13 .
3 s. no biadh , CCath. 3754 . -bied, TBC² 504 . ro bífad ,
TBC 5112 . rot-fiadh, IT iii 320.4 ( Cóir Anm. 70 ). do biath
(: sgiath), IGT Verbs ex. 97 . do bhiadh , TD 2.54 . Impers.
no bethe , TTr.² 533 . 3 pl. do bheidīs , Parrth. Anma 5227 .
35 Pret. and perf. 1 s. ro-bádus, PH 699 . do bhádhus , TD
23.6 . do bhí mé, 5 . -rabus, Acall. 7913 . -rabhas, 1584 .
-rabadhus, 356 . do bá , -raba; do bádhus , -rabadhas, IGT
Verbs § 7 . do basa ( : bádusa; proscribed form), ex. 103 .
2 s. ro bhádhuis , CCath. 553 . do bhí tú, TD 28.6 . -rabadais,
40 PH 3725. 8121 . -rabhais, Acall. 123 . do bhádhuis , -rabhadhuis,
IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bae, SR 7608 . bóe, 6265 . baei,
BDD² 127 . búi, CCath. 95 . -bae, SR 4975 . -buí, Trip.²
1505 . robai, SR 2229 , robae, 2262 . robói, PH 2572 . ro
bí , CCath. 1302 . robuidh, Ériu iii 198 § 22 . do bí , CCath.
45 278 . do bhói , Acall. 58 . do bhaoi (: draoi), Dán Dé xii 22 .
-rubai, SR 1241 . -roibe, BDD² 498 , -roibi, 1393 . -roba, 251 .
-raba, 1533 . -raibhe, TD 2.25 . -rabha, 8.36 . -robha, 1 .
do bí , -raibi, do baí , -rabha, IGT Verbs § 7 . With depon.
ending -rabhustair, BNnÉ 322 § 31 . Rel. boí, Trip.² 626 .
50 bāi, TBC² 1277 . būi, 630 . ro bae , Trip.² 288 . ro buí ,
BDD² 287 . ro baí , 1451 . ro boí , 1517 . Impers. both, Trip.²
2264 . rombatha, Ériu ii 20 § 3 (-a added later). -rabad,
iv 146.4. robās, TBC² 2147 . rombas, SR 7564 , robás,
TTr.² 151 . -rabus, Trip.² 54 . rabas, Laws iv 212.22 Comm. ,
55 -bádus, Aisl. MC 43.22 . -bás, 61.3 . do bás , do bas , -rabas,
IGT Verbs § 7 . do bas (: as), ex. 98 . do bhás (: fhás),
Dán Dé xxvi 9 . 1 pl. bāmur, TBC² 399 . do bámar , Acall.
1283 . do bhámair (: Ádhaimh), Dán Dé xv 17 . -rabamar,
TBC² 2495 . 2 pl. robabair, Anecd. ii 14.9 . -babhair, Blathm.
60 23 (see notes ). robadbair, TBC² 2502 . do bhábhair , TD
22a.1 . -rabhuir, Acall. 114 . -rabhabhair, TD 22a.2 .
3 pl. bādar, TBC² 472 . -bátir, TTr.² 1308 . ro badar ,
CCath. 573 n. ro bádar , Acall. 75 . do bídur , 5942 .
-rabadar, TBC² 3108 . -rabhadair, TD 26.10 . ro baisit ,
65 O'Dav. 728 . -rabhsad, TD 16.21 . Rel. bátar, Trip.² 591 .
BDD² 505 . ro bátar , 543 . Vn. an bheith , IGT Verbs § 7 .
Vbl. of necess. beitte, TD 28.30 .
Cf. cenmothá, íarmothá, óthá.
Used in meaning is in a large variety of contexts. Nor-
70mally replaced by copula (see is) in certain fixed syntactical
patterns (classification, identification, etc.), and when used
in these cases exceptional (see above and II below).
I Expressing existence. (a) Used absolutely is, exists,
there is, etc.: ata in coimdiu gl. Dominus in clo sedis eius,
75 Ml. 30b27 . nabad hed a méit nádmbǽ `let it not be only
that it is not
' gl. nec nominetur in uobís, Wb. 22b14 . ní fil
aimsir nad mbed ref. to fuit et est semper, Ml. 17a15 . ní
torménmar-ni ara mbetis in gnimai sin gl. prter spem
nostram, etc., 115b1 . ni fil chumtubairt gl. indubitabilia,
80 etc., Sg. 154b2 . ma nubed `if it existed', 31b21 . ro baoi
siomh re tuisdinsiú `he existed', Blathm. 632 . as e as soith-
cerndomh fil, 773 . ma rombe is maith if it is, it is well,
Laws iv 2.14 Comm. ni rabi uair . . . nad ro bai `there was
no hour . . . that He existed not
', Ériu ii 106 § 16 . a cin for
85athair .i. uair na bí mac, Laws iv 240.16 Comm. Columb
[ro]baoi, Columb bīaas, ZCP viii 198 § 20 . tar ēis a mic
. . . / nī raba acht dā aenbliadain `was alive only two years',
Ériu iii 198 § 24 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be by saying
there is a covenant though there is not
, Laws iv 52.30 Comm.
ni tha . . . ní a ngeimre in winter there is nothing, 90.1 (with
5petrified inf. pron. 3 s. n. in dat. sense?). ní bía terca bíd
there will not be a scarcity of food, BColm. 52.5 . bid dno
maith, ┐ ni bi derrscugud de `yet there is good, and nothing
to surpass it
', Auraic. 703 . is tré ómun bíid serc,
Ériu i 195.1 . céin beti neóil im gréin ngil, Met. Dinds. ii 38.z .
10 i céin raibh nemh is talamh as long as . . . endure, BNnÉ
314 § 8 . bai cocad mor etarro, RC xxiv 186 § 19 . In phrase
(acht) atá ní (chena) but, moreover, see 1 ní (e).
In periphrasis when emphasis on some element other than
the verb is required: bieid nach dréct diib hícfider, Wb. 4d6 .
15 bieid bes ferr de, 32a13 . do budh cusmail rit co robuis uair
ecin, ┐ co n[d]ingenta rét feramail `that thou wert once such
an one that thou couldst
. . .', ZCP vi 87.13 . ba-sa tan / nī
folabrainn ilach gamh, Ériu ii 95 § 3 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini nad
chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud, Ériu xvii 68 § 9 ( Laws
20 iv 210 ). Note further: atāit teora brīathra / ata lōgmaire
for nim, ZCP vii 312 § 25 .
With words expressing time: bieid aimser nad creitfider,
Wb. 28c14 . aidchi robuī `one night', Ériu ii 222.25 . fecht
robai `once', Mon. Tall. 147.2 (§ 52) . biaidh uair 's . . . a
25time will come when
, Dán Dé vii 31 .
Introducing a statement: cia beith ara rogba bóairechas
riasíu ropo chúairddulchach though it be that he assume,
Críth Gabl. 67 . dá mbeith fós go mbiadh an Fhraingc comh
líonmhar ┐ adeir seisean `granted that', Keat. ii 933 . má tá
30go seachnoid síol Éibhir . . ., TD 29.7 . ci(d), gi(d) bé whatever,
whoever
(see Ériu xii 210 ): ria flaithaib, .i. rias na flaithib, cibe
flaithe iat `whatever chieftains they be', Laws iv 154.17 . gidh
bé lá cheannghar an chairt, Dán Dé xiv 17 . cidh bé do bhean
díbh an dúthaigh, DDána 26.1 . bíd (ipv. 3 s.) co n- although:
35 admhuim . . . mo pheactha . . . bīodh gomadh é mo mhīan
a bhfolach though I should wish to hide them, Parrth. Anma
4625 . bīodh nach gcaoifithea go spesialta fá gach peacadh
though you might not weep specially for each sin, Mac Aingil
235 . bíth gur gheallas . . . though I promised, Ó Bruad. ii
40212 § xiv . In constr. manibed x ní bíad y were it not for x
y would not be
, see má II (b).
(b) The subst. vb. is usual with predicates consisting of
adverbial phrases of all kinds (prep. and noun, adjj. and
nouns used adverbially, etc.) and thus enters into a large
45and varied corpus of idioms. A select list follows. Reference
should in all cases also be made to the nouns, adjj., adverbs
and prepositions concerned.
With CO: atáthar sund chucut your adversary is approach-
ing
, LL 10300 ( TBC 3316 ).
50With CO N-: atúsa com thegluch there is myself and my
household troop
, TBC 437 .
With DI: im chaingin robui de muintir Tamlachti friss
`about a business that arose between the monastery of Tallaght
and him
', Mon. Tall. 157.7 (§ 72) . masu de chlaind Echdach
55aird / atāi, ZCP xi 108 § 1 . ní bia debaid . . . de, Ériu iv
108 § 69 . Of materials: an crann dobí na sesam ... dobí sé
do cepresus was a (lit. of) cupressus, Maund. 9 . In phrase a. ¤
di such is: roboi du meit a pecthae `so great were their sins',
Ml. 98c6 . má beth tra do hūaite ind āessa gráid `if the
60ordained folk be too few
', Ériu i 220 § 13 .
With DO: biid do anmmaim cathrach `(Samnis) is as the
name of the city
', Sg. 104b5 . nád robatar suin do ṡlund in
dúildetad inchoisget `there were not words (enough) to sig-
nify
. . .', 45b1 . manusbeth tenga dia relad `if (the sun)
65 had a tongue', Ériu ii 126 § 81 . ata eric a fogla do dul a
ruradh o duine, Laws iv 50.5 Comm. Expressing possess-
ion, etc.: con roib core dúib fri cách so that you may be at
peace with all men
, Wb. 26b30 . in fochricc file do i nnim,
29b29 . cach ngrád asid n-ísliu bíid dó i céilsini, Críth Gabl.
70 374 . robi timna in ríg don Comdhe, RC xviii 182.5 . nico
mbái dó acht bás there was nothing for him but death, Vita
Br. 32 . fecht robúi damsae domchaomnacuir `once it happened
to me
', Mon. Tall. 144.7 (§ 45) . atá damhsa ris an dáimh /
gan ísliughadh neith dá gcáil it is my duty in regard to the
75sages not to belittle
. . ., Content. xiv 8 .
With FOR (later AR): as ṅdath glas roboi forsind sl[é]ib
the mountain was green, Ml. 84d4 . cech dath is maith ré
neach bid forro, RC vi 183.9 . cēin beó ar in mbith mbuide,
Ériu ii 92.16 . nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí / ōtú ar sīth
80mo Rīgh amuigh since I am outside the palace of my king(?),
ZCP vii 301 § 10 . scríbend menmman .i. robbói for a innd-
ṡliucht-som `it had been in his mind', Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá
form aire on which I am intent, Ériu vi 115 § 6 . a mhacnas orm
gidh eadh raibh though I greatly desire to do so, Dán Dé xix 6 .
85With FRI: nobiad fri femen `it would be (used) with the
feminine
', Sg. 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no
prepositions with them', 215a5 . ni humhal robabair rim cen
erghe rónn you were not submissive to me, Anecd. ii 14.9 .
ba [mait]h ro mboth friu they were well treated, TBFr. 145 .
is throit ra bass risin fer út that man was quickly dispatched,
5 TBC 2986 ( LL 10035 ).
With I: is hi tuaisciurt slebe sióin ata in chathir, Ml. 67d8 .
ataam ar ndiis i cuimriug, Wb. 32a28 . is and . . . bieid
finis, 13b29 . is sunt bia-sa i n-eilithri, Ml. 137b7 . nach
dú i mbí isnaib salmaib iustitia, 109a2 . bēti a scēla il-
10lāidib, ZCP iii 37.32 . dēna torba airm i mbī, vii 311 § 9 .
ro-bas i lurg an madma la clannaibh Néill the Clanna N.
pursued the rout
, xiv 234.16 . adh bes fiu da trian na samuisce
atá isín focreic, issed ata isin fogail doníther ris na ferandaib
cétna i fuacht an geimridh `a calf which is worth two thirds of
15the `samhaisc'-heifer which is paid for the rent, it is it that is
paid for the trespass
', Laws iv 92.16 Comm. cínta do niad na
cethra . . . leth a mbia ina nairlim isedh bias ina tairsci
`half of that fine which lies for their `airlim'-trespass . . .', 74.8
Comm. cod a midídar ruire trachta ┐ raite? Nin; co
20rabadar ocht nurcora dec and do fhleascach, 138.4 Comm.
ní bhíadh na ghoin é d'oighedh / toil Dé muna deónaighedh
His wound would not be enough to cause His death, IGT
Decl. ex. 378 . Common in form with suff. pron. 3 s. n.
ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre if there be anyone,
25etc., Wb. 13a4 . ar atá brithem and cenut-su `a judge is
there apart from thee
', 6b25 . ataat alaaili interiecta and it
coitchena do cach ceniul, Sg. 10a1 . attaad teora bliadna
and. Niconcomracamar díoblíonaib `it is three years since
we two had intercourse
', Mon. Tall. 134.26 (§ 21) . For phr.
30 cid fil and trá see trá. In idiom tá sé i n-a fhear he is a man
(see Dillon, ZCP xvii 307 ff. ): is amlaid . . . atá in rigsudi
sin inna chathaír chumtachta, LU 2005 ( FA 7 ). cidead
bes ina bibdaid `even though he be a caitiff', Ériu v 22.20 .
gu raibhe 'na cholum ghel, Acall. 1080 . ce raib se i n-a
35fhír, PH 7324 . do bí 'n-a mnaí grádaig ac Find, Acall.
2018 . do rígh gion go rabhthá id mhac, DDána 91.15 .
Note also: tuc . . . aithne gurbh e righ Eirenn do bí ann
that it was in fact the king, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . ro innis do gur
'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 .
40With IMM: ni baitir, ni loisctir cein beit immo `he is not
drowned or burnt as long as they are on him
', RC vi 183.8 .
With LA: gan bheith le Dia is ann bhus aithreach if we are
not on God's side
, Dán Dé x 27 . Expressing possession and
related ideas: is lib atá a rogu, Wb. 9a23 . is derb lium attá
45latsu gl. certus sum autem quod et in té, 29d14 . ainmm
ninchoisc cenéuil issed file la laitnóri, Sg. 30b8 . is airi nobíth
digaimm leo ante ρ. sin, 9b10 . ni fil bríg laisiom hisind
accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter,'
Mon. Tall. 151.13 (§ 62) . is dé atá lem, fobíth, etc. this
50is why I think so
(of an assertion), TTr.² 343 . itá a rīgan la
cach ríg sund, TBC² 190 . fail leis secht nimi, SR 629 .
ar ní ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 14150 .
With ó: báoi alaile anchoire antuaid o sláne `there was a
certain anchorite from Slane in the North
', Mon. Tall. 159.8
55(§ 77) . cech lennánacht fil isin domvn is úadhi atá originates
with her
, TTr.² 370 . Bressal Ó Tressaig ō' tāit / Hī Tressaig
`. . . from whom are sprung', Ériu ii 50 § 7 . ni fil[et] o neoch
┐ ni filter uaidibh `they are not derived from anything, and
nothing is derived from them
', Auraic. 1507 .
60With OC: ar notéighed dīa sathairn init co mbídh oc
Cnocc Droma Coblai, ZCP viii 106.29 = Trip.² 2858 . ma
no bith . . . mo c[h]laideb acom if I had my sword, TBC²
3543 . co rabat aidmi oc cech altōir . . ., Ériu i 219 § 9 . in ti
ac na biat ba, Laws iv 36.10 Comm. in fhil biad ocaib sund?
65 PH 6709 . ná raibh agad ar n-éra `refuse me not', Studies
1918, 99 § 16 . In impers. constr. cindas atathar occat?
how are affairs with thee? RC xxvi 368.9 . a. ¤ y oc x x has
the power to do y:
ní bhía . . . ag boigṡín / mo chor tar creich
Phádraigín, Ériu ix 163 § 7 .
70With adverbs and adv. phrases: céin bett abus `while
they are here below
', BColm. 98.28 . ní rubai nach cruth
ailiu `it cannot be otherwise', Sg. 7b3 . ataat ám in chrut sin,
140b1 . hóre nád robe Tit ar mo chiunn, Wb. 14d29 . na
muindtire bís id choimidecht `of the monks that live with thee',
75 Mon. Tall. 128.8 (§ 3) . dá rabh mé ar éanmhagh is í, Dán
Dé ix 12 . is bether go hīsiul de, ZCP x 51.6 . bidh co mín
michuir ret c[h]airdibh, vi 272 § 3 . is samlaid insin robói a
flaithemnacht indibsi, Ml. 18a8 . nī hamlaid beitid na
nāimh . . ., ZCP xiii 9.26 . dobadus co subhach rompa,
80 KMMisc. 319.27 . léig mar atāit tall, ZCP viii 202.4 . trath
atusa sund, TBC 2379 . ionmhuin uan nar fhás ó mhnaoi /
do bhás go truagh ar a thí, Dán Dé xxvi 9 . Note also:
dá mbem a-moigh `if we win forth', Ériu ix 162 § 2 . With
interrogatives: ceth leth atā E., TBC² 376 . can ata?
85 whence is it? Hib. Min. 8.270 . cāit atā do t[h]igerna? TBC²
789 . ciatā inso? ZCP viii 311.13 . a Findtain, arse, ┐ Éri
cía gabad ca rabad inde? `where have things been therein?'
Ériu iv 146 § 23 .
(c) Used with inf. and suff. pron. to express possession.
With inf. pron.: rosmbia a lóg `they shall have payment for
5it
', Wb. 5d35 . ind indocbál no-b-tá in futuro, 14c16 . ro-n-da-
biad cech maith, Ml. 33b13 . rombia-sa la dia . . . a day will
come for me when
, Vita Br. 12 . roborbē (roburbe v.l.) which
is yours
, Cáin Ad. 27 . nīmthat asnai I have no ribs, TBC²
2871 . gell cóic sét di neoch rodmbí `of whatever he has',
10 Críth Gabl. 283 and n. uair nach tá tír dia fhulung fri re
napuidh because he has no land to support him(?), Laws iv
30.19 Comm. rom be nem may I have heaven, Snedgus u.
MacR. 14 § 76 . Femen intan rombai rí . . . when it had a
king
, RC xvii 148.19 . cia luag nomtha? SR 1165 . rombí
15lethbairgen, Anecd. i 73 § 211 . atbert Cathair nimthasa ní
dhuit I have nothing to give you, LL 386b22 . Note also:
nintha do imtecht liumm `I have (lit. we have) no news',
RC xiii 222.20 . With cumang (or similar word) and prep.
DO has the power to: nímtha cumachtæ ṅdo, Ml. 140b7 . ní-
20s-ta som . . . cumang domm orcuin-se, 60d3 . nísmbói didiu
do chumacc a mmbo do imain they hadn't the strength to,
Vita Br. 24 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech cumang rotbé
(rodbe, rotbia, v.ll.) dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204 § 22 .
nícom thása cumang dia tabair[t], TBFr. 302 . apraind
25nachimbai-si nert do theacht cucu alas that I had not
strength
. . ., TBC² 3439 . Used independently is able:
nīmt[h]a a dechmad d'indisin / nech doní do maith `I cannot
tell a tithe of all the good he does
', BColm. 70.6 . nimta-sa
sin . . . uair da caithius mo dan re sciathaib Ulad I cannot do
30that
. . ., Ériu v 72.8 . Note also: ango dano for Ingcél
adfía basa lecht bas briscium `peradventure I shall be the
frailest corpse
', BDD 102h ( RC xxii 211 ) = at-mbia basa
lecht bas brisceam, BDD² 716 (leg. ro-t-bia?).
With suffixed pron. taithiunn . . . / ni fris tarddam ar
35n-áthius `we have . . . something to which to apply our acute-
ness
', Thes. ii 293.19 . táithi caire umai he has a bronze
cauldron
, Críth Gabl. 197 . tathum rūn, TBC² 848 . bethib
sūirsi lim-sa dano ye will enjoy freedom with me,
ZCP viii 316.5 . tathat lim logh do áes, logh do sinnsire thou hast
40with me = I accord thee
, xii 365.13 . baíthium anfud mílach
mend, LU 3018 . tathuib comram, Rawl. 88b51 . tathum
o día praind, Anecd. i 64 § 120 . tāthud ochtar la suidiu /
airm hi fail a crōlighe `thou wilt find eight men . . .', Fianaig.
12 § 16 . tathai eolus maith, ZCP vii 310 § 1 . tatos subhae
45`they have happiness', Blathm. 82 . Pleonastically: tathai
erouidh . . . bithbron `Herod . . . has eternal sorrow', 83 .
(d) In nasalising rel. clauses to denote has something
the matter, is ailing: ced das in ben maith? `what ails the
good woman
?', Thes. ii 329.48 . cidh tás do sūil, a clērich?
50 what is the matter with your eye? RC xxvii 280 § 35 . Oengus
mac in Dagdai hisiurcc di bliadan. Cid tas or Bodb, RC
iii 345.9 . ra[fh]etur sa . . . an daas ind ingen what is wrong
with the girl
, Vita Br. 5 . ni fetarsa cid no-tó I do not know
what is the matter with me
, ZCP viii 176.5 . cid no-taí?
55 Sc.M² 3 . roḟetarsa a n-attath[a]i. Ni taam ni or Cano,
Anecd. i 9.25 ( SCano 293 ). cid tāthaí, a maccu? . . . oc
imresain atām . . ., Ériu viii 157.16 . ni confetatarsin cid
rombui hissennath, RC iii 344.10 . dia ḟis cid robái (rombui,
v.l.) grían to find out what was the matter with the sun, Ériu
60 iv 140.13 .
With prep. DO feels (inimically) towards, is angry with,
worries: propter incredulitatem fracti sunt .i. cani airi .i.
badochu lem són is [hed] romboth doib that is the fault
found with them
, Wb. 5b31 . cren dímsa m'ingin . . . Cid
65dathir di? . . . Is dichmarcach what cause of annoyance has
she given
? Vita Br. 13 . fiarfaig Conchobar scēla dō. —Cidh
tāi di ṡodain? ol Bricriu why do you bother with it?
ZCP v 502.15 . cadai-siu duind? TTebe 424 . In good sense treats
in a special manner: ca tāthar dúin do domnach des / sech
70gach laithi lāndiles? `why do we hold Sunday above . . .?'
Ériu iii 143 § 7 . With added prep.: cidh 'ma bfuile dam?
ZCP x 10.11 . ná bí réd chathrachaibh dhúinn `talk not to
us of your forts
', Content. vi 31 . See further s.v. daas.
Frequ. in class. verse in phrase gá dtá, dás (acht) what is
75the use? in short
. Either gá dtá or gá tá may be used to
suit alliteration, see Ir. Syll. P. 86 . fogus orchra don éigsi
/ gá ttás cur ré coiméidsi `how can she be saved?' Studies
1923, 421 § 1 . gá dás luadh imdheachta an ḟir? `what need
to recount
', TD 13.40 . gá dás mé dá mīrbuile / acht sé d'fás
80ó ÓghMuire, IGT Decl. ex. 200 . gá dtám? —acht torchuir
bu dheas in short, TD 3.10 . With follg. prep.: gá dtám
ris . . . / acht meise féin foidhidneach, TD 3.41 . ga dtú ris,
a rí L.? / ort chuirim mo chomuirghe, 30.12 . ní bhiú ris
acht, Dán Dé vi 31 . ní fhuilim dó, xi 30 .
85(e) With words indicating number, quantity in sense of
accompanied by, having: bí[i]th a th[a]urchreicc cóic ṡétaib,
Críth Gabl. 71 . baei Conairi a ceithri cairpthig il-Lifiu,
BDD 12 (a cethror cairpdech, v.l.). itó-sa lín do gona,
TBC 434 . denam d'ḟiadach na muice in lín Feinde atámait,
Acall. 2223 . atáthaoi líon a n-ithte, Keat. iii 4439 . atú-sa
5caegait fer, MR 248.17 . Later: bed-sa ┐ mili ridiri maraen
rium ad diaig, ZCP vi 41.9 .
II Expressing state, condition, kind, etc. with pred.
consisting of noun, pron. or adj. (usage more usual with
copula, see introd. section above).
10(a) With noun pred.: boe sab suithe cech dind, ACC 26
( RC xx 168 ). boe saegul sneid, 24 . boe dind oc libur
leigdocht, 27 . biait betha airchind they will be chieftains
of the world
, Rawl. 125b9 . With subj. standing between the
vb. and pred.: atá dia atach ṅ-dún-ni ais dethrebo God is a
15refuge to us the people of the two tribes
, Ml. 66d1 . bói Fíachnae
Lurga athair Mongáin, Im. Brain 42.1 . Cf. Sg. 20b3 .
(b) With adj. pred.: boe seim sáth, ACC 25 . biat slana,
SR 4167 (copula?). feib atam nocht, 1347 (copula?).
bía slan, LU 3344 ( SC 13 ). Cf. habe . . . (.i. sana sis .i. slán
20bee), Enchir. August. 82a ( ZCP vii 484 ). dlegar doibsium
na be lobtaigh cor (ar dlegar doibsium na bed lobthaig
cor, O'Dav. 1191 ) (Atk. in Glossary emends to be[t]), Laws
iv 54.10. atámait ainmfesach, RC xxiv 371.7 . bítíss meth
(leg. methi, ed.) occ tinntúd, IT iii 235.z . co filim garbliath
25i rricht, LU 1272 . ro boísium imnedach i tossuch a bethad,
LL 7305 . ro-bádus-[s]a dronnach, PH 2788 . céin beorsa
beó as long as I am alive, Ériu v 222.46 . is follus co fuilti
eaclach, Fier. 69 . maith dīghōltar ant andlocht / bethar
taoblom tarrnocht trūagh folk will be, ZCP xii 395.23 .
30With subj. betw. vb. and pred.: is trissa ndede sin biid
duine slán et fírian, Wb. 4d33 . amal mbís tegdís fás [amm]-
edón ┐ scópthe gl. sicut domus uacans et scopata, Tur. 14
( Thes. i 485.23 ). arrobói a rígthech lán de rígaib, Im. Brain
1 . amal no beithi féin béo and, Trip.² 2972 . co mbatar na
35hádnaicti óbéla, PH 676 . bis an puls tonnmur lethan, Rosa
Ang. 272.8 . oir dobi se crodha do laim ┐ mor do mét, Fier. 2 .
(c) With part. as pred. Immediately follg. vb. (see
Thurn. Gramm. 475-6 ; Par. and Gl. 147 ): amal nombemmis
érchóilti gl. tanquam morti destinatos, Wb. 9a3 . biid ersoilcthi
40ar chiunn for ríg `be ye opened before your king' (of doors),
Ml. 46a7 . co rabais (rabhdais, v.l.) marbtha mudaigthi,
TTebe 854 . With subj. standing between vb. and pred.:
ataat mesai Dǽ nephchomtetarrachti the judgements of God
are incomprehensible
, Ml. 55d11 . céin nombetis inna saigtea
45tuidmithi inna feuil `as long as the arrows were fixed in his
flesh
', Ml. 58a9 . órobatar ind liss dúntai, Im. Brain. 1 .
co ra-bi in uli demnaigecht fomamaigthi dó, PH 2796 .
(d) In sentences where the vb. stands in a nasalising rel.
clause and refers to a pred. expressed in the principal clause:
50 is faittech rond-boi som, Ml. 21d4 . ni ba cian mbias in
pecthach, 56c22 . fer . . . nadip romar bed a sommæ a
man . . . whose wealth should not be too great
, Thes. ii 241.9 .
is-gáibthech atátur i-sin-magh sin, RC xxiv 378.12 . is
trog robas isin chotlad sin, Ériu v 34.z . ní cás duid madh
55diomdhach raibh / grása Dé . . ., Dán Dé xix 22 . [is] slán
do bhaoi an brat-sain, xii 22 .
(e) In the type of sentence where the description consti-
tutes an independent sentence with copula: ego sum uermis
et non homo .i. atāim-si conad cruim mē ┐ nāch duine, Corm.
60Y 211 . ro boi Victor co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic,
Arch. iii 10 § 8 = Trip.² 217 . unus non est . . . .i. nochon
fhil int aen co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim,
Auraic. 689 . dom dóigh . . . robadhuis uair ecin ┐ roba díl
anora tú `it seems to me . . . that there was once a time when
65thou wert worthy of honour
', ZCP vi 99.5 .