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éicen n ā, f.; later also o, m. égean fem. IGT, Decl. §
54 . éigean masc. § 53 . TSh.
(1) In the earliest recorded exx. the meaning is usually
60 necessity, compulsion; cf. ēcin .i. cin ēca. no ēc cána. i.
ēc riagla `ecin' i.e. `crime of death' or it is `death of law,'
that is `death of rule' Corm. Y 547 : hi cumcai no inn-
ecin (gl. in angaria) Tur. 134 . ni écen dob imchomartt
ach[t] is dúdract lib Wb 3b21 . conabad éicen doberad ní
65domsa huaitsu act combad tol (gl. ne velut ex necessitate
bonum tuum esset, sed voluntarium) 32a12 . soit a n-écin
i toltanche convert their necessity into freewill FA 23 .
ma egin fo ruair gan a denumh, Laws ii 292.23 Comm.
ni heiccen beires ó thoigh | acht do thuillemh tuarastoil
5 ZCP viii 116 § 10 . dena idpairt dona deeib...┐ logfaid do
Dia fen duit, uair nosfitir conid écen doberar fort PH 729 .
do ghuidh é fa lamh leis chum síobhail rómhóir do bhí
'na éigean air do dhéanamh a very long journey which he
had to make
ZCP ii 558.23 . Freq. in the sense of adj com-
10pulsory, needful, necessary ; (éigean .i. dligheadh, O'Cl.
refers to Met. Dinds. ii 2.18 , see Hermathena xiv 468 ).
egin .i. dhigthech, ut est is egin mór do thuirimh isin
trefocul focra, O'Dav. 806 . (a) abs.: is hécen ainmne
occo patience is needful in it Wb 4a26 . is hecen
15sainecoscc leosom for accrannaib innaní prechite pacem
they deem it necessary to have a special appearance... 5a5 .
ní ecen a thodiusgud asreracht cene 4d27 ; 26 . 16d7 .
Ml 127d8 . na bad écen for cúrsagad in fechtsa it
should not be needful to reprove you
Wb 14d1 . arnap
20éicen a ngóire i n-æclis 29a10 . mat anmann adiechta
emnatar and is écen comacomol hisuidib Sg 189b4 .
nípa hécen tene bratha dia nglanad, Mon. Tall. § 6 .
§ 37 . ni heigen ime riu, Laws iv 162 n. 1 . Asia...
tír innach éicen fúr fled LL 135a45 . ba hecen fer
25cechtar a da slabradside either of those chains required
a man (to hold it
) Rawl. 131b26 . as écen do thabairt
foraib (gl. indignatio severitatis motus est peccatoribus
necessarius) Ml 49b6 . h[u]are as n-ecen condib oinson
tintá in son n-ebraide cosnaib ilchiallaib techtas Ml 37a10 .
30 atait tri neithe is ecean cum na coimriachtana, Ériu ix
63.28 . is ecen co n-icthar cech ní PH 7538 . mac bec
doringni in gním sain...nocorb éicen...ingantus de, cia
nothísed... TBC 949 . Cog. 62.24 . ota imad na n-inad
anna n-eirginn si...as egin co fuil an talam comcruinn it
35must be that the earth is round
Ir. Astr. Tr. 32 w . ní
fhuil ainm oile...ionarb éigean sinne do shlánughadh `non
est aliud nomen...in quo oportet nos salvos fieri
' TSh. 2088 .
In this use often written éicin (éigin), but the form
intended is usually doubtful; the follg. metrical exx. may
40be noted: in cédḟer ór slondadh sind | ollamh darb écean
uirrim IGT, Decl. ex. 658 . budh éigin trá a thocht asteagh
| lá éigin ar ghort nGaoidheal TD 1.9 . bas dar éigin
umhla 33.15 (but see varr.). an chríoch ḟionnsa ón héigin
troigh | a ciomhsa d'ḟéigin d'ardaibh 41.18 . In mainbad
45éicin (gl. subjecta est non volens) Wb 4a20 , the word is
acc. after mainbad, cf. Ml 111b28 , etc.
(b) with dat. pron. or do of pers.: issum ecen precept
I must needs preach Wb 10d24 . níb écen log ye need
not pay
( Ped. ii 143 ) 16c17 . 22d12 . isim écensa techt
50 I have to go TBC² 221 (LU). ZCP x 293.14 . Ériu v
209.40 . atabairecen techt ye must go FB 7 . is ecen dam
(gl. compellor) Ml 21b9 . is hecen doib ingremmen
do foditiu Wb 30c23 . in tan na fádbait a mbiad díles, is
écen dia n-anmannaib bás d'fhaghbail PH 7476 . dó ba
55hecen (: tēitgel) biathad Echach LL 183b26 = Arch. Hib.
ii 70 . comba hecin di usce...da tharraing RC xxiv 190.7 .
in bocht dana hégen dul fó breith PH 7520 . ba heiccen
doip gan a snámh do dhermat, Fl. Earls 76.12 . is éigean
dó cúntas...do thabhairt, TSh. 793 . Attrib. gen.: áine
60écni, in tan na fagaib nech ni romelad PH 8366 .
In concrete sense: treb Leui...batir-side soer ó cech
écin acht frestal eclaisi Dé exempt from all obligations LB
124a31 .
(2) In a slightly different shade of meaning, force (i.e.
65exercised by persons upon others); violence; tyranny: écen
(gl. violentia) Sg 51a1 . cisi ecin det-birt as in tir? nim tucc acht
...m'anuabhar fesin RC xii 72 x . tre ēicin sāruighthe, Laws
ii 376.6 Comm. uli eccen ┐ écomland in popuil Rómanaig for
in popul Iudaide LB 154a24 . Freq. in attrib. gen.: forcomul
5n-ecne `violent seizure' (occupation by force) Laws ii 376.1 .
iv 270 z . lanamnas eicne (.i. donither ar eicin) ii 404.14 .
connmedh égne forcible billeting RC xviii 194.24 . ni da
deoin dochuaid-sium and, acht tre aslach eicni, TTebe
1501 . masa targud eicne tucastur orru do denam in
10marbtha...ma targud aisi if he led them out by force...if with
their consent
Laws iii 114.19 C. sí le héigean go n-aghar | ní
héidear í d'átaghadh TD 17.3 . dá mbhentá a chuid tré
éigion do dhuine shouldst thou take his goods forcibly Mac
Aingil 266 . éigean `violentia' TSh. 7783 . lucht éigne
15`violenti' 10812 .
In concrete sense, an act of violence, an outrage: is mō
.. in écen iná 'n goit PH 7559 . o fhir na hécni the perpetrator
of the outrage
7561 . fer éicne 7600 . ag agra goidi...ocus
saraighthi ocus egni, Laws v 42.19 Comm. cia dobeir inn eicin
20┐ inn imluadsa orumsa ? TTebe 372 . ba hiat eicne dogh-
nítis an loingius-sin...port gacha luingi do loscud ┐ crechad
gacha tuaithi..., Lism. L. 2945 . co nderna éccne iomdha
i ttuathaib ┐ chellaibh `acts of violence' FM ii 1150.17 .
Cf. éicni fastuda TBC 5837 . menimthistais écne éc, Ériu
25 v 210.2 . a gcumus...ar éigean ┐ ar mharbhadh daoine,
TSh. 1723 . ar an éigin do-rinne Críost ag buain anma
an duine dhe 10515 . cia do lemadh an eigean sin ar a athair
CF 310 .
Of a disaster, calamity: roshocht Adraist ar an ecein
30sin (i.e. the earth swallowing Amphiaraus) TTebe 2972
na heicnea-sea do lecun ar na Tiabandaib 1616 .
Violation, rape: ecen mire `violating a madwoman'
Laws i 176.2 . cu n-aithreosad a heicin muna dernad a
toil ZCP xiii 183.11 . ar bithin eiccni tuc Tir ar a derb-
35shiair .i. Pilomena, TTebe 1862 . adubairt eiccen do
thobairt fuirri 1690 . dá ttugthá éigion mná, Mac Aingil
266 . Here probably belongs: ro órdaig Brigit banfili
...gol ┐ caine marb ┐ eigem fri hecin screaming when
violence is offered
Dinds. 159 = LL 170bz .
40 Cf. rucad laeg mo bo a purt éicne uaimse from a place
whence it could only be taken by force
(?) LL 171a35 =
CRR § 3 .
(3) In phr. ar éicin (éicen) by or under compulsion
or force: ar écin (gl. coactum) Ml 18b7 . (gl. invitus) 42a15 .
45 ar ecein 68b3 . ar ecin nos bered (Simon, qui crucem in
angaria portabat) Tur. 134 . ciatasode lat ar écin though
thou keep her with thee perforce
Wb 10a10 . fochidi ar écin
...fochidi o thuil compulsory tribulations...voluntary tribu-
lations 15d33 . ceni thaisid ar ois daregaid ar ecin Ml
50 33b15 . mina this ar ais rega ar eigin YBL 121b11 . LB
228a46 . tabuir ass hi ar áis no ar écin IT i 130.4 . ar éiccin
no ar áis, Ériu iv 228.5 . co tuc Ogeth huad tria chath | ar
écin iarna marbad SR 5292 . IT i 130.21 . berid ar écin
Murni for aithed leis LU 42a12 . RC xxiv 186.16 .
55 at-ib loim ar eicin and, Laws iii 82.8 . dream timair-
citer ar ecin do denam thole Dé FA 23 . a furail air ar
eicin dul ina coimlepaid YBL 63b23 . ciall ar éigin
d'fhoráil ort, Dán Dé xix 11 . gur gabsat ar eiccin i nDuibh-
linn `forcibly landed' Cog. 34.19 . co ndigsitis...ar eicin
60co port na Troianna BB 428a25 . ra airgg Hercoil .. in
Troí ┐ ra chúaid ḟurri ar ecin LL 224b39 . 226b8 (= TTr.
556.686 ). co ndeachaidh Cesair ar eiccin for an caistiall,
CCath. 6053 . in daim téit ar eigin a tig in airech, Laws v
164.22 Comm. elaid in gilla asa laim ar eicin YBL 63b30
65( SR 3213 ). Maelir...do dul ar éccin ar Luimneach FM
iii 146.12 . a marbhadh dhoibh ┐ é ag triall ar eccin
uatha `trying to make his escape' 340.14 . The sl. ending
is usual in this phr. in early exx., but exx. of the masc. dat.
are also common in Mid. Ir. and Early Mod. verse: fala
5Dhé ar tí mo thréagaidh | gur mhéaduigh mé í ar éigin,
Dán Dé vii 11 . MR 54.16 . do bhiadh oirrim Bhanbha
Breagh | ag coinnill Annla ar éigean of necessity TD 7.50 .
ní ḟuil do cheart ar chrích bhF. ... acht sí d'ḟagháil ar
éigean (: gheabh) 17.4 ; 25 , etc. ag dénamh imechta
10ar eigen d'ionnsaigh an doruis, Rel. Celt. ii 190.3 . ratréta
┐ imghecht ar eigen acasan ga ghenamh `a forced retreat'
198.8 ; 10 . Later also a-réigin: ón ngurt a-réigin 'sní ad
rioth | o luchd éididh ┐ each 24 P 8, 212 . Dánta Gr.² 39.40 . adv
Hence: with difficulty, hardly: da roib an eslainte so
15arrsaidh is a reigin foirther hi YBL 343b4 . as ar eiccin
terna an tIarla fein iarna ghuin FM vi 2076.13 .
d' é. ¤ by force, compulsion: d'éigin nó d'áis, Dán Dé
ix 6 (where éigean would improve the metre). d'áis no
d'éigion, Mac. an Iolair 56.2 .
20(4) Difficulty, need, trouble, strait; in relation to war:
ras nert ┐ ra greiss in rí...im ḟulang cach éicni ┐ cach
imnid LL 219b24 = TTr. 185 . díscart dín in n-ecin fil
fornd LU 63b9 ( TBC² 742 ). TBC² 323 . in trén...ro ding-
bad cach éicen dind, Acall. 6976 . airc na écen TBC 2896 .
25 don tí d'ḟoirfed sib assin n-éicin sin (of voyagers adrift in
a storm), Acall. 3779 . TTebe 2007 . isin moréicin moir
sin, Acall. 3775 . i n-écnib ┐ i n-urgalaib LL 230a10 .
Esp. of stress of battle: bai obair cach oen dib a fis a
tuiruchta fen ar met a ecni so hard was he pressed Cog.
30 186.2 . [i] n-eigin irgaili, TTebe 4483 . in ecen engnoma i
roibi 3438 . a n-éigean ḟeadhma IGT, Decl. ex. 1358 .
fa deācair leó Goll do bheith san éigean sin ML 136.22 .
FM iii 576.9 . do bhí éigean mór ar E. mun amsoin,
eadhon sluagh Chuinn go huile, agas urmhór mhaithe
35Mumhan uile...iona aghaidh agas dobhí éigion budh mó
iona sin air, eadhon Goll...dhá thuargainn ML 30.7 ; 10 .
a n-eigen ag Sagsanachuibh sorely pressed by the English
Rel. Celt. ii 202.6 . Of a state of strenuous endeavour:
bhíos i n-éigean ag gleic = qui in agone contendit TSh.
40 10610 . Cf. do ṡloig, gídh ar lór d'éigeann | Iaoich idir
éide agas airm, Oss. vi 118.23 . Grievous plight; hardship:
in ecen ele boi ann, .i. in tan no roinntea in biad...nos
bered in tii ba tresi dib a chuit on anbhánd LB 155b32 .
do innseadar a n-éigean agas á n-anbhḟorlann dhó the
45distress and oppression they were suffering from
ML 82.11 .
críoch Mhidhe uile a móir-éigean, ina lasrachaibh leathna
84.12 . ar aoi a héiginsi d' fhurtacht `for helping her
necessity
' Studies 1921, 75 . Dán Dé xxi 4 . 'gan tí 'ga
dtám i n-éigin, Dán Dé xxi 3 . ri heicin na hitad sin the
50urgency of that thirst
TTebe 1776 . ón éigean tarta ina
rabhadar, Keat. ii 4983 . ag faisnéis an éigin 'na mbí (the
soul in purgatory), TSh. 4263 . Sorrow, grief: ba mór a
uchbad ┐ a eigen (v.l. an egaine) lais an scelsin do chlois-
techt, TTebe 4558 .
55 Fig. stress; overpowering exuberance: gach coll úr re
heigin innte | léigidh a ghlún fillti fáoi kneels under stress
(of its burden of fruit) KMMiscell. 172 § 26 . go
raibhe an oiread soin d'éigean féile...i nGaedhealaibh nár
lór leo nídh do thabhairt do gach aon dá dtiocfadh...gan
60cuireadh coitcheann do thabhairt..., Keat. i 4 x .
Need, necessitousness; esp. famine, scarcity: i n-aimsir na
hécne in a time of scarcity PH 7553 . cara na héigne the friend
in need
Dán Dé xiv 6 . xxi 1 . TSh. 9829 . do bhádar mórán
díobh a n-éigion (through famine) ML 8.11 . díoth orm is
65éigin orra TD 44.4 . With gen. of thing needed: i n-éigean
a furtachta wanting help TSh. 4835 . Cf. dál éicne a
distressing business:
scarad friu bid dál éicne, Ériu v 210.1 .
Cf. éicin.
COMPDS. éicen-broit oppressing bondage, hence heavy
5 sorrow: lān d'imnedh is d'éigeanbhruid [sic leg.], Niall
Mac Mhuireadhaigh, Rel. Celt. ii 266.6 .
¤ chless violent feats (?): Caille Con Ruí... | fris' fertais
óic écen-chless, Met. Dinds. iii 308.66 .
¤ dál a stiff encounter; a distressing position, danger-
10ous strait: airc na écen na écendál TBC 2896 . cf. 3030 .
egindail ainfine `stress of weather' Aen. 1571 ( Aen. vii 199 ).
tugadh éccendáil forra FM ii 1042 x . comhaonta do
chengal doibh im freccra a cheile im gach n-eiccendáil do
bhenfad friú, iv 1214.5 . Ua C....d'foirithin as an airc
15┐ as an eiccendail i mbaoi ag Ua D., vi 2122.17 . tánaicc
an President go marcsluagh ┐ go saighdiuiribh, uair roba
cuimhneach lais an eiccendail i mbaoi la Dál cC. an bliadh-
ain roimhe, v 1654.18 . Tadhg mac Eidighain ḟailidh
| go hegeandail nir ḟennigh never showed himself a champion
20save when he met a dangerous encounter
ZCP viii 226 § 17 .
ba bes do Romanu fāithi...do tocairiud ina ndocum in gach
am no tomaithead egendail forru, CCath. 925 . go ndligheann
duine éigean-dáil ┐ anfhorlann a chomharsan d'fhóirithin,
TSh. 1838 . cechip tan nó tomaithedh égendail ghabhaidh
25fair, Hugh Roe, 212.5 (f. 56b) . san éigean-dáil ghábhaidh se,
TSh. 2083 .
¤ gal strenuous valor: TBC 1666 .

éicentach adj o-ā I Compulsory, necessary, involuntary:
d'armainntib ecintacha with cogent arguments Ir. Astron.
30Tr. 2.18 . go bhfuil an fhaoisidin éigeantach ré haith-
bhéodhadh an té bhíos marbh ó bhás na coire, TSh. 1759 .
atáid chúig neithe éigeantacha ré rioth do dhéanamh
go maith 10363 . atait tri neithe ecintech sa coimriachtain
`sunt tria necessaria' riu ix 64.28 . gurab éigeantach
35don tsagart...bheith fíréanda, TSh. 4545 . ní hiontuigthe
go héigeantach as sin gurab... it need not necessarily be
understood
Keat. ii 935 . TSh. 3189 . is iontuigthe go
héigeantach as na briathraibh se purgadóir do bheith ann,
TSh. 5076 . a ndleaghair go héigeantach udhacht an
40mhairbh do choimhlíonadh must the testament...be carried
out
? 5103 . cosachtaigh eigentuigh, 23 K 42, 156.5 . Cf.
(when setting a dislocated shoulder): cengladh co dligthech
an lamh cum an tslinden mar do bedh ag togbhail an
tslinden co heigintach by force (?) YBL 349a16 .
45 II Needy, poor, oppressed: an t-éigentach bocht beg-
thuigsech sin, Ériu v 166.60 .

éicentas n o, m. I Necessity, need, distress: uair an
ēigentuis `tempus necessitatis' Reg. San. 24 x . dobera...
cobhair dó a n-am a eigintuis, Ériu v 132 § 64 . Macaomh
50an Iolair 48.10 . dlígid...dul leis chum gach éigeantais
┐ chum gach anfhorlainn ina mbiadh, Kilk. Arch. Journ.
ii 346.23 . ní dlegar sin do dhenamh mina roibh eigintus
mor ar in othar YBL 345a24 . ó rug éigeantas ortha, Fear
Flatha Ó Gnímh, Studies 1925, 405 . dá saora tú...meise i
55n-aimsir m'éigeantais, TD 15.15 ; 40 . go mbí arm [sic leg.]
Uair... | id bhais... | i rinn éigeantais (: ghéiggealtais)
agaibh, Ó Heódhusa, Ir. Monthly 1921, 331 .
II Force: oram rugadh d'éigeantas I was caught by
force
Dánta Gr.² 51.9 .

60 éicentatu n t, m. necessity, constraint: æicentatu .i.
vinculorum (gl. necessitate) Wb 25a22 . Cf. in corp...
do shaerad dona hecentadaib talmandaib i mmbí PH 5995 .

éices, n o, m. n s. éces, éices, Bodl. Corm. s. lethech .
in t-eigess , Corm. Y p. 90.25 . g s. ind écis Met. Dinds.
65 i 50.67 . ind éicis , Bodl. Corm. s. lethech . n p. ind ecis ,
Corm. Y, p. 91.7 . ind eiciss , p. ix 27 . and eceis p. x 22 . an
eceis , Dinds. 64 (v.l. in ecis BB. in egsi , Lec.). éigse
TD 8.16 (but this may be collect.; cf. éicse). v p. a éicsiu
hÉrenn, Ériu vii 220.10 . a ecsiu Fail ZCP viii 105 y .
5 a éicse Banbha, Met. Dinds. iv 316.19 . a éicseo (: so)
316 z . a éigse , Keat. ii 1641 . a p. inna heicsiu , Corm. Y
p. 93.2 (= inna hexe , p. x 14 . na hexi , p. xv 27 , inna heicsi ,
Bodl.). lasna hécseo , Met. Dinds. iii 146.12 . g p. éces
LL 128a1 = MacCarthy 166 . egess, Corm. Y p. 91.3
10(= écces, p. viii z ). éigeas TD 3.10 . d p. eicsib, Auraic.
2120 . écsib, Met. Dinds. iii 104.9 . eixibh ZCP viii
109.23 . éigsibh TD 11.15 .
The word may be cognate with (do)-écci, and the original
meaning is probably seer (see éicse), but though this would
15suit the context in many exx. it is commonest in the general
sense of scholar, learned man, sage, poet ; often used as an
equivalent of fili , but the latter is (in Middle and later Irish,
at least) a more specialized term: eces .i. ecmacht-ces .i.
ecmacht a ches d[o] airiuc i cetheora rannaib fis filidechta,
20 Corm. Y 538 . fofuair clocenn ind oirci ┐ dobert hi ceist
dond filid...tethnæ iarum in t-éces tre tenm laido conepert
cáin, etc. cend moga heime inso, Bodl. Corm. s. Mugeme .
eraicept na n-eiges (.i. na n-ai gan ches .i. na bfiled),
Auraic. 2260 - 3 . la heigius .i. filid 2794 . drecht d'écsib...
25cardáis tractad cech cetail, Met. Dinds. iii 104.9 . laidh...
is dir...d'éicsib ocus d'ḟileadaibh d'aisneis MR 92.4 .
éices ocus filid in rig .i. Dub Diad Drai a ainmside MR 46.5 .
écess óenmná `a sibyl' Ériu iv 100 . an t-eigeas ML 22.13 =
an draoi 20.23 . an t-ord éigius `the bardic order' Ériu
30 ix 164 § 14 . Sitzb. Pr. Acad. 1919, 92 § 5 . Studies
1925, 403 . is iomdha leabhar sgríobhtha síos ag éigsibh
ar éachtaibh Ḟinn..., Oss. iv 272 .
Of a member of a bardic retinue: in t-eigess di
muinthir Senchain, Corm. Y p. 90.25 s. prull (= intecsine,
35Bodl.). coíca écces a líon cenmotha eixíni, Corm. Y
viii z . ni ruc (Senchán) co Guaire acht tri chaegad éceas
agus tri chaegad eicsín, Oss. v 38.6 .
As title after npr.: Senc[h]an eices hErenn uili, Corm. Y
p. x 16 (= eges p. 93.3 ). Seanc[h]an eiceas, file agus
40primhollamh Con[n]acht, Oss. v 32.9 . Torna éces LU
38a22 . YBL 188b8 . do réir Thorna Éigeas, Keat. ii 5462 .
COMPDS. (a) éices-mac: in t-éigess-mac | dá ngoirthí
Daighre Dúanach, Duanaire F. p. 10 x . (b) éicsfili: budh
iomdha...éigsḟilidh dá riar, Ó Héodhusa, Ir. Monthly 1920,
45651 .