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fo-ruimi, -fuirmi: possibly more than one verb is represented
in the following citations ; some forms suggest for-r(uim)- ;
some are assigned by Pedersen (ii 463 ) to for-ben. (In
later MSS f is sometimes repeated in deuterotonic forms :
65 fo-fuirm-). Ipv. 2 s. fo-d-ruim, Fianaig. 12 § 23 . pres. 3 s.
forruimi, Bodl. Corm. s.v. pattu (= forruim, Corm. Y 1045 ;
forruibi, Thr. Ir. Gl. 35 ). forrumai (fosrumai ?) LU 5320 .
-fuirmi Wb 8c1 . pl. fosrumet BDD 13 D = fosraemet Y.
pres. subj. 3 s. forroma ZCP iv 39.13 = forruma LL 250a10
70( TBFr. § 15 ). Cf. -fuirmema, Laws v 96.28 Comm. (< B
346az = Y 202b47 ; fuireama, in the corresp. text Laws ii 348.26
Comm. is a misreading of the MS., H 3.17, c. 451z , which
O'D. 597 gives as fuirmeba, but the last two letters are
doubtful). past subj. 3 s. cf. -furmud RC xi 448.78 . 3 pl.
75 furruimtis, Thes. ii 242.5 ( Arm. 18b1 ). pret. and perf. 1 s.
-forurmius LU 9381 . fomruirmius, Fél. Ep. 38 . 3 s. for-
uirim Ml 2a6 . forfurim, Ériu ii 132 § 106 . forḟuirim, Alex.
262 . forruim, Thes. ii 242.8 ( Arm. 18b1 ). forruib Hy ii 8 .
cf. -forroim LU 5679 ( Ped. ii 463 gives this and forrumai
80to for-ben). With depon. ending : forromair TBC 3315 .
3 pl. foruirmiset, Rawl. 142a21 . LU 6670 . Pass. pres. s.
-furimar, Ériu ii 116 § 45 . pres. subj. s. ? -fuirmider, Rawl.
125b29 . cf. mad ... forrumither , Bodl. Corm. s.v. nescoit =
forruimther Y. past subj. s. -fuirmithe, Corm. Y 1059 .
85Bodl. pret. and perf. s. foruirmed Ml 74c20 . forfuirmedh,
Fianaig. 14 § 35 . forumad, Lism.L. p. 328.25 . -forromadh
ZCP iii 459.2 . pl. -forrumtha, Ériu ii 110 § 30 . rofurmethe,
BColm. 32.4 .
Part. fuirmithe. Vn. fuirmiud.
(a) sets, places, of local relations: in tan foruirim obell
5... fair Ml 2a6 . arimbad and furruimtis a n-eclis that there
they should put
[i.e. build] their church Thes. ii 242.5 . im-
malle doaurcbad doib a cossa ┐ fosruimet lift ... set down
TBC² 3312 . is tō didiu forruimi in phattu a chossa `silently
does the hare put its foot down
' Bodl. Corm. s.v. pattu
10(= Y 1045 ). furmid ... a rigthi tharis (of wrestling) TBC
1308 (here treated as simple vb.). forruimther a cend
forsin chloich LL 122b24 . gaibidsi a da cois co ro ḟurim
a cend fon usci 279b43 ( SG 414 ). ro fuirmed hé isin Sábraind,
Aisl. MC 19.10 . foruirmitís ... a tengtha dar slesa a cloideb
15 used to lick their swordblades Alex. 660 = ro ruirmitis BB
494a38 . forrurim a láim eter di fertais in carpait co mmebaid
in carpat LU 5065 (here the meaning `thrust' seems implied,
cf. fuirmiud, d). as fora mhuinel ro fuirimh C. a lāmh
FM i 182.4 . foruirmiset ... a mind ríg for Tamun LU 6670 .
20 forruim imbe in cassal, Ériu ii 204 § 22 . cladair fert fuir-
migter lia, 23 P 3, 22a ( O'C. 1886 ). is i Temair. ... fo
ruirmed [in chloch] ZCP xx 219.15 ( xiii 372 ) = Temair ...
i forromadh iii 459.2 . co foromad in cúach ar bélaib Chol-
máin, Ériu i 46.6 . ardnem ... fora forramad cuairt ind
25rīchid on which ... has been set ii 110 § 28 . airm i forrumtha
na noī tuirid ib. § 30 . Of planting a blow, etc. (Cf. forruim
.i. ro gon LU 457 ). ... in baill isin duiniu hi fuirmither in
crēcht ... mad ind agaid ... forrumither, Bodl. Corm. s.v.
nescoit ( Y 975 ). sochaide forḟuirim a buille hi ceand araile,
30 Alex. 262 . ro fuirmeastar beim ... ar in coin, TTebe 605 .
Cf. formis [fornis, fuirmis v.l.] ... béim ... do cloidhemh
dó, CCath. 2063 .
Impers. constr.: do fuirim snechta foraib snow fell on
them
LL 287b35 (cf. ro fer snechta, in same text 287a3 ).
35(b) of fig. and abstract relations confers, imposes, inflicts ,
with FOR of pers. or thing affected (similar in use to do-beir):
huare ... foruirmed cenn forsnaib cotarsnaib ... (= have
reached their climax
) Ml 74c20 . ni fuirmi nech dimiccim
foir som Wb 8c1 . for nech ni furme dimes thou shalt not
40treat anyone with contempt
Ériu ii 228.1 . resíu forruma
bine fornn, TBFr. § 15 . día ro fuirmed recht Adomnáin
for Góedelaib LU 2257 ( FA 32 ). oc B. forurmed a forus
sae for feraib H. `was enjoined on' Cáin Ad. 28 . ro fur-
methe grada forru-sum, BColm. 32.4 . mor do dhelbhuibh
45... forruirmeth for sil nAdhaimh, Ériu ii 132 § 105 . is for
in Fiachaich se foruirmiset ... in fingail committed Rawl.
142a21 (= ro fuirmiset ZCP viii 317 ). fuirimh ... briathar
... ar Choisimnach lay a curse on C. BNnÉ 314 § 8 (cf.
fuirmedh .i. abradh, O'Dav. 835 ). do fuirmedh támh
50forra plague came upon them FM i 58 . in ní forsna fuir-
mither aigi that [loan] for which no term is fixed Laws iii
492.20 (cf. fuirmither .i. fīraemthar, O'Dav. 853 . foruimter
tuinide la cétchor 824 ). Of exchange (?): fuirimh sin
samhaisg ar dhéin, Ériu xiii 25.19 = IT iii 50 (gl. tabair,
55 O'Dav. 849 . Perh. f. here = lay down, i.e., impose, enact ).
With omission of pers. affected: da fuirmett faill `if they
practise deceit
' [neglect ?] Fen. 148.7 . tar ēsse na hālgese
forfuirmis the boon thou hast requested (forruirmis v.l.) ZCP
ix 449 § 2 .
60? Absol. : ó dorochair Duach ... ro fuirmiset for Eochaid
Fer fuirmid .i. mac Duach .i. fer forrofuirmed ZCP viii
303.11 (= ro firmiset Ernai ... for ..., Rawl. 147a32 ; LL
319a42 ; ro fuirimset ... for E. `abased E.' Cóir Anm. 31 .
Cf. fer fora ndernadh fuirmheth .i. a lagadh ┐ a laighdugud
65┐ a aimnertugud co mor ib. cf. c below). nachas fuirmeda
damsa may [the combat] not be imposed on me (?) TBC
p. 301 n. 5 . lōg enech in grāid a fuireama, Laws ii 348.26 =
v 96. 28 may belong to this. Cf. go sechtmhadh fodhail
fuirmither, Ériu xiii 30.27 . ... cach ferainn fuirmhither
70uadh tre fīrécin nō foruimenn nech ar écin, O'C. 429 (< H
3.18, 233a ). Cf. fine ar a ḟuirmim (= fuirbim BB 269a25 )
`on his march' as if = foraim) BR 38 .
(c) lays prostrate, overthrows: in Rí dorósat a chrí | ro
fuirim a frithisi has brought it low Met. Dinds. iv 242.20
75(ra urim v.l.). co foraim trí coícta troch ib. 39 . co foraim
bága in bile 244.52 (furim; foraib v.l.). ? sund ro báidit
... echrad E. ... báeth in fíad rosforaim and 182.7 . Cf.
inmain uatni óir | ra ḟurmius ar áth (Cú Chulainn lamenting
the death of Fer diad) TBC 4179 = forfuirmedh for áth
80 TBC² 2729 .
(d) in refl. and middle constr. betakes oneself, goes (= Lat.
se confert); in this sense the historic pres. is commonly
used instead of pret.: fotruim [fodruim, MS.] dot daim
`betake thee to thy house' Fianaig. 12 § 23 . fusrumat a
85n-éin [ = ind euin 23 N 10, 62 ] remib dia ndaim tar Sliab F.,
LU 10567 ( IT i 136.10 ; tiaguit, Eg.). farruma do Emain
TBC² 2984 . forrumai do Teumraig ZCP iii 252 § 72 =
faruim RC xi 448.88 . farruma dano C. la cách dond oenuch
LL 125bx . farumai ... co ránic Temraig, Ériu vi 149 . far-
rumaí immach cucu LU 7892 ( BDD 148 ). forumai O.
5for a hiarair, Y Cymmr. xiv 104 ( Rawl. 131b25 ). fosraemet
[fosrumet; tiagait v.l.] ind eoin forsin tuind BDD 13 .
farrumae Concobar ar cind Fergusa TBC² 3579 . forrumai
[fosrumaei TBC² 843 ] Allechtu ... co mboí forsin chorthi
A. goes and perches on the pillar LU 5320 ( ZCP x 208 ).
10 forrumaidi ... co mbui for feinnithecht RC vi 174 v.l. 17
(-idi is prob. anaph. pron.). Cf. ro lingestar lēim ... conadh
ann ro fuirmistar ar glan-aiglind scēith in churad alighted
MR 234.3 = ro uirmesdair LL 410a2 (see airmaisid). for-
rumai nonbor díib thoromsa ┐ Conchobar LU 4886 . conid
15forruim isind tulaigh RC x 74 n. 1 (= co ro tairis 72z ).
condfurruimset ib. n. 16 (= condaturnsad, text.
Cf. farumai co Sencha dus cia dogenad he betook himself to
S. to see what he should do
(?) H 3.18, 367a37 ( O'C. 785 );
`referred it' (of a decision) Plummer, MS. notes.

20 foruired : x see fo-fera.

foruisgi ? ind IGT III ex. 229 .

? forul : ind dobeir bennacht for Patraic | f. ¤ al-lin | in cech
óen-aird i nhÉre | a mbia a síl LU 9489 (`to make their
number abound
' Kilk. Arch. Soc. J. 1870-1, p. 394 ).

25 forum : x see foram.

forurbas ind caid .i. f. ¤ no nemthni, O'Dav. 465 (reading of
F = farbas E). Prob. scribal error.

forus n o, u, n. (for decl. cf. dorus). n s. a forus sae, Cáin Ad.
28 . d s. forus Wb 15d34 . g s. foris 9c1 et pass. forois Sg
30 138a7 . n p. cf. inna foris Ml 63c6 , which seems corrupt. d s.
forsib, Laws i 288.10 . foirsib ii 78z . foras m. IGT Decl.
§ 38 .
As to the suggestion by Ped. ii 676 that it is the abstr.
to fo-ro-finn- (see for-finnadar) see Bergin, Ériu xii 223 .
35The derivation < forfis given by Asc. is untenable (despite
the expl. in Rawl. 105b cited below and: foras fírfhios,
O'Cl. Such expls., frequent in Laws only show that the
original meaning of the word was then unknown); see
Gwynn, KM Misc. p. 183 .
40 I (a) that which is stable; stability; basis, foundation,
bottom , the orig. sense acc. to Gwynn loc. cit.; in older texts
generally in fig., in later also in lit. sense. í f. ¤ cen oclatid
at rest, unmoved (gl. in longanimitate Wb 15d34 (`in know-
ledge
' Edd. Thes., taking gloss to refer to the preceding
45 in scientia. Bergin suggests `in firmness' Ériu xii 223 ).
cen nī don dīni bai i fus | hi suidib fīri hi f. ¤ (i.e. who had
remained stationary on the hither side, see 1 Sam. xxx 22 )
SR 6464 . iarraidh ḟorais i fudomain (of a hopeless under-
taking), CCath. 4396 . atáim ceangailte i láib an ghrinnill
50┐ ní fhuil f. ¤ ann, TSh. 4188 (= substantia Ps. lxviii 3 ). do
thuit tu san bpoll ... is nach bhfoghair foras acht ag gabhail
timchioll choidhche, Luc. Fid. 292.16 . grinneal aigéin
gan f. ¤ `unfathomable ocean-bed' TD 17.52 . This is prob.
the sense in the follg. fig. expressions: f. ¤ comairle `stead-
55fastness of counsel
' Ériu vii 138 (d) = ZCP iii 25.23 . f. ¤ fesa
(of Cathbad) TBC 5487 St (cf. F. ¤ Feasa ar Éirenn, the title
of Keating's history (= the firm foundation of knowledge
of Ireland
?)). f. ¤ úird na healadhna (of a chief), Rel. Celt.
ii 272.10 . f. ¤ focal (name of a glossary) LL 395a1 . béim
60forais a driving home (?), fig. a fundamental doctrine, state-
ment of a general principle underlying several previous
statements, see Gwynn, KM Miscell. p. 178 ff .: beim foris
tra anisiu Wb 11c3 ( 1 Cor. x 31 ). is béim foris inso forsna
dlígetha remeperthi no is titul in dligid ar chiunn Wb 13a29 ,
65similarly 9c1 , 10a12 , 28a11 . beim foirais lessom ánísiu
for a remeperthe asrubart riam .i. as hon choimdid for-
comnacair a mbrith som isin doiri (gl. A Domino factus
est istud ...) Ml 131c14 , cf. aithbeim forais 94c13 . beim
forois in sin (gl. Et ea per naturam, following descr. of the
70formations tonstrix, tonstricula from tonsor. Gwynn, KMMiscell.
181 , would translate `a statement of principle') Sg
138a7 . co bráth combad beim forais SR 6468 (= quasi
lex in Israel usque in diem hanc 1 Sam. xxx 25 ). as tusa
do raid tosach an cobro, as let beim a foris you began the
75conversation, it is yours to state the gist of the whole matter

ZCP xiii 274.18 . is sí roben beim forais for in lámthorad LU
10322 = ZCP iii 237.7 . beim forais an aphorism O'Mulc.
578 (see KM Miscell. 183 ). indeóin forais something firmly
based; a `point d'appui,' fulcrum, base of operations (?):
80 ro múradh ... an toilén ... fo dháigh ná badh carracc coth-
aighthe ┐ ná budh inneoin ḟorais do dhiberccach é FM v
1742.6 . istudh flatha ┐ indeoin forais (of Babylon), CCath.
21 . Of persons: in indeoin forais ┐ an forus breth (of
Cicero) ib. 4492 . inneóin ḟoruis Inse Fáil TD 25.40 . O Cerbh-
85aill ... inneóin forais ┐ uaithne óir na nEileach `anvil of the
solidity
' FM v 1408.5 . tabraid for cobais ... rād forais
(a statement from the very beginning, an exhaustive
account ?) SR 3614 . Cf. further: is cían o tá hi fis ┐ hi f. ¤
for tíchtain sund your coming hither has long been a matter
of established knowledge
LU 1812 ( RC ix 490 ). im Teamhair
5tír in ḟorais BB 37b36 . Ard na Riag, raid a foros ` origin '
Met. Dinds. iii 414 . oldate inna foris di ar n-athraib Ml
63c6 (gl. magna a patribus de tuis factis audivimus et maiora
[praestolamur]) is almost certainly corrupt. The rendering
is Thes. `than the accounts of our fathers' is in any case
10impossible.
(b) established or fundamental principles of knowledge or
science, axioms, apodictic maxims (?): fochmorc foruis (of
Ferchertne: investigation of first principles i.e. a final
authority ?) Rawl. 108b35 ( RC xxvi 20 ). forus .i. forismus
15[ = ἀφόρισμος] graece, sermo breuis latine ... unde
dicitur : adcomced beim foruis fair [ = O'Mulc. 578 ] nō
forus .i. fis for araile ut est is ē in fis in Senchas Mār. is ē
in forus Cāin Patraic ┐ Cāin Adomnan , Rawl. 108b36 ff .
Cf. foras .i. dligheadh no bunáit. foras chána Adhamnáin,
20 etc., O'Cl. see also under (c) below. a fis, a f. ¤ , a foirceatol,
Ériu iv 146 § 24 . a filidhecht ┐ a f. ¤ dhorchaidh `abstruse
knowledge
' AU iii 572 . a croinicib ┐ a Periges Prescean ┐
a berla forais BB 488a marg. inf., man. rec. ( IT ii2 96 ). Esp.
of legal learning: o Feinib gach foruss, Corm.Y 975 , p. 84 .
25 cach dliged iar f. ¤ , cach rāth co f. ¤ , Arch. iii 227.53 . cach f. ¤
co slán, cach slan co f. ¤ 60 - 62 (perh. these belong to II).
faras ` Reason ' Kirk (gan ḟ. ¤ ` unreasonable ' 2 Thess. iii 2,
1681 = gan chúibhgheas 1602).
(c) hence the principle or enactments of a law, passing
30occas. into sense of enforcement, sanction (cf. cit. fr. Rawl.
108b above): iss ead in so f. ¤ Cana Adomnan ... Oc Birraib
forurmed a f. ¤ sae for feraib Hērenn, Cáin Ad. 28 . is ed in so
f. ¤ cána in domnaig, Ériu ii 202 § 20 . f. ¤ chano Patricii hi
Cruachnibh la Dub da leithi ` promulgation ' AU 782 =
35 FM 778 . breth ria f. ¤ , f. ¤ ria forba, Cōic Conara p. 30 § 16
(stages in a lawsuit: `Geltend-Erklärung' Thurn., i.e.
enforcement of the verdict ?). cēin bīt brethemain fri
tasbenad ┐ foros (.i. in fis ōgh asa mberend a brethe) ZCP
xii 359.24 . cūlairecht ..., is iat all bis iar g[c]ūl na n-airechta
40fri breth ┐ f. ¤ (.i. fri fīrfis na brethe sin) ib. 17 .
Occurs in late compds. in sense of aged or tried, exper-
ienced: foraisbhean .i. bean áosda, O'Cl. na bhforas-
cháirdibh friends of long standing Ó Bruad. iii 192 . foras-
oglach .i. óglach aosta, O'Cl. ba forasócclach an ionbhaidh
45sin é ┐ nir bhó túalaing tathugadh a thuath (of an aged
chief), Hugh Roe 32.21 (f. 9a) . mna ┐ miondaoine ┐ for-
usócclaoich old men 124y (f. 33b) . a uaisle, a airigh, ┐ a
ḟorusocclaoigh veterans FM vi 2126.24 .
II A station, resting-place, dwelling. Cf. lethdire foruis,
50 Críth G. 220 . In Laws sometimes glossed by `ārus' and
used esp. of a cattle-pound or other place where distrained
cattle might be detained (f. ¤ n-athgabála), a place appointed
for the delivery of animals according to a contract: ni fuil
acht tri foruis ann: f. ¤ n-acra, f. ¤ nditin, f. ¤ mbreitheamhun
55 Laws ii 10.24 (glossed .i. tri aruis ib. 27 ). icfai a slan ... a f. ¤ to
thigi fadein, Bürgsch. 27 § 74c . atdaime for f. ¤ ┐ follus ┐
fiadan `Erjüllungsort' 15 § 51b . fuircimsi cobach latsa
ar mo chind i maighin an forais 13 § 44 . fiach domsa huait
... isind f. ¤ sa 15 § 51a . f. ¤ fēich 17 § 52 . raith fuis (.i. raith
60bis a fosaighecht i f. ¤ ) 41 . f. ¤ tuaithe `territory house', Laws iv
302.5 ( Cr. G. 57 : `to the appointed place in the territory (?)';
apparently `a public infirmary,' Mac Neill, Law of Status
285 ). fer forais `a house-holding man ' (one expl. of `seir-
thiud') Laws iv 352.1 . ailid fír foirrse an oath requires fixed
65habitations
v 460.16 (= ZCP xvi 270 , but see foirse). atait
secht foruis ... arachuille coir n-athgabala ... a n-āin i tech
mbriugud, ... cathuir uasalnemid, tech bid fas. Otha suidiu
dligi cach f. ¤ n-athgabala dia faithce fodesin (i.e. there are
seven illegal pounds for cattle; these apart, anyone may
70detain them in his own green) Laws v 266.19 . a tabairt (na
athgabala) ... a f. ¤ dona secht forsib i 288.10 . See also s.v.
foíndel (c). Rucus: f. ¤ n-athgabāls, i n-alachrích I decided
that it was lawful (in the case) to impound beyond the territory

Caratnia 49 . dermadach forais forgetful about the place
75appointed for fulfilling the contract
Bürgschaft 31 § 84 .
Defining gen.: seirthiud [sic leg.] .i. oclach do daghcenel
no fer forais `a householding man' Laws iv 352.1 . rath
foruis, Bürgschaft 28 § 76a (.i. aga mbi arus 41 ). .uii. muca
co muic ḟorais `domestic boar (?)' Críth G. 90 (a `resident
80sow
' the remaining seven being expendable and replace-
able ?). tuirc ḟorais `domestic boars' 195 .
Cf. apad ┐ forais, Cáin Ad. 39 . na .iii. foruis .i. cain ┐
cairde ┐ urrudus, no fogelt ┐ bleith ┐ dithim, H 3.17, c. 4 , 35
( O'D. 5 ). filidh fíora forusda, f. ¤ teora mbreth, breth Féne,
85breth filedh saoir, breth fuighill, Ériu xiii 32.6 . ... fuigheall
fri f. ¤ fath 33y . ? dlighedh do feghar for f. ¤ firinnsge 26.6 .