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frestlaid v ā (frestal) IGT III § 43 (where fut. stem freisdeól-,
65 freisdéal- or fresdailf- is implied), sometimes misspelt fres-
laid, etc.
(a) attends on, ministers to; entertains: ná freasdail do
thoil indulge not thy will Dán Dé xxiii 33 . asberit ... conudh
iat na dei nosfreasdlat iat who serve them (at table) Marco P.
70 52 . frestlais M. ... é do bhiudh SG 29.23 . ro freslaitt co
hanorach eat an oidhchi sin they were entertained RC x
185x . do badar ann re hedh na hoidhchi sin ┐ ro freastladh
┐ ro frithoiledh ... iat, Acall. 1894 . do cuireadh ... a dtigh-
thibh ... ┐ do freasdlath ┐ do fritheóladh go honórach iad
75go ceann trí lá ... ML 40.19 (= do freasdaladh ... ML²
562 v.l.). ro freslait ┐ ro fritailit iat ML ( TMO) 158.20
( YBL 329b6 ). do freslad ┐ do frithoiled iat do rogha gacha
sóidh, Fianaig. 56.4 . do freasladh, etc. in t-imper ... do
rogha gacha bid ZCP vi 48.26 . bá sé M. ro freastladh día
80lamhaibh a saotha ┐ a ngallra BNnÉ 298 § 40 (cf. minis-
trabat eis in the corresp. pass. VSH i 194.1 ).
(b) transf. of receiving or encountering an attack, enemy:
frestlaid gach n-ainbthin grapple with every storm SG 344.10 .
ótcondcatar ... na freslaidis (frestl- v.l.) lucht na cathrach
85a ndiubhrucud were not shooting back CCath. 1862 . ro
frestuil in Cuimdiu inechgressa in rig tar a chent, Arch.
iii 3.11 . ro frestladh ┐ ro friothóileadh an sluagh ... lá
muintir an Captin FM v 1718 - 1720 . ro freslaid ┐ ro frioth-
áilitt lás na Gaoidhealaibh vi 2332.22 .

fretech n o,n. (vn. of fris-toing) forswearing, renouncing: ara
5f. ¤ (gl. ob renuntiationem) Ml 65d3 . iarsnaib frit[ch]ib (gl.
post repudia) 44c14 . f. ¤ .i. aire co nā tí doridhis taking care
that it does not come again
O'Dav. 998 . no co ro pinne ┐
co ro erce in t-olc doronsat ┐ go tardsat freitach a mignima
`have answered for' Laws v 120.12 Comm. = gu tardat
10freiteach, H 3.18, 452b41 ( Laws i 62.20 : `make atonement').
Both renderings are more than doubtful, renounce is
obviously the sense required. Atk. supports his rendering
by a ref. to: f. ¤ .i. fregra, O'Dav. 924 , cited below. bó
o gach annteist ... dia ngaba anmcara ... ┐ go tarda freitech,
15 O'C. 2436 ( Eg. 88, 35ba ). f. ¤ dualach, Arch. iii 311 § 2 =
freiteach ndualcha FM ii 618 . freitech domnáin chē, Ériu
ii 55 § 4 . freitech derthige forsaking the house of prayer
Tec. Corm. § 14.9 . is coir freitech re hifern ZCP xii 389.7 .
Repudiating, putting away: cétmuindter do f. ¤ , O'D.
20 1627 ( H 5.15, 16c1 ). dia congbad Iason friasi a bithgra-
dugud ┐ f. ¤ gach mna aile BB 415a10 . T. ben N. ... nech
ni thabrad frettech furri who was never repudiated LL
137b40 . bean doberar freithach [sic] ┐ lēicter ar bein, Rawl.
B. 487, 61va ( Laws v 292.21 ). fear dobeir fine a freitech
25(.i. in deorad freacair) whose fine disown him ( Rawl. B. 487 58vb ( Laws v 234.23 ).
g s. o uair in freithig [leg. -tig] 294.23 Comm . ted faosamh
la freitech .i. o diultas an faosamh teit de an comairce,
O'C. 2440 ( Eg. 88, 36aa ). Further exx. from Laws: fiach
dlegar dim ... adguidiu macu inna hic ... cona focal ┐ a
30dilsi ... acht ni fo-re ... slan ┐ freittech the debt I owe ... I
request guarantees for payment of it ... save what is void
through ... exemption and rejection
, Bürgsch. 17 § 53 . gurub
tualaing slan ┐ freiteach O'C. 1591 ( 23 Q 6, 2a ). ona bi
mesi slan no freítiuch, H 3.17, c. 112 ( O'D. 135 ). dofedh
35astud fotha do fedh fotha freitech, H 3.17, c. 433.26 .
Cf. freitech .i. fregra, ut est co freitech cach neimid do
atgara .i. co frecora, O'Dav. 924 (cf. fris-cuirethar).
A vow not (to do something): dobeir f. ¤ na dingned cluichi
ceast a sin amach, Aen. 1123 . dobheirim freitech ... nach
40trēiccfetsa mo leiginn BNnÉ 180.1 . ba freitech da frei-
techaib | noem ... do riar it was one of his vows not to
submit to a ... saint
Fen. 188.9 . Cf. gurab a freitighib
[do gheasaibh v.l.] Naeisi techt a nEirinn ... IT ii2 123.42 .

fretecht n (legal term): doratad slan ┐ f. ¤ , Eg. 88 fo. 39b
45( O'C. 2485 ). mad cuimhgech slan ┐ fretechta (Comm. on:
na bi mesi slan no freitiuch), H 3.17 c. 112 ( O'D. 135 )
where it seems used as equivalent of `fretech'. See next.

fretechtae: be coir ... slain ┐ frettechtal tairis `dass ich
ordnungsmässig sein werde inbetreff von ... Entschädigung
50und Verzicht
' Bürgsch. 17 § 52 . tualaing slan ┐ freitechta
28 § 76 d . Thurneysen takes f. here to be pp. of fris-toing,
Cf. prec.

fretede esse feda is f. ¤ (: tepide) `is to be studied ' Auraic 899
(v.l. freitigi) = freitighe 3781 . Calder takes f. to be `part. necess. of frith-saigim' ( p. 340a ) but for that one would
expect *fretechti.'

fretigi: x see prec.

* fretus n u,m. a dowry: g s. ind fretussa (gl. dotis) Acr 6c2
( Thes. ii 3.29 ).

60 fri prep. with acc. For etymology see Thurneysen, Gramm.
§ 839 , Fraser ZCP viii 37 , J. E. C. Williams, Celtica iii
126 . In later spelling prefixes h- to following initial
stressed vowel; does not leníte following consonant (cf.
frinna aill Sg 45a16 . fri nnach ... Ml 75a9 , fri nnech
65 23c20 ; but fri nech further on in same gloss and regularly
elsewhere); the initial s- of the article following fri is
preserved. In Middle Irish gradually replaced by the
forms RI, RE (already in Ml: a llethe rissa n-ingraim 30b2 ;
oc eregim re Abisolon 44b4 , cf. fre 90c27 ); RA (common in
70some LL texts, see CRR 54 , TBC 499 , 602 , 740 , etc.); rarely
RO ( SR 1990 ZCP xiii 204 15 ); FRIA, RIA, RE also common.
Hence in Early Mod. Ir. there is occasionally confusion with
, RÍA `before', see Bergin's note Stories from Keating's
History³ p. xix , and section IX (e) below. Apart from this
75the latter prep. sometimes replaces FRI after fáilid, fáilte
and kindred words (as in Mod. Ir.). On the parallelism
of some of the pronominal forms of FRI with those of LA
see Thurn. Gramm. l.c. (with Translator's n. 178 ).
Though FRI still appears in some later texts, especially
80those of the archaising type, it had become obsolete in the
classical language. Its later form (RI, RE) remains down
to the end of the Early Mod. period and is recognized by
the grammarians as distinct from LE (LA), see IGT, Introd.
§ 75 , 24 P 8, 194 ( IGT VI , Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ). In the
85modern spoken lang. it is replaced partly by LE, partly by
CHUN (O.-Ir. dochum). For a contrary development cf.
Engl. `with,' originally `against,' which has absorbed
the functions of A.S. mid `(together) with.'
In development of meaning generally FRI shows a
remarkable parallelism with Engl. ` with '; it also agrees
5with ` against ' in several senses.
Forms: With suff. pron.
sg. 1 frimm St. Paul Codex Thes. ii 298.17 . rimm IT i
123.24 . frim SR 1422 , 2049 . LU 5228 . LL 110b26 . frím
Ml 38c19 . frium Ml 71b9 . frimsa Wb 26d17 . Ml 33a18 .
10 friumsa Ml 127a2a .
2 frit Wb 5a31 . 10a29 ; Ml 103d14 . SR 1425 . fritt
LL 93a10 . 249b1 . friutt Pcr 62b2 (= ḟrit Sg 151a3 ). fritsu
Ml 91d8 . 112b8 . rut SR 2031 IT i 123.15 . rutt LL 110b27 .
3 m., n. fris Wb 14c37 . 15a1 . 22c15 . Arch. iii 304 [: [Mael]
15mis]. (: eisleis). SR 6109. 6317 . ([mēt] anfis) LL 33b21 .
friss Wb 2c24 . 3c6 . 6a4 . 8a12 . 14d22 ; Ml 91a21 . frissom
Wb 5d39 .
f. ¤ frie Sg 72b1 . Ml 40c15 . 67d15 . friae 130c9 . Wb
28a20 . cf. frise Ml 74c21 , which Ascoli corrected to frie
20( Thes. i 722b ).
pl. 1 frinn Wb 4b12 . 17b10 . 19d22 . rinn Ml 54a3 .
SR 1821 . rind SR 1905 (: herḟi[o]nd). friunn Ml 38d20 . riund
TBC 1874 . frind LL 177b39 . frinni Wb 17b32 . 17c5 ;
Ml 32c15 . 93a13 . 106c12 . raindi BColm. 68.9 . frinnai
25 Ml 91c9 . 114a8 .
2 frib Wb 17b16 . 22d9 . 24d26 . cf. frithib, Ériu iv 162.13 .
fribsi Wb 14c42 . 17b14 .
3 friu Wb 4a10 . 4c37 . 24a4 ; Ml 54c23 , 72b22 , 110c9 .
LL 35a21 (: fiú) friú Wb 17b9 . Ml 74a2 , diss. friu Hy V. 54 ,
30 cf. friü: at-chiü, Arch. iii 294 § 10 ; friithu LU 4671 (see
further Thurn., Gr. 515 ). friusom Wb 20c25 ; Ml 17c5 ,
54c18 ; 26 .
For forms found in later texts see citations below.
In the Early Mod. Grammatical Tracts the forms given
35are: riom, rum; riot, rut; ris; ria; rinn, ruinn; ribh,
ruibh; riú, rú, 24 P 8 194 ( Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ).
With following poss. pron.: frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar,
fria, e.g. frim ort. Wb 29d2 . frim peccad 28a14 . frim
foraithmet Ml 23d9 ; ram anmain TBC 3692 (rem St.).
40 frit adrad su Ml 136c11 . frit c[h]ele 70d2 ; frit laim SR
5854 . rit láim TBC 3055 . rat láma 3052 . rot chlaind SR
2031 . friar corp Wb 15c22 . friar fochric 33a9 ; fribar
n-ícc Wb 24b3 . fribar pecthu 13b19 ; fria mbriathra Wb
31b30 . In Mid. Ir. the form `fria' is often used for the
45simple prep., hence occas. fria a = prep. + 3 s. pron. In
Early Mod. Ir. 3 s. and pl. form re-na sometimes appears:
rena ardnaem BCC § 12 (see III c below). fria n-a Fl. Earls
214.4 . Cf. the n- prefixed to poss. after le, ó, tre in Mod.
Irish.
50With rel. pron.: O. Ir. fris(s)a n ...; Mid. Ir. also frisi-,
risi-, fris-, ris-: frismbiat Sg 202b3 . fris-mbruchta, Fél.
June 21 . fris n-agar, E. 406 . fris-reith, Prol. 302 . fris-
tarddam, Thes. ii 293.19 . risa n-abar, Acall. 53 , etc. With
cop. frisin-, frisnid, risnad ail LB 257b9 . ris na duthracht
55 256a44 . fria ndechraiged (= frisa nd.) Sg 28a14 may be
a mistake. In later MSS. the form re n- becomes common:
fria-cosmailend PH 7674 . re ndubairt 7464 . ra-n-adh
KMMisc. 156. 124 . re n-abar, Acall. 1241 , etc. re rāiter,
Ériu viii 139.4 . ré raibhe, Keat. ii 4467 , etc.
60Composition. (a) In vn. and prototonic verbal forms,
before a vowel, frith-; before a cons. fre-, e.g. frecre, fretech;
with syncope of a follg. vowel, fres-, e.g. frescsiu, fresndid,
fresndís, fresngabal. In Glosses fri is often used in compos.
with a vb. to represent Lat. ob-. Later frith- is used before
65cons. with or without lenition of following cons.: see
frithgnam, frithṡét, etc. (b) In deuterotonic verbal forms
fris-; before an infixed pron. in rel. construction frith-
or friss-: fritum-chomart-sa (= frith-dum-) Wb 33a12 ;
but friss-idn-oirctis, Ml 39a20 (see Ped. ii 147 and cf.
70 Strachan's Old-Irish Paradigms⁴ ed. Bergin, p. 27 n. 2 ).

SYNOPSIS OF MEANINGS.
N.B.—The classification is perforce somewhat arbitrary
as, perhaps in the majority of instances, the meaning could
75derive from the original sense in I. Cf. J. E. C. Williams
Celtica iii 122 ff .
I Of local relations (a) towards, facing, turned to ; (b)
against (touching; cf. d); alongside, down along, by ; (c)
against (implying violent or hostile action); (d) next to,
80 at, in contact with (cf. b).
II To express association, along with, beside (both of
local and mental relations).
III To express figurative direction (a) aim, purpose
(cf. VI), frequently of function, specific purpose; (b) after
85adj. in sense of Lat. gerund or with ad or supine in -u;
(c) to express direction of feelings, behaviour towards
(cf. I a); (d) of prayer, etc. to ; (e) of opposition to,
hostile feeling, attitude towards ; (f) to express protection,
guard, watch against, also limitation, boundary; (g) in
elliptical sentences with these meanings.
5 IV (a) after adjs., nouns or verbs expressing resemb-
lance, equality or comparison; (b) to express difference,
distinction from .
V (a) with respect to, with regard to ; (b) on account of:
(c) on behalf of ; (d) according to, in agreement with (cf. II).
10 VI To denote occasion (a) with vn. or other abstract
after subst. verb or equivalent; (b) denoting the occasion
(event, cause, etc.) on which something takes place.
VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion
of .
15 VIII (a) to denote agent; (b) to denote instrument
through, by means of .
IX In expressions of time (a) in O.-Ir. in locatival sense;
(b) to denote period during which something continues or
takes place; (c) fixing a limit within which something
20takes place; (d) of point of time; (e) used for RIA ` before .'
X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs.
A classified list of the instances in Wb is given by Fraser
ZCP viii 37 ff .
I Of local relations (a) towards, facing, turned to: do
25rosc frisna nemdaib = looking heavenward SR 1604 . a
n-aiged fri Dia facing God LU 2048 ( FA 12 . Cf. III c). a lām
chlē fri muir the sea on their left SR 4074 (see lám). do
cumlaiset for fairgi ┐ dochorsatar aurlunn fri tir, Bodl.
Corm. s.v. prull . bai D. 'sa druim fri fraig D. had his back
30to the door
SR 6053 . is amlaid bai in gilla ┐ a druim fria
thigerna TBC² 2327 (see druimm). Ethne ... fria chossa
E. (standing) at his feet (i.e. at the foot of the bed) LU
3300 ( SC 10 ). Carpre ... 's a hucht ra hág LL 32b49 (see
ucht). a druim re dimsachaib, a des fri deiblenaib ZCP
35 viii 204 § 26 . slessa set fri sella slóg in view of hosts (?)
SR 4299 . an let[h] bis rinne don rē the side of the moon
turned towards us
ITS xiv 90.19 . fri bun cruche at the foot
of the gallows
Mon. Tall. § 1 . síl nÁdhuimh ... re sáluibh a
senathar at the heels of (i.e. following) Ériu iv 118 § 33 .
40 níor chubaidh tigearna ... d'ḟágbáil re caladh on the beach
[i.e. when about to land; perh. fig. cf. beirid i gcaladh
brings to safety, see calad] viii 139.23 . dā traig .x. ... a
[sic leg.] fot fri dún its length towards the stockade (of the
internal slope of an earthen rampart) Laws iv 336.23 .
45 dā dúncladh ... ré dá taebh na clasach along both sides of
the fosse
CCath. 1747 . ní thurcaibh crand ... cét míle fria
taebhaibh within a hundred miles from (lit. towards) its sides
Marco P. 11 [cf. the temporal use IX (c)]. See also phrases
s.v. agad, ais, enech, gnúis, sáil, táeb, ucht.
50This use is regular in Old-Ir. in stating relative position:
fri Grecia aniar ... fri Etáil anáir west of Greece ... east of
Italy
Wb 6d17 . fri Alpai ndesiu (gl. cisalpina) Sg 217b8 .
frie anall ... frie desiu (gl. ultra ... citra) 71b1 , 2 . fri Ath
F.D. desiu TBC² 2183 . frie anechtair outside it Ml 40c15 .
55 fri Pardus amuich outside Paradise SR 111 . ra chuala sa
fri hEmain andess I heard it (as I was) to the south of Emain
LU 5056 . altoir fri dorus antuaid SR 4261 [cf. la taeb ind
rigthaige aniar LL 3810 (30a) ]. a mmag fris anair the plain
in front of him
LL 122a33 . co ndechaid [in gai] triana
60chend ┐ co ro marb nónbur ris aníar behind him 121a21 .
frit aniar LU 4134 . is e a chorp in taitneamach rit anall the
shining one opposite thee
RC xxiv 60 . Also fig. : foscichret
i crandchor ... fáicebthair Lugaid fris anechtair they will
cast lots for it... L. will be left out of the chance
RC xiii 444x
65( LL 289b8 ). See also s.v. lám (fri l.).
It is doubtful whether: i mbae neach fri hopair immuig
BB 362a21 (= Dinds. 20 ) is an instance of this construction;
the literal meaning here is was anyone at a work outside ?
The Rennes `amuig' is perhaps merely a late spelling.
70After verb or vn.: tan turcbad E. a di láim fri Coimdid
nime SR 5085 . suidig do da laim fri ... clasp thy hands
(in prayer) to ... 1606 . rosecroth a chend frisin slúag
brandished his (severed) head at the host LU 5269 . crothad
in chind frisin slóg 5280 . donnochtat a mbruinni fris
75 bared their bosoms to him 5199 . rochoraig fri tenid he
arranged [them] before the fire
RC xiii 6.21 . roscóraig gnúis
fri gnúis (see gnúis) LU 2046 ( FA 12 ).
Cf. tuídhleach ind óir frisin ngréin the glistening of the
gold against the sun
BDD 1 . crand airgit ris tatin grían
80 LU 3700 ( SC 33 ).
(b) against (touching), alongside, down along by: doesetar ┐ a nglūne fri talmain TBC² 3164 . éc fri
hadart death against a pillow i.e. a natural death Lib. Hymn.
i 62.72 (see adart). fri etnu dam ... bátár fedmand la
firu Herend = [till then] the loads had been harnessed to the
85foreheads of the oxen
LU 10816 (= Ériu xii 178 ). tennait
a n-ette fria curpu press their wings against their sides LU
2281 ( FA 33 ). cf. doimmaircet ind eoin a n-ette friu ┐ a
cossa can scibud ette ná cosse co tairic in precept the birds
fold their wings
, etc. LU 1361 . dosnimthasa i llai a broit
fri a bruinde `gathered her to his bosom in the fleece of his
5cloak
' Ériu xii 154y . co tard a druim frisin liic leaned his
back against the stone
LU 3284 ( SC 8 ). dossleced fria thoeb
he let them (i.e. his arms) fall to his sides SR 5091 = no thim-
oirced a lama fria thoeb LB 124b29 (cf. LU 1361 above).
In local sense of attached to or pending from: úathroic
10... cona cimais do banór fria having a fringe LU 6421 .
beilge óir friu golden bits on them TBFr. § 3 . srian ... fria
graig LU 3649 . Cf. srian do thabairt fria thoil to bridle
his passion
PH 4990 (see srían). Cf. la I (a).
Here perhaps: i ngialnai fri fraigid in hostage-ship at
15the wall
LU 7015 ; 7295 ( BDD 66 ; 94 ). (of the brazen
serpent, Num. xxi 9 :) turgabar fri crann ... uasin
[t]slúag fri sirsellad let it be hung on a pole to be gazed at
SR 4163 .
Cf. an carracc ard ar cuiretar ... an Tigerna da teilgen
20ría sís to cast him down from it Maund. 106 . tuitim sioss
re beinn an ailt, Fl. Earls 86z .
(c) against (implying violence or hostility; cf. III e):
rop saiget húan fri demnai Hy i 20 . friu conuccaib ind
oub Hy v 54 . conéracht Glaiss Ch. friu the stream C. rose
25against them
(= to bar the way) LU 5362 . Cf. conocbath
in carpat fris ... ┐ concligtis ind h[e]ich fris the chariot would
tilt up before him and the horses would spring at him
Ériu
vi 134.21 . bēim a cinn fri cloich Ml 139c3 . beim cind fri
hall LL 225b38 (see benaid). esarcain cind fri hallib 176b33 .
30 aiges (feras) in tond frisin mbruach, Anecd. i 12.19 (21) . cf. FB 44 , see F 416.80.
See also phrases with cúl, druimm, lám).
(d) next to, at: folt dond fri toind a chind, folt croderg
iar n-airmedon LU 2564 . dond fri toind cind 6542 . lene
de sról ... i custul fri gelcnes ... dó 6296 . léne ... sita fria
35gelchnes 1810 . cona luirigh ... ria cnes ... ┐ lethan sciath
fria gualaind, St. Ercuil 1243 . In this use frequent with
ais, cnes, táeb.
II To express association, along with, beside (of local or
mental relations, cf. V d): ní bí friu hi comasndeis it is
40not with them in apposition
Sg 212a5 . in tan mbís nihelas
do .u. fri .g. when u is silent beside g, 6b11 . nobiad fri
femen `it would be [used] with the feminine' 207b2 . ní biat
remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them'
215a5 (cf. biit remsuidigthi ... cen briathra leo ib. 6). See
45also s.v. comsuidigud. is tabarthi `bonum est' fri cechtar
in da fersa so Ml 112d1 . cen tabairt anman trén fríu 30a9
(see do-beir). ni bai crand dond indsi fri aroile (i.e. the
walls were shattered) Anecd. i 2.5 . ar choibnius frisna
comaccomla sa Sg 203a10 . in oentid fri Crist Wb 15a12 .
50 ni ba suair[c] comlepaid no comaentu frissi TBC 2079 (fris
St) In: ni reid bith fris im longud no im ligi LU 5957 , the
meaning may be different; see atá (fri). toeb fri toeb ata in
ri is Eocho F. side by side LU 2839 (see táeb). comaitecht
re hairdrigh ZCP viii 116.5 . méraid ra cách a chumne
55 TBC 740 (here perhaps: meraid hua chlaind fri claind
Ml 100b4 ). is frit mo chairde `with Thee is my compact'
Fél. Ep. 534 . (see cairde). iar corai fri I. after making a
pact with I.
SR 5946 . Cf. córe fri Dia Wb 2d16 . is core
doib fribsi (gl. salutate invicem) 18b19 . bad chore dúib
60friu 7b4 ; - 14 (`lit. let it be peace to you towards them' Thes.,
but the original meaning of córe points to `with' as the
sense of the prep. here). Cf. also: biid pax libsi fri cách
(gl. cum omnibus hominibus pacem habentes) 5d33 .
Here probably: isi no beired teora pōc fria cach copān ...
65dō TBC² 2218 . Cf. further: hi cocetul fri Eman in unison
with
Hib. Min. 4.12 . do dlommad E. is A. ... fri gorta SR
1419 . ara toimlid fri sid sain | toirthi Parduis 1085 . taed
as fri sidh ┐ fri subha `let him go ... in peace and happiness'
FM 979 .
70In this sense with verbs of joining, connecting, also
occasionally with verbs of motion and in nominal phrases,
such as imma llé fri, immaróen fri, see s.v. , óen (cf.
Ériu xiv 142 n . ) also cos, táeb.
In: crithnaigset ... immar bocsimin fri sruth the
75meaning of the prep. is doubtful. curtar a fuigill re sruth
┐ re fairgi `be the remnant cast out to be carried off by the sea-
tide
' O'Gr. Cat. 182w . Cf. perhaps: Drochet Atha do
dhul re sruth `D. was carried away by the flood' ALC i 260.7 ,
though these may be exx. of the confusion of re (FRI) with
80 le (LA). curcas fri sruth FB 44 ; `against a stream' Strachan
ZCP iii 419 . Cf. Ériu i 194.4 . See téit and la I (d).
Passing into sense in addition to: tris fer friu (gl. te
tertium) Sg 2a5 . cethri chet bliadan ... a noe sechtmogat
fri sein, Rawl. 68b31 ( ZCP iii 18 ). Cf. is fri ni dona salmaib
85dognid a figild, Mon. Tall § 5 . fris sin moreover, besides ,
Leb. Gab. i 88.1 . Hugh Roe 114.1 (f. 30b) . Cf. mod.
freisin. For a special sense of with see Mon. Tall. cited
under V (d).
III To express fig. direction (cf. V a); (a) aim, purpose,
freq. of function, specific purpose: cen nech dim chlaind
5frim foraithmet to preserve my memory Ml 23d9 . ce note-
chtad ilgotha fri inchosc in mrechtraid sin `that it should
possess many sounds to express that variety
' Sg 197a11 .
ní fris arícht fri slond persine it was not for that it was invented,
to signify person
ib. (cf. cid arna airecht pronomen ... dia
10ṡlund 198b3 ). in bríg frissa ndéntar a saithar sin the value
for which that labour is performed
Wb 11a9 . am loor fri
cach reit (gl. ego ... dedici, in quibus sum, sufficiens esse)
24b16 . altoir ... | fri loscud n-edpart an altar for burning
[ = on which to burn] offerings SR 4162 . dá magh ... do
15ṡlaidhi ... co rabad do grés fri geilt do ceithrib ┐ fri trebad
do daīnib, Ériu xii 150.6 . primepscop ... accu fri huirdned
a n-oessa graid, fri coisecrad a n-eclas ┐ fri hanmchairdes
do ḟlaithib, etc. Ériu i 218.2 . sechtmoga fer fria cobair
to aid them SR 4196 . drong ngilla ... fri timthirecht 6280 .
20 ra ergitar ... dalemain fri dail LL 173a27 ( CRR 13 ). mōr
salm | fri hindarba plāg-tedmann, BColm. 70.8 . slóged
hi crích ... fri indnaide slogid tairse a hosting into a country
to delay a hosting (coming) across it
Críth G. 511 . fergniae
fri forngaire ndoirseo 591 . In this sense perhaps in: fót
25fri haltóir, see 1 fót (d). pars de feoil fri foimtin terci as a
precaution against scarcity
Mon. Tall. § 12 . Here perhaps:
dognith Saul intleda ... fri Duaid used to lay snares against
D.
Ml 30a3 . techt do Roim ... fri foglaim n-ecnai,
Trip.² 241 . roairis re sloind senchasa he remained to relate
30 Ériu iv 152.6 [or remained relating ? See VI (a)]. cid
frisi farcbad int id for what end the withe was left LU 4752
(= cid imma ndernad int id TBC 597 ). cid frisindrolais in
cloich why hast thou thrown the stone ? LU 5092 . o tancamair
friss `since we have come for it' ( = for that purpose) Fél.
35 72.24 (cf. inní imo tainic ib. 30 ). co ndernur inní fris tánac
LU 4347 . Cf. doluid Saul fri tāirsin David i fus SR 5959 .
lurech imme ... fri cathugud SR 5757 . treb Leue ... immon
eclais fria immarchur 4883 . docúaidh B. frissan umaloitt
sin gusin muilenn `on that service' BNnÉ 26 § 19 . téit
40féin re toisc ┐ re túrus a crichaib na hEspáine on business
CCath. 1806 , cf. do chuaidh gach aon rea dtoisgibh ┐ rea
dturasaibh féin ML 26x (= le tosgaib fein ML² 347 ). The
follg. perhaps are elliptical: the idea represented is antici-
pating, forestalling: dogniad pars de feoil fre terci do
45t[h]ecmong = as a provision against the occurrence of scarcity
Mon. Tall. § 12 . do na .u. gaiscedaib dec no bitís ... hi
tegluch C. fri maidm n-airm no fri gabáil ngasced do neoch
LU 5046 . Cf. Fél Nov. 14 cited VI b.
(b) after adjs. in sense of Lat. gerund with ad or supine
50in -u: leiscc .i. fri fognam Wb 31b23 . conid mesc fria rim
so that it is confusing to count it LU 4794 . ba gnim ṅdangen
fri himluad SR 7229 . ingnad fria innisin LU 2074 ( FA 15 ).
adhbal rea n-innisi prodigious to recount ZCP viii 204 § 26 .
cenco beth ... and acht C. ba lór fri immarbaig LL 107a19
55( Ériu iv 28 ). lia iná rúainne ... re n-áireamh IGT, Decl.
ex. 1201 . Cf. atait ... re a ttaispenadh go follus are plainly
to be seen
Fl. Earls 50.12 . In this use modern Irish has le
(LA).
(c) to express direction of feelings; behaviour towards,
60after nouns or adjs., both of persons and things (cf. I a and
V a): conroib deserc leu fri cách Wb 26d22 . fáilte fri
noíbu 7b2 (see fáilte). ar formut fribsi 12c29 (see format
and formtech). ropat ḟáilti frimsa, Fél. Dec. 18 (see fáilid).
hissel fri hard, sleman fri garb ZCP iii 447z . anmne fri
65fochaidi 449.15 (see ainmne). mailli fri cloc slowness at
(answering) the bell ib. 21 . dána fri tōla tromsluaig daring
in face of an army
SR 5778 . uair ná dernsam huimli fri
forngaire 1854 . ar gart friu for generosity to them ZCP viii
313.12 . créd nach frim atā a maithe ? why is not their
70bounty bestowed on me
? Arch. iii 296 § 38 . ní ar maith
friu it is not for their good Wb 4b37 . ar ulc friu Ml 72b22 .
tar aesi n-uilc huai[m] se friusom 74a2 (see also s.v. maith,
olc). bad chert do cluchi frim play fair with me LU 5228 .
ar ngabáil bāide ... dō rena ardnaem having conceived
75affection for his high saint
BCC § 12 . lére duit frí ríg ngréne
┐ réde fri doíni, Ériu i 193 . is buide linn frib (gl. rogamus
vos) Wb 25a39 (see buide). is maith robai Dia rind SR
1905 . ní maith ro mbátar frim they have not treated me well
LU 4891 . Cf. is maith ro ngabus fritt TBFr. § 11 . bad
80faitig frisin foirin sin (gl. observate eos) Wb 24a23 (see
faitech). bid cennuis a gnuis risin lucht ra-nadh
(= frisndid) rathmar to whom he is gracious KMMisc.
156.124 . in maith frit menma ind airdríg whether the king
is well-disposed to thee
SR 6114 . ba fearr di frib menma
85bar mathar RC xxiv 56 ( YBL 206a47 ). Cf. is beite duit
menma fris `thou must take heed of him' Ériu xii 176.16 .
Similarly in expressions like: do-gní maith (trócaire, etc.)
fri (see do-gní). nech no comaildfed fir fer frimb uime
RC xiii 29.6 .
(d) of prayer, etc. to: irnigde fri Dia Wb 4d18 . cf.
5 abstanait fri Dia PH 4988 . ro throiscset ... fri Dia im a
ḟurtacht 7258 (see troiscid). im aīne fri Dia cora faillsigthi
dō ... fasting towards God, that ... might be revealed to him
Ériu v 120.12 . Similarly: frit, a rí ..., mo dēr | conom
thī ... Mīchēl SR 2091 . co ndēraib frisin coimdid PH 6292 .
10(cf. use with ad-teich). cossoít a thuaithe fri Dia Wb 5a23
(see cossaít). Here, perhaps, should come such expressions as the following: ar Christ frit, aithirigh pēin dam, Cáin Ad. 13 . ar do chubus riut, a ingen, crét tuc ort ? Acall. 6012 . ar bar cubus rib..., crét... 5476 . ar fir do chubais riut... 5824 . cf. 4544 . ar t'ḟírinne riutsa, nā furáil, CCath 1659 .
(e) of hostile feeling, attitude, conduct towards: fri
aicned contrary to nature Wb 2c25 . ba fri aicned ... in
talam ... do indluch Ml 129d8 . frisin n-uall (gl. adversum
15inflationem mentis) 68c1 . trifar pecthu fri Dia through
your sins against God
115b8 . Common after verbs of oppos-
ing, hindering, fighting: hóre nád comeicnigther nech
fri toil no one is constrained against [his] will Wb 28b1 .
tuidecht fri toil Dé resistance to God's will 4c23 (see do-tét).
20 cf. o dorala ... | frim thala mac I. | duit ... | niba céle
SR 6014 , where opposition seems implied despite the similar
phrase cited below under V (d). soud a gnuso fri nech
frisa mbi ferc do (gl. ne auertas [faciem tuam] a me Ml 47d8
(`to turn his countenance from one against whom he cherishes
25anger
' Thes., but surely `fri nech' here must also mean
either against ... or towards ... ? See soid). fergach fris
Fíadu SR 6837 . iar ndebaid do fri Duid 6994 . na cathaig
frim do not contend with me 2877 . ni sirsan do Ch. a n-imned
i tá a óenur fri firu Herend not happy for C is the trouble in
30which he is, alone against the men of E.
LU 5995 . Cf. do
thoitim fria Cu | ba dirsan sad that thou shouldst fall by
[ = fighting against] C. (?) TBC² 2715 (see also III g). Mairg
fris ticfa a ḟerg ... Mairg ticfa re cert, Fen. 200 (see do-icc).
ar bruc fris `in displeasure at him' Mon. Tall. § 58 . namthi
35garga fri sluagh nA., Arch. iii 297 § 55 . atat frim hi cotar-
snai SR 1520 . Cf. ni bia th'anim fri fugall | ind ríg hí
laithiú brótho, Ériu i 196 § 13a . With adj.: cotarsne fri
Dia Wb 26a18 . is torcda ┐ is díchéill notaí frim LU 10831
(= Ériu xii 172 ). is bairnech mo menma frit LU 10832 (= ib.).
40 is tromda atai rim RC vi 183.13 . olc roba rim, Ériu v
208.8 (see III c). Here perhaps: tromde ... ro buí frisim
ind chaillech oc atach Dé, Mon. Tall. § 7 (= do bhí sí roliosda
ar Dh. Rule of T. § 41 ). But cf. VII below.
(f) To express protection, guard, defence, watch against:
45 gabthe dūnad les fris Ml 55c1 . inna cathrach conrotacht
la Duaid fri Ebustu 48d27 . múr trén ... fri dóini, fri demnai,
Fél. Ep. 152 . tocuiriur etrum ... inna huli nert so fri cech
nert n-amnas in ..., Hy vii 49 . cor gabad Sinann friu the
Shannon was held (defended) against them
RC xviii 10.28 .
50 gébtaít ar tír frind LU 4634 (see gaibid). iadad Caisil frim
eochu the closing of C. to my horses Anecd. iii 63.4 . cóir duit
arechus ri siút TBC 1280 (aire do tabairt fri ... St; see
aire). Dia lem fri cech snīomh, Ériu iv 236 . Crist credal
fri demnaib, Arch. iii 221.12 . dín ... re holcaib ZCP viii
55202.18 . Of limitation, boundary: nā bí crích la nech fri
peccad that no one sets a limit to sin Ériu i 218.9 . Cf. sam-
aiges crích fri aidchi Hy ii 55 , corresp. to contra noctem
terminum pones, Arm. 8a1 . See also s.v. inillius.
(g) In elliptical sentt.: leic ... in fognam, ol se; ni
60lamaim, ol sī, frisin rigain = I dare not disobey the Queen
RC xxiv 192 (but perh. FRI here = because of; see V b ).
ro an ... ina aenar ru remained alone to oppose them ZCP
vi 56.31 . rofetursa a n-as maith dúib fris I know a good
way for you to deal with him
LU 5934 . tarmairt mo Dia
65dil frisin tuaid ... a cor fo leittreib lethglenn = my dear God
had well nigh (in His resentment) against them cast them
down
... SR 4718 . Cf. lām fri idal to renounce idolatry SR
4845 (see lám).
IV (a) after adjs. and nouns denoting resemblance or
70equality (esp. those compounded with com-) and vbs. of
resembling or comparing: cosmil fri cethir (gl. animalis)
Wb 8b14 . cutrummus fri Dia 17c8 . i cutrummus fribsi
17b14 . ɔodernain hi cutrummus frim cheliu `to do like my
fellows
' Pcr 2a2 . (pariter) fri Sg 77a2 . i tomus fri nech
75 Wb 17b11 . intamail ... fri nech Ml 22c1 . cen a chondelg
fri nech Sg 42a6 . cosmaili tuisil `sui' fri tuisliu `ego' ┐
`tu' 200a12 . (similiter) fri 203a5 . cf. (eandem signifi-
cationem habens) .i. fri `cum' 218a1 . diatā oenḟolaid ...
frissin Athair PH 177 . ba cudruma re core mōr é RC xviii
80183 . ni caithedh acht coibeis fri gach manach he used to
eat only as much as any other monk
BNnÉ 300 § 3 . nir chumma
nech ris im chath, Met. Dinds. iv 344 . ru boí i comré ri
Cormac LL 3796 (30a) . i comhrē ris coeval with him Moling
4 . rogheanair i n-aenuair fria was born at the same time
85as she
BB 406bz (= Dinds. 111 ). Cf. IX (b).
Replacing O. Ir. construction with equative: comdhub
fri hec, Thr. Ir. Gl. 36 (prull) = duibidir éc, Corm. Y 1059 .
Bodl. comard fri fid, Ériu iv 138.26 . meidithir fria hasal
as big as an ass Marco P. 10 . corbo chomfota frisin sroin
LU 6472 .
5See also verbs and adjs. of comparison, e.g. do-ella,
samlaithir, in-samlaithir; cosmail, cutrumme, etc.
(b) to express difference, distinction from : frissaní immer-
aidtis (gl. longe aliud) Ml 61c12 . sain fri .c. `different to c'
Sg 6b7 . do dechor fri praenomna aili 28a13 . huare nád
10deligedar fri praenomen 28a15 . do dechrugud persine fri
alaili 202a4 . is allail pronomen aní sin fri `sui' (gl.
`is' aliud pronomen...) 209b10 . (differentia) fri 213b15 , gl.
contra 214b4 . Cf. nipo choím less frinn He was not dear
to Him compared to us
(?) Wb 4b12 [Fraser l.c. suggests
15this rendering, ZCP viii p. 41 n . `in our case (?),' Thes.].
See s.v. dechor, dechraigid, deligid and other words of
similar meaning.
V (a) with respect to, with regard to (cf. III c) : is sain fri
cath sain fri scor different for battle, different for unyoking
20(of trumpet-call) Wb 12c46 . idain fri cach réit faithful as
to
31c13 . cen chinaid n-uaim fri nech Ml 54d16 (see cin).
nach é Dia is ciontach riú is to blame for them TSh. 10499 .
as eola fri aidgne ind Athar Wb 19d9 . it maithi a arilti
frib `He deserves well of you' (`literally good are his merits
25as to you
' Thes.) Wb 16c11 . airle Dé fri Herind LL 49b13
( Hail Brigit § 2 ). .iiii. seóit a dire ... is fechem is fiadnaisi
friu `four seds are his `dire'-fine ... he is a suitor and witness
for them
' (i.e. he is liable to that extent) Laws iv 308.2
( Críth G. 138 ). is amlaid in t-athair frisin mac ngor; ...
30nimtha in t-athair frisin mac n-ingor thus the father acts
with regard to the dutiful son; ... not so with regard to the
undutiful one
Laws iii 56. 22 ; z .
Cf. further: crādiis Ultu fri Cethirnd guin Fécc the
slaying of F. imbittered the U. against C.
, ZCP viii 305.32 .
35 ferdha a cathuibh iat, ar is friu ronnaltadh oc imairecc fria
geinnti, Marco P. 189 . ro alt ... ind ingen co digrais fri
légend ┐ gaís LL 279a47 ( SG 413 ). Possibly the last two
exx. belong rather to III (a), also : is me is cintach fris ni
he is cintach frim BB 479b14 (see cintach). See also : a
40lleth fri, s.v. 1 leth.
(b) on account of (cf. VI b) : ro lega in snechta ... fri meit
brotha in miled LU 5858 . ba lond F. friside (-suidi) RC
xxvi 12 § ix . saeth mār fri luga dige great distress from [?]
lack of drink Fianaig. 12 § 20 . cid mís no bheinn gun ríg
45thess | ro-fess ná bíad mo scís fris, Arch. iii 304.20 . ní
ḟaicim- si ... ni rís budh choir t'obadh for which it were
right to refuse thee
Ériu iii 154.5 . atchess ... na haīble tened
... uasachind re fiuchud na ferge LU 6466 . ba mertnech
Moisi fri hilchaingni ... fri orddugugd cāich fo mām SR
50 4542 . batar toirsech fri Moisi 3886 (in these two exx. fri =
oc of prose LB 122a etc.). féimdid sim imt[h]echt fri scíss
he cannot go on from weariness BColm. 94.16 . ni ro chotail
C. fri himṡním LB 274a55 . ni faict[h]e ise fri feidm a léiginn
she used not be seen because of her duty of study Arch. iii
55308 VI 13 . Cf. la III a.
(c) on behalf of: aitchitt an C. ris comad he noberad, etc.
they beseech the Lord for him that it might be he
BColm. 98.15 .
dogníther airnaigthi frisin ríg co nambed fot saegail do,
Aisl. MC 59.23 . ica cantain fria Cianoig chanting (a prayer)
60 for C. ZCP vii 308.7 . Cf. also : ata mo briathar ┐ mo
comairghi fria ar Tuatha D., Ériu xii 152.9 . o doratsat
briathair fris, CCath. 1236 . in tī bes rí is fris beimmi ZCP
viii 316.3 . See do-beir, gell, and ráith.
(d) according to ; in agreement with, with pers. somet. =
65 in obedience to: ni ni nach breith nā bi fri canoin cum-
tastar [sic leg.] no judgement is valid that is not framed accord-
ing to the canon
Corm. Y 1224 . cf. manib fri fasach fuirmider,
Ériu xii 199.23 . fri mes airechta adrimter, Laws iv 298.25
( Críth G. 22 ). fri saltair nogebad ... a salmu by the psalter
70(i.e. with the psalter before him), Mon. Tall. § 39 , cf. ni
lugae mbis ind menme hisin cheill dia gabail ind tsailm de
memur indas cid fri saltair ib.). fosernd clothri Connacht
... fri senchus ... fri buaid ┐ breatha in conformity with (the
claims of) pedigree, with prowess and legal decision
ZCP
75 viii 108.10 = Ériu v 234 . bid som iarum fria toil (= they will
be able to do as they like
) Mon. Tall. § 35 (= go mbid ... aca
ara ttoil fein, Rule of T. § 35 ). fri tala ind rig ... domrala
I am about the king's business SR 6187 (Rex praecepit mihi
1 Reg. xxi 2 ). cia ro delb fria thuil a ndath who coloured
80them to please himself
(?) SR 7675 . For FRI TOIL in a different
sense, see III (e). Cf. nitattorbi fri toil Dé (gl. non omnia
expediunt 1 Cor. x 22 ) `against God's will' Thes., Wb 11b 17a .
Also : ind tí dogní ní do maith fria menmain fadesin ...
ar ind bo neoch gabti he who does a good thing in accordance
85with his own inclination ... should openly proclaim it
Mon.
Tall. § 21 (= chuirios ní maith ... do dheunamh uaidhe
fein, Rule of T. 71 ).
VI (a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. vb. or equi-
valent = to be at, engaged in or about to engage in (some occu-
pation, process ; cf. III a) : in tinscanfam .i. in biam fris
5(gl. incipimus ... commendare ?) Wb 15a1 . ní uisse do mug
Dae buith fri debuid to be at strife 30b26 . cf. ní bethe fria
acre 9c20 . ni piam fri aithirgi 30b17 . ni biat som fria
togais adi (= non fallacia ad quoscumque loquuntur) Ml
31a17 . cechtar nathar fria saindān `each ... at his special
10art
' Thes. ii 293.14 . feib donrala fri comrad SR 1214 .
indí ... bíte fri tnúith `those that are given to lust' Mon. Tall.
§ 11 . nebbuith fri éthech not to be lying Ériu ii 64 § 6 . céin
bete fri soíthar while they shall be at work Fél. Ep. 298 .
in tan natbi fri frestal na n-anmand when he is not attending
15to
LB 110b43 (cf. SR 1199 ). ní mo chean ... tarrla re freastal
... na fairrgi sin CF 42 . amail do beith se re goibhnecht
ríam as if he had always been at smith's work BCC § 92 . na
saoithe do bhí re seanchus, Keat. i 74 . cuirim suas don
ghrádh, | ní fiú é bheith ris, Dánta Grádha xiv 3 . Cf.
20 boí a ben fri idna in travail LU 105.86 (see idu). Similarly
without subst. vb. : nachitochthad fria choscc `let him
not wear thee out in admonishing him
' Wb 31d11 . conus
tarttsat fria ttoghairm chuca an lucht they set about calling
the people
Hugh Roe § 8 . Cf. airfitech re tetaib, Arch. iii
25223.23 (= Keat. ii 5358 ). dias fri cerdacht SR 190 (perh.
III a). dá mbeinn re héagnach `had I purposed to revile'
Content. v 7 (cf. le hóradh bhriat[h]ar da mbeinn, O'Hussey
T.C. 4 ). In class. lang. `re' is used with vn. to express
futurity : an chathair atá ré teacht ( = civitatem futuram)
30 TSh. 2751 . i n-oirchill na n-olc bhíos ré tuirling orra 532 .
(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on or from
which something takes place (some of the exx. could be
explained as extensions of other uses (cf. V b ; IX a) ;
often the construction is elliptical) : gaibed cach a greimm
35... | fria brethir in primsacairt SR 4400 . ba huisse soillse
fri éitsecht na noeb at the death Hy ii 60 . Cf. co mbidis i
nd-aenmaigin fria n-ég, Corm. Y 1233 (fri héc LB. ria n-ec
LL 179b ). fri gein Críst ... tindscan lechsa léri, Fél. Nov.
14 (cf. III a). ro eirgis fri breithir Isu PH 2780 . ret[h]it
40daim ... ri dorddan na damgaire, Ériu vii 2 § 1 . phreab
as G. risan gair, Ériu i 18.33 . ac cantain cheóil ... fris
coteltais Síl Adaim LL 3305 ( Ériu xiv 156 ).
VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion
of (cf. similar use of Lat. apud, and see LA) : ni cumdabairt
45fri Cirine is tre metur Jerome does not doubt Hib. Min. 6.187 .
nad maith fri C. ciasperthar ... 7.235 . frithir frisin mac
i n-ebras riss, Ériu vii 225 ( LL 209a16 ). ba bind fri cach
na canaind LU 1301 (`sweet to all was what I said' Im. Br.
ii 298 . But this may be ex. of : canaid fri). bid inmain
50fria cách a ainm loved of all PH 4299 . ba hingnad mor
frisin popul sin 2959 . ba mo a grad fri Gargán oldait a
uli cethra G. loved him more than all his cattle 7178 . Cf.
Mon. Tall. § 7 cited under III (e) where the meaning seems
different. gurbh annsa ré hEóin Críost ioná ré Peadar
55 Christ was dearer to John than to Peter TSh. 10327 .

VIII (a) to denote agent (a late use, mostly in texts in
artificial style). ar na bennughadh fri sanctuss Silvester
consecrated by Fl. Earls 196.19 . laech ... frisimbia mo
60thiglecht (= who will cause my death) Met. Dinds. iv 360
(but perh. this is ellipt. and belongs to III (e) ; cf. TBC2
cited there). romarbtha na maithe ... frisna crechairib
LB 154a63 . in lucht frisa tucad in digal .i. Uespiam ┐ Titus
ib. 16 . Constantiana ... .i. eclas rocúmdaiged fri Constantin
65 157b48 .
(b) to denote instrument, through, by means of, by dint
of (cf. similar uses of Engl. `with') : sénais Brigit fria
bachaill with her crozier Hy v 58 T = lia F. fria noebainm
... séntae cech slóg subach by [or at ?] his holy name every
70happy host was sained
Fél. Prol. 99 . ícaid [Tipra C.] gallrae
... fri troscud aici, BColm. 52.15 . argain fri daigid (des-
troying by fire
LL 107a21 ( Ériu iv 28 ), cf. multi nobiles
ceciderunt ... fri daigidh ro horta uile AU 900 (see RIA
Dict. s.v. daig). go nach deachaidh neach re siúbhal ... as
75 no one escaped by flight ML 88.31 . re dán nglas ... dán
breaghdha do bhréagnachadh with a simple poem to refute
an elaborate one
Content. vii 13 . ro ēirigh fri nert seoin ┐
solaid, Moling § 4 (possibly = with here cf. dol ar fairrge ...
ré cóir na gaoithe = with a favourable wind ML 36z = le
80 ML² 466 . cuir me ... chum seoil ... re cóir ghloin, Measgra
D. 48.16 ).
IX In expressions of time :—
(a) in O. Ir. in locatival sense in phrase : fri dē by day,
in the day-time Ml 121d8 . Wb 6a30 . fri dei 9a5 , 24d14 ,
85 26b17 . Cf. in gabail fri dei ... in gabail cech ráithi a catch
(of fish) daily (?) Trip. 250.14 (2950) . fri díe, Mon. Tall.
§ 55 . fri haidchi by night Trip. 208.25 (2452) . gl. contra
noctem Lat. Lives 18 . re lá, Ériu iii 148 § 3 . arna imbreth
... i n-aidchi cía nosgonad fri dé LU 5609 .
(b) usually to denote period during which something
5continues or takes place : 'na fuair frisna secht ṁbliadnaib
SR 3394 . fri a n-aimsir in their time Laws iv 210.28 . niro
chotail C. frisin ré sin LU 6337 . fria ré hi fut a saegail
for their lifetime SR 5932 . bai cocad mor etarro fri re ciana
RC xxiv 186 . batar ... fri re secht la amlaid sin, Arch. iii
10225.1 . conosrala for sechrán fri re bliadna co lleith LU
1279 . bá-sa i Tul T. fri ré inna dílenn, Ériu iv 144y . maith
graig dorat damh rem lá in my day Arch. iii 304.23 . D. ba
talchar fria ré in his day Met. Dinds. ii 40 . dorumaltsa
... m'aimsir fri hamsir Nemid LU 1276 . nir siubhuil in
15conuir-so re bliadhain aenridiri for a year past ZCP vi
104 z.
(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place :
ni ba marb-sa fri sin I shall not die before that ZCP i 105.4
(co sin v.l.). Cf. also the locative use in Marco P. 11 cited
20 I (a). tanic ... uidi na .xii. mís fri .xii. laa made the twelve
months' journey in twelve days
LB 139a31 . icuis fri teorai
nomaidhe within thrice nine days RC xii 66x . nos ithend ...
friha brathad sula in the twinkling of an eye LU 1895 ( RC x
56 ; fri b. v.l.) do imredar ... re trí lá, ┐ ní ruc G.
25énchluichi rissin, Acall. 1348 .
(d) of point of time ; in some cases approaching VI (b)
above. fri dead n-aissi SR 2829 . in tan nadbi fri húair
i fos | frithalmi when he is not here at the hour of attending
... 1199 (cf. LB 110b43 cited under VI (a) above). cech
30dūil ... rosdelb fri oenuair SR 7864 (similarly 7234 , 7386 ).
grend Muman ... grend Connacht ... ra hóen-úair at the
same time
Ériu i 130.36 ( LL 46b ). buaidh ... damh fri
deiredh mo ṡaoghail, Arch. iii 231.1 . ra dered flatha
Domnaill LL 185a48 ( Arch. Hib. ii 85 ) = Rawl. 154a52 .
35 Rí dorat na deich plāga | forthu fri huair combāga SR
3942 . ? cid fri geld bāis nobeth `though he were at the point
of death
.' Mon. Tall. § 48 (see gell). re húair nfaicsiona
at the time of looking RC xxix 128.13 . fri huair tacrai do
ghníma, Ériu ii 228.7 .
40(e) in follg. exx. perhaps used for ria before: na buidne
... robatar fria Crist...rofhogain don Choimdid fria tuidecht
soscela (= turbae quae praecedebant ... ante evangelium)
PH 4573 . dorad som a cuibidil fria mbass made his con-
fession before death
RC xviii 53.19 . Cf. co ro muid fri maccu
45Israel LB 122b47 = re YBL 293b40 (corresp. to mebaid remib
SR 4765 ).
X In regular or occasional construction with many
verbs (and nouns of cognate meaning with them), e.g.,
those of speaking, addressing, boasting, complaining,
50asking, thanking ; meeting, touching, striking, rubbing,
grinding ; listening ; waiting, expecting ; entrusting ;
co-operating, associating, helping ; visiting ; resembling,
comparing, differing ; parting, severing (from) ; doing
(something to), acting (towards), giving, distributing,
55apportioning ; requiting, paying, selling ; refusing, reject-
ing, denying ; hindering, restricting, opposing, combating,
etc. See especially : ad-cosnai, ad-gair, ad-teich, ad-tluich-
ethar
(altuigid), agid, anaid, ar-bága, as-beir, benaid, berid,
caithid, canaid, cingid, comalnaithir, con-clich, con-delga,
60 con-gní, con-ric, con-sní, con-tuasi, crenaid, dálaid, dlomaid,
do-beir, do-gní, do-ic, do-rogaib, do-slí (tuillem buide fri),
do-sluindi (diultaid), do-tét, dúnaid, erbid, fáiltigid(ir),
feraid, fo-gella (fuiglid), fo-rig, fris-oirg, fris-tairissethar,
fris-taít, gaibid (fris-gaib), gellaid, íadaid, ícaid, imm-beir,
65 imm-fogní, imm-fresna, in-samlaithir, in-tuasi (éistid),
labrathir (labraid), laigid, ligid, lingid, luigid, meilid (con-
meil
), naiscid, ráidid (ol, ar), rannaid, renaid, saethraigid(ir),
scaraid (and compds.), soid (do-soí), téit, tongid.