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geis n f. g s. geisi, Trip. 42 , 10.10 . ? gessi, SR 3635 . n p. gessi,
LL 220b32 . geisi, Laws v 352.2 . a p. gesse, SR 26 . geisse
Rawl. 84a43 . geis, IGT Decl. § 14.16 ; § 115 . In early Mod.
85Lit. pl. geasa. Connected with guidid `prays.' Cf. geis .i.
guide, O'C. 2016 ( H.4.22, 36a ); ailges a prayer or request,
the refusal of which brings reproach or ill-luck
. See Thurn.
Heldensage, p. 80 , and cf. Corm. Y 62 . Cf. also oll-geisi
`great demands,' Laws v 352.2 , which glosses ailgeasa. In
older literature generally:
(a) a tabu, a prohibition , the infraction (`coll' `milliud')
of which involved disastrous consequences. Sometimes
5these `gessi' were fortuitous, originating in the fact
that a certain course of action had produced disastrous
results in the past, sometimes they were rules of honour or
prudent abstention, often they rested on deep-seated primi-
tive beliefs and ideas. Such tabus might be attached to a
10rank or office, e.g. the tabus laid on the king of Tara and on
some of the provincial kings, BR 2 - 24 (where they are also
called urgartha `things forbidden,' and opposed to buada
= ada `lucky things' or `things prescribed'). Cf. for opposition
of buada and geasa, Hy Many 13.21 , and of ada and geis,
15 CCath. 1166 . See also Macalister, Temair Breg; Baudiš,
Ériu viii 104 seq. Frazer, Golden Bough, ch. xxvii § 1
(abbr. ed.). They might bind a whole community, TBC
1190 ; RC viii 56.12 . More often they were restrictions
on an individual, either owing to the predictions of druids
20or soothsayers that certain actions would bring ill-luck, or
imposed on him by another who had power to punish their
violation, or who trusted to his sense of honour or his fear.
For a list of Cú Chulainn's gessi see RC xiv 398.
Oen do gessib Ulad labrad ria n-a ríg ┐ óen do gessib in ríg
25labrad riana druidib, LL 263b17 ( MU 12 ). Cf. TBC 4724 .
rochoillsiut ... geissi Conuiri, IT i 130.18 . Commonly as
pred. with copula (expressed or understood) and DO (in later
texts sometimes FOR) of person: is gess damsa ... dám
óenmná do airitin iar fuiniud grene, LU 6986 ( BDD 63 ). geiss
30dó cárna a chomanma do ithi, RC iii 176.17 . fa geis do
Fhothud Cananne ol corma cin chinnu marbu ina fhiadnaise,
RC xiv 242.20 . CRR § 23 . Ogam ... ba ges do dul sech gan
a legad, Auraic. 5943 . is geas damhsa gabháil tré dhorus
éuluighthe, Oss. iii 58.5 . Foll. by CEN to express the idea of
35a positive injunction: is geis dond ríg cen an ro raid B. do
dénam do, LU 10480 . ba do gessib C. cen adall fulachta dia
chathim, RC iii 176.17 . geis fair ... cen chomrac n-oenḟir
do ḟuacra, TBC 1231 . ba geis dissi cen a fothrucud, LL
125a6 . Sometimes gessi were attached to particular places
40or objects: tosōisom iarum clār clē a charpait fri hEmain,
┐ ba geis dī annīsin, TBC² 716 . MR 70.12 , Aisl. MC 15.11 - 14 .
trí geassa robadar for in sléig sin, Cóir An. § 41 ( IT iii 306.6 ).
Cf. Keat. ii 4388 ; TD 19.9 ; Met. Dinds. iii 230.56 . Used
elliptically (of persons): gabais cach a suide ... eter gess ┐
45nemgess those who were tabu and those who were not, BDD
§ 59 = BDD² 525.
(b) a positive injunction or demand: ní fil nech ... béras
sein ... cora ícthar a gesse .i. enchennach Mercúir ... ┐ claideb
Ulcáin, LL 220b26 ( TTr. 257 ). budh ghes do scéith Ch.
50géimedh le foréigin an tí air a mbeidh C.'s shield was bound
to cry out
, Trans. G. S. i iv 96.4 . ba geis di í féin d'fhothragadh
san tobar ... gacha maidne, Keat. ii 3288 . (Cf. for different
construction LL 125a6 supra.) An dara geis gan a ainm
do thabhairt ... d'aonlaoch, Keat. ii 3386 . Gen. a solemn
55adjuration, command or prohibition
from one person to
another with imprecations or threats of misfortune in case
of refusal (the ordinary sense in romantic lit.): do bertsat ...
gesa agus airmberta for Coincculainn, da ttísadh úadh gan
aidmilliudh furre, TBC 2295 . Cf. ITS v 112.22 . Buile Ṡ.
60 102.19 . is olc na geasa do chuiris orm, Oss. iii 54.z . cuirim
ort de gheasaibh i n-ainm Íosa a innsin, Eochairsg. 90.12 .
geis Ruadháin, R's inderdiction (i.e. against Tara), TD 28.42 .
Hence of the imprecations or ill-luck which follow the dis-
regard of the `geis': geis fort ... da caithe tú biadh, Ériu
65 iii 162.16 . g. ¤ dó ... muna imre fi[th]chill rum-sa, ib. 12 .
cuirim fa gheasaibh atha ┐ aidhmhillte thu ... muna m-beirir
me fein lat, Oss. iii 54.20 . Mór tarla ar an ngeis ngnáthaigh
`the wonted trouble,' TD 10.19 .
(c) something unlawful or forbidden; a wrong: gen gnim
70ṅgessi, SR 3635 . gach duine ghabhas geis eagcóir `an
injustice
,' Dán Dé xxxi § 20 . gach neach dhíbh dá ndéanann
geis, § 21 . óicfher les nach geabtha geis, Ir. Texts ii 32.9 .
? Ocus cath Ocha ... is mó gessib, Arch. Hib. ii 58 § 3 . In
common phrase `cen geis' in poetry gen. as cheville =
75 without wrong, flaw, fault (?): méraid cen galar, cen geiss, Met.
Dinds. iii 230.58 . blad cen gess, MacCarthy 168.1 . gníomh
gan gheis, ML 56.24 . Eoin dalta Crīst cen gheis, Ériu iii
194 § 6. Lism. L. 1286 . A. Ó Dálaigh lv 16. pl. rosderb
cen gesse coemruin without restrictions (?), SR 26 . Rawl.
80 84a43 .
(d) a spell, an incantation: cosna gessi (sic) gráda
with love spells, Met. Dinds. iii 216.2 . fair ... atát búada
is búan-gesse, 230.56 . ērlama ar gurt co ṅgeiss `a strange
ripeness across the field
,' Ériu vii 223.32 . is uaidibh (i.e.
85from the Picts) gach geiss ┐ gach sén ... ┐ gach mana,
Todd Nenn. 124.11 . domsoerad ... ar escaine ar aeir | ar ges
duine ar gliaid, KMMisc. 255 § 17 . rachuaid im munigin a
druidechta ... a gessi ┐ a gentliuchta, LL 222a20 ( TTr. 362 ).
faídhis in inghenradh gesa bhar Ch., RC xv 68.1 (v.l.
draoigheacht). bhfuil leigheas do gheas le fághail? (refers
to Finn's metamorphosis), Oss. vi 16.16 . geasa cruadha
d'bhar g-cur ar feoghadh hard spells causing you to wither,
5 iii 248.16 . ag deánamh conjuration no ag cur na ndeamhan
fá gheasaibh, Keat. ii 5443 . do bhuail a cheann ar chloich
mar gheasaibh ag tuar sonais dó, iii 795 . Nós na mban
bhíos fa gheasaibh `under enchantments,' TD 1.18 . Acts
xix 13 . nach gabhaid geasa ná gnáithiarmharta greim dhe,
10 TSh. 5956 . a chaor bheo nach beag geasa `of mighty power,'
A. Ó Dálaigh xxxv 3.
(e) Exact meaning doubtful: nir'ḟég geiss nó gliaid nó
glond `point of honour,' Ériu vii 223.30 . d'ḟiss gessi na
ṅgním `to prove the good-faith of the deeds,' Ériu vii 222 § 25 .
15 d'ḟis mo genais as cach geis `beyond doubt,' 229 § 74 . nī
dolith (.i. geis) dorōine an Coimdhe gach dūil, ZCP viii
107.12 .