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geis n f. g s. geisi, Trip. 42 , 10.10 . ? gessi, SR 3635 . n p. gessi,
LL 220b32 . geisi, Laws v 352.2 . a p. gesse, SR 26 . geisse
Rawl. 84a43 . geis, IGT Decl. § 14.16 ; § 115 . In early Mod.
85Lit. pl. geasa. Connected with guidid `prays.' Cf. geis .i.
guide, O'C. 2016 ( H.4.22, 36a ); ailges a prayer or request,
the refusal of which brings reproach or ill-luck
. See Thurn.
Heldensage, p. 80 , and cf. Corm. Y 62 . Cf. also oll-geisi
`great demands,' Laws v 352.2 , which glosses ailgeasa. In
older literature generally:
(a) a tabu, a prohibition , the infraction (`coll' `milliud')
of which involved disastrous consequences. Sometimes
5these `gessi' were fortuitous, originating in the fact
that a certain course of action had produced disastrous
results in the past, sometimes they were rules of honour or
prudent abstention, often they rested on deep-seated primi-
tive beliefs and ideas. Such tabus might be attached to a
10rank or office, e.g. the tabus laid on the king of Tara and on
some of the provincial kings, BR 2 - 24 (where they are also
called urgartha `things forbidden,' and opposed to buada
= ada `lucky things' or `things prescribed'). Cf. for opposition
of buada and geasa, Hy Many 13.21 , and of ada and geis,
15 CCath. 1166 . See also Macalister, Temair Breg; Baudiš,
Ériu viii 104 seq. Frazer, Golden Bough, ch. xxvii § 1
(abbr. ed.). They might bind a whole community, TBC
1190 ; RC viii 56.12 . More often they were restrictions
on an individual, either owing to the predictions of druids
20or soothsayers that certain actions would bring ill-luck, or
imposed on him by another who had power to punish their
violation, or who trusted to his sense of honour or his fear.
For a list of Cú Chulainn's gessi see RC xiv 398.
Oen do gessib Ulad labrad ria n-a ríg ┐ óen do gessib in ríg
25labrad riana druidib, LL 263b17 ( MU 12 ). Cf. TBC 4724 .
rochoillsiut ... geissi Conuiri, IT i 130.18 . Commonly as
pred. with copula (expressed or understood) and DO (in later
texts sometimes FOR) of person: is gess damsa ... dám
óenmná do airitin iar fuiniud grene, LU 6986 ( BDD 63 ). geiss
30dó cárna a chomanma do ithi, RC iii 176.17 . fa geis do
Fhothud Cananne ol corma cin chinnu marbu ina fhiadnaise,
RC xiv 242.20 . CRR § 23 . Ogam ... ba ges do dul sech gan
a legad, Auraic. 5943 . is geas damhsa gabháil tré dhorus
éuluighthe, Oss. iii 58.5 . Foll. by CEN to express the idea of
35a positive injunction: is geis dond ríg cen an ro raid B. do
dénam do, LU 10480 . ba do gessib C. cen adall fulachta dia
chathim, RC iii 176.17 . geis fair ... cen chomrac n-oenḟir
do ḟuacra, TBC 1231 . ba geis dissi cen a fothrucud, LL
125a6 . Sometimes gessi were attached to particular places
40or objects: tosōisom iarum clār clē a charpait fri hEmain,
┐ ba geis dī annīsin, TBC² 716 . MR 70.12 , Aisl. MC 15.11 - 14 .
trí geassa robadar for in sléig sin, Cóir An. § 41 ( IT iii 306.6 ).
Cf. Keat. ii 4388 ; TD 19.9 ; Met. Dinds. iii 230.56 . Used
elliptically (of persons): gabais cach a suide ... eter gess ┐
45nemgess those who were tabu and those who were not, BDD
§ 59 = BDD² 525.
(b) a positive injunction or demand: ní fil nech ... béras
sein ... cora ícthar a gesse .i. enchennach Mercúir ... ┐ claideb
Ulcáin, LL 220b26 ( TTr. 257 ). budh ghes do scéith Ch.
50géimedh le foréigin an tí air a mbeidh C.'s shield was bound
to cry out
, Trans. G. S. i iv 96.4 . ba geis di í féin d'fhothragadh
san tobar ... gacha maidne, Keat. ii 3288 . (Cf. for different
construction LL 125a6 supra.) An dara geis gan a ainm
do thabhairt ... d'aonlaoch, Keat. ii 3386 . Gen. a solemn
55adjuration, command or prohibition
from one person to
another with imprecations or threats of misfortune in case
of refusal (the ordinary sense in romantic lit.): do bertsat ...
gesa agus airmberta for Coincculainn, da ttísadh úadh gan
aidmilliudh furre, TBC 2295 . Cf. ITS v 112.22 . Buile Ṡ.
60 102.19 . is olc na geasa do chuiris orm, Oss. iii 54.z . cuirim
ort de gheasaibh i n-ainm Íosa a innsin, Eochairsg. 90.12 .
geis Ruadháin, R's inderdiction (i.e. against Tara), TD 28.42 .
Hence of the imprecations or ill-luck which follow the dis-
regard of the `geis': geis fort ... da caithe tú biadh, Ériu
65 iii 162.16 . g. ¤ dó ... muna imre fi[th]chill rum-sa, ib. 12 .
cuirim fa gheasaibh atha ┐ aidhmhillte thu ... muna m-beirir
me fein lat, Oss. iii 54.20 . Mór tarla ar an ngeis ngnáthaigh
`the wonted trouble,' TD 10.19 .
(c) something unlawful or forbidden; a wrong: gen gnim
70ṅgessi, SR 3635 . gach duine ghabhas geis eagcóir `an
injustice
,' Dán Dé xxxi § 20 . gach neach dhíbh dá ndéanann
geis, § 21 . óicfher les nach geabtha geis, Ir. Texts ii 32.9 .
? Ocus cath Ocha ... is mó gessib, Arch. Hib. ii 58 § 3 . In
common phrase `cen geis' in poetry gen. as cheville =
75 without wrong, flaw, fault (?): méraid cen galar, cen geiss, Met.
Dinds. iii 230.58 . blad cen gess, MacCarthy 168.1 . gníomh
gan gheis, ML 56.24 . Eoin dalta Crīst cen gheis, Ériu iii
194 § 6. Lism. L. 1286 . A. Ó Dálaigh lv 16. pl. rosderb
cen gesse coemruin without restrictions (?), SR 26 . Rawl.
80 84a43 .
(d) a spell, an incantation: cosna gessi (sic) gráda
with love spells, Met. Dinds. iii 216.2 . fair ... atát búada
is búan-gesse, 230.56 . ērlama ar gurt co ṅgeiss `a strange
ripeness across the field
,' Ériu vii 223.32 . is uaidibh (i.e.
85from the Picts) gach geiss ┐ gach sén ... ┐ gach mana,
Todd Nenn. 124.11 . domsoerad ... ar escaine ar aeir | ar ges
duine ar gliaid, KMMisc. 255 § 17 . rachuaid im munigin a
druidechta ... a gessi ┐ a gentliuchta, LL 222a20 ( TTr. 362 ).
faídhis in inghenradh gesa bhar Ch., RC xv 68.1 (v.l.
draoigheacht). bhfuil leigheas do gheas le fághail? (refers
to Finn's metamorphosis), Oss. vi 16.16 . geasa cruadha
d'bhar g-cur ar feoghadh hard spells causing you to wither,
5 iii 248.16 . ag deánamh conjuration no ag cur na ndeamhan
fá gheasaibh, Keat. ii 5443 . do bhuail a cheann ar chloich
mar gheasaibh ag tuar sonais dó, iii 795 . Nós na mban
bhíos fa gheasaibh `under enchantments,' TD 1.18 . Acts
xix 13 . nach gabhaid geasa ná gnáithiarmharta greim dhe,
10 TSh. 5956 . a chaor bheo nach beag geasa `of mighty power,'
A. Ó Dálaigh xxxv 3.
(e) Exact meaning doubtful: nir'ḟég geiss nó gliaid nó
glond `point of honour,' Ériu vii 223.30 . d'ḟiss gessi na
ṅgním `to prove the good-faith of the deeds,' Ériu vii 222 § 25 .
15 d'ḟis mo genais as cach geis `beyond doubt,' 229 § 74 . nī
dolith (.i. geis) dorōine an Coimdhe gach dūil, ZCP viii
107.12 .

1 géis n i,f. a swan: geissi, Thes. i 2 ( Reg. 102b ). gnantes (leg.
nantes) .i. gēissi, O'Mulc. 383 . īall gēisi, TBC² 710 . ēill
20ṅgēisi, 691 . ba samalta fri eill ngéisi ic snige dar mag, RC xiv
416 § 32 . elta do gésib gela, TBC 1327 . gilithar gési, 5633 .
gilidir fúan ṅgéssa, TBFr. 104 ( LL 249a23 ). gilit[h]er gés,
CS 176.y = FM i 540.14 (géis). Auraic. 3960 (geiss); 5320
(gési). gilithir geis no canach, ZCP xiii 256.21 . taitnem
25bruit géise fri gréin, Ériu ix 47 § 15 . irricht da géise, v
208.2 . co ndath gessi, Anecd. i 58 § 62 . dath na géisi ar a
gúaluinn, IGT Decl. ex. 1217 ; 1908 . glór gach géisi, Arch.
Hib. i 93.4 . secht ngéise dég, SG 249.43 . tene saignéin
do mharbhadh na ngéisi ┐ na ccadhan, FM ii 680.14 . batar
30cadain for clár clíu | clar ṅdes gési for suidiu, LL 331c22 =
ZCP viii 333.15 (Laud) = Rawl. 158.2 . (geisse). Of a
chieftain, TD 16.41 ; 3.30 . Measgra D. 13.24 .

2 géis n roar: géis gairbheasa, Measgra D. 5.19 .

géisecht n ā,f. (géisid) roaring, bellowing: ni lamad míl
35firend géisecht bud airdde na gúasacht aci-side, TBC 6126.

géisechtach xsee gésachtach.

géisechtán n(géisecht) o,m. a peacock: do chaitheadh ...
slinnen muici no geisechtan (sic leg.), ITS xix 72.18 .

géisemail adj(géis) i swan-like: le h-eol ngleigheal ngeiseamhail,
40 Mann. and Cust. iii 58.41 .

? geisen ind(in rhetoric): la dā muic midísen goss geisen cen os
mesed, Corm. Y 397 = 1052 = goss gessan (LB).

géisid vintrans. cries out, roars, shrieks. Of persons: ro-
gesestar in druagh geim n-aichthidhe, Anecd. ii 51.1 ; ib. 12 .
45 Geisid fót brú búrithar bé find, IT i 69.11 . Of animals (esp.
of lowing of a cow or bellowing of a bull): géssid bó dib,
LL 222b35 ( TTr. 406 ). intan rogessi a gaimmain [leg.
gamain, ed.], RC xii 108 § 165 . nach géim no geisitis na
tairb, LL 165a50 . Met. Dinds. iv 72.1 . geisidh damh
50dilenn, Acall. 850 . gesis buar, FM i 178.17 . ra ngeiseand
bleigmil do muir, Anecd. i 18.12 . co ngés badb, LL 146b9
( PRIA 3 Ser. iii 540.18 ). Of inanimate objects (esp. weapons,
etc.) groans, creaks: a ra géised scíath Conch., ra géistis
sceith Ulad uile, TBC 5986 . gesfid scíath ria m-beim bailc,
55 TFerbe 104 . a sciath a ló gáidh nir' gheis (: éis), Acall. 864 .
Cf. Todd Lect. iv 88.1 . ni ro gesistar roth nó fonnud, TBC
772 . amail ro geis in carpat, ib. p. 629, n. 4 . geisidh lec uar
aighreta, Anecd. ii 24 § 10 . níra géis ... in chomla, MU²
881 . rogéis brú ina mná, Hib. Min. 72 § 5 (= rogeissi a
60bru na mna v.l.). Of the Lia Fáil: nogesed fo cech rig
nogebad, Erinn, RC xii 56 § 3 . rogēsi Fāl fad chossaibsiu:
al-līn ngēmind rogēisi is é lín rígh bias ditt sīl-su for Hērinn,
ZCP xiii 372.24 . LL 90a15 ; 30a58 . Keat. i 100.57 , 59 .
Of sounds in nature: dogeisetar tri primtonna Erenn, IT
65 ii2 141.479 . CRR § 35 . geisid cuan | ós buindi rúad Rinn
dá bharc, Acall. 843 . gesed ritsu Liphi Luirc, Cog. 126.15 .
geisidh os chailli C. (of the wind), MacCarthy 120.7 . do-
gheisedar na garbhchnuic, CF 738.
Vn. géimm, q.v.; also géised: geiseadh, TBC 6126 (v.l.
70to géisecht, q.v.). rocluined geissiud ┐ gair na cuislinde,
ZCP. xix 118.32 ( D iv 2. 53rb42 ).

géith: ind glass cuiland arcass geith (: glais-leith), IT iii 101
§ 180.

1 gel adj o,ā fair, white, bright, shining: luaichtidiu .i. aittoitech
75.i. giul (gl. fulgida), Ml. 40d4 . geal (gl. albus), Ir. Gl. 659 .
O'Mulc. 632 , 690 . gel, i.e. gelu ōn reod, Corm. Y 680 . geal
.i. caindleach, Lec. Gl. 477 . geal .i. cain, Stowe Gl. 417 . Of
garments: co caslaib lín gil, FA § 4 . lenti gela, Hog. Nenn.
60.3 . Of complexion, limbs, etc.: a dá ngrúaid ngormgela,
80 BDD 100 d . TD 8.19 . fa réaltainn chorcra an chnis ghil,
25.16 . il-láim ragil, RC xx 10 § 3 . gela det, IT i 132.36
( LU 10849 ). Of metals, weapons, etc.: do argut gil white
silver
, AU i 464.z (an. 946 ). Cog. 94.6 . na gcolg slisgheal,
TD 9.23 . Of the colour of the winds: in derg ocus in buide
85itir ngaith ngil ocus corcra, Laws i 26.34 Comm. , cf. SR 57 .
Of the sun: grían gel, Fél. Feb. 10. Prol. 4 . Of scenery:
gort geal nach bī fa barr a field lying fallow (?), Arch. iii 236 § 5 .
(Cf. geal `stubble,' O'R. ) tulach géiggeal `brightly-foliaged,'
TD 4.17 . Of animals and inanimate objects: in n-elta do
gésib gela, TBC 1327 . each geal, ZCP viii 220 § 27 . tige
snechtaidi márgela, RC ix 476.6 . amal olaind ngil, PH 6200 .
na ceirtli gela, Laws i 152.19 Comm. bairgen geal, ZCP
5 vi 283.25 . bhí sé geal (of manna), Ex. xvi 31 . Fig. cona
cléir gil gríanaig, Fél.² Nov. 1 . a ṅanmann it gela illustrious ,
May 19 . dúan gel, IGT Decl. ex. 354 . Equative: gilidir
casnaide white as wood-shavings, Ériu iv 94 § 13a . gilithir
tonn, tic dar trácht, 96 § 17 . gilidir snechta n-oen-aidche,
10 TTr. 1530 ( LL 237b14 ). Cf. IT i 119.25 . gilithir fírinni ic
flaith, Ériu ix 47 § 17 . Compar.: airdri ... as giliu grianuibh,
Ériu ii 98.3 . drech fa gili inā gach grūadh, ZCP vii 304 § 9 .
Used as subst., whiteness, bright-coloured surface: slabrad
... dar gel a gualand, TTr. 1545 ( LL 237b34 ). geal a ngríos-
15ghruaidheadh, TD 21.43 .
Compds. ¤ argat: slabrad gelarggit, TTr. 1545 . bretnass
gelairgit, RC xxiv 200.4 . ¤ bán candidus: cleirchén gelbán,
cáin a lí, LL 37b54 ( Auraic. 5203 ). Fél. Ep. 287 . ¤ báne pure
whiteness: is argit gel ara gelbane, LL 371a42 . ¤ blad ` bright
20 renown ,' FM ii 752.11 . ¤ Bóinn, IGT Decl. ex. 1 . ¤ brecc
variegated with white, RC xxi 399 § 46 . ¤ briathrach fair-
spoken (?): geilbriathrach cach flaitheamain, Arch. iii 230.139 .
¤ buide: Niall g. `Tawny N.' AU ii 368.17 . ¤ cloch hail-
stone , CF Eg. 13 . ¤ cnes white skin, TBC 5568 . RC ix
25490.6 . CCath. 4671 . TFerbe 26 . ¤ cnesta white-skinned:
corp g., TBC 5309 . ¤ corcra rosy: cossa gelchorcrai, RC ix
490.4 . dá ngrúad ng., BDD 100 d, n. 8 . ¤ corp, RC ix 490,
n. 4 . ¤ crécht a white scar (= vestigia cicatricis), Lat. Lives
60.1 . foillechta in g. ib. 47 . ¤ cruithnecht white wheat,
30 Aisl. MC 37.10 . ¤ derg bright red, crimson (?): brat g., BDD
114 . ¤ dét white tooth , ML 62.19 . ¤ féle pure modesty (?):
friar Coimdid co. ṅgeḟéle, SR 8075 . ¤ gainmide white-sanded ,
CF Eg. 8 . ¤ gairthe bright ruddy , Dánta Grádha², 70.11 .
¤ gart, SR 2375 . ¤ glass bright blue , LL 230b28 ( TTr. 992 ).
35 ¤ glór clear voice: Filistín ... línib gelglor (: dermor), SR
5407 . ¤ gnúis fair face , SR 4334. 4584 . ¤ grúad: coṅglonnaib
gelgrúad coemrád, SR 2750 . ¤ iarnn steel: glais geilia[i]rnd,
Ériu ii 4.13 . ¤ maidm a bloodless victory, FM iv 752.8 .
¤ mérach white-fingered: a lama gasda gelmeracha, ZCP x
40305.17 . CF Eg. 48 . AS 148 . ¤ miad stainless honour (?), Laws
i 10.29 . ¤ sciath a white shield , AS 231 , 1564 . Rawl.
B 506, f. 27c ( O'D. 2293 ). in eret bus leir gelsciath ar muir,
Ériu xi 98.16 . ¤ tesc a silver dish: .x. ngeiltesca (gl. .i.
míasa airgit), Ériu ii 4.14 . ¤ torad pure profit (?): mar gel-
45toradh, BB 279a1 = mar ghlanthoradh, BR 216.12 . ¤ trácht
white strand, CF 492 . Fig. (of a man's body) tar cech g. don
rigfeindig, Acall. 6201, n . ¤ tulchach having fair hills: fán
dtír ... gealtolchaigh, Misc. Celt. Soc. 352.y . an ḟuinn
ghealtolchaigh, TD 16.10 .