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25 2 ní subst. n. and m. a thing . The transition from indef. pron.
to subst. is gradual and begins already in O.Ir., cf. mór ní (in
Glosses) a great thing, gen. used adverbially = greatly: mór
ní bes n-adblamu foir ar soírad, Wb. 2d14 (greatly will our
salvation be readier on him
= how much readier will he be to
30save us
). mór ní as dénti ní airriu how much the more is some-
thing to be done for them
, 15a23 . cia fíu .i. mór ní (gl. quam
folld. by an adj.), Ml. 17b13 , cf. 138c14 , 140b9 , 146d1 , Wb.
25a25 . gl. quanto, Ml. 80a5 ; quanta, 82c4 , cf. Wb. 16b12 . Pre-
ceded by indef. pron. adj.: na ní ararogart som anything which
35he has forbidden
, Wb. 5c23 . na nní robu thol dó do frithoircnib
whatever injuries he wished (to do), Ml. 33a18 . condomroib . . .
na ní ara ṁbáigiu whatever I contend for, Fél. Ep. 360. Cf.
also the compd. nephní nothing (see neimní). The transition
was further aided by confusion with the O.Ir. demonstr.
40pron. í, in neut. with art. a n-í (siu, sin) this, that , which was
later analysed as a-ní; aní is common in Mid.Ir. both as
demonstr. and introducing rel. clause, being used indifferently
with the forms anní, in ní.
As subst. in d s. after a prep. the form ní supersedes O.Ir.
45 neuch (neoch), which is reserved for use as an indef. pron.
(see nech III above). g s. neich, later neith (already in PH).
Dual and pl. forms occur: n du. dá ní , LL 110a30 . PH 8392.
g du. dá neche , CCath. 1008. n a p. neiche, later neithe (already
in PH). neithinna, BCC 150.25 . Mod.Ir. nídh ( ní ), g s. neith and
50 neithe.
A thing (matter, item, fact, circumstance) in wide sense, less
definite and concrete than rét; employed in many cases in
the same way as 1 ní but with more definite signification.
Rarely accompanied by an adj. of quality: ni gua ēm a crand
55. . . atchuaid in fer-sa a false thing is the tree of which this man
has told
, Ériu ii 120 § 59 (Tenga Bithnúa). a ḟlaith Cermna can
ni clé `without partiality', CRR 54. mór-ní do cenelchi a great
part of the kindred
, CCath. 804. Cf. acht Issu de doinib | as
amram ni genair the most wonderful thing (being) born of men,
60 Fél.² Sept. 24 ( Rawl. 505 ), perh. an inversion for: ní as amram
génair.
Preceded by art. or pron. adj.: ni hingnath anni sin, Hib.
Min. 5.154 (perh. = a n-í). ba saeth leissi in ní sin, IT i 124.24 .
adfes do M. ind ní this (fact) was told to M., Mon. Tall. 34. ro
65fitir cech ní for bith, aingil oc indisi cech neich do, PH 1976.
cethri rigshuide déc . . . co mbet fo thorud cech ni dib each
one of them
, 1255 . forémdid nach ní dó he was not able to do
anything to him
, 4891 . d'fhoillsiughadh an neith seo to demon-
strate this fact
, Keat. i 224.56 (an neithe-si v.l.). In late lang.
70the sense anything is rendered by the compd. aen- (én-) ní :
adubairt . . . nach d'iarraidh ēn-neth ele tanic, ZCP vi 63.30 .
d'iarraidh aoin-neithe ar Ghuaire, Keat. iii 981.
Folld. by rel. clause: fil ann in ní ṡāsas cech slog, LB 109b2
( MacCarthy 43.3 ) = fail ann ni, SR 485. o'tconnairc . . . an
75ní forcoemnaca[i]r ann, PH 1201. olc in ní dorónsabar, 2933 .
ind ni dognim-se, noco tuig-se cose, 5251 . in ní buan uasal do
reicc tar cend in neith nach anand, 7585 . ro fallsighed dō
cach ní no biad iarsin, RC xxiv 192.2 . as lat gach ní chuinghe,
ZCP viii 109 § 1. dia tabairt fén ┐ cech aein nō cech neich bud
80leo (= sua omnia seque dantes), Lat. Lives 89.11 . Used like Lat.
quicquid: cenmotha in ní ro marbad díb besides those who were
killed
, PH 6327. hi cinaid ineich ro millead uime those who
were destroyed
, Ériu viii 175 y = indeich, ib. 17 . dechmad an
neich dorigne sim a tenth of what he did, BColm. 104.14 .
85Used to anticipate the obj. of a vb. (generally one of seeing
or hearing): co cualatar aní na ndochum. boscairi na n-ech
they heard something approaching (namely) . . ., LU 10194.
confacatar inní in macan beg, ZCP v 502.29 . conaccai ani
dothaett an Satan isa teach, Ériu v 120.25 . In older Ir. ní
alone is thus used, see IT i 137.28 , 145.14 . TBC 2448.
5In appos. to a sent. or statement: fodaim guin, ni mou
gabail, lasinni is aes ingine macdacht insin along with that
(= besides, moreover) he is of marriageable age
(i.e. still young),
TBC² 362 = lasanní, LU 4850. condorchair Dond bó dinni
ro marbad Fergal `since F. had been killed', RC xxiv 52 § 11.
10 on ní no chathaíged frim co menic ros-fóglaim ocumm mu
[sic leg.] gnímu-se from fighting frequently against me, he has
learnt
, PH 1790.
In sense matter, concern, interest, etc.: ni har ni sōn, ol F.
that makes no difference to us (?), TBC² 363. `Cidh as ní dō
15so?' ol siat. `Bās a dhlighedh' ol M. `what is the thing for
him?' (= what is to be his fate?)
, Marco P. 65. ni roibhe ní
áirithe ag O nDomnaill orra O'D. had no special claim on them,
L. Chl. Suibhne § 43. In sense of substance, possessions: do
dligh duine ní da ní | don tí dobhir uile é a man should give
20some of his goods
, Dán Dé xxix 29 . táinig béin neith dod
námhuid (= thy enemy has suffered loss of his possessions),
vii 14 . pl. fil nechtar dá neche forsna coraigthib-sea atcim-
sea these dispositions (of the stars) imply one or other of two
things
, CCath. 1008. tri neichi treabara `three secure things',
25 Laws iv 212.13 . o'tchualae P. na nechi-sin, PH 2905. aderait
na heolaig na nethe-si, 7794 . ní fedamar-ne 'n ar nethe fír é
sin whether they were real things, Maund. 257. tuigsi na neichí
spiradallta, BB 16b23 . cūis tindscanta na raed n-anaithnich
┐ cūis aithnigthi na n[e]ichead n-egsamail, ZCP xii 294.18 .
30 ag so laoidh . . . do shuidhiughadh ar na neithibh ceudna
to confirm the things just stated, Keat. i 208.8 .
In med. texts the pl. is freq. used with adj. to denote medi-
cines or remedies (in imitation of Lat. neut. pl.): neithe com-
suidigthi = composita, n. ¤ degbalaid = aromatica, etc. le
35neithib glanus an cenn, Rosa Angl. 262.10 (see index).

3 ní adv. of negation not , used with vbs. For use as copula see is.
Folld. by conjunct form of vb. In O.Ir. sometimes gemi-
nates initial consonant of vb.: ni-rrobe, Wb. 14c31 . ni-
ssluinde, Sg. 66b18 . Cf. ni ténat (= ní ddénat), Wb. 24a25 ,
40and the cop. forms nítam, níta, nítat, etc., where t = unlenited
d (see ZCP i 4 ).
Infixes obj. pron.; with 3 s. m. and n. pron. ní-a- > ní,
the gender of the pron. being indicated by treatment of
follg. initial of the vb., e.g. ní beir does not carry; ní-mbeir
45(= ní-an-beir) does not carry him; ní bheir (= ní-a-bheir) does
not carry it
. ni-mbaí suidi, SR 6399 (d s m.), cf. 6384 . ni-n-
anais thou wilt not save him, 5999 . nis-gluais, 5107 (a s f.). ni
chēl I will not hide it, 2886 . ní cheil, Wb. 5b5 (cf. ní ceil, 4d16 ,
without pron.). ní thabur dit ón I give not this to thee, Sg. 179a2 .
50 nir-tora diliu will not reach us, SR 2747.
In Mid.Ir. ní seems to lenite the initial cons. of follg.
active vb., in MSS. generally expressed in case of tenues: ni
chēlat a márgnima, LU 8953 ( FB 71 ). ni choemstais, SR 932.
ni chuingem flaith, 1219 . ni ḟarggaib múr, CRR 4. ni ḟil,
55 TBC 59. PH 1766. ni thanic, SR 2556. ni tharda fornn digail,
2727 . ni therna, 5070 . ní thairmescad, LU 8566 ( FB 42 ). So
with pass. vb., contrary to later usage: ni thardad, LU 9169
( FB 90 ), cf. ní trebtar, Fél. Prol. 176 (threbthair v.l.).
Occas. prefixes h- to a follg. initial vowel: ni haithgēn, SR
60 1689. ni himmēr, 1541 . ní himmertha, TBC 2874.
Folld. by ro- form of vb., níro often becomes nír: nir
leicsetar, SR 6421. nir fhétsat, PH 2079 , etc.
Used (a) to negate a vb. in an independent sent. with all
forms of indic. mood.
65(b) with the subj. in an independent sent. to express desire
or command (in place of the imper. with ná): ní intamlae, gl.
ne aemuleris, Ml. 56c13 . ní dene (ne facias), 56c15 . ni taibre
grád for nech, Wb. 29a22 . ni dérsid for soíri (ne libertatem . . .
detis), 20b10 . ním-thomoldid do not goad me, 20d4 . ni imthesid
70cen imdéicsin, 22c4 . ní dechais . . . co ríg nIsrahél, SR 5951 ,
cf. PH 3739. niro . . . oslaice dorus na huamu-sa ┐ niro urchoite
do nech, PH 352. niro techta occut feirg, 4094 .
(c) exceptionally in some other cases. Introducing a de-
pendent noun-clause, instead of ná (nach): is follus . . . ni
75dligthi comardad fris, FB 41 , where, however, the second sent.
may be regarded as in apposition to follus. asbertatar . . . ní
thardad in cauradmir, 90 ( LU 9169 ). ispert sí ni targad leó
that she would not go with them, Fianaig. 6.16 .
In a few cases in early poetry ní folld. by inf. dat. pron.
80seems to take the place of the subst. vb.: nim-huain I have
no leisure
, SR 1185. ar nin-fissid frisbered omnu huain `for
not to us is the Knower
' (= we have no longer the Knower), ACC
16 ( RC xx 164 ).

4 ní 1 pl. pron. see .

85 ? 5 ní n evil? ni .i. olc ut est: arsaidh ni dicenn .i. astar olc do
neoch a nglam dicend, H. 3.18, 61b ( O'C. 79 ), from Bretha
Neimed; same citation in O'Dav. 32 , where Stokes translates
`the "d." avenges something'. Cf. níe.