the thirteenth letter of the Irish alphabet, is not found in
the early Ogham alphabet: ni bi p isin Gaedilc,
. Indo-germanic p when initial or between
vowels disappeared in the Celtic languages. Consequently all
5words beginning with p in Old and Mid. Irish are derivatives
from Latin, British, Romance, and occas. Scandinavian
sources. In the oldest Irish loan-words from Latin (which
came chiefly through a British medium), initial p > c (q), e.g.
cland, corcur, Cothraige (Irish name of St. Patrick) < Lat.
planta, purpur, Patricius. When Ireland came into direct
contact with Latin Christianity and culture, Latin p remained
in loan-words, and subsequently p was legitimized as an Irish
letter and was called pin in the Ogham alphabet,
The account given of p in the
Auraicept 1269 fg.
15is obscure; apparently it was regarded as the softening (bocad,
bogad, a term expld. in Gloss. as unvoicing) of b (acc. to
, some Latin grammarians held that bh was written for p,
a view denied by others). Later it received the name peith or
peith bhog (
.); O'Reilly explains peith as =
beith(e), name of the birch-tree and in Ogham of the letter b,
hence peith bhog = `soft b'. (In Hogan Luibh. and Dinneen,
peith = dwarf elder.)
In early Irish orthography the letter p, when initial and in
the groups mp, rp, and pp, stands for the voiceless labial
25explosive p; medial between vowels it generally represents
the voiced labial b which replaces it in later notation (O.Ir.
opair = mod. obair). Late Mid.Ir. scribes occas. use p in-
correctly to express medial or final lenited b, e.g. gapaid, ro
gap = gabaid (gaibid), ro gab.
30In lenition p becomes `f, in early MSS. often written ph
(occas. fp). In O.Ir. lenition of p may have been optional,
Thurn. Hdb. § 231
Initial p and b somet. interchange; for exx. see 2 pell,
2 pellec, píast, plae, plaesc, poc(c), práca.
35several words beginning either with b or p, the latter form
being colloquial (`vulgo').
Initial p also interchanges somet. with f in Mid.Ir. and
later; in some cases p is the older form (see pailm, pairche,
1 pit, promaid), in others f (e.g. O.Ir. fetarlicce > Mid.Ir.
Irish words beginning with p are prob. all originally loan-
words; those of the oldest period are borrowed mainly from
Latin, those of later times from Romance sources through the
medium at first (from the end of the 12th to the latter part of
45the 14th cent.) of Anglo-French, later of English.
i,f. (prob. formed from Eng. pave)
Ezek. xl 18
. as coinne na pábhála,
Eg. Gl. 510
. Cf. pagáil.
: obair phábhalta do chloich shaphir,
Exod. xxiv 10
nlater pácsa (páxa) (Lat. pax) g
s. pács, pácsa.
? páxsa m. (g
IGT Dec. § 2.28
. ? g
s. clár págsa,
A kiss, chiefly in relig. lit. of the `pax' or kiss exchanged
between fellow-worshippers; also of that given in attestation,
55homage, etc. Indoitseann papa do ordaig in paxa ar dereadh
. tiagait do pax maith brathre `they receive
the salutation of good brethren',
Ériu vii 140 § 4
sis d'indsaigid mo pax (i.e. to kiss my feet),
= mu pháx,
; mo pacs,
BCC § 211
. iar ttabairt
60paxa dona braithribh dó,
, cf. tabair póicc dona
. amal dosbeir pax don lebar d'eis a éthig,
). dobeir páxa don tṡéla kisses the seal,
Marco P. 86
f. the act of paving
: a hurlár arna phagail do mharmair,
. The g is prob. lenited, cf. pábáil.
o,m. (Lat. paganus) a pagan, heathen
: pl. ro teichsetar
. i tempul na pagán,
. dee na
. gennti .i. cenél na pagán,
Ériu ii 196.5
; as subst. o,m. a pagan
. righi na
Marco P. 176
= r. na paganach
. i n-aimsir
. ar murbad morain dona paga-
RC xix 18 § 6
f. see págántacht.
io,m. a pagan
: uathad na Cristaide, at ile na Págán-
. do marbad na Págandai,
. indatt Cristaide
no indat pagandai?
Anecd. iii 71.13
: doíne paganta,
. na rígha
Fl. Earls 114.2
. do dhaoinibh págánta,