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1 roth n o,m. (cf. W. rhod) d s. i routh , Wb. 11a3 (a primâ manu).
n p. roith, rotha. roth m. (g s. n p. -a), IGT Dec. § 95 (p. 127.24) .
In early Mod.Ir. n s. rotha occurs (Bedell, Eccles. xii 6 ), pl.
rothadha ( Ezek. i 20 ; FM).
60(a) something circular, or wheel-shaped : roth a rotá .i. ōn
c[h]ūairt, Corm. Y 1087 (a false etymology; the word is
native, see Ped. i 33 ). roth, gl. rota, Ir. Gl. 227 . roth cruind
forsa-ndenat na cerda in[na] lestrai, gl. rotae, Ml. 18b4 . dona
rothib (gl. rotis), Gild. Lor. 119 . Esp. (a) a wheel (of a vehicle):
65 droch .i. roth carpait, O'Mulc. 350 . roth nó fonnud nó fertas
. . . in charpait, TBC 772 . du. nechtar in dá roth (.i. fonnod)
iarndae in carpait, LU 5180 ( TBC² 701 ), where it is used of
the outer rim or tyre of a wheel. hi carput dā rath, Hy. v 84
(metri gratiâ). Pl. nom thescfat roith iarnaide in charpait,
70 TBC 1340 . dollotar rotha iarnaidi in carpait hi talmain, 2640 .
ruamghail na roth, CCath. 1834 . ni bhí in cathair . . . gin míli
roth for fenaibh ┐ damhuibh ┐ asanaibh ac togluasacht ṡida,
Marco P. 70 . ro fucctha . . . rothadha faoí dia fhógluasacht,
FM vi 1980.10 . Meton. the vehicle itself: nír imthige fri roth
75`do not race against a wheel (i.e. chariot )', Tec. Corm. § 19.9 .
ag dol i roth isin aier, FM a. 553 = in curru suó, RC xvii 142
(Tig.). leth ruith ┐ leth gobra half [of them] in chariots and
half on horseback
(?), BDD 51 (of advancing warriors). Of
other wheels: lúathidir roth [m]búali, BDD 127 , cf. FB 87
80(a mill-wheel turned by water, see ZCP i 94 , 98 ). Of a wheel
for torture: roth mor . . . ┐ bera áithe ┐ clóidbe . . . in a medon,
PH 1204 .
(b) a disc or sphere : rotha grene ┐ escai, Marco P. 68 .
doimchellat na renda roth cruinn in domuin, Ériu ii 106 § 19 .
85 ardruiri ind roith rigda ail | garg-ruide fri croich coem-nair,
SR 1077 ; i.e. of the circular universe? but 1078 suggests
the circular panel at the juncture of the cross-arms, on which
in Irish high-crosses the Crucifixion was often depicted; cf.
.xx. pars inna cuairt-roth `circle-wheel' (of the centre of the
cross), Thes. ii 255.4 ( Stowe Miss. 65b ). gu Rīg na roth, ZCP
5 vii 304 § 17 . a gac[h] rotha do rothaib [rothaidhibh v.l.] na
firmaminti spheres , ITS xiv 68.7 . in roth árd . . . reithes grian
(of the Zodiac), MR 112.20 . See also rothchles(s) below.
(c) a circular brooch, wheel-brooch : atcondarc roth n-óir isin
brut ara bélaib, BDD 99 . roth creda sin brutt, TBC 5401 =
10 delcc, St. cu ndechutar do chunchid roith croi for Aed mac
Ainmirech .i. delg nos-facbad cech rig diaroile, LB 238cb23 ,
cf. RC xx 421 . a chneas-léine . . . gona teóra roth . . . do
dhearg-ór, ML 110.29 . roth credha .i. dealg, O'Cl.
(d) in follg. exx. appar. of circular torques or fillets en-
15circling neck or head: rotha derga tentide for sírlasad imma
mbrágtib, FA 28 . atchíu [a] ardroth n-imnaisse | imma chend,
BDD 100 (e) . Cf. cóicroth óir . . . úas cach ae, 91 . Of (? con-
centric) circles traced as ornament on a shield: dondscīath . . .
co cōic roth ōir co mbil findruine fair, TBC² 2045 . cromscīath
20. . . co trī radhaib ro-dēnma, 2339 . Cf. the story of Cuchu-
lainn's shield, Ériu v 72 and xi 54 , Macalister Archaeol. of
Irel. 146 .
(e) a loop, noose : atnaig a cend i ruth gait in the noose of a
gad
, Met. Dinds. iii 252.127 (see note). Hence prob. O'Cl.:
25 ruth ghaid .i. rathán gadraigh. ruth `a chain, link ', O'R.
(f) in TBC 5590 fg . (Stowe) used of movable war-machines
mounted on wheels: tri rúada rot[h]a, 5591 . ar cach roth nét
dona teoraibh rothaibh, 5604 .
(g) roth rámach `rowing (?) wheel', name of a fabulous
30 flying-machine , see rámach. The term roth may denote the
circular body, or car, of the machine.
(h) fig. uses: roth creth `circle of science', RC xx 44 (ACC
Introd.) = roth cráed (.i. filidecht), LU 354 . roth soithe (name
of a metre?), IT iii 36 § 18 , also called r. ¤ soadh (= suadh?),
35 ib. i roth na réime aimseardha revolution , TSh. 537 . rochtain
. . . go roth uachtrach urchóide the topmost revolution (i.e.
zenith) of iniquity , Hackett xliii 42 .
Compds. ¤ chles(s) n name of a feat or game of skill : LU 9291 .
FB 30 . Ériu iv 30.11 . oc cur in rothclessa, FB 64 (where it
40is described; the `roth' was appar. a disc or quoit hurled into
the air). ¤ gal: tucsatar . . . craithed neim-meirtnech do roth-
gail ro-tren `twirling' (of wrestlers), MR 256.5 . ¤ impód: ag
roithled ┐ ag roth-impod aroile twirling , MR 256.18 . ruathar
. . . ag roith-lingeadh orra wheeling round them (?), TSh. 6635 .
45 roith-néll a whirling cloud (i.e. dizziness ), MR 270.2 . ? ¤ richt
wheel-shape, circular form : Tech Duind . . . rothricht ré lan
ler fethaigthi, IT iii 22 § 66 = rodrict, 49 § 88 (LL), ródrícht,
ib. (BB), rath righ, 98 § 161 ; Meyer Bruchst. i § 133 emends:
rāith rīg.

50 2 roth adj o,ā. word of uncertain meaning: cath roth `renowned
battle
', Ériu v 242.182 . dí bliadain Rúdraige ruith, LL 127a40
( MacCarthy 150 § 2 , `R. the champion'), = R. in ruith, BB. As
subst.? eo Rosa, roth ruirech recht flatha, LL 200a1 . Cf. the
npr. m. Roth, TBC² 1372 .

55 rothach n an attack, onslaught ? in rothach ┐ in ruathar ron-uc
fon sluag, Ériu v 240.150 . Cf. rotach and 2 ruthach.

?rothaigthe: ind in ruiri rothaigthi, YBL 181a14 ( SG 254.32 ).

?rothail: ind cuairt cethrochair . . . | nirbo drech-rothail dermár,
SR 4226 (of the Tabernacle).

60 rothán n o,m. (dim. of 1 roth) a small wheel : lúathidir rothán
ṁbúaled a mill-wheel , BDD 107 . ó rothan na carpat, Cóir
Anm. 13 . ? ban rothan (name of a metrical stanza), IT iii 101
§ 181 .

róthar xsee rúathar.

65 ? rothches ind ré cen ḟoghlaim, | cāch oc rothces (prophecy of a
degenerate age), ZCP viii 196.7 .

rothmol n o,m. (compd. of roth and mol), also later in the
corrupt forms rothmual (acc. to Zimmer ZCP i 100 a confla-
tion of rothmol and roth buale, in acc. generally r. ¤ mbuale)
70and rothnuall.
(a) literally the wheel of a water-mill (roth being the hori-
zontal wheel, mol the vertical shaft: amal bis rothmol for
luth | tria bithu for bith-imputh, SR 199 (describing rotation
of the seventh heaven).
75(b) a rapid whirling movement, gyration , ascribed in Irish
heroic saga to warriors, esp. Cuchulainn (to whom all follg.
exx. from TBC refer), when labouring under intense excite-
ment; see Zimmer ZCP i 81 fg . and cf. the rotatory feats of
the animals in the Imram Maíle Dúin ch. viii ( RC ix 470 ,
80 Anecd. i 55 § 40 , § 41 ). Later the literal sense was lost sight
of, and the word was used (always with the adj. corcorda,
corcra and in the same stereotyped phrase) as a conventional
description of a state of anger or excitement. doringni
rothmol corcarda de o mulluch co talmain, TBC 1256 , cf.
85 1370 (rothmól) = rothnuall, St. dorigni rothmúal corcra
o mulluch co talmain, TBC² 1842 ( LU 6356 ) = rothnúall
TBC 2496 , St., H. 2.17 , rothmhael, Eg. 93 . dorindeadh
rothnuall corcra de [o bhonn go bathis], IT ii2 129.187 . ITS
i 150.16 (rothnúaill), 86.23 (rónuaill). dorónadh rothnúall
corcra óa bhonn góa bherradh dhe (of S. Molaise), Ériu v
576.22 . dorinnedh rothnúall corcra di o bonn goa bathais (of
S. Lasair), 105.4 . See also TD 4.2 ; 8.25 .
(c) a scrimmage, mêlée or massacre ? bid Mag Rath o'n
rothmal-sa `it shall be called M.R. from this prosperous
battle
' (?), MR 174.9 (prob. a play on words roth and rath).
10(d) in form rothnuall, the name of a bardic metre of which
there were several varieties: rothnuall bairdni, IT iii 23.15 ;
91 § 131 . rathnuall bairdne, 14 § 32 , 44 § 58 , 91 § 130 . rath-
nuaill, 91 § 128 , § 129 . See ib. p. 141 .