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rithim(m) n m. (Lat. rhythmus) rhythm; strictly of irregular or
85 free verse , acc. to O'Dav. 1219 : amhail roghabh rithim
arradh Mettuir, as amhlaidh atāid na baird . . . arradh
na ffiledh, Ériu ziii 42.5 ( O'Dav. 47 ). bidh binnius co certus
isin metur ┐ binnius cen certus isin rithim; i.e. `rithim' as dis-
tinguished from `metur' or metrical verse is rhythm without
strict number, but this distinction is not always borne out.
5 tria rithimm doronad int imon-sa, LB 237b12 ( LH 65.55 , of
the Altus Prosator). tre rithim doronai ocus se sillaba dec in
cech line, LH 84.2 . Ambrosius . . . is e doroine hunc imnum
. . . tria rithim dorónad, Fél.² clvii x (of the Gloria in excelsis
Deo). molad . . . iarna dhenum tria rithimm, Lism.L. 2673 .
10 amail tuirmhim im rithim no im rioth úamha no certusa, Leb.
Gab. i 58 n. 2 (of metrical verse).

rithlerg n ā,f. (cf. retoiric) an impromptu composition in free
verse (without metre but with alliteration), see ZCP i 132 ,
133 . do chum in clereach . . . in rithleirg mbig-sea `rhetoric',
15 RC xx 45 n. 5 ( YBL 72b13 ). gonadh ann isbeart C. in rithlearg
`impromptu', CRR² 80.19 . laidh no roscudh no rithlearg, MR
92.4 . gréas do rithlearg, rosg nó rann, Content. xii 5 . gan
laoidh fhúar rithlearg dha reic, L. Cl. A. Buidhe 258.7 . g p.
gan rádha rithlearg molta, Ériu viii 192.25 . rithlearg `a kind
20of extemporaneous verse
', P. O'C.

rithrann n[o,m.] (compd. of rith?) name of a feat of Cuchulainn :
do gab a rothchless . . . ┐ a rithrann ┐ a ilchlesa uili, Comp.
Con C. 93.3 .

?rithrosc: ind rethait rithrosc iar sét sain (of the stars), SR 7923 .
25Stokes, Academy no. 584 (1883) emends: rith roisc, cf. 1339 .
Cf. frithrosc.

rithugud vn. denom. from rith, running, racing ? crithach ara
criothugudh . . . a duille for riothugudh `its leaves a-racing' (i.e.
ruffled by the wind), Buile S. 66.15 .

30 ritire n io,m. (Eng. loan-word) g p. ritired, LU 7619 ( BDD 117 ).
A rider, mounted man-at-arms : trí marcaig ind ríg .i. a thrí
ritiri, BDD 117 . militum [= miles] isin laitin . . . inann sin
┐ ridere isin gaeidilg, ZCP v 498.1 . adeirthear miles torquatus
ré ridire gaiscidh, Keat. ii 6270 . leabhar do Choróin an Ridire
35(= Tertullian's De Corona Militis), TSh. 470 . drong do
ridiribh righ Laighen, BNnÉ 238 § 167 . In Annals, of English
or Norman knights: riteri ro-uasal, Ann. Conn. 1260.4 .
socraidi Gall ┐ Sasanach ┐ ridiredh, RC xvii 274.4 (Tig.).
Dún da lethglas do mhilledh do hEoan du Chuirt ┐ do na
40riteribh tangadur imaille ris, AU ii 184.21 (a. 1177). sluaic-
chedh la Iohn do Cuirt ┐ lasna ridiridhibh, FM iii 28.19 .
dias ridiredh Parlemente knights of the shire , i p. lv. 5 . ag
tabairt gradha gall-raidiredh do na glasgallaib, Caithr. Toirdh.
85.31 .

45 ritirecht n ā,f. knighthood: gradha ridirechta, ZCP vi 28.4 . do
dhiúltuigh . . . ridireacht do bhí soinighthe ón Stát air a
knighthood offered him by the Government
, Hackett xl 191 .
Knightly service : ag ridirecht do Crísd, BCC § 269 .

1 ro, ru preverb used with various forms of a finite vb. whether
50simple or compound; lenites follg. consonant except, in Old
Irish, when in pretonic position. (Its use as a fixed preverb in
the composition of many compd. vbs. is not dealt with here).
Under the accent it somet. assumes the form ra, e.g. doràla
(= do-ro-la); and in O.Ir. becomes ri in the vb. dogní
55(pret. 3 s. dorigéni, dorigni); with léicid, re (ní relic , Ml. 23b4 ,
nach reilced , 49a10 ). It is often attached as enclitic to a
conjunct particle: níro, náro, coro, later nír, nár, cor.
In O.Ir. when used with a compd. vb. ro orig. followed all
fixed preverbs: doro-r-ban (to-ro-ben-), Ml. 62a20 , duforbad
60(to-fo-ben-), 92b4 ; but this rule becomes obsolete already
in the O.Ir. period: do-r-airngert, Wb. 14c32 . Thurn. Hdb.
§§ 520 - 3 . ZCP xii 286 .
In O.Ir. the vbs. ro-fitir (really a perf. tense, see (a) follg.),
ro-cluinethar and ro-laimethar drop ro- only when preceded
65by another conjunct particle. For etymology and syntacti-
cal uses see Zimmer, KZ xxxvi 433 ff. ; Thurneysen, KZ xxxvii
52 ff. and ZCP xii 286 ; Strachan, Trans. Phil. Soc. 1896,
77 ff. ; 1897, 326 ff. ; 1899, 408 ff. ; RC xxiii 201 ; M. L.
Sjoestedt-Jonval, Études Celtiques iii 105 ff. , 219 ff.
70Used (a) with the pret. to express a perfect. ro comalnisid-
si an ro pridchissem-ni dúib, Wb. 26b6 . In mod. Ir. it is
displaced by do except after a neg. or a syntactical preverb:
do ghabh, nír ghabh, gach ar ghabh sé.
(b) with pres. ind. and subj. with perfective sense (generally
75to express an action which is completed before another takes
place); also with subj. after résiu `before', acht `provided
that
', `if only', co `until': in nuall dongniat ho rumaith fora
naimtea remib the cry they make when they have defeated their
enemies
, Ml. 51c9 . doberum . . . dilgud don fhoirind ronto-
80craidet, PH 7941 . cipe . . . ro-da-gatta, diren se whoever
steals them pays a fine
, Laws iv 198.18 . molid resiu ro cur-
sacha, Wb. 4a2 . act ro cretea deacht, 27b15 .
(c) to express potentiality or possibility, with all forms of
the vb.: ní rubai nach cruth ailiu it cannot be any other
85way
, Wb. 7b3 . asrobair mulier `meus filius' . . . a lleith
posessoris can say , Sg. 198a18 , cf. adrodarcar can be
seen
, 172a2 . niru rimiu . . . a ndorigenai I cannot re-
count
, Hy. v 41 (ruirmiu, rurimo, MSS., glossed: ni etaim a
thurim, F). dororbiu-sa I shall be able to hinder , ZCP iii 246.18
(< di-roben, see Ped. ii 445 ). nert ni dernim, rith ni rordaim
5[= ro rethim], leim nirolṅgaim [= ro lingim], RC xxv 24 § 4
( YBL 113b25 ). fer liath ro goin, ro gonar `knows how to deal
wounds and to receive them
', Fianaig. 24.16 . ni fail ro airme a
n-árim, SR 788 . ro chrú[th]fem-ne i fus ind pennit bes chóir
we shall be able to settle here and now , Mon. Tall. 7 . ni ruibem
10a n-aeininad we cannot stay together , Lism.L. 4333 . duss in
ruirmemis a lín if we could count , RC xvii 143.18 . in fuigh-
bed sib sén . . . ro díchuirfed na trí náimde út a hEirinn?
Acall. 6231 , cf. 6234 . an tan nād rimgab could not avoid ,
TBC² 1549 . ni ruba fer could not strike , Ériu v 32.24 . Cf.
15 is ann som ro citer polus ar[c]ticus there men see , Marco P.
42 .
Cf. also robo, rodbo ` it may be, perhaps ', somet. or, whether ,
which Pedersen, ii 287 , is inclined to regard as a pret. in sense
of a potential pres.: Wb. 14c24 , 16d7 . lubair ┐ legend, rodbu
20forcetail no scribend, Rule of Céli Dé 55 ( LB 11b13 ). rodbu
ar chairiguth ind uilc . . . rodbu ar demniguth in maith, Ériu
vii 162 § 5 .
(d) somet. instead of no with impf. ind. to express reiterated
action (cf. Strachan, Phil. Soc. Tr. 1899, 411 ): ro gnaithiged
25F. dol do dénum irnaigthi, RC xii 332 § 22 . ro caithed proinn
moirsesir, 334 § 24 . conid airi sin ro chaitdis a bfleadha,
Marco P. 12 . ro bheiredh an t-aingel . . . an sacrament dhó
gacha domnaigh, Fl. Earls 230.22 .
(e) in optative sent. with subj.: darolgea Dia doib May God
30forgive it to them
, Wb. 31a2 . ro béo-sa fort láim-siu isind
flaith, Fél. Prol. 273 . ni torgaitha he should not defraud , Wb.
25b5 . nár thugar-sa . . . cúis ar sgartha may I give no cause
for our separation
, Content. xxix 37 . mac Móire . . . gur ḟóire
ḟira Erenn, IGT Dec. ex. 269 .
35(f) somet. with subj. in a subord. indef. clause or after cia
`although': is inilliu do neoch naro faomae coibsena safer . . .
not to receive confessions
, Mon. Tall. 54 . is accobar lium coro
indiser duib in ní, PH 1486 . cia rabthai-si oca iarraid though
ye be seeking him
, 1977 .
40(g) instead of no in Old Irish with fut. and condit. of subst.
vb., to infix an obj. pron.; and regularly with condit. of
copula when no conjunct particle precedes. robad bethu
dom dían chomalninn, Wb. 3b28 . epert . . . rondbiad fáilte
libsi et robtis maithi for mbésasi ara chiunn 16b19 . ra-mbia
45dígal he shall have punishment , Wb. 27c13 . rob-bia indocbál
ye shall have glory , 13d32 . ropia [= robbia] ind fochricc,
16a13 , cf. 27c12 . SR 1256 . Fél. Jan. 13 . ro-bar-bia biadh,
ZCP v 501.16 . ra mbiad arcat . . . ro mbiad mór fina he
should have
, SC 11 . Cf. acht rom-tha rombaoi rom-bia | gach
50nidh dheonadh Dia dham, Ériu ix 50.29 . ro-far-cruthaigfe
doridisi, PH 6617 .
(h) in late Mid. and early Mod.Ir. often in rel. construction:
an t-airteagul ud ro chreidir, Luc. Fid. 301.12 . amhuil . . . ro
admhaighid na criosduidhthe, 375.5 .