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5 1 saer adj o, ā, Freq. as subst. (a) free; freeman (opp. to mug, daer).
In O.Ir. usually glossing Lat. liber: soer, Ml. 47d3 . soiraib,
24a7b . sóer, Sg. 97b2 . Adv. int soer gl. libere, Ml. 31b18 . int
soir, 95c6 . Compar. soiriu gl. liberior, Ml. 132b5 . in soer gl.
ingenuum, Sg. 97b3 . neach saer gl. liber, Ir. Gl. 379 . saer,
10gl. libertus, 409 . ban-shaer (sic MS.), gl. libertabus, 292 .
cenutad suír though ye are free, Wb. 4a10 (see Ériu v 112 ).
eter sóir et dóir eter mug et coimdid, 27c15 . soer in cimid, ba
huasal in mog-sa .i. Ísu, PH 3303 . bé sóir cech inbaid | lam'
nóib, Hy. iv 8 (`I shall be safe', Thes. ii 326 ). With follg. prep.
15 s. ¤ ar, for independent (of), not bound (by): is s. ¤ e ar a cinaid
he is free from responsibility for damage done by them (of cows),
Laws v 154.15 Comm . i[s] s. ¤ iat ar cinaid a mbid `exempt from
the liability of (supplying) food
', iii 112.18 Comm . Cf. is s. ¤ doib
gan athgabail dibh im chinaid n-inblegain `free from being dis-
20trained for the liability of a kinsman
', v 96.15 Comm . nách s. ¤
lucht estechta in athimraid for in comarli-si that those who
listen to the slander are not exempt from this injunction
, PH
7689 . cia an ríogh-phort . . . | do bhí saor ar rígh Éireann
independent of, Content. vi 53 . s. ¤ ó free from: cúigeadh saor
25ód ríoghraidh thuaidh, Content. v 68 . ann sin bhías tusa sáor
óm' mhionnuibhsi `clear from this my oath', Gen. xxiv 8 . ná
bíodh súil . . . ré dhol saor uaidh to escape from it (i.e. death),
TSh. 1050 . bid suír Irmumu ō togai[l] cipē rí bes hi Caisiul
di chlaind Ōengusa, ZCP viii 315.27 . toil shaor `free-will',
30 Donl. 210.23 .
(b) free, enfranchised , hence in Laws of an enfranchised
person possessing legal status and a corresponding lóg-enech
or eneclann; for various classes of whom see the Uraicecht
Becc, Laws v 1 ff . See also below under compds. saor ┐ daor,
35 Laws i 40.11 , glossed saor .i. grad flatha, 42.2 Comm . Such
`free' classes might be subdivided into those of higher and
lower status, e.g. the class `nemeth' (person of free status)
included saer- and daer-nemeth: atat do neimid docuisin for
talmain .i. saeirnemead ┐ daerneimead. Ite saernemead filead
40(= filet) and .i. ecalsi, flatha, filidh, feine. Daerneimead
imorro aes gacha dana olchena, Laws v 14.1ff. A `daer-'
person might become `saer' by virtue of property or calling
and vice versa a `saer-' might forfeit his status: i[s] saer cid
cach creanus a suiri dia dan, v 14.28 , with comm.: is saer in
45cach cen[daig]us dan do da saerad no cendaigis saeiri do dun
dan bis aige, amail ata gaba, 14.29 , i.e. who attains status by
acquiring or practising a craft. saer cach o mainib, daer cach
o mbelaib, v 18.12 , i.e. a man was s. ¤ in virtue of his possession
but might become `daer' by contracting as daercheile under
50a lord. The distinction may orig. have been racial, certain
ruling tribes being s. ¤ , the inferior ones `daer'. tri cenela saera
randsat in indsi so, Laws i 78.12 . itir na saerchlannaib .i.
Ulaidh ┐ Feni Temrach ┐ Erna Dedaid; no Ulaidh ┐ Gaileoin
┐ Erna, 80.2 Comm . See also MacNeill, Celtic Ireland p. 58 .
55(c) hence of belonging to upper or privileged classes, noble,
orig. of birth or status, then in wider sense of the word: saor
.i. uasal, O'Cl. is sóir a n-apstalact gl. qui sunt nubiles
(= nobiles) in apostolís, Wb. 7b13 . Compar. is sairiu doib
fognam dona ballaib ailib `it is nobler for them', Wb. 12b2 . is
60soiriu indate idail `nobler', Ml. 138c4 . dindí . . . nad soiriu
cach, Sg. 161b10 . cid airechdu ┐ cid soiriu á c[h]enél, Ml.
115d8 . ateoch in ríg sóer suthain, Hy. vi 25 . cona chléir shóir
shrúamaig, Fél. Dec. 7 . sab sóer suidi Phetair, Apr. 12 . co
ṅardrígaib sóeraib, Ep. 286 . móethoclaech sáer sonairt, LU
65 3455 ( SC 23 ). co saer-Nin, MacCarthy 316 § 6 . na seisc ind
alaid ┐ na s. ¤ na braiti what is free-born (noble) of the captive
women
, TBC 1754 = inas s. ¤ na broidi, v.l. (H. 2.17) = (superl.)
ambad soírem na mban, LU 5607 = TBC² 1127 (sāiream).
Síol Mu-áin . . . | saoire ná síol cruithneachta, DDána 71.21 .
70As subst. gonaid sóeru | saigid oirgniu, LU 3389 ( SC 17 ).
fadarc súla sáir, TBC 4075 . mairc do dichenn an s. ¤ seng, Ir.
Texts ii 12 § 18 . mor s. ¤ ┐ ndaer, St. Ercuil 442 . do bhí saoir
fá a stíoróip gentlemen, persons of position , Keat. Poems 923 .
Adv. saor do-roighneadh duine dhíod, Aithd. D. 70.15 .
75(d) of things: tír sorcha sáer, LU 3741 ( SC 34 ). imdenam
súla saire, LU 3820 ( SC 37 ). fíon saor, Aithd. D. 65.5 . biadha
saora sochaithmhe, PCT 224 . isna secht n-eladhnaibh . . .
saera in the seven liberal arts, St. Ercuil 970 .
(e) free, ready, skilled (in performing someth.): nitat soír
80huili oc tintuúth a bélru `all are not skilled', Wb. 12b23 . Cf.
sóer gl. diligens (interpres), Ml. 145c12 . sáer oc suidigud sillab,
Sg. 7b11 (`an artist', Thes.). See 2 saer.
(f) in Mod.Ir. cheap, easily obtained : saor a-bhos bláth na
faighthe, DDána 7.6 . íoc a chneadh más é do b'ál | ní dhíol mé
85ar a meas go saor to esteem them cheaply (?), Aithd. D. 86.9 . saor
an snaidhm fa dheireadh dhó ibh easily loosed, DDána 34.18 .
Compds. (a) with legal terms (see also under second ele-
ment): ¤ bard: na saer-baird, Laws v 388.13 Comm . ocht
soerbaird ┐ ocht ndóerbaird, IT iii 5.6 . ¤ bothach, Laws ii
288.24 Comm . Cóic Con. Fug. 76 - 7 . ¤ chéile: is sóirchele do
5dia gl. libertus, Wb. 10a23 . a saerceili ┐ a daerceili, Laws i
40.27 Comm . a sóerchéli, Críth Gabl. 323 . See Críth Gabl.
p. 107 , Ir. Recht 19 etc. ¤ chenél: itir saercenelaib ┐ daer-
cenel, Laws iii 30.4 . ¤ chúairt: saorcuairt Uladh do thabhairt
d'Fhergus `the free circuit of Ulster', ITS v 190.2 . ? ¤ ḟairgse:
10 mada feallasdar saerfairgse (sic leg.?), Laws v 442.20 . ¤ ḟlaith:
cor ceile tsaor-fhlatha, Laws v 356.6 . ¤ ḟuidir, Laws v 262.16
Comm . saer-fuidir fri re ndeisi, 512.11 Comm . See Cóic Con.
Fug. 76 - 7 , Ir. Recht 75 f . ¤ gíall: daérghialla . . . sáerghialla,
Cóir Anm. 144 . ¤ gíallna(e): techta saer-giallna, Laws v
15358.2 . ¤ manach: gidh s. gidh daermanach, Ir. Recht 26.12 .
cethraimthe (sic leg.) a chodach (sic leg.) o sh. eagalsa d'eaglais,
Laws iv 196.26 Comm . ¤ mug: sóermug gl. libertus, Sg. 37a4 .
sóirmug gl. libertus, Wb. 10a23 . ¤ murchuirthe: saer mur-
chure, Laws v 184.12 Comm . ¤ nemed: saeir-nemead ┐
20daer-neimeadh, Laws v 14.1 . ¤ rath: céili coímthechta[e]
lais i sóerrathaib ríg, Críth Gabl. 406 (see p. 107 ). cain saer-
raith `law relating to free tenants', Laws i 40.22 . gin daorrath
. . . gin saorrath do gabhail o flaith budéin, O'Don. 571 ( H.
3.17 , 442 ). do flaith tsaerraith, 515 ( 418 ). saorraith .i. cin
25giallna fria laimh . . ., ZCP xvi 211.8 . ¤ thellach: tocom-
bachtuib sealb saerteallaigh, Laws iv 2.1 . Note also: an
tsaoir-breith `absolution', Donl. 292.x . saoir-bhreitheamhnas,
15 .
(b) in general sense of free, noble (in poetry often merely for
30alliteration): ¤ blíadain: iar secht saerbliadhnaib, MacCarthy
414 § 2 . ¤ búaid: fri saerbuáid sain, SR 7233 . ¤ chaindel:
sóerchaindlea cech laithi (of persons), Fél. Prol. 288 . ¤ chenél:
co ndeilb ┐ écosc ┐ sóerchenel noble extraction, LU 3909 ( SC
42 ). ¤ chetul: a sóerchetul ṁbúansa `noble continuous song',
35 Fél. Ep. 158 . ¤ chlann noble family : sáorchlann, IGT Decl.
§ 12 (62.8) . cech sōerchland cinges talmain, Cáin Ad. 26 .
menmanna na saerclann `nobles', CCath. 2735 . ? tar na saor-
chlannadhaibh, DDána 89.16 . ¤ chlanndacht noble birth : ar
a shocenelaige ┐ ar a saerclanndacht tar cach, BCC 56.31 .
40 ¤ chnú: trí saorchna a haonchrobhuing (the Trinity), Aithd.
D. 58.27 . ¤ elada: lucht . . . saerealadhan `philosophers',
CCath. 5080 . ¤ fher: s. cluiche Fhiann Eirenn, Acall. 6589 .
saoirfhear a nobleman, Hackett xliv 35 . ¤ macánacht:
sóermacanacht Túaithe dé Danann, Acall. 7038 = saer-
45mhacámdacht `chief command of . . . young men', SG 200.18 .
Cf. saormacantacht Éreann `free nobility', ITS v 24.16 .
¤ maccaem: trí sáermaccáemi Túathi Dé Danann, MU² 574 .
Mac L. . . . sóermaccáem Fhiann Eirenn, Acall. 6585 . ¤ rolla
noble roll : dá sháimhfhine féin is saerrulla an séimhidhe,
50 L. Cl. A. Buidhe 146.10 . ¤ shlóg: fri sretha soerslóg, SR 6986 .
(c) with vnn. (cf. sír-?): ar ghráidh saoirleanta a seanchais
`following up impartially (?)', Content. xxix 19 . acht a shaor-
rádh muin ar mhuin | ní fhuil acht aon-dán agaibh, x 29 . ic
á sefnad ┐ ic á saer-shéinm, Acall. 7448 . rodbi slan saertoimilt
55caich dia railiu (of a married couple separating), Laws ii
388.14 . With part.: mac saerleicthi `emancipated son', Laws i
52.30 Comm . , cf. 90.15 . don mac bis ar fannel(o) o nathair
gin a gaire do denam .i. an mac saorleigi, ii 24.6 Comm . See
ZCP xv 312 - 13 .
60(d) with adjj.: la S. sairdron, SR 802 . la I. saergrinn, 2863 .
Freq. with adjj. derived from nouns: ¤ brethach of noble
judgements : do fhréimh shaoirbhreathaigh Sh., TD 26.18 .
¤ chlannda of noble birth : inghen tsaorchlanda (: chaor-
phlanda), Ir. Texts ii 107 § 26 . Nia Corb saorchlannda, TD
65 32.28 . fan laogh síthe saorchlannda, DDána 80.28 . oighre
saer-clannda S., BNnÉ 198.13 . As subst.: saorclanda d'Eogan-
acht a noble of the E., TFrag. 208.14 . ¤ threbraid nobly
woven : go slait saoirthreabhraigh sróill nduinn, L. Cl. A.
Buidhe 99.171 .

70 2 saer n o,m. (1 saer; for development of meaning see 1 saer (c)).
saor, IGT Decl. § 96 (p. 129) .
An artificer; in older lang. apparently used in wide sense
of a craftsman in general, later restricted to workers in wood,
carpenters and masons. ? sáer oc suidigud sillab, Sg 7b11 .
75 Luchtaine saor, Corm. Y 975 . ainm im[b]erta ciuil donīat
sāir, O'Mulc. 833 (appar. musicians). gobul dlūta la sāiro, 675 .
macc in tṡáir son of the carpenter, Fél. Aug. 14 (with note:
saer didu a athair, p. 184.y ); oft. applied to S. Ciarán of Clon-
macnoise; líth . . . | maicc in tsháir . . . | féil cháin Chíaráin
80Chlúana, Fél. Sept. 9 . Ciarán mac in tsaeir. Mac ón in tsaeir
doroine nemh ┐ talmain . . . Mac in tsaeir denmha carpat,
Lism. L. 3945 - 6 . Beoit soer mo athair-si (of Ciarán), 3987 =
ba Beoan soer m' athair-si, LB 16 marg. inf. s. ¤ ┐ fer bleithi
┐ fer muilind (i.e. a mill-wright), Laws iii 280.6 . daernemed
85tra saeir ┐ gobaind, v 90.19 . sair . . . ┐ cach aes tail ┐ beili,
ii 118.25 Comm . s. ¤ daimliac ┐ durtaigi `builder', v 114.16
Comm . saoire crannaibh .i. as é sáor dhénma na gcrann é,
O'Cl. áos déanta, sáor `masons, builders', Eg. Gl. 17 . na dúile,
| ní saor do dhealbh dúinne acht Dhia, Dán Dé xxxi 6 . nach
é an saor úd, mac Mhuire, Mark vi 3 . saóir chrainn ┐ chloiche,
5 2 Sam. v 11 . drong mhór do shaoraibh cloch, TSh. 665 . Of
the Creator: tabhram dar saor an soitheachsa, Aithd. D. 61.4 .
ar chruthuigh lámh dheas an tSaoir, Keat. Poems 613 . Cf.
Lism. L. 3945 cited above. Of a chief: saor Tighe Táil, TD
31.49 .
10Compds. ¤ chlochach: mun ráith gcuirr saorchlochaigh sin
with stones dressed by masons, DDána 105.13 . ¤ fhoichlech (?):
sairfoichlech gl. concuriossus, Ml. 90b2 . ¤ dénmidecht: sáir-
dénmidecht (sic leg.) gl. artificium, Sg. 133b2 .