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som emphasizing particle 3 s. masc. and neut. and 3 pl. of all
genders. Initial never lenited, see Thurn. Gramm. § 231 (6).
20Forms: som is the usual form in the O.Ir. Glosses, though
sum, sam are occasionally found. A special form after palatals
sem is very rare in the older glosses and does not become
common until Sg.; sium occurs a few times in Ml.: atcomlasom,
Wb. 25b16 . asbeirsom, 4d17 . doibsem, 28d19 . asrubartsum,
25 Ml. 43d1 . sesum, 32a5 . gníthisium, 30b20 . sluindithsem, Sg.
30a2 . donucsum, Tur. 39 . a menmasam , Thes. ii 293.15 .
Later som, sum, sam are found after non-palatal endings:
a ndálsom , Fél. Oct. 28 . a theglach-sum , TBC 5973 . marat-
sam, Ériu iii 148 § 3 ; som, sem, seom, sim, sium, siom after a
30palatal: laissom, Mon. Tall. 3 (128.9) . dia raithsium , Fél. Ep.
165 . a mbuaidseom , Sept. 2 . sessem, Mon. Tall. 5 (129.12) .
sesim, 19 (134.4) . bui siom , 60 (149.18) . laisiom, 85 (162.10) .
In Early Mod.Ir. it is unusual to find som after a palatal
ending.
35Usage: (a) With pronouns: hésom, Wb. 2b9 . hesom, 7c8 .
ol seatsom , Ml. 19d2 . éseom, MU² 1036 . é-sium, TBC 1744 .
sesim, Mon. Tall. 19 (134.4) . sesom, 6 (129.30) . iat-som, PH
515 . iat-sum, 2590 . iad-sam, TTebe 3913 .
(b) Emphasizing the pronominal element in possessives: a
40montar som inso this is his household, Wb. 7c5 . tria hesséirge-
som, 2d8 . delb a baissom, 24a8 . trea naslachsom, 30c14 . a
soiradsom `their deliverance', Ml. 30b18 . iarna cétbuidsem
`according to their opinion', Sg. 40a15 . indilsi a seoitsom, Laws
ii 290.21 . am rathsa dia raithsium I am a surety for his grace,
45 Fél. Ep. 165 . ro lámair a nguinsom who has dared to slay them,
Prol. 58 . iarna saethur gairsom `after their short labour', 59 .
fora muimesium, Trip.² 156 . dotháod día accaldim som,
Mon. Tall. 2 (127.15) . tara sharugud-sumh, Lism. L. 3087 .
ina chomdail-sim, St. Ercuil 289 . Emphasizing a partitive
50genitive: is ball didiu cachháe som `each of them then is a
member
', Wb. 27b8 .
(c) Emphasizing the subject of the copula: mad fochriccsom,
Wb. 2b26 . is primitsom, 13b24 . it domini som, 13a23 . amal
as firiansom, 22a24 . bid maidsom, 5d39 . duaidbetar ata
55firiensom `they are shewn to be just', Ml. 30b2 . condat anman
som, Sg. 188b3 . is tualaing som forgell for cach recht, Laws i
78.19 . ní tiamdae timsom `He is not slow or feeble', Fél. Prol.
259 . it soirseom `they are noble', Sept. 2 . is glan-som uile, PH
5262 . When the pred. is qualified by a defining gen. som
60precedes the latter: rombo descipulsom apstal `that he was a
disciple of apostles
', Wb. 18d1 . ar ropo eola som na huile
fetarlice `for he was skilled in the whole Old Testament', 30c17 .
(d) Emphasizing the subject of active verbs: is hed ón
saigessom `this is what he aims at', Wb. 22a3 . in dóinecht
65araróit som, 4b19 . ni ceilsom, 4d16 . ished tinfetsom, 4b4 .
amal bete som, 9c10 . arna arróimatsom `lest they should re-
ceive
', 14d37 . intan asmbeirsom, 34d5 . in soirad donerchanat-
som ar thuus the deliverance that they prophesy at first, 19b11 .
asbeir sem, Sg. 39a25 . conétet som, 197b17 . air in testimni
70donucsum riam, Tur. 39 . fuachaidsem, Thes. ii 293.22 . ro
aemustairsom sin, Laws i 6.17 . dodíussaig-som, Trip.² 157 .
téitsium ass, TBFr. 215 . an cein marat-sam, Ériu iii 148 § 3 .
(e) Suffixed to active verbs with infixed or suffixed pron.,
and emphasizing either the pronoun or the subject of the
75verb: atcomlasom he joins himself, Wb. 25b16 . atbeirsom he
says it
, 27c18 . nosnguidsom `he beseeches them', 25b9 . danuic-
som, Ml. 38c4 . nisgaib som lius `no disgust seizes them', 34b6 .
cach roda-ortsom `everyone who has killed them', Fél. Prol. 57 .
ma danetarredsom dagmenme, Mon. Tall. 40 (143.4) . gníthi-
80sium fadesin `he makes himself', Ml. 30b20 . in .xxx. pater . . .
gaibthussom eidi `he sings them', Mon. Tall. 30 (138.29) .
gabtisom `he sings it', 31 (140.2) .
(f) Emphasizing the subject of passive verbs: airmither-sum
ar athair dona huile iressachaib, PH 5689 . ni foruaisligter-
85som o nach mod, 5869 . cia moltar-som o dóinib, 6078 .
(g) With conjugated prepositions: errusom, Wb. 11a29 .
airriusom, Sg. 4a8 . cucisom, Wb. 9d14 . cuci-sium, Sc.M² 1 .
cuigi-sem, ML² 1259 . cuccusom, Wb. 14d30 . chuca-sum, PH
6655 . desom, Ml. 22d19 , 38c9 . desium, Hib. Min. 371 . dib-
sium, ML² 1912 . dosom, Wb. 1b5 , 9c10 , 14d37 . dossom, 6d10 ,
5 9d8 . dosom, Sg. 148a6 . do-sum, St. Ercuil 551 . doibsom, Wb.
13b11 . doibsem, 28d19 . doibsem, Sg. 40a15 . doaibsem, 50a3 .
doib-sium, Sc.M² 3 . doibsiom, Mon. Tall. 64 (152.30) . doib-
sim, ML² 1575 . foirsom, Wb. 8c1 . fairsom, 7c4 . foirsem, Sg.
209b12 . fairsium, Sc.M² 10 R . forrusom, Wb. 9c10 . foraib-
10sem, Sg. 207a8 . forrasum, PH 5031 . frissom, Wb. 5d39 .
frissim, Mon. Tall. 24 (136.14) . frissium, PH 97 . friusom,
Wb. 20c5 . indsom, Wb. 4d6 . andsom, 13b31 . Sg. 197b1 .
annsom, Fél. Prol. 260 . indibsom, Wb. 16c4 . indibsem, Sg.
5a4 . immi-sium, TBC 981 . lessom, Wb. 3d5 . lesom, Sg. 5a10 .
15 lessem, 77b6 . laissem, 149b4 . laisem, 158b6 . leissem, 10a11 .
laisiom, Mon. Tall. 64 (152.29) . laisim, 2 (127.16) . leisim, 57
(148.20) . lessium, PH 5160 . leosom, Wb. 2b3 . leusom, Sg.
5b42 , Ml. 33b3 . leosom, Sg. 28a18 . leo-sum, ML² 1107 . muir-
som, Fél. Prol. 60 (mar). huadsom, Ml. 19c5 . uaidibsom, Wb.
20 9d14 . huadibsem, Sg. 156a2 . uaidibsium, PH 4353 . aigisium,
Sc.M² 4 R . aco-sum, PH 90 . aca-samh, TTebe 817 . remisium,
TBFr. 252 . rompa-som, PH 256 . tritsom, Wb. 27c2 . triitsom,
26a20 . tremitsium, PH 2153 . See also 6 sa, sin, so.

somailis xsee somilis.

25 somailse xsee somilse.

somaín n i,f. (2 so+maín) profit, benefit : ni thairce tarba na
somáin do nech, PH 8385 . amal esca il-lo [is laissium] lanso-
main in molta, ZCP iii 222 § 2 . ro marbsat a n-eochu air . . .
ba ferr leo a mudhughudh innas a somain for a naimdib than
30that their enemies should profit by them
, CCath. 2484 . ro badh
seirbhís co somhaoín dósomh ind sin, FM v 1814.10 . wealth:
rob iomdha bocht . . . do chóidh i somhaoin ┐ i saidhbhreas,
FM v 1722.12 .

somaíne n iā,f. (somaín) collective term for dues or services ren-
35dered by a client (if they are properly or justly imposed, i.e.
correspond to the value of his holding), see Thurn. ZCP xiv
336 : it é fodlai flatha doru[i]rmisem im[m]aberat fuillechtai
flaithemnasa a somoínib sét `which bring into play the divisions
of nobility according to the varying revenues from their property

40(i.e. the income received from clients the number of whom
varied with each grade)', Críth Gabl. 491 . caiti somoíne ṡét
ind ḟir sin, 253 . coro-scarat cen imdiubairt co somaine neich
ro-fallaigt[h]er `mit (Nach-)Leistung dessen, was verabsäumt
worden ist
', ZCP xiv 384 § 49 . cenn caich . . . bes forusta fri
45hurnaide somuíne ┐ domaoine ` "wohnhafter" (mit besserem
Wohnsitz versehen) um richtige und (auch) drückende Leistungen
auszuhalten
(?)', 369 § 31 . ni techta nechtar n-ae urt[h]echta
do somaine na domaine `keines von beiden hat Verpflichtung
zu Leistungen nach Busszahlungen
', Stud. in E.Ir. Law 74 § 36 .
50 ar dia nerlat ni dlegatsom somuine ┐ foloingatsom beochu co
cend mbliadna, Laws iv 172.15 . somaine tire; itir fhidh ┐ fer
┐ ínnair, 146.1 . somhuine thuirc . . . somhuine gabur baininn
. . . somaine bech, O'C. 881 ( H. 3.18, 394b ). secht ratha . . . ni
contuillet slan . . . na somaine, Laws v 224.3 . leth-somuine la
55rath narm no eduigh, O'D. 513 ( H. 3.17, 417 ). somaine .i.
biatha ┐ fognama, O'Don. Suppl. ( H. 2.15, 15 ). ite cealla
indso . . . na tibera somaíne d'aircindech, O'D. 2025 ( Rawl.
487, 53c ). cis ar selbach somaine, O'Dav. 1216 . gach flaith
ghebhus gort n-gaíne | noch fa holc dó a shomhaíne, BR
60 240.22 .
In general sense wealth, profit : is tre ḟīr flathemon . . .
sothocad somaīne sādaile, ZCP xi 81 § 13 . nach tig sochur no
somháine dáeibh si don[a] comadhaibh, ZCP viii 547.21 .
frith lé buar is brat naidhe | frith sochar as somháine, Irish
65Texts ii 73 § 6 . ri ro chaitetur tuatha . . . somaine a king
whose wealth was enjoyed by laymen
, Ann. Conn. 1224 § 2 .
cart[h]air ben ar somáine | ce doghné drūis nó dérach, ZCP iv
468 § 15 .

somaínech adj o, ā (somaíne) profitable; precious, valuable : oc
70imaicsin na sét s. ¤ sin ica comroind, Alex. 386 . in lucht do-
berat maíne somainacha di, Laws ii 344.24 Comm . dus in
tuctha ní do cloind t[ṡ]omainich dho, IT iii 189.6 . bid sochla
s. ¤ duib madh romaib muidhfes, Aen. 2450 . in rigi . . . s. ¤ , Cog.
100.30 . bid s. ¤ (soinmech, v.l.) do molad a daenib `he will be
75rich in the praise from men
', ZCP x 226 § 6 . tabair mes so-
mhaoineach, a meic, ar an aoi ain `give rich esteem to the noble
subject
', Leb. Gab. 282 n. 7 . co sédaib somaoinech, FM ii
976.2 .

somairnid v(see Ériu xi 164 ) stupefies, lulls : súan rodasomairn
80dia sil `a slumber lulled her in her turn', Met. Dinds. iv 4.31 .

? somal ind ech . . . soimrime somul, O'C. 1864 ( 23 P 3, 20a ).
dilig s. ¤ (somul, solam, v.ll.) suilige | cechaing dar fol faen-
Temrach, KZ xxxiii 83.33 . s. ¤ .i. fiach, 86 § 42 . Compd.
gluaisis Finnuchua . . . ana shomulrith charpuit, Lism. L.
85 3088 .

somaltus n[o, m.] provision, refreshment : riasiu do promad a
proind nó a s. ¤ , SG 42.32 . a's gurab gann somhaltus do thíre,
Oss. iii 270.12 . go mbiadh do chliar gan somhaltas, 272.24 .
Cf. tomaltus.