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túarastal n o,[n.] (frestal, Thurn. Gramm. p. 532 ). Occas.
10also túarasndal. I In Laws description of a crime, evidence
of an eye-witness; coll. witnesses (see Thurn. ZCP xv 328 ,
xviii 387 n. 4 , Cóic Con. Fug 68 ): is tuarastal deimin
iní sin .i. tuarastal aicsini, O'C. 2569 ( Eg. 88, 48 (49)d ).
derbtuarastal aicsini, O'C. 2570 ( Eg. 88, 48 (49)a ). an tuarustal
15fastas innraic for nech co na faicsin di budein, O'C. 2428 ( Eg.
88, 33 (34)d ). iss ann is tuarustul in uair isi gait i fil for
iarair co sunnradhach frith ann, O'C. 606 ( H. 3.18, 296 )
`der Fall, wo man das Gestohlene wirklich bei dem findet,
wo man es (vermutet und) sucht
,' Cóic Con. Fug. 68 . In the
20follg. t. ¤ would appear to refer to evidence given voluntarily
by an eye-witness, and for which payment is made: deithbir
itir fiadnaisi in mic bic ┐ a tuarustal; a fiadnaisi ina fiad-
naise ro himradh, ┐ tic uadha gin erba ris; a tuarustal,
imorro, tic uadha gin imradh gin erba ris, ┐ gaba logh ara
25tuarustal, ┐ ni gaba ar a fiadhnaisi, O'C. 2430 ( Eg. 88,
35 (36)a ). deithbir itir fiadnaisi ┐ tuarustal an ecodnaigh;
isi a fiadnaisi in tan ro badhus ac aidbriu fir imtechta na
cana domnaigh, ┐ atá fear imteachta aga shéna a fiadhnaise
an ecodnaigh, ┐ adber in tecodnach, is brég duit, ar sé,
30adconnarcsa thú ag imtecht. Isé imorro a tuarustal,
adubairt a fiadhnaise a muinntire. do connarcsa, ar sé,
duine ag imtecht na cana domnaigh, ┐ ní leigid a muindtir do
innisin gu tarda[r ?] logh dhó aire o dlighthech cana dom-
naigh, O'C. 2431 ( Eg. 88, 35 (36)a ). deithbir itir tuarustal in
35codhnaigh ┐ tuarustal in mic bic. tuarustal in mic bic,
gin erba ris do ní é. tuarustal in codhnaigh ce herbtar gin
co herbtar do ghní, O'C. 2431 ( Eg. 88, 35 (36)a ). Of evidence
of the infringement of specific laws (see also above): tuarus-
tal cana Patraic, O'C. 2422 ( Eg. 88, 33 (34)b ). et e tra
40tuarusndalai (tuarustal, v.l.) ina canu-sae .i. fiadnuise mac
n-ennaicc ... fiadnuise n-indruic cin forgglid (Cáin Domnaig),
Anecd. iii 24.4 . ōenfer do astud for diis .i. fer in tuarastail
... i tuarastal cāna domnaig, ZCP xv 327 § 19 . tuarastal
na cana so .i. focal is toltanach le nech, O'C. 2568 ( Eg.
4588, 48 (49)a ).
In phrase truma tuarastail conclusive evidence, sworn
evidence (?): issedh is truma tuarustail ann, innraic for
eisinnraic ac astadh fiach im les neich eile co triur ina
deghaidh, ┐ a imdenam di muna thairginn in neisindraic
50fír dé, ┐ ma thairgin is a dul do fir dé ┐ is truma tuarustail
sin, O'C. 2015 ( H. 4. 22, 35 ) = O'C. 2618 ( Eg. 88, 52 (53)d ). truma
tuarustail berus na hantesta dfír dé, ┐ gach annteist dib
ternas ó fír dé i[s] saor é ar in cina, ┐ cumal an anntestais
díc di, O'C. 2435 ( Eg. 88, 35 (36)c ). testugad cach anntesta itir
55la ┐ aidhche, ┐ mana be samlaid is cranncor fair, ┐ is doch-
raite nduine no troma tuarasdail beres na cuirp so dfír dé,
O'C. 2589 ( Eg. 88, 50 (51)a ). lín a tuarastail ag feichemuin
toicheda ... mur a deir: gach naoill co tuarastal an oath
supported by the evidence of an eye-witness
(?), O'D. 543
60( H. 3. 17, col. 434 ). dia toingi in fear uil os in acra curap
dimin lais is naill fo tuarustal o fir adgairther, O'C. 352
( H. 3.18, 193c ). tuarustal fastaidh fiach evidence which
justifies the imposition of fines
(?), Laws i 234.8 Comm.
mad tuarastal aco annis (a ndís ?) fastait fiacha for robaib
65testa co lucht leithfira no lanfira, O'C. 540 ( H. 3.18, 266b ).
General: mā berait dōig dochom neich co tūarasndul `if
they suspect anyone and prove it
,' Cáin Ad. 30.11 . dia mbē
tūarasndal bansgāl, 32.y . aire desa no aire tuisi aire forgill
in tuarastail `der Bezeugungs-aire der Tatbeschreibung ist
70ein aire dēsa oder ein aire tūise
,' Cóic Con Fug. 38 § 52 .
tuarustal drochdhuine for drochduine, O'D. 557 ( H. 3. 17,
col. 438 ). `tuarasdol' luighe gan lén, Met. Gl. 28 § 40 .
Cf. Stowe Gl. 150.
II (a) stipend, retaining fee (paid by an overlord to a
75subordinate chief in return for tribute, military service, etc.
See ZCP xvii 207 n. 1 ): a tuaristla ┐ a comhaideachta,
BR 32.17 . fodhail na [d]tuarostal sin ... ó righ Caisil do
righaibh tuath ┐ mórthuath, 80.5 . a chísa-son ó thuathaibh
┐ a thuaristal-son dóibh-seomh, 118.5 . astad tuarastail a
80trocaire, astad fiach a etrocaire `the fixing of wages,' Laws
v 310.6 Comm. conragba mo chor ┐ mo thuarastal `(to)
accept my covenant and wage
,' RC xiv 406.25 . bi[d] toirthigi
a thuarastail (a prospective king), Anecd. i 19.12 . ag so
tuarastla ríoghthaoiseach shíl Muireadhaigh o O'Chon-
85chúbhair, JRSAI ii 342.15 . tūarastal rí cūiccid crúaidh |
dligid rī Essa rīoghrūaidh, ZCP viii 116.29 . ór derg tuarastul
in trír, LL 49b6 . gidbé rí ... do glacfadh tabarthas no
tuarastal árdflaithe eile, go ngabadh maraon risin tuarastal
sin umla ┐ óglachas air féin maille re beith umal do mar
chodnach ┐ im díol císa ┐ cána ris, Caithr. Thoirdh. 3.6 .
5(b) Hence in contexts stressing the superiority of the
payer and the subordination of the payee: ní ar tuarastal
mheic Imair gus aniu atamaidne, Cog. 210.25 . fairend se
long ... do neoch bui for a chur fen ┐ far a thuarastal, ML
164.4 . tangadur sin uile co F. do ghabhail tuarustail an
10Eogain sin (i.e. to acknowledge him as their lord), AU
iii 108.24 . ná cuir bréag ar fhuil na Niall | níor ghabhsad
tuarasdal riamh | ó aoin-neach ... (i.e. never made sub-
mission to anyone), Content. vi 254 . tug siad ... | tuarasdal
d' fhearaibh Éireann, TD 7.5 . bai M. ... rí temra ina thigh,
15┐ rucc tuarustal mor leis (i.e. the gift received after sub-
mission), FM iii 86.12 .
(c) stipend, wages, reward, remuneration in general: da
laím thidnaicthi ratha ┐ tairberta ┐ tuarastail, TBC 3770 .
cor' tuiltis a tuarastal, Met. Dinds. iii 70.66 . ni taiscead ní
20di a thuarustul acht a daethin bid ┐ étaig (of St. Martin when
a soldier), Lat. Lives 88.2 . i tuarastul ṅgaiscidh as a reward
for military service
, TTr.² 177 . Donnsléibhe ... do dhol isin
Mumhain ... ar cend tuarasdail `to serve for wages,' FM ii
914.14 . ro thíodhnaic siomh a ttuarastal do na Gallaibh
25do bhuar iomdha, 1160.5 . gur do na daoinuibh dob [fh]earr
fō thuilleadh ┐ fā t[h]uarustal ... tū most generous in the pay-
ment of wages and stipends
, Feis TC 328 . mar do-gheibh
sealbh an tuarastail thuilleas ar an saoghal, TSh. 8570 .
gách duine ré nach áill ... tuarasdal a mhuintire do dhíol
30`who is unwilling to pay his servants wages,' Donl. 96.20 .
dol a tuarustul `to take wages,' Cog. 50.8 . Note also:
cuingis F. in t-ech ier soin | ar in draoí ... | do rat dó céd
da gach crodh | día tabhairt a ttúarastal `that he might
give it in return
,' Duan. Finn i 28 § 5 . As quasi vn.: uirrim
35ó gach éanfhosdadh | mac Dé a-tá gá tuarasdal `Christ
earns my allegiance by every check he gives me
,' PBocht 19.1 .
Attrib. g s.: fear toirbearta móir damhsaibh ┐ daos
tuarusdail ` stipendiaries ,' FM iv 1000.z . dfosttadh ócc-
bhaidh ┐ aésa tuarastail ` mercenaries ,' vi 2096.4 . fear
40tuarasdail ` journey-man ,' Donl. 98.11 . lucht tuarasdail,
DDána 80.36 . le scín bheárrtha thuarusdail `with a razor
that is hired
,' Is. vii 20.

túarastlach adj o, ā (túarastal) (a) generous, bountiful: bá
tuarustlach tiodhlaicthech iad araon dóibh, FM iii 222.6 .
45 do gab ... ag brégad Lochlainn go mórtuarastlach `with
offers of great subsidy
,' Caithr. Thoirdh. 51.18 . (b) As subst.:
tuarusdalach (sic leg.) `a hireling ' (sic leg.), Eg. Gl. 593
(formáluidhe, John x 12 , 13 ).

túarcon n ā, f. (u,f., Stokes, KZ xxviii 291 ). vn. of do-fúairc.
50In Mod. Ir. also tuargaint. (a) grinding, wearing away
(lit. and fig.): huan tuarcain .i. hua détnaig a fiaclae frial-
ailiu gl. attritu dentium, Ml 56d4 . arin tuarcain gl. pro
ualida attritione ossa posuit (comm. on non est pax ossibus
meis), 58a6 . tuarcnae na m[bocht] `of the grinding of the
55poor
,' 29b9 . hua tuarcain gl. salutationem nostram hostium
atritione perficit, 84c22 . huan tuarcain gl. impiarum gen-
tium attritione gloriosus, 129b11 . Hence in O. Ir. Glosses
trouble, sorrow: tuarcun gl. tribulatio, Wb 1c19 . huan
tuarcain gl. multa tristitia, Ml 118b4 .
60(b) grinding or threshing corn, scutching flax: is bés
leosom in daim do thúarcuin ind arbe `to tread out the corn,'
Wb 10d6 . tuarcain do-fuaircitis inna grán `the grains used
to be crushed by pounding
,' Sg. 184b3 . miach cruaid ... la
tuarcain sil, Fél. xxiv § 6 . cruadugad arba, ┐ tuargain isin
65tig ` thrashing ,' Laws v 164.1 Comm. slán n[a] trí cét
tuairgne is in aith, no na trí cétbleithe isin muilinn, O'D.
589 ( H. 3. 17, 447 ) = na tri cét tuaircthi, O'D. 2279 ( Rawl. B
506, 25a ). dairt cacha bleithe, no cacha tuaircne co ruice
cúic dairte déc, O'D. 1679 ( H. 5. 15, 28b ). tuairgne, tuaircne,
70 tuargain `a batch or charge of a kiln ,' O'Don. Suppl. tere-
torium (= tritura) tuairgin, Ir. Gl. 722 . rochennaig Duid
oorna | a hithlaind tuaircni orba, Rawl. 79a10 . a scuapaib
cen thuargain `in sheaves without being scutched' (of flax),
Laws ii 374.5 Comm. (cf. St. in E. Ir. Law 37 ). In sob-
75riquet: Sust ingen Trentuairgne, Anecd. ii 56.6 .
(c) hammering (in a forge): fogur na ngoband oc tuarcain
brotha forsind inneoin, LU 1866 . d'ordaibh troma do
thuairgthe | mé gurb inneoin iombuailte, Studies 1931,
661 § 13 . le h-ordaibh ... gabann ar thindib ... 'gá tren-
80tuargain, MR 238.8 . is eadh is fuaradh do ghiolla an
ghabhann, ... a chor do thuargain an iarainn, TSh. 6209.
(d) In general hammering, beating, smiting, clashing:
cia con lindfadar in n-óchain mo phopa Chonchobair do
thuarggain amlaid-seo ? TBC 6030 . ní assu a tūarcon oldás
85a imchomét `zerschmettern,' ZCP xi 84 § 33 . oca tuarcain
... la drongaib na ndemna, LU 2243 . an bic ... manip dom
thūarcain fo chētóir, ScM.² 13 (minap dom tuarcain ticce,
Eg.). ba teand tuargain tuag for trenfheraib na Pers, Alex.
356 . rabaí slat ┐ siriud ┐ sirthuarcon for a lár ica togail
(Troy), TTr. 562 . comtuarcaint ... na ndemhan ... ac
5sirtuairgaint ... na n-anman[n], RC xxviii 320 § 41 . a
tuarcain o shondaib co mtís léir a cnámu, PH 1394 . co
mbid cach díb oc tuarcain a chind ... for a cheiliu, Ériu
iv 28.1 . ar uamhain a bidhbad da tuargain [i]na diaidh
`for fear of his foeman's attack behind him,' CCath. 2315 .
10 fri tuarcain lureach, Cog. 162.11 . mar bud nert srotha go
sir-tuargain, MR 232.6 . rogabsat tuargaint tenedh tein-
nesnech ar aroile `a fiery, fierce attack,' ZCP vi 41.21 . tuar-
cain f[h]erdha ... do bēimennuib, ML² 1765 . ag tolladh ┐
ag tuargain arthraigh anma an duine, TSh. 2055 . amhail
15bhíd tonna ... ag tuargain a chéile san muir, 7466 .
(e) Of the treatment of wounds cleaning, rinsing, bathing
with water (?): rucsatar leo é go glassib ┐ go aibnib C. M.,
do thuargain ┐ do nige a chneda ┐ a chrechta, TBC 4208 =
do īcc ┐ būalad a crēcht do uscib C., TBC² 2737.