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-ni , -ne

Cite this: eDIL s.v. -ni , -ne or
Last Revised: 2013


emph. pron. of 1 pers. pl., see mé V.

In later bardic poetry -ne (-ni ) is for metrical purposes treated as one with the word it follows and may palatalize a preceding consonant (see further Éigse iii 223-24 ): créad adéara sí ar ar soin-ne | dá dtí Éabha i gcoinne cáich? what will she say on our behalf? x 19 . dá ndeachaim-ne dhá reic ruibh | fuil Mheic ar seathair-ne sin, IGT Dec. ex. 899. ar mbeannaicht-ne (: ceangailte), Ir. Review 1913, 623 § 6 . dhar cruithneicht-ni (: eitni), Quigley PBA v 38 n. 16 .

1 ní

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ní or


Forms: ní, níi, neich, neuch, neoch, neo, niu, neo, niu, ní, níos, níosa

indef. pron., neut. of nech. n a s. ( fri níi , Wb. 8a4 ). g s. neich. d s. neuch, later neoch. An older (?) d s. neo, niu also occurs in O.Ir.: cia e[r] neo , Ml. 101a4 ; ci er niu , 47b1 . In late Mid. and Mod.Ir. is often used in d s., see II.

(a) anything, aught , used like nech in indef. or neg. sent. or question; , gl. quippiam, Ml. 23c12b , 27d9 . gl. quicquam, 3a10 . cia ar neoch dorrignis? (gl. ad quid hoc fecisti?), Sg. 217a5 ; cf. cia e[r] neo, gl. quamobrem, Ml. 101a4 . cech duine shirfess ni fort whoever shall ask aught of thee, PH 462. macc none (of the animals mentioned) is a son, Enchir. Aug. 83b ( ZCP vii 484 ). buith cen denum neich, gl. otiosae, Wb. 29a4 . hecal dó he has no cause to fear, CRR 18. ním-raib may I possess nought, ZCP vii 308 § 1. nir choemnacair in tene ni doib, PH 4045. fuil uiresbaid neich ar bith orra, Maund. 227.

In sense something (= Lat. aliquid): do thabairt do neuch (= aliquid proferre), Ml. 98a4 . is mithich dún in tinnscital do dénum to begin to do something, ZCP viii 175.25 (Laon Glosses), where neich might be expected. damsa ! (give) me something! ZCP iii 212 § 24. eroslaicced [a rusc] ┐ itconnairc he saw somewhat (of a blind boy restored to sight), PH 1322. aithcomarc neich dond áos fuirbti consulting men of perfect life about some matter, Mon. Tall. 23. do bid . . . ag iarraid neich ar Colam, ZCP vii 304 § 14.

(b) commonly folld. by DE (partitive) = any (some) part (amount, number) of: huare nad robae do degnímaib leu they had no good works, Ml. 15d9 . nephdenum neich di ulc, 23c20 . ni tabrait de dena [= dona] bochtaib they give nought of it, Mon. Tall. 57. nipta ni dom deolaidecht ye have nought of my grace, SR 1444. cor glanmais . . . ni diar cintaib some of our sins, 1576 . co rucsat dia n-indmas leo, PH 1000. ni fogní . . . di nach ret do denam to do anything whatever, Mon. Tall. 45. conid de buadaib Duind Cualnge insin the above are some of the triumphs of the D.C., TBC-LL¹ 1543. dhe nad be leosam de ḟid no tuighe any timber or thatch they have not, Irish Texts i 19 § 3 (leg. nád, etc.). ba headh so ni dia chrābad .i. fodail bidh ┐ lenna, etc., ZCP xii 291.13 . ar báig ni ar ni do drúis for love, not for any lust (?), Ériu iv 106.3 . ropo do dáil decm[a]ing somewhat of a hard test (condition), 108z . Bersibé . . . ina ḟuil da n-ecailsib an rígh (leg. aniugh), Maund. 50. iar milleadh neith dia n-arbhannaibh, AFM ii 1068. 13 . Referring to persons: connā terna ni dona .v. gaiscedaib dēc so that not one of the fifteen champions escaped, TBC-I¹ 556. Diarmait . . . co do Ghallaibh do thiachtain `with a force of foreigners', AU ii 240.17 .

(c) folld. by defining rel. clause; with subj. in indef. sent.: boí ro glante and something to be purified, Wb. 31c18 , cf. 27a16 . arnach n-aurchoissed som fri níi duronad nach aile anything which any other could do, 8a4 . acht ropa techtae adlúsat .i. argara itid díob enough to quench their thirst, Mon. Tall. 53.

With indic.: fosodin . . . .i. fo fuan-tuic Pól in accordance with what P. has applied it to, Ml. 35a9 , cf. 35b16 . i nní imme-forlaing guasacht into what caused danger, 38c10 . do deicsin neich as tacair doib what is fitting for them, 47d7 . doguilse di neuch adbaill grief for what perishes, Wb. 16b11 . ar seilg neich nach maith, Ériu i 70.1 . iar neoch dia ecnuch . . . dolleici tenga caich after the blasphemy of Him which each man's tongue utters, ii 118 § 56 . atta ni forsa-taet a ndliged-sa there is something on which this dictum bears, Hib. Min. 5.148 . issi in faithchi techta la Feine, ni rosaig guth cluicc as far as the sound of a bell reaches, Laws iv 194.2 . gur marbad nach etir d'airem dib a number beyond counting, RC xix 366.19 .

Folld. by rel. cop. and compar.: ce fodailter ni bes miniu although something less is distributed, Thes. ii 254.14 ( Stowe M. 65b ). táthunn as nessa we have something nearer, Fél. Prol. 217. níptá bas dilsiu, 185 . ata is messu de, SR 1349. nochorb ail dó ba mō he desired no more, PH 3315. Used adverbially: nā gnáthaig ni as sia do scél any longer, SR 6031. nā tecar da indsaigid ni bad ṡiriu nō bas mó, TBC-LL¹ 1776. This construction continues in use to form the compar. (the force of the indef. pron. being lost sight of) down to the mod. period, in which it is gradually replaced by the stereotyped forms níos, níosa (< as), used regardless of tense. an té agá mbiadh do thoicce shaoghalta sa mhó ioná a riachtanas, TSh. 7165 (where the pron. has still some significance). d'eagla go mbiadh sa mheasa, 5316 . go nach beidis budh faide ag inghreim (= diutius), 5541 . foghail do dhénamh ni as uille to commit any greater depredation, AFM ii 974.5 . ni sa mhó, Proverbs iv 18.

(d) as pred. of cop., somewhat = something that is of consequence, matters : massu imdibe if circumcision is aught, Wb. 20b8 . is hé á oenur bes (= ut sit Deus omnia in omnibus), 13c3 . is machtnaigthi lim-sa . . . comad fíadut-sa in duine aneolach-sa that this ignorant fellow should be aught in thy sight, PH 1759. dia mbad rim contuased rí, | ropad a chland dia éis, LL 149a15 . , gl. nihil, Enchir. Aug. 70b ( ZCP vii 480 ). nídat (= nihil sunt), Ml. 79b7 . ni ni nach breth berar nā bidh fri leigend leir leirigther no judgement that is passed is of effect unless it is, etc. , Corm. Y 1224. Cf. further: indiu for lár Dermaigi | aicsiu Fergaili (= Fergal is not to be seen), ZCP xii 232 § 41. acht airget a findgrian its fair gravelly bed is nought but silver, Fianaig. 50.6 . acht mar do an ar ēneing | an ri is Magh F. faí the king under whom is Magh F. is of no account save in the territory to which he has confined himself (?), Irish Texts ii 45 § 1 .

Similarly in phrases: is dom é it is a matter of some consequence for me ; is limm é I think it important, advisable: nocon fuair freccra budh dhó he got no answer that satisfied him, Hugh Roe 94.1 (f. 25a) . coná fuairset troid nó tachar robadh dóibh which mattered (i.e. could hinder them), 188.19 (f. 50b) . Cf. ma ueith indsaighidh chathrach Mhaoil M. do righaiu whether it be worth while for kings to attack (?), Anecd. ii 58.18 . nír bhó lais tocht co heisinnill día furtacht he thought it would be unadvisable, Hugh Roe 204.26 (f. 54b) .

(e) folld. by a noun-clause in appos.; in O.Ir. after the interrog. particle in to emphasize a question = is it a fact that . . .? inní nad n-imcai does he (really) not consider? Ml. 114a15 . inní na fochrothai-siu (gl. numquid non tu ista discutis?), 64a4 . inní bertar ni uaine duib-si? shall anything be taken from us to you? RC v 202 § 24. Cf. mani ni nád ndenam-ni acht is co dug[n]em (gl. docet . . . non nos errare tamen si in Domino spe positâ ea quae agenda sunt . . . intente faciemus), Ml. 23c6 , where Edd. Thes. emend: ma .i. nád ndénamni; the sense may be loosely: (we do not err) unless it is the case that we do not do (them), but it is that we may do (them earnestly).

Similarly: bid sí do ṡerc-su bas | nad mair inti ceta-bui love for thee will be the cause that thy predecessor lives no longer (i.e. is forgotten), LL 275a10 ( Mór M. 265 ). ma beith iarom totim dam-sa if it should turn out that I fall, 288b47 ( RC xiii 440 § 12 ). Cf. the similar use of rud in Mod. Ir.: má's (dá mbadh) rud é go bhféadaim (bhféadainn) if I can (could).

(acht) atá (chene) (but) there is something (further), folld. by a main clause in appos. stating an additional fact or consideration; common in Mid.Ir. as a transitional phrase = moreover; however: `atá ' ar F. `ni batecra ind ḟir sin', TBC-LL¹ 444. acht atá , 543 , 1955 . acht ata chena, torchratar tri cet curad, Fianaig. 92.27 . acht ata ni chena, muidhis for na hIndecdhaibh, Marco P. 33. Cf. the later construction: dar léo féin a ccomhfoccus doibh, acht aon- dob uidhe trí lá é however, it was (really) a journey of three days, BNnÉ 71 § 121 . hiad naoimh an bheatha bhí | thig díom d'áireamh acht éin-: | gach naomh dar naomhadh ar nimh not (only) the saints of earth whom I can recount, but actually all the saints that have been hallowed in heaven, Dán Dé xxv 73 .

See also nech III.

2 ní

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 ní or
Last Revised: 2013


Forms: ní, neich, neith, ní, neche, neiche, neithe, neithinna, nídh, ní, neith, neithe, aen-, én-, ní

subst. n. and m. a thing . The transition from indef. pron. to subst. is gradual and begins already in O.Ir., cf. mór (in Glosses) a great thing, gen. used adverbially = greatly: mór bes n-adblamu foir ar soírad, Wb. 2d14 (greatly will our salvation be readier on him = how much readier will he be to save us). mór as dénti airriu how much the more is something to be done for them, 15a23 . cia fíu .i. mór (gl. quam folld. by an adj.), Ml. 17b13 , cf. 138c14 , 140b9 , 146d1 , Wb. 25a25 . gl. quanto, Ml. 80a5 ; quanta, 82c4 , cf. Wb. 16b12 . Preceded by indef. pron. adj.: na ararogart som anything which he has forbidden, Wb. 5c23 . na nní robu thol dó do frithoircnib whatever injuries he wished (to do), Ml. 33a18 . condomroib . . . na ara ṁbáigiu whatever I contend for, Fél. Ep. 360. Cf. also the compd. nephní nothing (see neimní). The transition was further aided by confusion with the O.Ir. demonstr. pron. 2 í, in neut. with art. a n-í (siu, sin) this, that , which was later analysed as a- ; aní is common in Mid.Ir. both as demonstr. and introducing rel. clause, being used indifferently with the forms anní, in . Or rather abstracted from na-nní, na : see 1 nach (N 5.37), Celtica xxi 175-77 .

As subst. in d s. after a prep. the form supersedes O.Ir. neuch (neoch), which is reserved for use as an indef. pron. (see nech III above). g s. neich, later neith (already in PH). Dual and pl. forms occur: n du. , LL 110a30 . PH 8392. g du. dá neche , CCath. 1008. n a p. neiche, later neithe (already in PH). neithinna, BCC 150.25 . Mod.Ir. nídh ( ), g s. neith and neithe.

A thing (matter, item, fact, circumstance) in wide sense, less definite and concrete than rét; employed in many cases in the same way as 1 but with more definite signification. Rarely accompanied by an adj. of quality: ni gua ēm a crand . . . atchuaid in fer-sa a false thing is the tree of which this man has told, Ériu ii 120 § 59 (Tenga Bithnúa). a ḟlaith Cermna can ni clé `without partiality', CRR 54. mór- do cenelchi a great part of the kindred, CCath. 804. Cf. acht Issu de doinib | as amram ni genair the most wonderful thing (being) born of men, Fél.² Sept. 24 ( Rawl. 505 ), perh. an inversion for: as amram génair.

Preceded by art. or pron. adj.: ni hingnath anni sin, Hib. Min. 5.154 (perh. = a n-í). ba saeth leissi in sin, IT i 124.24 . adfes do M. ind this (fact) was told to M., Mon. Tall. 34. ro fitir cech for bith, aingil oc indisi cech neich do, PH 1976. cethri rigshuide déc . . . co mbet fo thorud cech ni dib each one of them, 1255 . forémdid nach he was not able to do anything to him, 4891 . d'fhoillsiughadh an neith seo to demonstrate this fact, Keat. i 224.56 (an neithe-si v.l.). In late lang. the sense anything is rendered by the compd. aen- (én-) : adubairt . . . nach d'iarraidh ēn-neth ele tanic, ZCP vi 63.30 . d'iarraidh aoin-neithe ar Ghuaire, Keat. iii 981.

Folld. by rel. clause: fil ann in ṡāsas cech slog, LB 109b2 ( MacCarthy 43.3 ) = fail ann ni , SR 485. o'tconnairc . . . an forcoemnaca[i]r ann, PH 1201. olc in dorónsabar, 2933 . ind ni dognim-se, noco tuig-se cose, 5251 . in buan uasal do reicc tar cend in neith nach anand, 7585 . ro fallsighed dō cach no biad iarsin, RC xxiv 192.2 . as lat gach chuinghe, ZCP viii 109 § 1. dia tabairt fén ┐ cech aein nō cech neich bud leo (= sua omnia seque dantes), Lat. Lives 89.11 . Used like Lat. quicquid: cenmotha in ro marbad díb besides those who were killed, PH 6327. hi cinaid ineich ro millead uime those who were destroyed, Ériu viii 175 y = indeich, ib. 17 . dechmad an neich dorigne sim a tenth of what he did, BColm. 104.14 .

Used to anticipate the obj. of a vb. (generally one of seeing or hearing): co cualatar aní na ndochum. boscairi na n-ech they heard something approaching (namely) . . ., LU 10194. confacatar inní in macan beg, ZCP v 502.29 . conaccai ani dothaett an Satan isa teach, Ériu v 120.25 . In older Ir. alone is thus used, see IT i 137.28 , 145.14 . TBC-LL¹ 2448.

In appos. to a sent. or statement: fodaim guin, ni mou gabail, lasinni is aes ingine macdacht insin along with that (= besides, moreover) he is of marriageable age (i.e. still young), TBC-I¹ 362 = lasanní, LU 4850. condorchair Dond bó dinni ro marbad Fergal `since F. had been killed', RC xxiv 52 § 11. on no chathaíged frim co menic ros-fóglaim ocumm mu [sic leg.] gnímu-se from fighting frequently against me, he has learnt, PH 1790.

In sense matter, concern, interest, etc.: ni har ni sōn, ol F. that makes no difference to us (?), TBC-I¹ 363. `Cidh as dō so?' ol siat. `Bās a dhlighedh' ol M. `what is the thing for him?' (= what is to be his fate?), Marco P. 65. ni roibhe áirithe ag O nDomnaill orra O'D. had no special claim on them, L. Chl. S. § 43. In sense of substance, possessions: do dligh duine da | don tí dobhir uile é a man should give some of his goods, Dán Dé xxix 29 . táinig béin neith dod námhuid (= thy enemy has suffered loss of his possessions), vii 14 . pl. fil nechtar dá neche forsna coraigthib-sea atcim-sea these dispositions (of the stars) imply one or other of two things, CCath. 1008. tri neichi treabara `three secure things', Laws iv 212.13 . o'tchualae P. na nechi-sin, PH 2905. aderait na heolaig na nethe-si, 7794 . fedamar-ne 'n ar nethe fír é sin whether they were real things, Maund. 257. tuigsi na neichí spiradallta, BB 16b23 . cūis tindscanta na raed n-anaithnich ┐ cūis aithnigthi na n[e]ichead n-egsamail, ZCP xii 294.18 . ag so laoidh . . . do shuidhiughadh ar na neithibh ceudna to confirm the things just stated, Keat. i 208.8 .

In med. texts the pl. is freq. used with adj. to denote medicines or remedies (in imitation of Lat. neut. pl.): neithe comsuidigthi = composita, n.¤ degbalaid = aromatica, etc. le neithib glanus an cenn, Rosa Angl. 262.10 (see index).

3 ní

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Forms: ní-a-, ní

adv. of negation not , used with vbs. For use as copula see is.

Folld. by conjunct form of vb. In O.Ir. sometimes geminates initial consonant of vb.: ni-rrobe, Wb. 14c31 . ni-ssluinde, Sg. 66b18 . Cf. ni ténat (= ddénat), Wb. 24a25 , and the cop. forms nítam, níta, nítat, etc., where t = unlenited d (see ZCP i 4 ).

Infixes obj. pron.; with 3 s. m. and n. pron. -a- > , the gender of the pron. being indicated by treatment of follg. initial of the vb., e.g. beir does not carry; -mbeir (= -an-beir) does not carry him; bheir (= -a-bheir) does not carry it. ni-mbaí suidi, SR 6399 (d s m.), cf. 6384 . ni-n-anais thou wilt not save him, 5999 . nis-gluais, 5107 (a s f.). ni chēl I will not hide it, 2886 . cheil, Wb. 5b5 (cf. ceil, 4d16 , without pron.). thabur dit ón I give not this to thee, Sg. 179a2 . nir-tora diliu will not reach us, SR 2747.

In Mid.Ir. seems to lenite the initial cons. of follg. active vb., in MSS. generally expressed in case of tenues: ni chēlat a márgnima, LU 8953 ( FB 71 ). ni choemstais, SR 932. ni chuingem flaith, 1219 . ni ḟarggaib múr, CRR 4. ni ḟil, TBC-LL¹ 59. PH 1766. ni thanic, SR 2556. ni tharda fornn digail, 2727 . ni therna, 5070 . thairmescad, LU 8566 ( FB 42 ). So with pass. vb., contrary to later usage: ni thardad, LU 9169 ( FB 90 ), cf. trebtar, Fél. Prol. 176 (threbthair v.l.).

Occas. prefixes h- to a follg. initial vowel: ni haithgēn, SR 1689. ni himmēr, 1541 . himmertha, TBC-LL¹ 2874.

Folld. by ro- form of vb., níro often becomes nír: nir leicsetar, SR 6421. nir fhétsat, PH 2079 , etc.

Used (a) to negate a vb. in an independent sent. with all forms of indic. mood.

(b) with the subj. in an independent sent. to express desire or command (in place of the imper. with ná): intamlae, gl. ne aemuleris, Ml. 56c13 . dene (ne facias), 56c15 . ni taibre grád for nech, Wb. 29a22 . ni dérsid for soíri (ne libertatem . . . detis), 20b10 . ním-thomoldid do not goad me, 20d4 . ni imthesid cen imdéicsin, 22c4 . dechais . . . co ríg nIsrahél, SR 5951 , cf. PH 3739. niro . . . oslaice dorus na huamu-sa ┐ niro urchoite do nech, PH 352. niro techta occut feirg, 4094 .

(c) exceptionally in some other cases. Introducing a dependent noun-clause, instead of ná (nach): is follus . . . ni dligthi comardad fris, FB 41 , where, however, the second sent. may be regarded as in apposition to follus. asbertatar . . . thardad in cauradmir, 90 ( LU 9169 ). ispert sí ni targad leó that she would not go with them, Fianaig. 6.16 .

In a few cases in early poetry folld. by inf. dat. pron. seems to take the place of the subst. vb.: nim-huain I have no leisure, SR 1185. ar nin-fissid frisbered omnu huain `for not to us is the Knower' (= we have no longer the Knower), ACC 16 ( RC xx 164 ).

4 ní

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1 pl. pron. see .

? 5 ní

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n evil? ni .i. olc ut est: arsaidh ni dicenn .i. astar olc do neoch a nglam dicend, H 3.18, 61b ( O'Curry 79 ), from Bretha Neimed; same citation in O'Dav. 32 , where Stokes translates `the "d." avenges something'. Cf. níe.