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2 ocus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 ocus or


Forms: acus, ┐

conj., also acus (cognate with 1 ocus, see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 161 ) and. In texts generally expressed by the contraction ┐ (used for Lat. et), nearly always so in Ml.; Wb. prefers Lat. et (but ┐ occurs Wb. 2b9 , 33a2 , 6 , 33b20 , 34a6 ), which is found also in later texts, e.g. TBC Stowe.


(1) ocus, written in full fifteen times in the Cambray Homily and in Ml. 65a7 , 94c5 ; in later texts generally at the beginning of a sentence, e.g. LU 2401 , 2402 .

(2) acus, written in full Wb. 3a15 and perhaps to be read for Lat. et and ┐ through- out that text. In TBC, besides the contraction, ocus is found written in full down to TBC-LL¹ l. 2313 and again 3008 ; acus, 2913 , again 3188 and through the rest of the text.

(3) ocuis, only in Cambr. Hom. where it occurs five times ( Thes. ii 245.4 , 6 , 9 ; 247.14 , 20 ).

(4) is: possibly in Wb. 10b21 : et in tain asṁberar benefacere co[n]iugio is melius facere virginitatem (the refer- erence is to 1 Corinth. vii 38 : et qui matrimonio iungit . . . bene facit; et qui non iungit melius facit), where Ascoli sees the conj., Edd. Thes. the copula. Common in poetry from an early date when required by metre: ar cuirp is ar n-anma, Thes. ii 395.5 (Mael Ísú's hymn). eter mín is garb co ndath | eter marb ocus beothach, SR 27. tair ocus tiar, tuaid is tess, 86 ; cf. 122 , 310 . Johannes is Paulus, Fél. June 26 . déssib ocus trírib, Prol. 210 = co ndessib is tririb, LB. for nim ocus talmain, Ep. 294 = is for talmain v.l. for deiss rig is ruirech, TBC-LL¹ 3070 , cf. 735 , 3211 , 4103 . Nearly always written in full, but occas. expressed by ┐ : is nocho móo ro genair, TBC-LL¹ 3684 ; ┐ meicc Matae Murisce, CRR § 5 (= is meicc), both hepta- syllabic lines. Contracted to s: a chosc fein | 's a timargain dia uagréir, SR 4128. Occas. in prose: is cia itá do thigerna- su?, TBC-LL¹ 1417. cen a lor each ┐ bid is etaig, PH 411 = LB 6a1 . In late poetry generally written as, freq. contracted to 's.

(5) os: os airm i mbiad da comarba `and in a place', Laws iv 128.3 . os ma doti eisirt [sic MS.] . . . anechtair, 128.11 (in both cases glossed: os ar acus, 128.15 ; 130.3 ); cf. ii 178.16 . os aircoige techta . . . .i. os ar ogus, O'Dav. 100. os .i. ocus, 1318 . See Ir. Recht §§ 30 , 31 , 32 and ZCP xvi 275. See also 2 os. Ocus (is) lenites follg. consonant: cu cumtuch ┐ chon- imbiud, Ml. 94b11 . Petair is Phóil, Fél. Nov. 18. ra[t] chuit maige is chaille, TBC-LL¹ 3036 = is cailli, TBC-LL¹ 2252. orba cruid ocus tṡliasta, Laws iv 40.13 . ag imchar chéri as chopán, IGT Dec. ex. 101. In TBC-LL¹ 1826 : is lór n-argigi ┐ n-óebinniusa ┐ n-ániusa amthiagat, the eclipsis after lór is transferred by ocus to the nouns follg.

Used like Eng. and, Lat. et, atque, -que as co-ordinating conj. to connect sentences and members of a sentence: gl. -que, Ml. 65a7 . Occas. used loosely where an adversative conj. might be expected: ní baí innmas laiss ┐ baí ferand he had no wealth but he had land, LL 167a53 . Dún Eogain . . . ní mair Eogan forsind múr | ocus maraid in sendún, ACL iii 303 z . adubairt . . . nach rachad . . . fein ┐ co cuirfeadh nach eli, ZCP xiii 183.16 . Cf. `nā fuirig, a gilla', ar si `┐ ata do brathair agad togairm' for thy brother is calling thee, TTebe 4350 .

Idiomatic uses:

(a) when ocus connects two subjects of the same vb. of which the first is a sing. pers. pron., this latter is commonly not expressed but implicit in the vb. which is used in the plural: conráncatar ┐ Dubthach he and D. met, Thes. ii 241.5 ( Ardm. 18a1 ). conricfam ann ocus tu you and I will meet there, Fél. 86.32 . (Cf. the similar construction with eter: darala eturru . . . ┐ Fergus F. and he quarrelled, TBC-LL¹ 6135. ) The follg. constructions are analogous: ní sgéar agus Muire M. and I will not part, Dán Dé xxvii 34 (ní sgéaram would be ex- pected). mo dheala agus Rí na ríogh | ná tí dhíom cheana do chlódh `may I not fail to heal my breach with the Lord', ib. go dtí . . . don chneidh mo shíoth agus Rí an ríchidh `may the wound cause my peace with the Lord', vi 18 . i n-oen-uair tancatar ocus techta Conchobair they and C.'s messengers arrived together, IT i 96.4 .

(b) connecting two sentences the second of which is virtu- ally though not formally dependent on the first: cach fiach inghellus duine ocus bidh ina shaidhbre every debt which a man promises who is in wealth, Laws iv 36.27 . in filet ocaib-se araile dee ┐ is friu raiter Petar ┐ Pol? have ye certain gods who are called, PH 432. `Usce damsa, a bean' . . . `Dobér' or si, `┐ tuc poic dam' (= if you will kiss me), RC xxiv 198.21 . nocha denaim-si fich nā formad um airchendus na Greigi . . . ┐ leigid dam-sa bruigi na Teibe provided ye leave me the farms of T., TTebe 835 . ba nert leis a menma ┐ tiasad i n-oenuch (= as if he were going), TBC-LL¹ 2497.

(c) used to connect a main clause with a subordinate; gen. in sense since, seeing that : canas i ngabur teora cethraime in feich . . . ocus co na fuil acht leth na miach? whence (comes it that) three-quarters of the fine is paid . . . seeing that it is only half the sack? Laws iv 84.1 . nā dena doilges fa dol do denam foghlamadh . . . ┐ gu dtiagaid na cennuighthi darna farrgibh seeing that merchants cross the seas, Ériu v 140 § 129. créad tug ar do fhréimh romhaibh gan déanamh a ndearnobhair 's nach ainbhfeas . . . tug bhar n-aighneas dáibh do dhearmad? why did not your race before you do as you have done, since it was not ignorance that made them omit your argument? Content. ix 20 , cf. vi 110 .

(d) introducing a nom. absol. standing

(1) in adjectival relation to a foregoing noun; in this case usually folld. by the disjunctive form of the pers. pron.: Muirchertach do toitim . . . ocus se ar meisce, RC xviii 194.12 . i fiadnaise in abbad noeim . . . ocus se baccach, PH 620. ruc si mac . . . ┐ si fo leith na dromlaigi, RC xxiv 190 § 2. co ro gairestar a n-ainimm as a corpaib ┐ iat-som i n-a lige for lár, PH 1010. in tan batar amlaid sin ocus siat aurlam co bás, 390 . ro hadnaiced na geill . . . ┐ siad beoa, RC xxiv 184.17 . dorinne tú agus tú id' naoidhin . . . mil don uisge, Dán Dé xii 17. mar atáid na cuirp chealgacha . . . ┐ gan iad cliste ná calma, TSh. 2070. See 2 os.

(2) in an adverbial relation to the sent.: ro iarfaigset uli . . . ┐ a cind cromma with bent heads, PH 583. atbert Longínus ┐ in popul imme di cech leth with the people around him, 760 . desidar `na suidi ┐ Niall i medon etarru with N. between them, RC xxiv 202.2 . adubhairt nár shochar dó an fheoil d'fhagháil is méad na tóire do bhí 'n-a diaidh seeing how many there were in pursuit of it, Keat. iii 1021. dul don tigh . . . agus méad mo mhearaighthe | ní fhéadfainn `owing to my great folly I cannot reach the castle', Dán Dé i 4. ba himshnimach let, ┐ í an coimhlin so do bliadhnoibh ad choimhleapaidh, gan clann agoip she being your wife for so many years, Fl. Earls 224.3 .

Oft. introducing a conditional phrase containing an infini- tive: is mairc thic annsa saegul-sa ┐ na huilc-si so thecht trit `woe to him who cometh into this world and causeth these evils', PH 7791. ro gell nā tobechad . . . in ṁborama ┐ a anacul if he got quarter, RC xiii 52 § 40 ( LL 299b36 ). doberim a cutruma dóib ocus gan techt im' agaid if they will not oppose me, Fianaig. 78.16 . ro tairgid cairt ar cró a cinid dó ┐ a n-airc d'fóirighin provided he would help their difficulty, Ériu iv 224.24 . créad é an tarbha dho neach dá bhfhaghadh sé an domhan uile agus a anum féin do chailleamhain?, Mark viii 36. The Welsh ac (a) `and' is similarly used: Welsh `ac efe etto yn llefaru, daeth rhai' while he yet spake, Mark v 35. Welsh `os ynnill yr holl fyd a cholli ei enaid', viii 36 .

(e) a similar construction is found after amlaid: is amlaid ro bui M. ocus fled morchain aici, Fianaig. 54.31 . is amlaid tánic a dochum ┐ lán a dā glac lais do lommánaib, FB 81. combad amlaid domeltís hé ┐ a n-iallacrand imma cossaib, PH 5102. is amhlaidh do-chonnairc E. an marcach so ┐ coróin fána cheann, TSh. 40.

(f) used in equative comparison and after inund `the same': métithir ocus óg rérchirce as big as, MacCongl. 53.1 . cutruma beirius ocus cach fer dlighthech isin bfine he gets as much as, Laws iv 294 y Comm. cumme ┐ sengobi like an old smith, Mon. Tall. 19. go n-oibrigheann an teine . . . comh-maith ┐ oibrigheas uisge, TSh. 1989. go bhfuil an uiread do bharr teasa ag teine phurgadóra . . . ┐ atá ag teine an tsaoghail, 4416 . ni hinund sét tancatar ┐ dochuatar doridise, PH 7037. isin cháisc dedenaig, is inund ón ┐ dia laithe brátha that is to say (namely), 5012 .