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3 ní

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 3 ní or


Forms: ní-a-, ní

adv. of negation not , used with vbs. For use as copula see is.

Folld. by conjunct form of vb. In O.Ir. sometimes geminates initial consonant of vb.: ni-rrobe, Wb. 14c31 . ni-ssluinde, Sg. 66b18 . Cf. ni ténat (= ní ddénat), Wb. 24a25 , and the cop. forms nítam, níta, nítat, etc., where t = unlenited d (see ZCP i 4 ).

Infixes obj. pron.; with 3 s. m. and n. pron. ní-a- > ní, the gender of the pron. being indicated by treatment of follg. initial of the vb., e.g. ní beir does not carry; ní-mbeir (= ní-an-beir) does not carry him; ní bheir (= ní-a-bheir) does not carry it. ni-mbaí suidi, SR 6399 (d s m.), cf. 6384 . ni-n-anais thou wilt not save him, 5999 . nis-gluais, 5107 (a s f.). ni chēl I will not hide it, 2886 . ní cheil, Wb. 5b5 (cf. ní ceil, 4d16 , without pron.). ní thabur dit ón I give not this to thee, Sg. 179a2 . nir-tora diliu will not reach us, SR 2747.

In Mid.Ir. ní seems to lenite the initial cons. of follg. active vb., in MSS. generally expressed in case of tenues: ni chēlat a márgnima, LU 8953 ( FB 71 ). ni choemstais, SR 932. ni chuingem flaith, 1219 . ni ḟarggaib múr, CRR 4. ni ḟil, TBC-LL¹ 59. PH 1766. ni thanic, SR 2556. ni tharda fornn digail, 2727 . ni therna, 5070 . ní thairmescad, LU 8566 ( FB 42 ). So with pass. vb., contrary to later usage: ni thardad, LU 9169 ( FB 90 ), cf. ní trebtar, Fél. Prol. 176 (threbthair v.l.).

Occas. prefixes h- to a follg. initial vowel: ni haithgēn, SR 1689. ni himmēr, 1541 . ní himmertha, TBC-LL¹ 2874.

Folld. by ro- form of vb., níro often becomes nír: nir leicsetar, SR 6421. nir fhétsat, PH 2079 , etc.

Used (a) to negate a vb. in an independent sent. with all forms of indic. mood.

(b) with the subj. in an independent sent. to express desire or command (in place of the imper. with ná): ní intamlae, gl. ne aemuleris, Ml. 56c13 . ní dene (ne facias), 56c15 . ni taibre grád for nech, Wb. 29a22 . ni dérsid for soíri (ne libertatem . . . detis), 20b10 . ním-thomoldid do not goad me, 20d4 . ni imthesid cen imdéicsin, 22c4 . ní dechais . . . co ríg nIsrahél, SR 5951 , cf. PH 3739. niro . . . oslaice dorus na huamu-sa ┐ niro urchoite do nech, PH 352. niro techta occut feirg, 4094 .

(c) exceptionally in some other cases. Introducing a dependent noun-clause, instead of ná (nach): is follus . . . ni dligthi comardad fris, FB 41 , where, however, the second sent. may be regarded as in apposition to follus. asbertatar . . . ní thardad in cauradmir, 90 ( LU 9169 ). ispert sí ni targad leó that she would not go with them, Fianaig. 6.16 .

In a few cases in early poetry ní folld. by inf. dat. pron. seems to take the place of the subst. vb.: nim-huain I have no leisure, SR 1185. ar nin-fissid frisbered omnu huain `for not to us is the Knower' (= we have no longer the Knower), ACC 16 ( RC xx 164 ).