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catharda

Cite this: eDIL s.v. catharda or dil.ie/8370

Forms: caitherda

(1 cathair) also caitherda. caitheardha ┐ cat[h]ardha c.¤ d'úaithne, Bard. Synt. Tr. 233.15 .

I As adj. civil, urbane : rún cathardha, TD 22a . 28 . Gaoidhil na ngníomh gcathardha, 16.3 . teglach catharrdha mo mheic, Duan. F. i 73.30 . In Cath Cathardha Bellum Civile, CCath. p. 2 nír cath catharrda coruigi e (prov.), ZCP vi 43.8 . Of buildings splendid, stately : cathair catharrdha conaich, ZCP vi 72.24 . is c. relic no uasal gl. ruamda relic, Fél.² lxxi n. 16 . Cathair chathardha Chröoinn, TD 28.15 . ráth na mbeann gcathardha, 27.8 . i n-a prīmh-egluiss chatharrdha `splendid', Fl. Earls 244.31 . ? Cf. airc c.¤ in choimded, YBL 169a18 .

As alliterating adj. in vague sense (cf. 1 cath, cathar, ferda): sluaigh catharrdha cruadhcomlannacha warlike , Stair Erc. 2173 . Conn cathardha cetchathach, Duan. F. i 86.28 . lán . . . / . . . do cheinnbheartaibh cathardha (of stronghold), DDána 85.38 . Note also: brisfitt mo chāin catharrdha monastic(?), Misc. Hag. Hib. 123.14 . goirmaoid Eagluis vilidhe nó chatharrdha dhí `Universal', Carswell 124.8 .

II As subst. [io, m.] citizen : athair na c.¤ gl. pater civium (Patricius), IT i 17.28 . fri cathardu ┐ eclaisi domiditer luicc (`cities'), Fél. 2.8 . atchíam-ne tú amail c.¤ díless hi neim (of St Colmán), BColm. 106.7 . c.¤ in baile, PH 7221 . a cathardha inmaine, CCath. 3674 .

cléithe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cléithe or dil.ie/9421
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: chléthe, cléithe, cleithe, cleithi

n io, n. Later f. (long vowel not guaranteed by rhyme. Cf. 1 cleth, clíath?). n s. cleithi n-ordain iartair domain, AU an. 939 . cleithe n-óc nEmna, LL 2626 (cf. however: Clethe bretha name of a law-tract, Laws i 26.3 Comm. ) a s. a chléthe n-óchtarach, LU 1476 . n pl. cléithe, Críth G. 157 . g pl. fer da cleithe , Laws iv 350.22 . As f. d s. i cleithi áin, LL 29494 . g s. cecha cleithi , LL 400a42 .

(a) roof-tree, ridge-pole : ete iter cach dá ḟíthe ó ṡuidiu co c.¤ , Críth G. 100 . in clí isin tegdais ō lár co clēithi, Corm. Y 275 . is bēsad na cleithe (= g s. of 1 cleth), is balc oc lār, is caol oc clēit[h]e, ibid. (cf. Laws iv 358.13 ) = ina cliad, Thr. Ir. Gl. 10 s.v. clíí. Tech Midchúarda o cléithib co talmandae, LU 7207 ( BDD² 824 ). ró lá [cor n-iach n-erred] de i n-ar[da co ruc] a chléthe n-óchtarach din tig co mboí for cléthiu in tigi aile, LU 1476 ( MU² 953 - 4 ). dofet cliath cleithe .i. as remtechtai lium cliath ichtair in tighi do denam ar dus anas cleitine a mullaighi, O'Curry 1874 ( 23 P 3, f. 21 (23)a ). a breth fo clethe; a breth a nuaim into a building(?), Laws ii 128.15 Comm. (`into concealment'). atracht columu tenntide . . . co cleithe na heclaisi, Three Hom. 66.4 . secht stíalla umai ón damdabaich co c.¤ issin tig, TBFr. 76 . gur b' ionsamhail cleithi tre churcais reanna na sleagh tres an slios araill do Chelluch a ridge-pole protruding from a thatch of rushes(?), MR 272.13 . ? cf. fiacla cirí cleth i curghais (a derogatory description), IT iii 101 § 179 . Confused with clí: cli .i. ise a bés na cleithe, is trén ┐ is dírech, ┐ congaib ┐ congaibther . . . adcumuing o cleithiu co lar, Laws iv 358.22 , 23 (cf. also Corm. Y 275 above). ní bfuaramar dhar ttighthibh shoir / acht bun gach cleithe a ttalmhuin, Ériu i 22.108 .

(b) By synecdoche, (dwelling) house: biaid gol gacha cleiti .i. cacha tighe, H 3.18, 553a14 . dixit Pátricius nád bíad dē de cleithi la chenél and, Trip.² 1814 . Cf. YBL 136a27 . co na boi dei do clethe a n-Erinn forsna beth cíos doib, RC xii 62 § 25 . ol cét cech clethi i nHerind, LL 22416 . Cf. 27617 .

(c) More generally building : it hé insin .vii. c.¤ ó ndírenar cach bóaire (ref. to a list of seven buildings, a dwelling-house and six farm-buildings), Críth G. 157 . a ṡrethe tige, a ḟolud, a chléthe, a echṡréin, 432 . co n-innrucus ch.¤ `with a complete set of buildings' (Gloss.), 438 . ? trí dotcaid threbtha: gort salach, iarmur c.¤, tech drithlennach, Triads 65 . ?fer . . . na techta fo tuaith co leir na cleithe who owns no house throughout the territory (?), Laws iv 352.12 (`visibly or invisibly').

(d) As technical term for some kind of tenant or dependent: lethflaithem .i. fer da cleithe cona comorbuib techtaib `two cleithe- tenants', Laws iv 350.11 . flaithem oen escra .i. fer aen cleithe, 14 . Cf. senchléithe. do flaith rucu gu-breth for a celi .i. gu-fiadnaise im clethe, v 220.4 Comm.

(e) c.¤ (sg. or pl.) nime, aeóir, etc. the heavens, the firmament; the sky : a cléthib clithnimi, LU 1169 . lotar na suipp ṡesca . . . i cléthib aeóir ┐ firmiminti, TBC-LL¹ 6040 . na fóit . . . curit i cleithe ḟirmimenti, LL 24910 . ba h-urcur a cleithibh nime ┐ ba snam i n-aighid srotha, BB 419b37 . do eirgedh an detach co direch i cleitib in aeoir, Grail 3098 . Without qualifying gen. no rannad bledmila in mara immi . . . súas i n-ardda clethi, LL 12631 . fuath-nell . . . d'ár ceiled in cleithi coithcenn (sic) . . . os a cendaib, MR 240.5 . ? Cf. go ttarla C. fo chleithibh talmhain, TBC-LL¹ p. 561 n.6 (fo lintip an atha, St.).

(f) Other applications. top, crown (of head, more freq. c.¤ cinn or c.¤ cennmullaig): in buinne díriuch dondḟala atracht a fírchlethe a chendmullaig, LU 6475 (TBC). roben Gola i clethi a chind, SR 5871 . cora chomthócbaiset a lonna láith ósa cleithib, LL 32509 ( TTr. 1707 ). imon cathbharr im a cleithi, BB 297a 41 . in mong . . . tria cleithi a ceandmullaich, RC xxiv 196.17 . co ruc clethi a chinn de co n-apad, xxiii 325 § 14 n. Of the tops of trees, woods, mountains, a city: ba cosmail fri cleithe caille cetamain . . . cechtar a da gruad, LL 253a47 (cf. Aen. 1926 and IT iii 186.13 s.v. forcléithe, also forcle). suas gu clethi na crand, BB 497a4 . a bun cleithi na crand, 13 . cleithe na uruachtur sleibhe Erix, CCath. 1382 . sliab nOlimp, isa cenn ┐ isa clethi fil . . . , BB 488b2 . ós cleithi na cathrach, CCath. 1321 . c.¤ .i. uachdar tighe, tulcha no cnuic, O'Cl.

(g) Freq. in Laws Comm. meaning something of considerable value, a matter of importance, high rank(?) (oppd. to , q.v.): mas a seachtar faiche [ro gatait na beich] . . ., gid maigin . . . gid sechtar maigin, gid cutrumus lui gid cutrumus clethe . . . mas a maigin ┐ is cutrumus cleithi is lanenecland. Mas a chutrumus lui, is leitheinecland. Masa seachtar maigin ┐ is cutrumus clethe is leithenecland. Masa cutrumus lui is uii.adh neneclaindi, O'D. 1041 (H.2.15, 25). dá trian diri dula urraidh d'urradh ina dúil; aen trian diri dula deoraidh do deoradh ina dúil, ┐ eneclann do cechtar de fo aicned lui no cleithi according to his lesser or greater standing(?), 1366 (E. 3.5, 24a). rig . . . beires bretha gua, cid im lu, cid im cleithi `whether it be concerning a small thing or a large', Laws i 54.18 Comm. cid bec .i. im lu; cid mor .i. im cleithi, iii 38.y Comm. noco nuil deithbir lui na cleithi im in cumail sin `no difference of major or minor (higher or lower rank)', 110.6 Comm. ma ro gatait seoit uaithib ris in ré sin, eneclann do cechtar de ann fo aicned lai no cleithi `minor or major value' (rank?), 144.15 Comm. corab e in tainmrainde sin da eneclainn bes do co na ferthain ar in rob is cleithi, ┐ a leth ina ferthain ar in rob is lu, 358.y Comm. a nderbḟorgeall clethe for na huaislib . . . a nderbforgeall clethe for islib an affirmation concerning an important matter, 396.6 - 8 Comm. gufiadnaise im clethe, no im forcruidh fognuma im clethe `about a great (matter), or about excess of service in a great (matter)', v 220.4-5 Comm. But cléithe are divided into large and small: ce ro ghata da cleithi o duine, .i. clethe beg ┐ clethe mor, O'Curry 1665 ( 23 Q 6, 23 b ). cemadh mo re hic naithgina in clethi mor na in clethi beg nocha mo re hic smachta na dire na eneclainne e na in clethi bec, 1666 ( 23 Q 6 23 b ). Cf. clethe .i. mor no uasal, O'Dav. 558 .

(h) Fig. perfection, culmination; chief, head : i suthemlacht cech berlai co clethi to (or with?) perfection, LU 661 ( ACC 26 gl . baí sab súithe cec dind). acht na roigh co cleithe `but he does not reach to the top (of scholarship)', Laws iv 356.7 . ceand ┐ cléthi cacha bíd int iasc ár dothomail Issu he, Thr. Ir. Gl. 24 s.v. iasc. cléithi .i. rogha ut est cléithi tech n Erenn, H 3.18, 650b24 . ba cleithi ach don Erind bas meic Erca, Dinds. 114 . cléthe .i. formna, no in t-art fine .i. intí is airdi don fine, ut est co cléthi fine fosaighther cina, O'Dav. 486 . for cléithib na Cráeb-rúaide `chiefs' (Gloss.), Metr. Dinds. iv 130.82 . sáifiter slúaig con mae re secht c.¤ slúaig Ulad, LL 11628 (TBC rhet.). clethe Laighen leighnidhe, TFrag. 188.5 . tiagha[ir] gusan gcathraigh, dotaott gussan gclēithe (i.e. to the chief personage in the town), ZCP vii 305.3 . araile fealmac fēigh don Mumhain . . . atnacobrustor mnáoi siú rosiacht clēithe the perfection of his art(?), 304.27 . as go c.¤ tuaithe tiagaid filidh fuigheall fria forus fáth, Ériu xiii 33.31 . Ua Suanaich . . . / Eiríu ard amre . . . / ised a c.¤ clerech, BB 233b35 . imm imthecor do dērce as cend ┐ as cléthe inna huile timna, Otia ii 97 § 31 . is é cléthi ┐ forair in fhorcetail diada in dearc, PH 5789 . mad intii adcobra rosá cléthe foirbthetad `who desires to reach the pitch of perfectness', Ériu vii 154 § 6 . comad ead clethi soethair cech duine, áine ┐ érnaigthi, RC xii 438.1 . combadh si budh cenn ┐ budh cleithe d'eccailsibh Érenn, AFM i 142.x .

Cothraige

Cite this: eDIL s.v. Cothraige or dil.ie/12673
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: Coathrige

pn (Lat. Patricius , Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 201 . GOI 571 but based on the Irish tribal name Cothraige, Ériu xxxvi 1-9 , ZCP xlix-l 698-709 ). Coathrige, Trip.² 2501 (Cathirge, v.l.). (Saint) Patrick: dochum Cothraigi, Trip.² 2389 . super Petram Coithrigi hi Caissiul, Thes. ii 269.35 ( Ardm. 15b2 ). bātar ili C. / cetharthrebe dia fognad, 309.6 ( Hy. ii 6 ). See Lecc Cothraidi, Hog. Onom. O'Rahilly, The Two Patricks 80 - 82 . For a possible c.¤ bishop see De Búrca, Lochlann iii 278 - 85 .

debroth

Cite this: eDIL s.v. debroth or dil.ie/14845
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: debroth, débródh, débroth, debrod, debro, debródh, debrath, debhrath, debrad, debhradh, debra, Débroth, debroth

ind an exclamation or asseveration constantly used by S. Patrick. debroth, Ardm. 6 b 1 . Thes. ii 310. 26 . Corm. s.v. mo d . Acall. 6648 . MacCongl. 15. 16 ; 83. 9 . O'Don. Sup. s.v. mo d.¤ de brot, Corm. l.c. (v.l.). débródh, Trip. 168. 14 . débroth, LB 27 b 3 . MacCongl. 45. 18 ; 61. 3 ; 67. 3 . debrod, Ardm. 7 a 2 . debro, Trip. 56. 6 (H 3. 18). debhroth, BB 208 a 41 . debródh, Trip. 56. 6 . — debrath, Thes. ii 290. 11 (Sg). H 3.18, 69 b . O'Mulc. 296 . debhrath, Todd Nenn. 182. 8 . debrad, Lism. L. 2246 . LB 251 a 5 . MacCarthy 436. 1 (BB). Fen. 214. 17 . debhradh AFM ii 652. 8 . debra, LL 193 b 51 (uncertain).

Rhymes with menman : dorata Dia debradh dúin : are rit ar menman mín, ZCP vi 266 § 10 ; with celebrad : co dered domain debrad : nocha bia gan celebrad, Fen. 214. 17 ; with delbda, LL 193 b 51 . In Debide : debrod : clod, ACC § 52 .

By the grammarians explained in various ways.

(a) usually explained as = Dia brátho God of judgment Thes. ii 310. 26 . Trip. 56. 6 (H 3. 18, ACL iii 16 § 36 ).

(b) already by Cormac connected with the Welsh formula min doiu braut `by God of the judgment' : mo debroth (v.l. luide mo de brot .i. mo dia brata) ol Patraic quod Scotici dicunt corrupte. síc hoc dici debet .i. muin doíu braut .i. muin didiu is meus. in díu is deus. in braut is judex .i. meus deus judex , Corm. s.v. mo d .

(c) as a Hebrew word. debrath ebraice. brath loquella. debrath didiu délabrath, O'Mulc. 296 .

(d) debrath .i. brath indsce. debrath didiu .i. deil a brath, H 3.18, 69 b .

(e) the explanation given in Colgan's Trias Thaum. p. 53 and 59 is due to misunderstanding of the passage in Ardm. 7 a 2 ( Trip. 292. 26 ).

(f) understood as degbriathar, Acall. 6648 (Franc. A 4 73 a ). See now Ériu lix 139-51 .

The rhymes with menman and celebrad (v. supra) do not necessarily prove original short -e-. Débroth the doom of God would be an ordinary cpd. of dia and bráth (u- stem), the latter passing into -broth in enclisis as scáth > scud (foscud, d sg.), gním > gnom. Mo d.¤ , dar mo d.¤ by the doom that God will pass on me on the day of Judgment. It seems the Irish equivalent of W. `min doiu braut,' not an adaptation of it. In `mo d.¤ ,' debroth is probably the dative.

(a) mo debroth seems the oldest formula : ` cui irascens Sanctus Patricius cum maledictione dixit : mudebrod male fecisti. nusquam proficiat tibi ager in aeternum , Ardm. 7 a 2 . et ait S. Patricius mudebroth quamuis laboraueritis nec tamen proficiat , ib. 6 b 1 = Trip. 289. 24 (transformed by Trias Thaum. 53 into`modebroth quod interpretatur quod non laboratis non proderit vobis '). mo debroth ol P., Corm., v. supra.—With strengthening om : mo debroth um ar Patraic bidh Hí Raduib do tṡíl trét umalóit, Acall. 6648 . — atbiur mo debroth...noco fesser cid fil and noco nérus, MacCongl. 15. 16 (analogically after atbiursa mo bréithir, &c.).

(b) dar mo debroth : asbert Patraic fris dar mo de broth is tualaing Dia sen mad áil dó. genus iuramenti sen la Patraic ac si diceret dar mo Dia bratha (which Trias Thaum. l.c. 4 transl. `per Deum meum Judicem sive judicii'), Thes. ii 310. 26 . dar mo debrod, ACC § 52 . darmo debródh ( débroth, LB 27 b 3 , debro, H 3.18 ) ol P. isind ulċ atá do chumachta, Trip. 56. 6 (H 3. 18 and LB add `.i. dar mo dia bratha (mbr. LB),' ACL iii 16 § 36 ).— dar mo debhrath ar Luirich (son of Sarran) is calma form in peata...andas in Coimdhe dia nadhair, Todd Nenn. 182. 8 .— dar mo debroth i fiadnaise in dúileman ba maith lium co rísaind a dochum in dúnaid sin, MacCongl. 83. 9 . darom débroth...ní bether co bráth, ib. 61. 3 .

(c) dom debroth: dom débroth fullfi friss, MacCongl. 45. 18 ; ib. 67. 3 .

(d) fom debroth: bam débroth, MacCongl. 57. 17 .

(e) a debroth: missi a debrad am fer sean (in verse) YBL 108 b 19 ( Ériu iv 150. 19 ).

(f) debroth alone, only in poetry: debrath nom choimmdiu cóima, Thes. ii 290. 11 (Editors' transl. is impossible; d.¤ perhaps abs. dat. `when the judgment of God is being passed,' i.e. on the day of Judgment, or an exclamation). roláis díot Feardia na ndrong: debhradh is crúaidh do choṁlann, Mil na mB. 27 l. 398 . muir nard nainbthech seoch a tæb: debrad nocha rígda dúil, Lism. L. 2246 . co dered domain debrad (: celebrad), Fen. 214. 17 . rocráided muintir Thomair: i niarthar domain debhradh by God's doom the race of T. was destroyed in the western world AFM ii 652. 15 (A.D. 942). Daminis debrad is tír, BB 51 a 47 ( MacCarthy 436. 1 ). dorata Dia debradh dún: are rit (= frit) ar menman mín (g s.) ZCP vi 266 st 10 .

1 fer

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 fer or dil.ie/21665
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: fer, fear, fir, fer, fear, fir, fiur, fior, fir, firu, fira, fiora, fer, feraib, fearaib, firu, fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fer, Fir, Ḟir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, fer, ferchrechta, ferdrai, ferghlonna, ḟermeic, fermaicc, fermogh

n o, m. n s. fer, Sg. 190b3 , Wb. 10b23 , 11c17 , 22c9 . fear, IGT, Introd. § 151 . v s. fir, Wb. 10a10 . a s. fer, 9d16 ; 31 . 10a3 ; 9 . fear, IGT, Introd. § 75 . g s. fir, Wb. 13a12 . LU 3453 . 7085 IGT, Decl. § 65 . d s. fiur, Wb. 3c8 . 10b22 . 22c9 . Ml. 34d6 . Sg. 66a6 . (in MSS of the Mid. Ir. period often spelt fir: LU 8722 . Hib. Min. 14.472 . PH pass. IGT. Decl. § 65 . Early Mod. fior, IGT, Introd. § 73 . §81 . Keat. iii 2535 . TSh. pass. ) n p. fir, Wb. 22c10 . IGT, Decl. § 65 . a p. firu, Sg. 28a6 . LU 7529 . fira, YBL 123ay . IGT, Decl. § 65 . fiora, IGT, Introd. § 78 , § 151 . BNnÉ 104.36 . TSh. 7248 . g p. fer LU 7084 . d p. feraib, Wb. 12d40 . LU 7524 . fearaib, IGT, Decl. § 65 . (feir n s. Wb. 13a6 , a s. 13a20 , g p. 22c10 is merely an odd spelling).

(a) a man (as opp. to a woman): gl. mas Sg. 156b3 ; gl. vir Ir. Gl. 395 . f.¤ a uiro , O'Mulc. 519 . is e in duine cómlan in f.¤ ┐ in ben, PH 5720 . corp na mna no in fhir, 7425 . eter fhir ┐ mnai, 564 . iter mnai ┐ firu 2796 . bása mac la maccu; ba fer la firu, LU 9336 . in n-uair ropo thressiu flaith firu when ale proved stronger than men (acc. for dat.) LL 173a29 ( CRR 13 ). dorochair coíca láech lais ┐ dorochair f.¤ cach ḟir dia muntir a man for each man (i.e. the same number) TFerbe 675 . regaid f.¤ dar f.¤ ScM. § 15 . edhbrais é féin, fioru, macca, mna do Dhia BNnÉ 292.33 . notmuirfider fein feraib macaib mnaibh, Ériu v 154. 133 . cu ro aīnitis uile feraib maccaib mnaib PH 6309 . Used of Deity: F.¤ cotnic brath, MacCarthy 24.16 . don fhir do cum neam ┐ talma[i]n, ZCP vi 87.15 . a Fhir na ndúl, Dán Dé xxix 30 .

Often taking the place of a pronoun: faith cach f.¤ dinaib feraib hí siu each of these men was a prophet Wb. 12d40 . etarcertar oinfer in chrudsin (gl. unus interpretatur) 13a6 . is f.¤ a ddiis one out of two (explaining Lat. uter) Sg. 75b7 . gabaid cach f.¤ díb rind a claidib ..., LU 7089 . da brathair ... f.¤ díb for Temraig ┐ f.¤ for Lagnib one of them ... the other TBC-LL¹ 50 . f.¤ is deichnemor diop eleven of them Fl. Earls 96.24 . ocht rígh 's ceithre fichid fear eighty-eight kings TD 7.49 .

(b) a husband (opp. to ben `wife'): a f.¤ dligid her lawful husband Wb. 3c7 . do fiur indligid, 3c8 . mad co techt di co fer `if it comes to her going to a husband' 9d32 . dorat Hiruath grád di, intan ba beo a f.¤ fen, PH 832 . tuccastair a mac fein cuíce d'fir as husband MacCarthy 288.22 . aoighe mná nach mair a fear, TD 11.32 . Possibly in this sense in poetry folld. by gen. of place-name in addressing a chief e.g. a ḟir Eithne, TD 1.45 (see note), but cf. end of (c).

(c) freq. folld. by a gen. of definition or description: Find f.¤ Umaill (= Umall's son) Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 14.8 (cf. Aenfer Aife, Ériu i 124 ). co f.¤ ṅDe the man of God PH 1363 . fir nime ┐ soscela Crist (i.e. churchmen ) Laws iv 210.7 .

f.¤ fine a tribesman, relative (within a certain degree) ii 282.7 . f.¤ fiadhnaisi rígh one entitled to be in the king's presence Acall. 2362 . f.¤ gualann righ one entitled to sit beside the king 2361 . f.¤ leptha ríg a king's bedfellow 7752 . f.¤ lethlamha rígh (expl. of patric = patricius ), CCath. 63 . f.¤ lāime `perpetrator' (operator) Laws i 244.1 Comm. With abstr. noun: is tú f.¤ aurbága fil la Ultu, LU 8147 ( FB 11 ). f.¤ comtha a companion PH 2630 . v s. a fir chumtha, KMMisc. 242 . rem fear cadaigh ┐ cumainn my confederate and comrade TBC-LL¹ 3115 St. f.¤ comlainn cet a match for a hundred 3883 St. f.¤ in braith the traitor PH 5131 . f.¤ éicne a man of violence 7600 . f.¤ na sáinnte the covetous man 7727 . Esp. to denote an occupation or calling (often in stereotyped phrases, the pl. being formed by áes or lucht): f.¤ tige sáet [ = sét] (gl. arcarius) Wb. 7c9 . fear aire a watchman Kirk s. fīs ( Eg. Gl. 299 ). f.¤ altrama a fosterer , see Laws ii 184.14 . f.¤ bleithe miller (?); grinder (?): saer ┐ fer bleithi ┐ fer muilind, CIH i 287.2 . fear bratuighe a standard-bearer AFM vi 2272.4 . Isaiah x 18 . f.¤ baile visionary: ba síd fir buile, Celtica xix 40 § 1 . f.¤ cerdda a craftsman RC xxvi 44.2 . f.¤ dána a poet CRR 30 . fear dlighidh lawyer Titus iii 13 . f.¤ eclasa churchman Laws v 132.4 . f.¤ fiadaig a hunter Fianaig. 56.31 . f.¤ fognama serving-man Laws ii 390z . f.¤ forcsi spy LU 5404 . fear friotuil, mînighte `an Interpreter ' Kirk ( Eg. Gl. 278 ). f.¤ grād a man in orders Laws v 132.4 . f.¤ inaid a deputy; d'fior ionaid a bprionnsa, AFM vi 2116.16 . f.¤ léighinn a professor , one of the six officers of a monastery ZCP iv 234 . coibnius hi fer léighinn ib. ` lector ' AU 1034 , 1040 , 1042 , etc. f¤ muilinn miller: saer ┐ fer bleithi ┐ fer muilind, CIH i 287.2 . f.¤ uird rainne dispenser, butler TBC-LL¹ 134 . f.¤ spirdo (spirto ?) diviner ( ZCP xxvii 65 ): imaicci fer spirdo laim Chuirc, Anecd. iii 57.17 . f.¤ suic ploughman Laws i 194.26 . f.¤ suirge a lover RC xxxii 134 . fer tecuisc a teacher , one of the six officers of a monastery ZCP iv 234 . f.¤ tige a husbandman, house-holder: fear tighe (synon. with túathannach), Kirk s.v. criadhaire ( Eg. Gl. 111 ). fear an tighe host TD 12.8 . is cóir dona fearaib tighe ... a mbeangáin do scathadh husbandmen Corp. Astron. 46.20 . f.¤ tíre a landowner : dotét fer tíre co fíadnaib lais ... for tí inna mbech 'the owner of the land comes in pursuit of the bees accompanied by witnesses', Bechbretha 189 (e)​ . Folld. by vn. phrase: f.¤ brithe lésboiri a candle-bearer, acolyte Wb. 25d3 . f.¤ dénma bairgine (gl. pistor) Sg. 184b3 . do fir fert[h]ana na cneidhe the inflicter of the wound Laws iii 368.5 . fear a furtochta her deliverer TD 1.39 . fear tabhartha an dlighe lawgiver Numbers xxi 18 . In sense of owner, possessor: ig fir in craind ... ig fir na mbeach, Laws iv 188 Comm. Cf. Fer baile na gcerd .i. Maoilre Búrc; Fer baile úi Bharra .i. Séfrún, Caithr. Thoirdh. i 161 .

(d) in pl. folld. by gen. of place, inhabitants: fir betho, Ml. 16c5 . di feraib Herend nach di feraib betha BDD 94 . rí fer Fáil, LU 2811 . tar cenn fer in betha, Fél. Ep. 414 . fir domain, PH 1074 . fir in airthair ... fir in tuaiscirt, 5381 . f.¤ in tside men of the sídhe, elves BDD 3 . fir hÉrenn, Hy ii 52 , cf. TBC-LL¹ 499 ; 659 . cethra fer nAlban IT i 74.2 . la firu Herend fri firu Alban, BDD 106 . fir Ulad IT i 138.1 . fir Saxan, TD 16.2 . Commonly used to form tribal names (often applied to territory as well as people, the word fir being inflected), e.g. Fir Bolg, Fir Domnand. Fir Galeoin, Fir Manach, etc.; Fir Ól n-écmacht. See Hog. Onom. s.v. Fir; Rawl. Index.

(e) transf. of things or animals; f.¤ fidchilli chessman LU 9073 ( FB 82 ). cindas gontar ind fir ? how are the men taken ? (at chess) Ériu v 32.19 . Of a drinking-horn: f.¤ uaine, corn do bhí ac Finn ... f.¤ tuillidh corn Glais, Acall. 151 ; 154 . Of a bird: f.¤ fann ... focain aird ucht, RC v 202.10 . rinn binn buide fir duib druin, Murphy Lyrics 6 § 6 . céola fer mbrundederg forglan, Ériu xxii 51 , cf. Murphy Lyrics 16 § 24 . ecal fer | fann fet, Ériu xxii 43 § 14 . Of a fish: cend fir tuinde (glossed caput piscis) Hib. Min. 47.19 . Cf. fer tuinn[e] .i. brattan a salmon O'Dav. 1014 . Exceptionally of animals to denote sex: ar geig on fir torrach in banēn, Hy Maine 103 vb24 . bainéan ... ┐ dias ḟear a hen-bird and two cocks TD 15.26 . In the name of a bird , see eiden(n). Humorously applied to butter, ib. 37.6 .

(f) in gramm., person: cētfear illda sumus .i. atamait first person plural Auraic. 307 = ceudpersa, 2675 .

(g) With follg. gen. or adj., forming n.pr. e.g. Fer báeth: LU 6024 . i ndegaid Fir Baíth, 6025 . voc. a Fir Baith, 6023 . As name of a horse, Acall. 271 . F.¤ bend (`man of horns' ? See Heldensage 94 ), gen. Fir bend, TBC-LL¹ 2149 . 2164 . F. caille (`man of the forest,' cf. Lat. Sylvanus, Silvaticus) BDD 39 . voc. a Fir chaille, 110 . ¤cetharraid: gen. Fir cetharraid, Rawl. 144a30 , 162d44 . F.¤ coctha (see cocad): gen. Fir choctha, Rawl. 159b35 . F.¤ corb, Fianaig. 12.13 . gen. Fir chorb, Rawl. 128b33 . d'Fior corb mac Modha Cuirb, AFM A.M. 4727 . F.¤ da chrích: Fer da chrích, Trip. 520. 8 ; 542.30 ; AU 767 . Rawl. 146f43 . gen. Fir da crich, AU 746 . Rawl. 127b45 . Fer dá liach, Rawl. 149a43 . F.¤ dét (cf. Lat. Dentatus): do Fir dét, TBC-LL¹ 2147 . F. diad (`man of smoke') TBC-I¹ 2215 . TBC-LL¹ 3004 etc. ra Fer ṅdiad, 3231 . 3979 . gen. Fir diad, LU 6707 . TBC-I¹ 2210 . TBC-LL¹ 3217 . voc. a Ḟir diad, 3111 . F.¤ febe. (cf. feb) gen. Fir Febe, TBC-I¹ 159 = Fir aba, TBC-LL¹ 393 . F.¤ filed (see fili), Rawl. 156b2 . gen. Fir ḟiled, ib. 3 . Lism. L. p. 342.1 . F.¤ glan, gen. Fir glain, Rawl. 158.40 . F.¤ gráid: Fer graidh ri Caisil, AU 960 = Fer graidh mac Cléirigh, AFM 958 ; 959 . Cf. Fer Graid mac Ailgenain (a king of Munster) ZCP xix 94.1 (Synchr.). F.¤ le (lé): BDD 9 (om. LU) cf. BDD² p. 73 . F.¤ lí, Fianaig. 68.28 . gen. Fir lí, 74.22 . F.¤ Lugdach (`son of Lugaid' ?): gen. Fir Lugdach, Rawl. 119a23 . F.¤ mara (`m. of the sea'), gen. sil Fir mara, Rawl. 130b12 . F.¤ mór gen. Fir moir, RC xvi 135 ( Dinds. 131 ). F.¤ raith: gen. Fir raith, Rawl. 144a31 ; cf. Fir roith, 119a26 . F.¤ rogain, RC xv 421 . BDD 46 . F.¤ rogein, 9 . voc. a Fir; Rogain, 66 ( LU 7006 ). gen. Fir rogain, BDD 79 . F.¤ taí, Fianaig. 68.27 . gen. Fir tái, 70.19 . Fir thái, 70.26 . F.¤ Techet: gen. Fir Thechet, Rawl. 158.40 . See Rawl. Index .

Compds.

(1) to denote sex, fer is prefixed to the name of an animal or to a nomen agentis which may be used of both sexes; rarely with a subst. exclusively masc. in application, e.g. fermac;

(2) with adjectival force = pertaining to a man or men, intended for a man, manly , etc.

fer-amus a mercenary: feramus, Rawl. 113a9 ( ZCP xv 310 ). fer-amus no ban-amus ` man-servant ' Ériu ii 204.22 . ¤bolcum draught for a man: cethri fichit ferbolcumm as much as eighty men will drink MacCongl. 101.7 . ¤bratán: in fear-bradan, Hy Maine 103vb13 . ¤chara a male friend CCath. 1137 . ¤chend a man's head TBC-I¹ 1453 . ¤chland: eitir ferchloinn fhinn `the fair children of men' (or of Finn ?) BS 24.17 . ¤choic a man-cook ACL iii 241 § 7 . ¤chol sodomy Ériu vii 144.16 . ¤chrécht a wound: pl. na ferchrechta , Fianaig. 94.5 . ¤chubat, ¤chumat a man's length: fercubat fir, Trip.² 2992 . fercumat, LU 5858 . See separate article below. ? ¤chur a warrior, champion: fearchur .i. curaidh no gaisgeadhach feardha, O'Cl. ¤dál: dá céad feindidh ferdhála `of manly encounter' Duan. F. i 90.28 . ¤dam a bull Laws iv 100.21 Comm. ¤dord: canaid ... f. do contuli friss, LU 6312 ( TBC-I¹ 1810 ). ¤dorn a man's fist Ériu iv 32.3 . As measure: med ferdor ceachtar n-ai YBL 118a40 . tri ferdhuirnn ar airdi three hands in height Maund. 186 . ¤druí a druid: n du. dá ferdrai , RC xliii 24.7 . ¤ech a stallion: in feirech ┐ in baineach, Acall. 256 . ¤échtus a manly attack Laws i 64.13 (see ZCP xviii 102 ). ¤fuine baking or kneading done for a man: damna teora mbairgen ferfuine ┐ a sé do banfuine, Laws ii 176.18 Comm. cf. iv 116.6 . v 30.23 . ¤gaiscedach warrior: cona seisser ... bangaiscedach ┐ cona seisser ... fergaiscedach, Acall. 5128 . ¤gal valorous man (?): in forba fergalach (fergal, v.l.) foltgarb, RC xxiv 192 § 3 , Cín Chille Cúile 86 . ¤gein male descendant : feirghein deimin deimnigim, Leb. Cert.² 156.13 . ¤ glac a man's hand, grasp: (as measure): cainnel cethri ferglac, Cáin Ad. § 2 . ag teora fer-glacc, MacCongl. 3.14 . ¤glond a manly exploit , pl. ferghlonna, MR 264.7 . ¤gním a man's act; a brave deed: (of Cú Chulainn :) is áes ingini macdacht ... ┐ ní thángatár a fergníma beus, LU 4851 . ben cédmuinterais ... ar as i bfeirghniomha gaibhther, Ériu xiii 31.30 . cf. ara fen fergnima (apparently = gníma a fir), O'Mulc. 327 ( Ériu xi 217.1 ). tri fergnima Conaild, Fél. 70.35 . fri coibled fergním, LU 10268 , cf. ZCP iii 235.2 . Hence adj. fergnímach manly in action: cóic ingena ... bátar fergnímaig forthriúin, Metr. Dinds. iii 88 . ¤gnúis a man's face: nā bānaiter fergnúsi, LU 8426 ( FB 29 ). ¤insce, ¤innsgne masculine gender: ferinnsci lasin nGaidel .i. mascul ... lasin Laitneoir, Auraic. 521 . ainm feirinnsgne IGT, Introd. § 157 . ¤`a man's day,' a day lucky for men: tri ferlae .i. dardáin, áine, domnach, Triads 217 . ¤lám a man's arm, hand (as measure): fot ferlama da crund, CCath. 5604 . ¤leó a lion PH 3439 . ferléo ┐ bainleo BNnÉ 84.27 . ¤les(s) a man's thigh (?): feraid fodil di ferlessaib ar óenathib Ulad strews warriors' limbs (?) LU 6122 ( TBC-I¹ p. 61 n. 7 ). ¤mac a male child: cach f.¤ arosloice broind a mathar, Laws iii 38.8 . v s. a ḟermeic (of a hound), Acall. 5578 . n p. fermaicc, Fél. Nov. 5 . cf. fearmhaic .i. fir neartmhara, O'Cl. ¤míl a male animal: cach fermil (.i. cach mil fearda), Laws iii 38.11 . ¤mug a male slave: fermogh, Acall. 7222 . noenbar banmhogad ┐ triar fermhogad, 954 . caoca fermhogh, BS 104.31 . ¤óclach a warrior: fertraig feroclaig, LU 8400 ( FB 27 ). sliasait ferócclaich, CCath. 191 . gérsat calma na ferogláigh, Acall. 40 . ¤thincur the property brought by a man when marrying: ben for fertincur, fer for bantincur, Laws ii 356.7 . lanamnus mná for ferthinucur, 380.23 ( SM Facs. 42b ). See Stud. in E. Ir. Law 83 ; 126 . ¤thraig a man's foot (as measure): fertraig LU 8400 ( FB 27 ). comla ... i mbatár tri fertraigid dia tiget, LU 1443 ( MU² 915 ). tricha ferrthraiged, LL 265b28 ( MU² 508 ). tricha fertraighed, ZCP viii 545.30 . se fichit fertraigh RC xliii 80 § 82 . ¤thraigthech a foot-soldier: ic fosugud na ferthraigthech, Ériu viii 38.28 . See also ferbolg, —chú, —chubat, —chuitred, —doman, —gnia, —scál.

-i

Cite this: eDIL s.v. -i or dil.ie/26893
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: -i

suff. pron. s. m. and n. Somet. used instead of inf. pron. to express acc. relation after 3 s. abs. act. indic. and occasionally, ipv. Occurs less frequently with indic. pres. pl. 3. According to Strachan, ZCP ii 484 ff ., the formation belongs mainly to the period 800-950. See Celtica xii 75-107 .

1 firianichthi (=firianigid-i) a hiress `his faith justifies him', Wb. 2b28 . berthi (leg. bérthi, Ed.) leiss co cenn `He will bear it with Him to the end', 23a19 . air ní pridches-som hua briathraib comallaidi `he fulfils it', Ml. 94b1 . conoscaig in gae ┐ saidsi ... hi talmain, 55c1 . ? ni n-aithgeuin ┐ leicsi huad, 52 . foidsi Sechnall ó ru-an .iii. aithgi lais S. sent it, Thes. ii 242.13 (Ardm.; but see s.v. fadéin II (c) and Ériu xxxiii 169 ). berrsi Pátricc ┐ baitzisi `P. tonsured him and baptised him', 241.14 (do.). arpeti cech díne `every group sings it', Fél. Ep. 79. suigthe sīs i fudomhoin it sucks him down, Corm. Y 323.7 . ... a delg asa brut ┐ clandti inda gruaid, Mon. Tall. 150.27 . hicsai Brig a firinde a firbreathaib `Brigh ... cured him', Laws iv 16.1 . carthai Findabair ... ara irscélaib, TBFr. 10. tic ... Li Ban dia saigid Loíg ┐ geibthi ar gúalaind, LU 3351. bentai frisin corthe inna farrad, 5013 = benta, TBC-I¹ 524. ut uidit Patricius illum sloicsi in talam sís, Trip.² 1504. beirthe (=beirit-i) iarum Amairghin ┐ Findchāemh, ZCP v 504.7 . Used instead of -s- referring to a fem. noun : feraib (leg. feraid, Ed.) Labraid fáelti fríu ┐ fersi in bantrocht uli, LU 3778. geibthi Lóeg íarom cloich, 3278 .

Somet. has reflexive sense: oenichthi-som híc frisna hireschu `He unites Himself híc to the faithful', Wb. 32d8 . ní i ssíansib spiritáldib móiti `not in spiritual senses does he boast him', 27a29 . gabsi cadessin abbaith `he took himself (as) abbot', Thes. ii 242.21 (Ardm.). sīnithi iarum co memdadar in dā liicc robādar imbi he stretches himself, TBC-I¹ 442.

2 Commonly used pleonastically, anticipating

(a) a follg. subst. or pron. : foilsigthi in spirut andsom a rrath ... `the Spirit manifests in him the grace ...', Wb. 12a7 . gebthi Loegaire iarom in roth ┐ nos cuir i n-arda, LU 8844. cāinti inn dūnad uile intī Frāech, TBC-I¹ 758. airigthi Ailill ┐ Medb annīsin, 228 .

(b) a follg. phrase : arbertai congabad dú hitá Céll Glass they propose ..., Trip.² 1901.

3 Used with some vbs. of motion and a few othe vbs. to express a sort of cognate acc. : dia luid Duaid for longais re Saul luide iarum dia thosun `he went afterwards to pursue him', Ml. 55c1 . ní ind fessin eirbthi `it is not in himself that he trusts', 51b12 . luidi síar co Cruachain, IT ii2 216.3 . ní na[d]-tét do menma-so, tēti menma neich aili, ScM. § 3.13 . teiti ind ingen leis let the girl go with him, LU 5870. foraithmenatharsom la sodain a foramcliss ┐ lingthi i n-ardi, 9105 . maiti imbisom in dabaich hīsin, TBC-I¹ 723. budigthe fri hEtáin co mór a ndorigni, IT i 128.30 . dlútai in cath di alailiu `one company closes with the other', MU² 1005. mutti (=maidid-i) íarom in cath for Érnu, 1023 . cingthe secha `he passes by him', ZCP iii 212 § 24 .

4 Like inf. pron. has dat. sense when used with subst. vb. : bóithi ind fáelte chétna `he had the same welcome', Imr. Brain i 53.13 .

When -i was added to a 3 pl. form, the -t of the ending was sometimes repeated, e.g. bertit alaili combad spirut nóib robói in profetís `some take it', Wb. 13a16 . gebtit iudei i n-apid `will receive him as lord', 26a8 . scérdait far n-óendili i fat, TBC-LL¹ 2796.

íarthar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. íarthar or dil.ie/27086

n o, m. IGT Decl. p. 54.z .

(a) the back, the further part: in fili i n-íarthur in tige `in the back of the house,' Imr. Brain 47.19 . ... i n-aursain n-íarthair thige, Críth G. 217. tainic in nait[h]ir nemhnach a hiartar na huama ... co ndeilbh torathair o híartar co hóirther `issued from the depth of the cave ... of the appearance of a monster from head to tail,' Celt. Rev. vii 110. 20 - 23 . is a íarthur carpait ro lád co n-óenláim, LU 4813. bánsuile mora a n-i.¤ cind, Acall. 1871 n . do lár a grúade a hiathor a clocaind, LU 6455 ( a iarthor, TBC-LL¹ 2604 ). gherrus leth iarthair in duine ┐ dogní munterus fria n-aichthib `that bite the back parts of a man, while they pretend friendship to his face,' PH 7703. uacca ... da corp iar n-íarthur, oen chenn sair, AU i 188.7 . dorn leithet a crai a niarthur `a fist being the breadth of its fork behind' (of a pig), Laws ii 238.15 . glossed: .i. itir a da cois tona, 240.4 . Of the pelican: tré ghuin a iathair uasnaig (tre ghuin iathair asnaig, A IV 3, p. 640 ) | biathaid d'fuil in t-énach sain `from that wound within her opened breast ...' (? leg.: tré ghuin iathair a asnaig of the innermost part of her breast ?), O'Gr. Cat. 461.17.

(b) the west, the western part: is (leg. assa, Ed.) airthiur inda iarthur ┐ asa tuaisciurt inda deiscert from the east to the west of it and from the north to the south, Mon. Tall. 133.22 . bruden Da-Choca i n-īarthur Midi, ScM. § 1.10 . a n-i.¤ domain otha Greciae ┐ Sceithiae siar co hIndsi Orcc ..., TBC-LL¹ p. 722 n. 1 . rígan iarthair Elgga, 3109 . is rúam iarthair betha | Glenn dálach dá locha `the cemetery of the west of the world is multitudinous Glendalough,' Fél. Prol. 195. naim íarthair in domain dano i n-iarthur in tire cetna, LU 1973. fir ind iarthair ┐ ind fhunid, PH 5385. in locharnn loinnerdai ro inṡorchaig i.¤ mbetha .i. sanctus Patricius , ACL iii 8 § 2. iter in muir nIond iar n-airthiur ┐ muir nEig ar n-iarthur, TTebe 2605 . In pl., the western regions: Magh Foithin sna hIartharaibh `in the west,' Keat. ii 1838

the people living in the west: la hEoganacht Lacha Lein ... ocus la iartur Erend ar cena, Cog. 32.6 .

? By dissimilation, íathar: íathar, IGT Decl. p. 55.1 . fir tarla a mbun a mbríathar | d'í.¤ Banbha, IGT Decl. ex. 453 . is tréigthe ar iathaibh as fhearr | sléibhte iathair na hÉireann, DDána 74 § 43. Irrus iarthar innsi Fáil, O'Gr. Cat. 332.23. (iathar, MS.)

COMPDS. (íathar)-chró (cró fold, enclosure): ar feadh iatharchraoi Fhéidhlim, DDána 117 § 51. ¤desscert the south-western part: i cinn sleibi uraird Isper iarthairdeiscirt Afraicthi, IT ii2 108.18 . iartardesscert in domain o Easpain aníar, CCath. 116. ¤desscertach south-western: isin leth īarthardescertaig, MacCongl. 55.15 . ¤thuaiscert the north-western part: hi n-hUib Amalgada i n-iartartuasciurt Connact, Trip. ii 420.31 . oclaich ... na n-insi ┐ airir inn occiain fuineta ┐ iarthartuaiscirt an talman, CCath. 5373. The follg. exx., in spite of the inflexion of íarthar, may also belong here, the slender -r being modelled on exx. such as iarthairdeiscirt, IT ii2 108.18 , above, where it may be due to the quality of the initial d: da laím thidnaicthi ratha ... iarthair thuascirt in domain, TBC-LL¹ 3770. Brian mac Cenneitigh ... August iartair tuaisceirt Eorpa uile, AU i 532.17 .

lócharn(n), lúacharn(n), lóchrann

Cite this: eDIL s.v. lócharn(n), lúacharn(n), lóchrann or dil.ie/30448
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: lóchrann, luacharnn

n (Lat. lucerna, with length of vowel perh. influenced by lóchet; but see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 122 ). Mid. Ir. lóchrann occurs first in LU. Early declension ā, f., later also o, m.

(a) lamp, light, lantern : luacharn .i. lochrann, no solas, O'Cl. lucarn gl. lucernam, ZCP viii 174.9 . ro ir dom . . . .x. fidchella fri luacharna lassrad, Ériu ii 5.5 (luachairnae, v.l.). amail difuarcoib lōc[h]rann a soillse a tégdois dorc[h]a, ZCP iii 452.3 . amal in lochairnn n-affraicdai gl. quasi lanterna punica, Sg. 24a16 . ignis efulgens quod apud graecos dicitur λαμπ(υρ)ος .i. luacharnn , 47a9 cf. Études Celt. xi 107. gin lócharne, Fél. Apr. 22 (locharna, locharn, v.ll.), glossed .i. ós lampadis. fumda locharna laiss, ZCP viii 564.14 rhet. (fomta . . . lass, v.l.). lūacharnd . . . a lucerna , Corm. Y 828 (luacharnn, locharn, v.ll.). imar bad lócrand lánsolusta, LU 6556 ( TBC-I¹ 2041 ). leth-sét a lochran do andadh fair, O'D. 511 ( H 3.17, 415 ); acc. to Comm. a penalty for kindling a light so as to disturb the chief after he has retired to rest. Cf. samaisc isin caindill do adhannadh iar codladh, no iar ndul do luighi cheana, O'D. 521 ( H 3.17 423 ). lassamna do lochairn, LL 343g30 = lochrannaib, Tec. Corm. § 4.5 . tucsat athennedha tenedh ┐ lócharnda lasamhna leó, CCath. 1897 . a mheic dar cumadh an chros / 'na lóchrann sheasmhach sholas, DDána 65.7 . co tapraib ┐ locrannaibh, Grail 2797 . dá lóchrann ar nach luigh smál (moon and sun), Dán Dé xxvii 10 . lóchrainn ag lasadh 'nar lámhaibh (lucernae), TSh. 8579.

(b) Fig. of persons: in locharnn loinnerdai ro inṡorchaig . . . iarthar mbetha .i. sanctus Patricius , ACL iii 8.5 . Ródan lócharn Lothrai, Fél. Apr. 15 . is īatt so na lochranna / da lasfatt Laighin (of three saints), ZCP viii 110.16 . rochomarleicc lochairnd ríg . . . dia síl son an illustrious king, PH 4250 . Niall Naoighiallach . . . / lóchrann Alban is Éireann, L. Cl. A. B. 276.128 . lóchrainn oinigh Éireann Cuinn, DDána 102.2 . Of the Blessed Virgin: lóchrann ó bhfuighbheam eolas, DDána 49.3 . Of the saints: is iat locharna atberair sund .i. ainimme na noem ┐ na ḟirén . . . locharna sin tened ┐ lassar: locharn tened . . . isin deirc . . . locharn lassar . . . i ngnimaib na fírinne, PH 5859 - 60 .

margréit

Cite this: eDIL s.v. margréit or dil.ie/31613

Forms: margrent, margarét, margrétai

n f. (< Lat. margarita) a pearl. a hadamaint is a margreit, Rawl. 77b39 . in margreit ┐ in log loghmhar .i. sanctus Patricius , Lism. L. 38. margrent [sic fcs.] thaitnemach, LB 138b6 = Hom. Leg. 66. a hindech do margarét, Fianaig. 14 § 32. lomnan do mairgrec ┐ do lecaib logmaraib, RC xxvi 160 § 45. do margreg, Aisl. Tond. 116 § 1 = margarét 140 . pl. margrétai, PH 2446. o mairgretaib ┐ o nemannaib, Alex. 590. do margairib, KMMisc. 317.2 .

P

Cite this: eDIL s.v. P or dil.ie/34121
Last Revised: 2019

the thirteenth letter of the Irish alphabet, is not found in the early Ogham alphabet: ni bi p isin Gaedilc, Auraic. 1271 , cf. 4336 , 4346 . Indo-germanic p when initial or between vowels disappeared in the Celtic languages. Consequently all words beginning with p in Old and Mid. Irish are derivatives from Latin, British, Romance, and occas. Scandinavian sources. In the oldest Irish loan-words from Latin (which came chiefly through a British medium), initial p > c (q), e.g. cland, corcur, Cothraige (Irish name of St. Patrick) < Lat. planta, purpur, Patricius . When Ireland came into direct contact with Latin Christianity and culture, Latin p remained in loan-words, and subsequently p was legitimized as an Irish letter and was called pin in the Ogham alphabet, Auraic. 1365 .

The account given of p in the Auraicept 1269 fg. , 4335 fg. is obscure; apparently it was regarded as the softening (bocad, bogad, a term expld. in Gloss. as unvoicing) of b (acc. to Auraic. 4347 , some Latin grammarians held that bh was written for p, a view denied by others). Later it received the name peith or peith bhog ( P. O'C. , O'R. Poems .); O'Reilly explains peith as = beith(e), name of the birch-tree and in Ogham of the letter b, hence peith bhog = `soft b'. (In Hogan Luibh. and Dinneen , peith = dwarf elder.)

In early Irish orthography the letter p, when initial and in the groups mp, rp, and pp, stands for the voiceless labial explosive p; medial between vowels it generally represents the voiced labial b which replaces it in later notation (O.Ir. opair = mod. obair). Late Mid.Ir. scribes occas. use p incorrectly to express medial or final lenited b, e.g. gapaid, ro gap = gabaid (gaibid), ro gab.

In lenition p becomes `f, in early MSS. often written ph (occas. fp). In O.Ir. lenition of p may have been optional, see Thurn. Hdb. § 231 , 5 .

Initial p and b somet. interchange; for exx. see 2 pell, bellic, píast, pla(e), plaesc, poc(c), práca. P. O'C. gives several words beginning either with b or p, the latter form being colloquial (`vulgo').

Initial p also interchanges somet. with f in Mid.Ir. and later; in some cases p is the older form (see pailm, pairche, pít, promaid), in others f (e.g. O.Ir. fetarlicce > Mid.Ir. petarlaicc).

Irish words beginning with p are prob. all originally loan-words; those of the oldest period are borrowed mainly from Latin, those of later times from Romance sources through the medium at first (from the end of the 12th to the latter part of the 14th cent.) of Anglo-French, later of English.

patric

Cite this: eDIL s.v. patric or dil.ie/34225

n m. (Lat. patricius , cf. Pátraic) a patrician : patric . . . fer lethlamha rígh nó impir eisséin, CCath. 63 ; ib. 66 .