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Cite this: eDIL s.v. airnaidmid or


v (airnaidm)

(a) binds, pledges: aurnaidmis Fergas fón samlaid cetna foraib, TBC-LL¹ 1795 . co ro ernaidhm a charadradh rís ó chéin, AFM vi 1930.y . amhail ro hiornadhmtha uad `as it has been agreed by him', Hugh Roe 50.14 (fo. 14a) . ro ernaidm fair a reir-si, Grail 2355 .

(b) betrothes, espouses: na ndeghfher ndiongmala lás ro h-ernaidhmeadh í diaidh indiadh `to whom she had been successively espoused', AFM vi 2048.15 . do hernaidhmed Scota ingen Pharo fri Nel, Leb. Gab.(i) 278 n. 7 . inghean ro earnaidhm frisiomh, Hy Fiach. 76.17 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-naisc or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: fonais, fonena, fonen, fonensaitis, fonascar, fornastar, foninasair, banassa, fonaidm

v (nasc- `bind'). subj. pres. 2 s. fonais, O'Dav. 1256 . fut. 3 s. fonena, B. in Sc. ZCP xiii 381.16 ( xx 227 ). fonen ib. xiii 379.23 ( xx 225 ). Cf. sec. fut. 3 pl. fonensaitis xii 379.16 (imperf. ind. seems required). Pass. pres. s. fonascar, LU 5943 ( TBC-I¹ 1477 ). ZCP xii 364.6 . LL 282b46 . subj. pres. fornastar, Laws v 476.24 (perhaps from for-naisc). ? fut. foninasair, H 3.18 p. 258b ( O'Curry 510 ). pret. banassa (= fonassa) TBC-LL¹ 4567 . Vn. fonaidm. Often treated as simple vb. in forms belonging to the pres. stem.

Binds (someone to do something), imposes (an obligation, etc.), makes a contract ; gen. with FOR of pers. In Laws Comm. glosses naiscid and ar-naisc. fonaisc lat ar Morand | mad āil dait a chomall take M. as a security TBC-I¹ 2292 . fonascar fair can tudecht he was bound over not to come LU 5943 . manib tualaing brithi fair fanaiscc frie a rer fudesin, Anecd. iii 23.12 . fonaisc a comthrom do argut for Feradach LL 287ay . fonaiscid C. forrosom cen curadmír do chosnam ... fonaisccitsium fairsium dano a dénam in cennaig, LU 9024 ( FB 77 ). ni nais ... airged ... acht for mal .i. ní ro fonaisc[e] siu in airged ... acht for in uasal, Laws iv 36.7 Comm. = will lay tribute on, subdue ZCP xiii 379.23 ( xx 225 ). fonen Hérind, xiii 380.18 . fonascar colleir (of a peace treaty) LL 282b46 . fonais Niul Scota (.i. do hernaidhmed S. ... fri N.), Leb. Gab.(i) i 278 (cf. fornais, LL 14b27 ) seems intended for an s-pret., but perhaps it is a corruption of for-nass; the verbal forms in this `retoric' are very doubtful. Used elliptically: flaith geilfini ... ise fonaisces in ferand binds (restrains the alienation of) Laws iv 40.5 Comm. (gl. ara naisc), see Ériu ix 38 . fonena giallu cach rois will bind the hostages of every point ZCP xiii 381.16 ( xx 227 ). Cf. ba leu rige Caisil ... fonensaitis giallu caich xii 379.16 (v.l. ronasctis, which leaves the line short, but pret. or imperf. seems required) in: banassa damsa ind ingen, TBC-LL¹ 4567 (= do naiscedh St) there is probably a confusion of preverbs.

Cf. ar-naisc, for-naisc.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. fri or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: frimm, rimm, frim, frím, frium, frimsa, friumsa, frit, fritt, friutt, fritsu, rut, rutt, fris, friss, frissom, f., frie, friae, frise, frie, frinn, rinn, rind, friunn, riund, frind, frinni, raindi, frinnai, frib, frithib, fribsi, friu, friú, friu, friü, frithiu, friithu, friusom, riom, rum, riot, rut, ris, ria, rinn, ruinn, ribh, ruibh, riú, r, frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, frim, frim, frim, ram, frit, frit, frit, rit, rat, rot, friar, friar, fribar, fribar, fria, fria, fria, re-na, rena, fria, fris(s)a, frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-, frismbiat, fris-mbruchta, fris, fris, fris, risa, frisin-, frisnid, risnad, ris, fria, frisa, re n-, fria-, re, ra-n-adh, re, re, ré, freisin, FRI

prep. with acc. For etymology see Thurneysen, GOI § 839 , Fraser ZCP viii 37 , J. E. C. Williams, Celtica iii 126 . In later spelling prefixes h- to following initial stressed vowel; does not leníte following consonant (cf. frinna aill, Sg. 45a16 . fri nnach ..., Ml. 75a9 , fri nnech 23c20 ; but fri nech further on in same gloss and regularly elsewhere); the initial s- of the article following fri is preserved. In Middle Irish gradually replaced by the forms RI, RE (already in Ml: oc eregim re Abisolon, 44b4 , cf. fre, 90c27 ); RA (common in some LL texts, see CRR 54 , TBC-LL¹ 499 , 602 , 740 , etc.); rarely RO ( SR 1990 ZCP xiii 204 15 ); FRIA, RIA, RE also common. Hence in Early Mod. Ir. there is occasionally confusion with , RÍA `before', see Bergin's note Stor. Keat. p. xix , and section IX (e) below. Apart from this the latter prep. sometimes replaces FRI after fáilid, fáilte and kindred words (as in Mod. Ir.). On the parallelism of some of the pronominal forms of FRI with those of LA see GOI l.c. (with Translator's n. 178 ). Though FRI still appears in some later texts, especially those of the archaising type, it had become obsolete in the classical language. Its later form (RI, RE) remains down to the end of the Early Mod. period and is recognized by the grammarians as distinct from LE (LA), see IGT, Introd. § 75 , 24 P 8, 194 ( IGT VI , Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ). In the modern spoken lang. it is replaced partly by LE, partly by CHUN (O.-Ir. dochum). For a contrary development cf. Engl. `with,' originally `against,' which has absorbed the functions of A.S. mid `(together) with.'

In development of meaning generally FRI shows a remarkable parallelism with Engl. ` with '; it also agrees with ` against ' in several senses.

Forms: With suff. pron.

sg. 1 frimm St. Paul Codex Thes. ii 298.17 . rimm, IT i 123.24 . frim, SR 1422 , 2049 . LU 5228 . LL 110b26 . frím Ml. 38c19 . frium, Ml. 71b9 . frimsa, Wb. 26d17 . Ml. 33a18 . friumsa, Ml. 127a2a .

2 frit, Wb. 5a31 . 10a29 ; Ml. 103d14 . SR 1425 . fritt LL 93a10 . 249b1 . friutt, PCr. 62b2 (= ḟrit, Sg. 151a3 ). fritsu Ml. 91d8 . 112b8 . rut, SR 2031 IT i 123.15 . rutt, LL 110b27 .

3 m., n. fris, Wb. 14c37 . 15a1 . 22c15 . ACL iii 304 [: [Mael] mis]. (: eisleis). SR 6109. 6317 . ([mēt] anfis) LL 33b21 . friss, Wb. 2c24 . 3c6 . 6a4 . 8a12 . 14d22 ; Ml. 91a21 . frissom Wb. 5d39 .

f.¤ frie, Sg. 72b1 . Ml. 40c15 . 67d15 . friae, 130c9 . Wb. 28a20 . cf. frise, Ml. 74c21 , which Ascoli corrected to frie ( Thes. i 722b ).

pl. 1 frinn, Wb. 4b12 . 17b10 . 19d22 . rinn, Ml. 54a3 . SR 1821 . rind, SR 1905 (: herḟi[o]nd). friunn, Ml. 38d20 . riund TBC-LL¹ 1874 . frind, LL 177b39 . frinni, Wb. 17b32 . 17c5 ; Ml. 32c15 . 93a13 . 106c12 . raindi, BColm. 68.9 . frinnai Ml. 91c9 . 114a8 .

2 frib, Wb. 17b16 . 22d9 . 24d26 . cf. frithib, Ériu iv 162.13 . fribsi, Wb. 14c42 . 17b14 .

3 friu, Wb. 4a10 . 4c37 . 24a4 ; Ml. 54c23 , 72b22 , 110c9 . LL 35a21 (: fiú) friú, Wb. 17b9 . Ml. 74a2 , diss. friu, Hy. V. 54 , cf. friü: at-chiü, ACL iii 294 § 10 ; frithiu, Blathm. 94 § 17 ; friithu, LU 4671 (see further GOI 515 ). friusom, Wb. 20c25 ; Ml. 17c5 , 54c18 ; 26 .

For forms found in later texts see citations below.

In the Early Mod. Grammatical Tracts the forms given are: riom, rum; riot, rut; ris; ria; rinn, ruinn; ribh, ruibh; riú, r, 24 P 8 194 ( Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ).

With following poss. pron.: frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, e.g. frim ort. Wb. 29d2 . frim peccad, 28a14 . frim foraithmet, Ml. 23d9 ; ram anmain, TBC-LL¹ 3692 (rem St.). frit adrad su, Ml. 136c11 . frit c[h]ele, 70d2 ; frit laim, SR 5854 . rit láim, TBC-LL¹ 3055 . rat láma, 3052 . rot chlaind, SR 2031 . friar corp, Wb. 15c22 . friar fochric, 33a9 ; fribar n-ícc, Wb. 24b3 . fribar pecthu, 13b19 ; fria mbriathra, Wb. 31b30 . In Mid. Ir. the form `fria' is often used for the simple prep., hence occas. fria a = prep. + 3 s. pron. In Early Mod. Ir. 3 s. and pl. form re-na sometimes appears: rena ardnaem, BCC § 12 (see III c below). fria n-a, Fl. Earls 214.4 . Cf. the n- prefixed to poss. after le, ó, tre in Mod. Irish.

With rel. pron.: O. Ir. fris(s)a n ...; Mid. Ir. also frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-: frismbiat, Sg. 202b3 . fris-mbruchta, Fél. June 21 . fris n-agar, E. 406 . fris-reith, Prolegomena 302 . fris-tarddam, Thes. ii 293.19 . risa n-abar, Acall. 53 , etc. With cop. frisin-, frisnid, risnad ail, LB 257b9 . ris na duthracht 256a44 . fria ndechraiged (= frisa nd.) Sg. 28a14 may be a mistake. In later MSS. the form re n- becomes common: fria-cosmailend, PH 7674 . re ndubairt, 7464 . ra-n-adh KMMisc. 156. 124 . re n-abar, Acall. 1241 , etc. re rāiter, Ériu viii 139.4 . ré raibhe, Keat. ii 4467 , etc.


(a) In vn. and prototonic verbal forms, before a vowel, frith-; before a cons. fre-, e.g. frecre, fretech; with syncope of a follg. vowel, fres-, e.g. frescsiu, fresndid, fresndís, fresngabal. In Glosses fri is often used in compos. with a vb. to represent Lat. ob-. Later frith- is used before cons. with or without lenition of following cons.: see frithgnam, frithsét, etc.

(b) In deuterotonic verbal forms fris-; before an infixed pron. in rel. construction frith- or friss-: fritum-chomart-sa (= frith-dum-) Wb. 33a12 ; but friss-idn-oirctis, Ml. 39a20 (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 147 and cf. Strachan's OIPG⁴ ed. Bergin, p. 27 n. 2 ).


N.B.—The classification is perforce somewhat arbitrary as, perhaps in the majority of instances, the meaning could derive from the original sense in I. Cf. J. E. C. Williams Celtica iii 122 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to ;

(b) against (touching; cf. d); alongside, down along, by ;

(c) against (implying violent or hostile action);

(d) next to, at, in contact with (cf. b).

II To express association, along with, beside (both of local and mental relations).

III To express figurative direction

(a) aim, purpose (cf. VI), frequently of function, specific purpose;

(b) after adj. in sense of Lat. gerund or with ad or supine in -u;

(c) to express direction of feelings, behaviour towards (cf. I a);

(d) of prayer, etc. to ;

(e) of opposition to, hostile feeling, attitude towards ;

(f) to express protection, guard, watch against, also limitation, boundary;

(g) in elliptical sentences with these meanings.


(a) after adjs., nouns or verbs expressing resemblance, equality or comparison;

(b) to express difference, distinction from .


(a) with respect to, with regard to ;

(b) on account of:

(c) on behalf of ;

(d) according to, in agreement with (cf. II).

VI To denote occasion

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. verb or equivalent;

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on which something takes place.

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of .


(a) to denote agent;

(b) to denote instrument through, by means of .

IX In expressions of time

(a) in O.-Ir. in locatival sense;

(b) to denote period during which something continues or takes place;

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place;

(d) of point of time;

(e) used for RIA ` before .'

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs.

A classified list of the instances in Wb is given by Fraser ZCP viii 37 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to: do rosc frisna nemdaib = looking heavenward SR 1604 . a n-aiged fri Dia facing God LU 2048 ( FA 12 . Cf. III c). a lām chlē fri muir the sea on their left SR 4074 (see lám). do cumlaiset for fairgi ┐ dochorsatar aurlunn fri tir, Corm. Bodl. s.v. prull . bai D. 'sa druim fri fraig D. had his back to the door SR 6053 . is amlaid bai in gilla ┐ a druim fria thigerna, TBC-I¹ 2327 (see druim(m)). Ethne ... fria chossa E. (standing) at his feet (i.e. at the foot of the bed) LU 3300 ( SCC 10 ). Carpre ... 's a hucht ra hág, LL 32b49 (see ucht). a druim re dimsachaib, a des fri deiblenaib, ZCP viii 204 § 26 . an let[h] bis rinne don rē the side of the moon turned towards us ITS xiv 90.19 . fri bun cruche at the foot of the gallows Mon. Tall. § 1 . síl nÁdhuimh ... re sáluibh a senathar at the heels of (i.e. following) Ériu iv 118 § 33 . níor chubaidh tigearna ... d'ḟágbáil re caladh on the beach [i.e. when about to land; perh. fig. cf. beirid i gcaladh brings to safety, see 1 calad] viii 139.23 . dā traig .x. ... a [sic leg.] fot fri dún its length towards the stockade (of the internal slope of an earthen rampart) Laws iv 336.23 . dā dúncladh ... ré dá taebh na clasach along both sides of the fosse CCath. 1747 . ní thurcaibh crand ... cét míle fria taebhaibh within a hundred miles from (lit. towards) its sides Marco P. 11 [cf. the temporal use IX (c)]. See also phrases s.v. agad, ais, enech, gnúis, sáil, taeb, ucht.

This use is regular in Old-Ir. in stating relative position: fri Grecia aniar ... fri Etáil anáir west of Greece ... east of Italy Wb. 6d17 . fri Alpai ndesiu (gl. cisalpina) Sg. 217b8 . frie anall ... frie desiu (gl. ultra ... citra) 71b1 , 2 . fri Ath F.D. desiu, TBC-I¹ 2183 . frie anechtair outside it Ml. 40c15 . fri Pardus amuich outside Paradise SR 111 . ra chuala sa fri hEmain andess I heard it (as I was) to the south of Emain LU 5056 . altoir fri dorus antuaid, SR 4261 [cf. la taeb ind rigthaige aniar, LL 3810 (30a) ]. a mmag fris anair the plain in front of him LL 122a33 . co ndechaid [in gai] triana chend ┐ co ro marb nónbur ris aníar behind him 121a21 . frit aniar, LU 4134 . is e a chorp in taitneamach rit anall the shining one opposite thee RC xxiv 60 . Also fig. : foscichret i crandchor ... fáicebthair Lugaid fris anechtair they will cast lots for it... L. will be left out of the chance RC xiii 444x ( LL 289b8 ). See also s.v. lám (fri l.).

It is doubtful whether: i mbae neach fri hopair immuig BB 362a21 (= Dinds. 20 ) is an instance of this construction; the literal meaning here is was anyone at a work outside ? The Rennes `amuig' is perhaps merely a late spelling.

After verb or vn.: tan turcbad E. a di láim fri Coimdid nime, SR 5085 . suidig do da laim fri ... clasp thy hands (in prayer) to ... 1606 . rosecroth a chend frisin slúag brandished his (severed) head at the host LU 5269 . crothad in chind frisin slóg, 5280 . donnochtat a mbruinni fris bared their bosoms to him 5199 . rochoraig fri tenid he arranged [them] before the fire RC xiii 6.21 . roscóraig gnúis fri gnúis (see gnúis) LU 2046 ( FA 12 ).

Cf. tuídhleach ind óir frisin ngréin the glistening of the gold against the sun BDD 1 . crand airgit ris tatin grían LU 3700 ( SCC 33 ).

(b) against (touching), alongside, down along by: doesetar ┐ a nglūne fri talmain, TBC-I¹ 3164 . éc fri hadart death against a pillow i.e. a natural death Lib. Hymn. i 62.72 (see adart). fri etnu dam ... bátár fedmand la firu Herend = [till then] the loads had been harnessed to the foreheads of the oxen LU 10816 (= Ériu xii 178 ). tennait a n-ette fria curpu press their wings against their sides LU 2281 ( FA 33 ). cf. doimmaircet ind eoin a n-ette friu ┐ a cossa can scibud ette ná cosse co tairic in precept the birds fold their wings, etc. LU 1361 . dosnimthasa i llai a broit fri a bruinde `gathered her to his bosom in the fleece of his cloak' Ériu xii 154y . co tard a druim frisin liic leaned his back against the stone LU 3284 ( SCC 8 ). dossleced fria thoeb he let them (i.e. his arms) fall to his sides SR 5091 = no thimoirced a lama fria thoeb, LB 124b29 (cf. LU 1361 above).

In local sense of attached to or pending from: úathroic ... cona cimais do banór fria having a fringe LU 6421 . beilge óir friu golden bits on them TBFr. § 3 . srian ... fria graig, LU 3649 . Cf. srian do thabairt fria thoil to bridle his passion PH 4990 (see srían). Cf. la I (a).

Here perhaps: i ngialnai fri fraigid in hostage-ship at the wall LU 7015 ; 7295 ( BDD 66 ; 94 ). (of the brazen serpent, Numbers xxi 9 :) turgabar fri crann ... uasin [t]slúag fri sirsellad let it be hung on a pole to be gazed at SR 4163 .

Cf. an carracc ard ar cuiretar ... an Tigerna da teilgen ría sís to cast him down from it Maund. 106 . tuitim sioss re beinn an ailt, Fl. Earls 86z .

(c) against (implying violence or hostility; cf. III e): rop saiget húan fri demnai, Hy i 20 . friu conuccaib ind oub, Hy v 54 . conéracht Glaiss Ch. friu the stream C. rose against them (= to bar the way) LU 5362 . Cf. conocbath in carpat fris ... ┐ concligtis ind h[e]ich fris the chariot would tilt up before him and the horses would spring at him Ériu vi 134.21 . bēim a cinn fri cloich, Ml. 139c3 . beim cind fri hall, LL 225b38 (see benaid). esarcain cind fri hallib, 176b33 . aiges (feras) in tond frisin mbruach, Anecd. i 12.19 (21) . cf. FB 44 , see fri. See also phrases with cúl, druim(m), lám).

(d) next to, at: folt dond fri toind a chind, folt croderg iar n-airmedon, LU 2564 . dond fri toind cind, 6542 . lene de sról ... i custul fri gelcnes ... dó, 6296 . léne ... sita fria gelchnes, 1810 . cona luirigh ... ria cnes ... ┐ lethan sciath fria gualaind, Stair Erc. 1243 . In this use frequent with ais, cnes, taeb.

II To express association, along with, beside (of local or mental relations, cf. V d): ní bí friu hi comasndeis it is not with them in apposition Sg. 212a5 . in tan mbís nihelas do .u. fri .g. when u is silent beside g, 6b11 . nobiad fri femen `it would be [used] with the feminine' 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them' 215a5 (cf. biit remsuidigthi ... cen briathra leo ib. 6). See also s.v. comṡuidigud. is tabarthi `bonum est' fri cechtar in da fersa so, Ml. 112d1 . cen tabairt anman trén fríu, 30a9 (see do-beir). ni bai crand dond indsi fri aroile (i.e. the walls were shattered) Anecd. i 2.5 . ar choibnius frisna comaccomla sa, Sg. 203a10 . in oentid fri Crist, Wb. 15a12 . ni ba suair[c] comlepaid no comaentu frissi, TBC-LL¹ 2079 (fris St) In: ni reid bith fris im longud no im ligi, LU 5957 , the meaning may be different; see atá (fri). toeb fri toeb ata in ri is Eocho F. side by side LU 2839 (see taeb). comaitecht re hairdrigh, ZCP viii 116.5 . méraid ra cách a chumne TBC-LL¹ 740 (here perhaps: meraid hua chlaind fri claind Ml. 100b4 ). is frit mo chairde `with Thee is my compact' Fél. Ep. 534 . (see cairde). iar corai fri I. after making a pact with I. SR 5946 . Cf. córe fri Dia, Wb. 2d16 . is core doib fribsi (gl. salutate invicem) 18b19 . bad chore dúib friu, 7b4 ; - 14 (`lit. let it be peace to you towards them' Thes., but the original meaning of córe points to `with' as the sense of the prep. here). Cf. also: biid pax libsi fri cách (gl. cum omnibus hominibus pacem habentes) 5d33 .

Here probably: isi no beired teora pōc fria cach copān ... dō, TBC-I¹ 2218 . Cf. further: hi cocetul fri Eman in unison with Hib. Min. 4.12 . do dlommad E. is A. ... fri gorta, SR 1419 . ara toimlid fri sid sain | toirthi Parduis, 1085 . taed as fri sidh ┐ fri subha `let him go ... in peace and happiness' AFM 979 .

In this sense with verbs of joining, connecting, also occasionally with verbs of motion and in nominal phrases, such as imma llé fri, immaróen fri, see s.v. , óen (cf. Ériu xiv 142 n . ) also cos, taeb.

In: crithnaigset ... immar bocsimin fri sruth the meaning of the prep. is doubtful. curtar a fuigill re sruth ┐ re fairgi `be the remnant cast out to be carried off by the sea-tide' O'Gr. Cat. 182w . Cf. perhaps: Drochet Atha do dhul re sruth `D. was carried away by the flood' ALC i 260.7 , though these may be exx. of the confusion of re (FRI) with le (LA). curcas fri sruth, FB 44 ; `against a stream' Strachan ZCP iii 419 . Cf. Ériu i 194.4 . See 1 téit and la I (d).

Passing into sense in addition to: tris fer friu (gl. te tertium) Sg. 2a5 . cethri chet bliadan ... a noe sechtmogat fri sein, Rawl. 68b31 ( ZCP iii 18 ). Cf. is fri ni dona salmaib dognid a figild, Mon. Tall. § 5 . fris sin moreover, besides , Leb. Gab.(i) i 88.1 . Hugh Roe 114.1 (f. 30b) . Cf. mod. freisin. For a special sense of with see Mon. Tall. cited under V (d).

III To express fig. direction (cf. V a);

(a) aim, purpose, freq. of function, specific purpose: cen nech dim chlaind frim foraithmet to preserve my memory Ml. 23d9 . ce notechtad ilgotha fri inchosc in mrechtraid sin `that it should possess many sounds to express that variety' Sg. 197a11 . ní fris arícht fri slond persine it was not for that it was invented, to signify person ib. (cf. cid arna airecht pronomen ... dia ṡlund, 198b3 ). in bríg frissa ndéntar a saithar sin the value for which that labour is performed Wb. 11a9 . am loor fri cach reit (gl. ego ... dedici, in quibus sum, sufficiens esse) 24b16 . altoir ... | fri loscud n-edpart an altar for burning [ = on which to burn] offerings SR 4162 . dá magh ... do ṡlaidhi ... co rabad do grés fri geilt do ceithrib ┐ fri trebad do daīnib, Ériu xii 150.6 . primepscop ... accu fri huirdned a n-oessa graid, fri coisecrad a n-eclas ┐ fri hanmchairdes do ḟlaithib, etc. Ériu i 218.2 . sechtmoga fer fria cobair to aid them SR 4196 . drong ngilla ... fri timthirecht, 6280 . ra ergitar ... dalemain fri dail, LL 173a27 ( CRR 13 ). mōr salm | fri hindarba plāg-tedmann, BColm. 70.8 . slóged hi crích ... fri indnaide slogid tairse a hosting into a country to delay a hosting (coming) across it Críth G. 511 . fergniae fri forngaire ndoirseo, 591 . In this sense perhaps in: fót fri haltóir, see 1 fót (d). pars de feoil fri foimtin terci as a precaution against scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . Here perhaps: dognith Saul intleda ... fri Duaid used to lay snares against D. Ml. 30a3 . techt do Roim ... fri foglaim n-ecnai, Trip.² 241 . roairis re sloind senchasa he remained to relate Ériu iv 152.6 [or remained relating ? See VI (a)]. cid frisi farcbad int id for what end the withe was left LU 4752 (= cid imma ndernad int id, TBC-LL¹ 597 ). cid frisindrolais in cloich why hast thou thrown the stone ? LU 5092 . o tancamair friss `since we have come for it' ( = for that purpose) Fél. 72.24 (cf. inní imo tainic ib. 30 ). co ndernur inní fris tánac LU 4347 . Cf. doluid Saul fri tāirsin David i fus, SR 5959 . lurech imme ... fri cathugud, SR 5757 . treb Leue ... immon eclais fria immarchur, 4883 . docúaidh B. frissan umaloitt sin gusin muilenn `on that service' BNnÉ 26 § 19 . téit féin re toisc ┐ re túrus a crichaib na hEspáine on business CCath. 1806 , cf. do chuaidh gach aon rea dtoisgibh ┐ rea dturasaibh féin, ML 26x (= le tosgaib fein, ML² 347 ). The follg. perhaps are elliptical: the idea represented is anticipating, forestalling: dogniad pars de feoil fre terci do t[h]ecmong = as a provision against the occurrence of scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . do na .u. gaiscedaib dec no bitís ... hi tegluch C. fri maidm n-airm no fri gabáil ngasced do neoch LU 5046 . Cf. Fél. Nov. 14 cited VI b.

(b) after adjs. in sense of Lat. gerund with ad or supine in -u: leiscc .i. fri fognam, Wb. 31b23 . conid mesc fria rim so that it is confusing to count it LU 4794 . ba gnim ṅdangen fri himluad, SR 7229 . ingnad fria innisin, LU 2074 ( FA 15 ). adhbal rea n-innisi prodigious to recount ZCP viii 204 § 26 . cenco beth ... and acht C. ba lór fri immarbaig, LL 107a19 ( Ériu iv 28 ). lia iná rúainne ... re n-áireamh, IGT, Decl. ex. 1201 . Cf. atait ... re a ttaispenadh go follus are plainly to be seen Fl. Earls 50.12 . In this use modern Irish has le (LA).

(c) to express direction of feelings; behaviour towards, after nouns or adjs., both of persons and things (cf. I a and V a): conroib deserc leu fri cách, Wb. 26d22 . fáilte fri noíbu, 7b2 (see fáilte). ar formut fribsi, 12c29 (see format and formtech). ropat ḟáilti frimsa, Fél. Dec. 18 (see fáilid). hissel fri hard, sleman fri garb, ZCP iii 447z . anmne fri fochaidi, 449.15 (see ainmne). mailli fri cloc slowness at (answering) the bell ib. 21 . dána fri tōla tromsluaig daring in face of an army SR 5778 . uair ná dernsam huimli fri forngaire, 1854 . ar gart friu for generosity to them ZCP viii 313.12 . créd nach frim atā a maithe ? why is not their bounty bestowed on me ? ACL iii 296 § 38 . ní ar maith friu it is not for their good Wb. 4b37 . ar ulc friu, Ml. 72b22 . tar aesi n-uilc huai[m] se friusom, 74a2 (see also s.v. maith, olc). bad chert do cluchi frim play fair with me LU 5228 . ar ngabáil bāide ... dō rena ardnaem having conceived affection for his high saint BCC § 12 . lére duit frí ríg ngréne ┐ réde fri doíni, Ériu i 193 . is buide linn frib (gl. rogamus vos) Wb. 25a39 (see 2 buide). is maith robai Dia rind, SR 1905 . ní maith ro mbátar frim they have not treated me well LU 4891 . Cf. is maith ro ngabus fritt, TBFr. § 11 . bad faitig frisin foirin sin (gl. observate eos) Wb. 24a23 (see faitech). bid cennuis a gnuis risin lucht ra-nadh (= frisndid) rathmar to whom he is gracious KMMisc. 156.124 . in maith frit menma ind airdríg whether the king is well-disposed to thee SR 6114 . ba fearr di frib menma bar mathar, RC xxiv 56 ( YBL 206a47 ). Cf. is beite duit menma fris `thou must take heed of him' Ériu xii 176.16 . Similarly in expressions like: do-gní maith (trócaire, etc.) fri (see do-gní). nech no comaildfed fir fer frimb uime RC xiii 29.6 .

(d) of prayer, etc. to: irnigde fri Dia, Wb. 4d18 . cf. abstanait fri Dia, PH 4988 . ro throiscset ... fri Dia im a ḟurtacht, 7258 (see troiscid). im aīne fri Dia cora faillsigthi dō ... fasting towards God, that ... might be revealed to him Ériu v 120.12 . Similarly: frit, a rí ..., mo dēr | conom thī ... Mīchēl, SR 2091 . co ndēraib frisin coimdid, PH 6292 . (cf. use with ad-teich). cossoít a thuaithe fri Dia, Wb. 5a23 (see cosaít). Here, perhaps, should come such expressions as the following: ar Christ frit, aithirigh pēin dam, Cáin Ad. 13 . ar do chubus riut, a ingen, crét tuc ort ?, Acall. 6012 . ar bar cubus rib..., crét..., 5476 . ar fir do chubais riut..., 5824 . cf. 4544 . ar t'ḟírinne riutsa, nā furáil, CCath. 1659 .

(e) of hostile feeling, attitude, conduct towards: fri aicned contrary to nature Wb. 2c25 . ba fri aicned ... in talam ... do indluch, Ml. 129d8 . frisin n-uall (gl. adversum inflationem mentis) 68c1 . trifar pecthu fri Dia through your sins against God 115b8 . Common after verbs of opposing, hindering, fighting: hóre nád comeicnigther nech fri toil no one is constrained against [his] will Wb. 28b1 . tuidecht fri toil Dé resistance to God's will 4c23 (see do-tét). cf. o dorala ... | frim thala mac I. | duit ... | niba céle SR 6014 , where opposition seems implied despite the similar phrase cited below under V (d). soud a gnuso fri nech frisa mbi ferc do (gl. ne auertas [faciem tuam] a me Ml. 47d8 (`to turn his countenance from one against whom he cherishes anger' Thes., but surely `fri nech' here must also mean either against ... or towards ... ? See soïd). fergach fris Fíadu, SR 6837 . iar ndebaid do fri Duid, 6994 . na cathaig frim do not contend with me 2877 . ni sirsan do Ch. a n-imned i tá a óenur fri firu Herend not happy for C is the trouble in which he is, alone against the men of E. LU 5995 . Cf. do thoitim fria Cu | ba dirsan sad that thou shouldst fall by [ = fighting against] C. (?) TBC-I¹ 2715 (see also III g). Mairg fris ticfa a ḟerg ... Mairg ticfa re cert, Fen. 200 (see do-icc). ar bruc fris `in displeasure at him' Mon. Tall. § 58 . namthi garga fri sluagh nA., ACL iii 297 § 55 . atat frim hi cotarsnai, SR 1520 . Cf. ni bia th'anim fri fugall | ind ríg hí laithiú brótho, Ériu i 196 § 13a . With adj.: cotarsne fri Dia, Wb. 26a18 . is torcda ┐ is díchéill notaí frim, LU 10831 (= Ériu xii 172 ). is bairnech mo menma frit, LU 10832 (= ib.). is tromda atai rim, RC vi 183.13 . olc roba rim, Ériu v 208.8 (see III c). Here perhaps: tromde ... ro buí frisim ind chaillech oc atach Dé, Mon. Tall. § 7 (= do bhí sí roliosda ar Dh., Rule of Tallaght § 41 ). But cf. VII below.

(f) To express protection, guard, defence, watch against: gabthe dūnad les fris, Ml. 55c1 . inna cathrach conrotacht la Duaid fri Ebustu, 48d27 . múr trén ... fri dóini, fri demnai, Fél. Ep. 152 . tocuiriur etrum ... inna huli nert so fri cech nert n-amnas in ..., Hy vii 49 . cor gabad Sinann friu the Shannon was held (defended) against them RC xviii 10.28 . gébtaít ar tír frind, LU 4634 (see gaibid). iadad Caisil frim eochu the closing of C. to my horses Anecd. iii 63.4 . cóir duit arechus ri siút, TBC-LL¹ 1280 (aire do tabairt fri ... St; see 1 aire). Dia lem fri cech snīomh, Ériu iv 236 . Crist credal fri demnaib, ACL iii 221.12 . dín ... re holcaib, ZCP viii 202.18 . Of limitation, boundary: nā bí crích la nech fri peccad that no one sets a limit to sin Ériu i 218.9 . Cf. samaiges crích fri aidchi, Hy ii 55 , corresp. to contra noctem terminum pones, Ardm. 8a1 . See also s.v. inillius.

(g) In elliptical sentt.: leic ... in fognam, ol se; ni lamaim, ol sī, frisin rigain = I dare not disobey the Queen RC xxiv 192 (but perh. FRI here = because of; see V b ). ro an ... ina aenar ru remained alone to oppose them ZCP vi 56.31 . rofetursa a n-as maith dúib fris I know a good way for you to deal with him LU 5934 . tarmairt mo Dia dil frisin tuaid ... a cor fo leittreib lethglenn = my dear God had well nigh (in His resentment) against them cast them down ... SR 4718 . Cf. lām fri idal to renounce idolatry SR 4845 (see lám).


(a) after adjs. and nouns denoting resemblance or equality (esp. those compounded with com-) and vbs. of resembling or comparing: cosmil fri cethir (gl. animalis) Wb. 8b14 . cutrummus fri Dia, 17c8 . i cutrummus fribsi 17b14 . ɔodernain hi cutrummus frim cheliu `to do like my fellows' PCr. 2a2 . (pariter) fri, Sg. 77a2 . i tomus fri nech Wb. 17b11 . intamail ... fri nech, Ml. 22c1 . cen a chondelg fri nech, Sg. 42a6 . cosmaili tuisil `sui' fri tuisliu `ego' ┐ `tu', 200a12 . (similiter) fri, 203a5 . cf. (eandem significationem habens) .i. fri `cum', 218a1 . diatā oenḟolaid ... frissin Athair, PH 177 . ba cudruma re core mōr é, RC xviii 183 . ni caithedh acht coibeis fri gach manach he used to eat only as much as any other monk BNnÉ 300 § 3 . nir chumma nech ris im chath, Metr. Dinds. iv 344 . ru boí i comré ri Cormac, LL 3796 (30a) . i comhrē ris coeval with him Moling 4 . rogheanair i n-aenuair fria was born at the same time as she BB 406bz (= Dinds. 111 ). Cf. IX (b).

Replacing O. Ir. construction with equative: comdhub fri hec, Thr. Ir. Gl. 36 (prull) = duibidir éc, Corm. Y 1059 . Bodl. comard fri fid, Ériu iv 138.26 . meidithir fria hasal as big as an ass Marco P. 10 . corbo chomfota frisin sroin LU 6472 .

See also verbs and adjs. of comparison, e.g. 1 do-ella, samlaithir, in-samlathar; cosmail, 2 cutrummae, etc.

(b) to express difference, distinction from : frissaní immeraidtis (gl. longe aliud) Ml. 61c12 . sain fri .c. `different to c' Sg. 6b7 . do dechor fri praenomna aili, 28a13 . huare nád deligedar fri praenomen , 28a15 . do dechrugud persine fri alaili, 202a4 . is allail pronomen aní sin fri `sui' (gl. `is' aliud pronomen...) 209b10 . (differentia) fri, 213b15 , gl. contra 214b4 . Cf. nipo choím less frinn He was not dear to Him compared to us (?) Wb. 4b12 [Fraser l.c. suggests this rendering, ZCP viii 41 n . `in our case (?),' Thes.].

See s.v. 1 dechor, dechraigidir, deiligidir and other words of similar meaning.


(a) with respect to, with regard to (cf. III c) : is sain fri cath sain fri scor different for battle, different for unyoking (of trumpet-call) Wb. 12c46 . idain fri cach réit faithful as to 31c13 . cen chinaid n-uaim fri nech, Ml. 54d16 (see cin). nach é Dia is ciontach riú is to blame for them TSh. 10499 . as eola fri aidgne ind Athar, Wb. 19d9 . it maithi a arilti frib `He deserves well of you' (`literally good are his merits as to you' Thes.) Wb. 16c11 . airle Dé fri Herind, LL 49b13 ( Hail Brigit § 2 ). .iiii. seóit a dire ... is fechem is fiadnaisi friu `four seds are his `dire'-fine ... he is a suitor and witness for them' (i.e. he is liable to that extent) Laws iv 308.2 ( Críth G. 138 ). is amlaid in t-athair frisin mac ngor; ... nimtha in t-athair frisin mac n-ingor thus the father acts with regard to the dutiful son; ... not so with regard to the undutiful one Laws iii 56. 22 ; z 0 . ba fria as-breth: cruth cách co hÉtaín 'of her was it said, 'every woman is fair till compared with Étaín'' BDD 43-44 , Celtica xv 57 . 'fer hi lorcc so,' ol in fer deginuch fri Nero 'a man is following us,' said the last man with regard to Nera RC x 216.48 . conidh ed isberdís cách fris, Cóir Anm. ii § 150 .

Cf. further: crādiis Ultu fri Cethirnd guin Fécc the slaying of F. imbittered the U. against C., ZCP viii 305.32 . ferdha a cathuibh iat, ar is friu ronnaltadh oc imairecc fria geinnti, Marco P. 189 . ro alt ... ind ingen co digrais fri légend ┐ gaís, LL 279a47 ( SG 413 ). Possibly the last two exx. belong rather to III (a), also : is me is cintach fris ni he is cintach frim, BB 479b14 (see cintach). See also : a lleth fri, s.v. leth.

(b) on account of (cf. VI b) : ro lega in snechta ... fri meit brotha in miled, LU 5858 . ba lond F. friside (-suidi), RC xxvi 12 § ix . saeth mār fri luga dige great distress from [?] lack of drink Fianaig. 12 § 20 . cid mís no bheinn gun ríg thess | ro-fess ná bíad mo scís fris, ACL iii 304.20 . ní ḟaicim-si ... ni rís budh choir t'obadh for which it were right to refuse thee Ériu iii 154.5 . atchess ... na haīble tened ... uasachind re fiuchud na ferge, LU 6466 . ba mertnech Moisi fri hilchaingni ... fri orddugugd cāich fo mām, SR 4542 . batar toirsech fri Moisi, 3886 (in these two exx. fri = oc of prose LB 122a etc.). féimdid sim imt[h]echt fri scíss he cannot go on from weariness BColm. 94.16 . ni ro chotail C. fri himṡním, LB 274a55 . ni faict[h]e ise fri feidm a léiginn she used not be seen because of her duty of study ACL iii 308 VI 13 . Cf. la III a.

(c) on behalf of: aitchitt an C. ris comad he noberad, etc. they beseech the Lord for him that it might be he BColm. 98.15 . dogníther airnaigthi frisin ríg co nambed fot saegail do, MacCongl. 59.23 . ica cantain fria Cianoig chanting (a prayer) for C. ZCP vii 308.7 . Cf. also : ata mo briathar ┐ mo comairghi fria ar Tuatha D., Ériu xii 152.9 . o doratsat briathair fris, CCath. 1236 . in tī bes rí is fris beimmi, ZCP viii 316.3 . See do-beir, gell, and ráith.

(d) according to ; in agreement with, with pers. somet. = in obedience to: ni ni nach breith nā bi fri canoin cumtastar [sic leg.] no judgement is valid that is not framed according to the canon Corm. Y 1224 . cf. manib fri fasach fuirmider, Ériu xii 199.23 . fri mes airechta adrimter, Laws iv 298.25 ( Críth G. 22 ). fri saltair nogebad ... a salmu by the psalter (i.e. with the psalter before him), Mon. Tall. § 39 , cf. ni lugae mbis ind menme hisin cheill dia gabail ind tsailm de memur indas cid fri saltair ib.). fosernd clothri Connacht ... fri senchus ... fri buaid ┐ breatha in conformity with (the claims of) pedigree, with prowess and legal decision ZCP viii 108.10 = Ériu v 234 . bid som iarum fria toil (= they will be able to do as they like) Mon. Tall. § 35 (= go mbid ... aca ara ttoil fein, Rule of Tallaght § 35 ). fri tala ind rig ... domrala I am about the king's business SR 6187 (Rex praecepit mihi 1 Reg. xxi 2 ). cia ro delb fria thuil a ndath who coloured them to please himself (?) SR 7675 . For FRI TOIL in a different sense, see III (e). Cf. nitattorbi fri toil Dé (gl. non omnia expediunt 1 Corinth. x 22 ) `against God's will' Thes., Wb. 11b 17a . Also : ind tí dogní ní do maith fria menmain fadesin ... ar ind bo neoch gabti he who does a good thing in accordance with his own inclination ... should openly proclaim it Mon. Tall. § 21 (= chuirios ní maith ... do dheunamh uaidhe fein, Rule of Tallaght 71 ).


(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. vb. or equivalent = to be at, engaged in or about to engage in (some occupation, process ; cf. III a) : in tinscanfam .i. in biam fris (gl. incipimus ... commendare ?) Wb. 15a1 . ní uisse do mug Dae buith fri debuid to be at strife 30b26 . cf. ní bethe fria acre, 9c20 . ni piam fri aithirgi, 30b17 . ni biat som fria togais adi (= non fallacia ad quoscumque loquuntur) Ml. 31a17 . cechtar nathar fria saindān `each ... at his special art' Thes. ii 293.14 . feib donrala fri comrad, SR 1214 . indí ... bíte fri tnúith `those that are given to lust' Mon. Tall. § 11 . nebbuith fri éthech not to be lying Ériu ii 64 § 6 . céin bete fri soíthar while they shall be at work Fél. Ep. 298 . in tan natbi fri frestal na n-anmand when he is not attending to LB 110b43 (cf. SR 1199 ). ní mo chean ... tarrla re freastal ... na fairrgi sin, CF 42 . amail do beith se re goibhnecht ríam as if he had always been at smith's work BCC § 92 . na saoithe do bhí re seanchus, Keat. i 74 . cuirim suas don ghrádh, | ní fiú é bheith ris, Dánta Gr. xiv 3 . Cf. boí a ben fri idna in travail LU 105.86 (see 1 idu). Similarly without subst. vb. : nachitochthad fria choscc `let him not wear thee out in admonishing him' Wb. 31d11 . conus tarttsat fria ttoghairm chuca an lucht they set about calling the people Hugh Roe § 8 . Cf. airfitech re tetaib, ACL iii 223.23 (= Keat. ii 5358 ). dias fri cerdacht, SR 190 (perh. III a). dá mbeinn re héagnach `had I purposed to revile' Content. v 7 (cf. le hóradh bhriat[h]ar da mbeinn, Ó Héodhusa 4 ). In class. lang. `re' is used with vn. to express futurity : an chathair atá ré teacht ( = civitatem futuram) TSh. 2751 . i n-oirchill na n-olc bhíos ré tuirling orra, 532 .

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on or from which something takes place (some of the exx. could be explained as extensions of other uses (cf. V b ; IX a) ; often the construction is elliptical) : gaibed cach a greimm ... | fria brethir in primsacairt, SR 4400 . ba huisse soillse fri éitsecht na noeb at the death Hy ii 60 . Cf. co mbidis i nd-aenmaigin fria n-ég, Corm. Y 1233 (fri héc LB. ria n-ec LL 179b ). fri gein Críst ... tindscan lechsa léri, Fél. Nov. 14 (cf. III a). ro eirgis fri breithir Isu, PH 2780 . ret[h]it daim ... ri dorddan na damgaire, Ériu vii 2 § 1 . phreab as G. risan gair, Ériu i 18.33 . ac cantain cheóil ... fris coteltais Síl Adaim, LL 3305 ( Ériu xiv 156 ).

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of (cf. similar use of Lat. apud, and see la) : ni cumdabairt fri Cirine is tre metur Jerome does not doubt Hib. Min. 6.187 . nad maith fri C. ciasperthar ..., 7.235 . frithir frisin mac i n-ebras riss, Ériu vii 225 ( LL 209a16 ). ba bind fri cach na canaind, LU 1301 (`sweet to all was what I said' Imr. Brain ii 298 . But this may be ex. of : canaid fri). bid inmain fria cách a ainm loved of all PH 4299 . ba hingnad mor frisin popul sin, 2959 . ba mo a grad fri Gargán oldait a uli cethra G. loved him more than all his cattle 7178 . Cf. Mon. Tall. § 7 cited under III (e) where the meaning seems different. gurbh annsa ré hEóin Críost ioná ré Peadar Christ was dearer to John than to Peter TSh. 10327 .


(a) to denote agent (a late use, mostly in texts in artificial style). ar na bennughadh fri sanctuss Silvester consecrated by Fl. Earls 196.19 . laech ... frisimbia mo thiglecht (= who will cause my death) Metr. Dinds. iv 360 (but perh. this is ellipt. and belongs to III (e) ; cf. TBC2 cited there). romarbtha na maithe ... frisna crechairib LB 154a63 . in lucht frisa tucad in digal .i. Uespiam ┐ Titus ib. 16 . Constantiana ... .i. eclas rocúmdaiged fri Constantin 157b48 . Of parenthood : trī meic Medba fri Fergus, Corp. Gen. 279.33 . sē meic do Mīlidh fri Scota ┐ dā mac frisin nEspānaig 'Míl had six sons of Scota, and two sons of the Spanish woman', ITS xliv 64 § 424 . do chomthusmed clainni fri hA. to have children by A., Alex. 512 .

(b) to denote instrument, through, by means of, by dint of (cf. similar uses of Engl. `with') : sénais Brigit fria bachaill with her crozier Hy v 58 T = lia F. fria noebainm ... séntae cech slóg subach by [or at ?] his holy name every happy host was sained Fél. Prol. 99 . ícaid [Tipra C.] gallrae ... fri troscud aici, BColm. 52.15 . argain fri daigid (destroying by fire LL 107a21 ( Ériu iv 28 ), cf. multi nobiles ceciderunt ... fri daigidh ro horta uile, AU 900 (see RIA Dict. s.v. daig). go nach deachaidh neach re siúbhal ... as no one escaped by flight ML 88.31 . re dán nglas ... dán breaghdha do bhréagnachadh with a simple poem to refute an elaborate one Content. vii 13 . ro ēirigh fri nert seoin ┐ solaid, Moling § 4 (possibly = with here cf. dol ar fairrge ... ré cóir na gaoithe = with a favourable wind ML 36z = le ML² 466 . cuir me ... chum seoil ... re cóir ghloin, Measgra D. 48.16 ).

IX In expressions of time :—

(a) in O. Ir. in locatival sense in phrase : fri dē by day, in the day-time Ml. 121d8 . Wb. 6a30 . fri dei, 9a5 , 24d14 , 26b17 . Cf. in gabail fri dei ... in gabail cech ráithi a catch (of fish) daily (?) Trip. 250.14 (2950) . fri díe, Mon. Tall. § 55 . fri haidchi by night Trip. 208.25 (2452) . gl. contra noctem Lat. Lives 18 . re lá, Ériu iii 148 § 3 . arna imbreth ... i n-aidchi cía nosgonad fri dé, LU 5609 .

(b) usually to denote period during which something continues or takes place : 'na fuair frisna secht ṁbliadnaib SR 3394 . fri a n-aimsir in their time Laws iv 210.28 . niro chotail C. frisin ré sin, LU 6337 . fria ré hi fut a saegail for their lifetime SR 5932 . bai cocad mor etarro fri re ciana RC xxiv 186 . batar ... fri re secht la amlaid sin, ACL iii 225.1 . conosrala for sechrán fri re bliadna co lleith, LU 1279 . bá-sa i Tul T. fri ré inna dílenn, Ériu iv 144y . maith graig dorat damh rem lá in my day ACL iii 304.23 . D. ba talchar fria ré in his day Metr. Dinds. ii 40 . dorumaltsa ... m'aimsir fri hamsir Nemid, LU 1276 . nir siubhuil in conuir-so re bliadhain aenridiri for a year past ZCP vi 104 z.

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place : ni ba marb-sa fri sin I shall not die before that ZCP i 105.4 (co sin v.l.). Cf. also the locative use in Marco P. 11 cited I (a). tanic ... uidi na .xii. mís fri .xii. laa made the twelve months' journey in twelve days LB 139a31 . icuis fri teorai nomaidhe within thrice nine days RC xii 66x . nos ithend ... friha brathad sula in the twinkling of an eye LU 1895 ( RC x 56 ; fri b. v.l.) do imredar ... re trí lá, ┐ ní ruc G. énchluichi rissin, Acall. 1348 .

(d) of point of time ; in some cases approaching VI (b) above. fri dead n-aissi, SR 2829 . in tan nadbi fri húair i fos | frithalmi when he is not here at the hour of attending ... 1199 (cf. LB 110b43 cited under VI (a) above). cech dūil ... rosdelb fri oenuair, SR 7864 (similarly 7234 , 7386 ). grend Muman ... grend Connacht ... ra hóen-úair at the same time Ériu i 130.36 ( LL 46b ). buaidh ... damh fri deiredh mo ṡaoghail, ACL iii 231.1 . ra dered flatha Domnaill, LL 185a48 ( Arch. Hib. ii 85 ) = Rawl. 154a52 . Rí dorat na deich plāga | forthu fri huair combāga, SR 3942 . ? cid fri geld bāis nobeth `though he were at the point of death.' Mon. Tall. § 48 (see gell). re húair nfaicsiona at the time of looking RC xxix 128.13 . fri huair tacrai do ghníma, Ériu ii 228.7 .

(e) in follg. exx. perhaps used for ria before: na buidne ... robatar fria Crist...rofhogain don Choimdid fria tuidecht soscela (= turbae quae praecedebant ... ante evangelium) PH 4573 . dorad som a cuibidil fria mbass made his confession before death RC xviii 53.19 . Cf. co ro muid fri maccu Israel, LB 122b47 = re, YBL 293b40 (corresp. to mebaid remib SR 4765 ).

(f) In later lang., 3 s. ris occurs as adv. bare, exposed, uncovered : mar do leig ris a n-aoinfheacht 'how it left [her] uncovered at once' Duan. F. ii 332 § 9 , Éigse ix 228 . do theilg Ercuill a bhrat de ┐ ro leig a lorg ┐ in croicenn leomainn ro buí re cnes ris, ITS xxxviii 997 (Stair Ercuil) . chonarcadar a ccroicinn go coirtighthi buídhe ris, Smaointe B. Chr. 150 . ó bhí mo chroiceann-sa nochtuighthe síos reis, 160 . cia d’innis doit-se a bheith nochtuighthe síos reis (leis, v.l.), 161 . See also la VI (d), léicid.

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs (and nouns of cognate meaning with them), e.g., those of speaking, addressing, boasting, complaining, asking, thanking ; meeting, touching, striking, rubbing, grinding ; listening ; waiting, expecting ; entrusting ; co-operating, associating, helping ; visiting ; resembling, comparing, differing ; parting, severing (from) ; doing (something to), acting (towards), giving, distributing, apportioning ; requiting, paying, selling ; refusing, rejecting, denying ; hindering, restricting, opposing, combating, etc. See especially : ad-cosnai, ad-gair, ad-teich, ad-tluichethar (attlugud), aigid, 1 anaid, ar-báigi, as-beir, benaid, beirid, 1 caithid, canaid, 1 cingid, comalnaithir, 1 con-clich, con-delca, con-gní, con-ricc, con-sní, con-túaisi, crenaid, dálaid, dlomaid, do-beir, do-gní, do-icc, do-rogaib, do-slí (tuillem buide fri), do-sluindi (diúltad), do-tét, dúnaid, 2 erbaid, fáiltigid(ir), feraid, fo-gella (2 fuiglid), fo-rig, fris-oirg, fris-tairissethar, fris-taít, gaibid (fris-gaib), gellaid, íadaid, 1 íccaid, imm-beir, imm-fogni, imm-fresna, in-samlathar, in-túaisi (éistid), labraithir (labraid), laigid, 1 ligid, lingid, 1 luigid, meilid (con-meil), naiscid, ráidid (ol, ar), rannaid, renaid, saethraigidir, scaraid (and compds.), soïd (do-soí), 1 téit, tongaid.

1 gand

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 gand or


adj o,ā

(a) of things scanty, spare, limited (of quantity) : gand .i. cumang, Thr. Ir. Gl. 136 . érim ngand a limited course (of human life), Ériu i 68 § 3 . uath donarfas fa gann gle of scanty beauty, Laws i 74.12 Comm. Scota gan scéimh ngainn, Keat. ii 223 (poem). sé maic Gelóin cen gním ngand of no meagre performance, Metr. Dinds. iii 164.19 . lai gaí gann (sic leg.) `a slender shaft of day,' RC v 201 § 20 . Cf. rogaet ... do gae gand by a slender (?) spear, IT i 158.2 (poem in B. na Filed). teagh ann nach fuil ... | ocaras ná ól gann stint of drink, Dán Dé xxxi 2 . an tí ghrádhuigheas an t-ól ... go mbiaidh an ciste gann aige a lean purse, TSh. 9203 . aimsear ghann a time of scarcity, Keat. ii 4112 . light (of sleep): ina chotlud, nir bo gand, TFerbe 772 . poor, inferior (?): is gann in memram ┐ a scribend, Thes. ii xxi 26 ( Sg. 195a marg.). is gann membrumm `the parchment is scanty,' ib. xxii 24 ( Sg. 228 marg.). rofháccsat ... Luimneach na ghual gann gainmheach a barren, sandy ... ? AFM ii 882.13 (poem).

(b) Of persons straitened, needy, starved: nidom nía acht im gheilt ghann, BS 40 = Corm. LB s.v. ong . On ló romarbadh Áed oll | becc d'ḟeraib talman nach gann, ACL iii 304.26 .

(c) In moral sense mean, penurious, grudging : nīrbu chalad (glossed nirbu gand) cessachtach, Hy. v 8 . in t-í ropo gand co rop ernedach, PH 5620 . Becnat ... in lia logmar nar bo gann, Fél. 112.30 . fri báig Saxan ngalbech ngand `violent, grasping Saxons,' Metr. Dinds. ii 36.18 . SG 27.2 . Cf. ? gann .i. goirt no docamhlach bitter or churlish, O'Cl. Transf. of actions mean, evil: ba fingal gand, ZCP xi 108 § 3 . a chor hi carcair, gním ṅgann (of Joseph), SR 3219 . Datrat Enna, nir breth gand `no niggardly gift,' RC xx 10 § 6 . gand combach rofersat `a close combat,' TTr.² 942 . Compar. (in cheville): gním a[s] gainniu (?), Anecd. i 60 § 85 ( ZCP xi 154§ 85 ).

Compds. ¤cliar a niggardly band (of clerics): líonmhaire na gann-chléire, Oss. iii 266.4 . ¤cuid a scanty meal, a collation , Donlevy 136.4 . ¤tuare coarse food: a mmór den gantuari, Mon. Tall. § 63.z .

1 ór

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ór or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: ór, órdúse, orṡnáth

n o, m. (Lat. aurum) in O.Ir. neut.: n s. ór nglan, Thes. ii 294.29 ( SP iv § 3 ). ór, IGT Dec. § 96.7 .

Gold : ór quasi aur ab aurum , Corm. Y 1017. oc imfolung ind óir promthi, Ml. 38d18 . arcat ocus ór, SCC 11. doróisce in t-ór cech tinde, PH 7018. idpraid in n-ór do Dia, 7103 . mūr n-óir, SR 350. gell oir no airgit, Laws v 394.5 . i mmemraib óir oíblig, Fél. Prol. 80. brethnasa bán-óir, TBC-LL¹ 1377. land derg-óir do brond-ór brúthi, TBC-LL¹ 1880. forbrechtradh oir deirg, CCath. 4698. Éber inn óir, LL 127b10 (`E. of the [sweet] voice', MacCarthy 156 § 6 ), cf. Domnall in deg-óir, 130b7 . snas an oir gold filings, Rosa Angl. 142 § 34. g s. as attrib. in sense golden = sterling, precious : doss óir, Fél. Mar. 16. sliab óir íarthair domain, ib. Nov. 11. Fig. of elaborate art, preciosity: ní féachfaid dot ór dána, Content. vii 11. Of persons: Aimirgen . . . ar n-ór, ar n-án, Ériu iv 136.18 . ór na mban, O'Gr. Cat. 345.18 (of the Virgin Mary).

Freq. in compds., both in material sense made of gold or resembling gold, golden and fig.

(a) with nouns: ¤ainech face of gold: láech órainech remurṡlíastach, TBC-LL² 4435 . As pn sobriquet: Eochu Orainech, Rawl. 147b41 . gusan Óraineach Uisnigh, Anecd. ii 1.11 . Name of a halidom: bachall Chiarain (.i. an óraineach), AFM ii 626.10 . scrin Ciaráin an óreineach, 1072.6 . ¤arget, gl. electra ( Ecl. viii 54 ), Thes. ii 362 (orargụ̇et MS.); gold and silver ZCP xxix 101 . ¤ciste treasury : ag buain a n-ionnmhais ┐ a n-óirchiste, TSh. 5412. Freq. in late relig. lit. of the treasury of merits of the Church: oirchisde na heglaisi catoilice, Ó Héodhusa 186.6 . san oirchisde tug Dia dhi, Parrth. Anma 56.10 . ¤cró, ¤crú: g s. as attrib. gold-socketed : sleg órchrúi, TBC-LL¹ 5428. di slegaib . . . órchrúi, LL 239b26 ( TTr. 1694 ). do ṡleaghuibh orcrai, Acall. 874 . ¤cumtach gold embroidery or chasing: g s. as attrib.: fer in inair órchumdaig, MR 234.22 . bratt . . . cona eo orchumhdaigh, ZCP xiii 170.33 . ¤dath: gona srianuibh órdhaithe gold-coloured , Ériu i 24.136 . i n-ordathu, RC xxvi 48.257 . ¤dorn: claidem órduirn gold-hilted , BDD 97. c. orduir[n]d, 75 . TBC-LL¹ 5312 , 5350 . cloídib órduirnd, Alex. 12. ¤dornchar: claidhem órdor[n]cair gold-hilted , Fianaig. 84.33 . ¤dúis: pl. órdúse treasures (valuables) of gold, TBC-LL¹ 66. órdhúise .i. séoid ōrdha, O'Cl. ¤enech see ¤ainech. ¤gein: ruc Scota mac . . . orgein mor-cineadh, BB 20b26 . ¤lestar: cruth cen cheill . . . is neime i n-orlestar, ZCP vi 267 § 2. ¤nasc: órnasc .i. slabhradh óir, Keat. ii 3377. uchtach órnaisg, TSh. 1709. ¤sciath: dūn Amlāib na n-orscíath, ZCP viii 229 § 1. ¤snáth gold thread : orṡnáth, LU 6544 = snath oir, TBC-LL¹ 2028. lénti órṡnaith, TBC-LL¹ 174. inar orsnaith, ZCP vi 25.14 . Cf. diallait . . . ierna himfholach d'orsnaithe `cloth of gold', Fl. Earls 236.29 . ¤solus: as name of a drink- ing-horn, Acall. 138.

(b) with adjs., esp. ones formed from nouns: ¤altach: coeca cloidim n-óraltach, ZCP xiii 175.23 (leg. ¤eltach gold- hilted?). ¤buide: folt orbuidi, Acall. iii 5.25 . monga órbudi, BDD 91. altoir . . . cona coilech oirbuidhi, KMMisc. 319 y . fiacail orbuidhe, IT iii 96.6 . ¤ciumsach gold-bordered , CCath. 4672 , 5447 ( ¤cimsach). ¤cobadrach gold-bossed , epithet of shields, CCath. 1724 , 4722 . ¤cumtaigthe: do iarann orc[h]umtaigthi inlaid with gold, CCath. 5263. ¤gothach: briathra an easpuig órghothaigh, Arch. Hib. i 98 § vii . ¤litrech: leabhar áluinn . . . óirlitreach gold-lettered , Ériu v 76.37 . ¤slegach: mac Figaid oirsleagaig of the gilded spear, Metr. Dinds. iii 364.122 .

1 Scot

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 Scot or


pn o, m. (Lat. Scot(t)us) a Scot, an Irishman : Scuit a Scota .i. ingen Forainn rīg Ēigipti, Corm. Y 1162 . unde (sic leg.) dicitur Scuit for Scotaib, Laws i 20.13 Comm . ina Scoti, 24 Comm . Nel . . . dothuc Scotai . . . conidh dia ainm-si[d]e dogairther Scuit, Auraic. 1769 . Patraic pridchais do Scottaib, Hy. ii 35 ( Thes. ii 316 ), cf. Lat. Lives 37.2 . is i sin bliadain doradad Paladius . . . do progecht soscela do Scotaibh, MacCarthy 284.28 . Eber S.¤ , 290.27 . Scuit, Arch. Hib. iv 207 § 19 . i bhfocalaibh Scuit (i.e. in Irish), Ó Bruad. iii 194 .

Compds. ¤fhuil: ríghe don Scotfhuil . . . choscraigh sovereignty of the Scottic blood, Ó Bruad. iii 88.1 . ¤urrad Scottic yeoman: scoturra glic, Ó Bruad. iii 194.y .

2 scoth

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 scoth or


n [ā, f.] point, edge (of weapon, etc.): turnamh ar sgoith trí dtairngeadh on the points of three nails, Aithd. D. 88.4 . sgath i mbéal oirbhire an ógh `a sharp point (?) against all harm', 95.4 . ceathra míle . . . | do leag sgoth a fhaobhar uile | roth nar chaomhan duine dhíobh `were laid low by the edge of its blades' (story of St. Catherine), PBocht 18.27 . Of thorns, spines in a hedge: ? noco teit in ní scuchas na scota trit ar dluithi (etymol. gloss on scuithe), Laws iv 112.26 Comm . imthecht tri sgathaibh sgiach `through thorny thickets', Études Celt. i 85.22 . sgath dealg 'n-a beol muna bheath `the thorn-points', Aithd. D. 95.20 . Note also: do éirigh scoith fa ruinn a ruisc a piercing look came into his eyes, Maguires of F. 23 (34.27) .

The follg. exx. from Met. Dinds. are tentatively assigned to 2 scoth by Editor: tar Cend Febrat na n-úar-scoth, Metr. Dinds. iii 226.6 (see Gloss.). cnoc arar-chotail in Dagda, derg a scotha `spear-points' (Corr.), iv 106.y . in fail rolegsat na fir | . . . col-lín a s.¤ `wounds' (Corr.), iii 328.50 .


(a) with nouns: ¤búain lopping, cutting to the ground : go ttucc sgrios ┐ sgothbuain ar bharraibh aipche ┐ anaipche an tíre, AFM vi 2186.20 . ¤búalad: dá sgoth-bhualadh féin scourging themselves, TSh. 2264 . ¤buinne lopped sapling : na hiomnadha . . . na sguth-bhuinnídhibh, CRR² 29 (86.11) . ¤ecna acuteness (?): scothegna, Auraic. 571 . ¤fhis sharp knowledge (or, with 1 scoth, excellent knowledge?): cuimeobh . . . | seanchas . . . | do sgaithfhios na slúagh, L. Cl. A. B. 273.43 . ¤innell: sgaoil do sgaith[-innlibh] mo ghlais `loosen the strong fastenings of my fetter', A. Ó Dálaigh xxi 3 . ¤lann sharp blade: sgandram sgéith dar sgáth lannaib (scoth lannaib, v.l.) `let us cleave shields by fierce blades', Celt. Rev. iv 18.27 . ¤mebair: do scēla bat scothmebra sharply remembered, ZCP ix 462 § 1 . ? ¤réma (? ¤fhrém): sgaith-réamha déar `floods of tears', A. Ó Dálaigh l 20 .

(b) with adjj.: ¤fhaebrach sharp-edged : sgian scothfaebrach, ZCP vi 62.19 . ¤gér = prec.: do ghab in sgein sccoth-ger i n-a laimh, AU iii 376.3 . ¤gorm blue-edged : ailtan sgeine sgathghoirme do bi aige, L. Chl. S. 26 (34.4) . ¤límtha very sharp : le sguaib . . . sgoith-líomhtha an sgrúduighthe, TSh. 5250 . ¤neimnech: sguaba sgoith-neimhneacha, TSh. 6633 . ¤roinnte hacked : go ros fhagaiph na d-tamhnaibh scioth-roinnte (sic) iad, MR 274.2 . Cf. 'na d-tamhnaibh sgaoilte sgáth-roinnte, ML 132.22 . ¤thescaigthe: na hiomnadha . . . na sguth-bhuinnídhibh . . . sgoith-theasgaighthe, CRR² 29 (86.11) ¤urlam: ar sguabadh an sgiobadh . . go sgoth-urlamh . . . ó imlibh críoch with sharp rapidity, ML 46.6 .

scuchaid, scuichid.

Cite this: eDIL s.v. scuchaid, scuichid. or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: scáich, scáig, scóich, roscāchatar, conroiscet, roscithet, go ro scaichsett, scáigfit, scuchtha, scuchad, scuich, scucht, scáichsin

v See GOI § 522 . perf. 3 s. ro scáich , scáig. ro scóich , LL 280b37 . pl. roscāchatar, ZCP viii 218 § 23 . subj. pres. 3 s. -roisc (see Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1900, 13 n. 1 ). ? pl. conroiscet, O'Curry 2677 ( Eg. 88, 57 (58)d ). subj. impf. 3 s. -roisced. These archaic forms are usual only in sense II infra. On the form roscithet in Mon. Tall. (cited under II) see GOI § 592 . Later treated as weak verb with stem scuch-, scuich- (in sense I) (also occas. scáich-, cf. perf. go ro scaichsett, Leb. Gab.(i) 144.25 . fut. scáigfit, TBC-LL¹ 4613 ). part. scuchtha, MR 254.6 , and see scuithe. Vn. scuchad, scuich, scucht, scáichsin, q.v.


(a) intrans. moves, starts, goes, proceeds : scuchsad .i. docheimnigheadar no doghluaiseadar, O'Cl. scuich bhius (.i. uaim) a meic, TBC-LL¹ 6013 . ní [sguch] tre [dhailghe Í Dhuach] | sruth luath ná aibhne ná áth no swift stream . . . flows, A. Ó Dálaigh lv 11 . roscuchsad co dúr danarrda dāsachtach `sie stürmten', ZCP xiii 231.2 . adhantor teinnte isna heōnoibh. La sodhain tra scuchait ┐ comhlassait a n-aoinfheacht they explode and blaze up, Fl. Earls 188.6 .

(b) usually with prepp.: ar scāth na tuireadh-sa thall | da scuch in rīgan roscmhall took refuge behind the pillar, ZCP viii 562 § 4 . nochoro scaig in bachall a láim Patraic the crosier moved not from P.'s hand, Trip.² 1012 . sguchaiss ┐ comhsgeinnis tipra . . . assin egluis, Fl. Earls 244.18 . scucaid Pirr co Priaim makes for, BB 443b32 . scuchaidh cāch co araili díobh, ZCP viii 105.7 . roscáich cach cert co grian `crumbled to the clay', Metr. Dinds. i 28.6 . scuchsat iarsin d'indsi almuigh they departed from the island, Anecd. i 73 § 217 . scuchaid dím a mallachtnachu leave me, o accursed ones, LU 2343 . ? roscichis deit fein. Bia marb ria cind bliadna (roscithis, rosgisdais, v.ll.) `thou hast wearied thyself' (lit. hast departed from thyself?), Mór M. 10 . no gur sguch mh'annsa dha halt `till my heart leaves its wonted place', Ériu ix 6.55 = Dánta Gr. 41.55 . ní mó scuchaim do chóir churaidh `nor do I deprive any knight of his due', Ó Bruad. iii 144.5 . amal ro scuchsat co focus di as they approached it (an island), LU 1865 . roscuch som docom na tenid, ZCP xiv 156.10 . scuchaidh fón caill, a óccu move into the wood, CCath. 1784 . gur (sic leg.) ro scuchsat for reidh an tsleibhe, Hugh Roe 14.27 . ro scuch S.¤ for amus na n-uasal-athrach, LB 225b22 . in tan ro scuchsat na longa for cúla, CCath. 2110 . ise ced duine roscar fria Cormac a mainchine ┐ doscuch fri Cummin ┐ fri Brenaind who parted from Cormac and went over to Cummín, Irish Texts iii 6 § 15 . roscuc[h]sat iar sin i nglend . . . clic[h]air, BB 496a39 . orotaisselbad tra donrig sin roscáig inanaicned fén reassumed its own form (of snow which had been turned into butter and curds), Three Hom. 10.7 . sgucha an gradh (leg. sguchaid a ngradh?) bus airde, acht curo pinnit fo uaisli in graidh `he shall move to a higher grade', Laws i 60.9 Comm . sguch im chluais, beannuigh mo bhéal, Aithd. D. 70.1 (a) . o sgéimh do sguch has forsaken its beauty (of a dead pig), Irish Texts i 29 § 36 . o do scuchsat on Scithia, Leb. Gab.(i) 276.25 . scuchad cach o cheli uán, LL 333a40 . ? slige din doscuchad charpat sech araile, Corm. 38.26 = doscuet carpait, Corm. Y 1082 (see 1 téit). cor-scuch cach secha araili dib (of a race), TTebe 2444 . scuchsat . . . | tar fairgi, Leb. Gab.(i) 122.17 = for fairgi, BB 29a3 = scuirset, LL 7a46 With adverbs: scuichsit . . . soir, Ériu iv 138.3 . scuchaid in grian sis, vii 223.8 .

(c) trans. moves, stirs, sets in motion, removes : dar sliab Sión roscuchtha | do thraighthe luchra lethna `. . . bist du mit ... Füssen geschritten' (lit. thy feet have been moved), Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1912, xxv 439 § 5 . In Laws Comm. in etymol. glosses: anscuiche .i. cona scuichither dia gablaib `which is not removed off its hooks' (a cauldron), Laws i 48.16 . cia sguithidh ann do chintach . . . ní sguithear in dithim naicinta do nechthar is not changed, ii 100.19 . in ní scuchas na scota gl. scuithe, iv 112.25 Comm . See scuithe. is fir togaidh don fine in ti . . . scuchus fal dochraite dibh `removed the barrier of oppression from them', iv 376.16 Comm . Laithbheartach laoch nar sguchadh the immovable warrior, DDána 113.15 . sguchaidh [na] deamhna dom dhruim | an dearna othair eadruinn (sic leg.) it stays demons from my back—the injured Hand between us, Dán Dé xxiv 13 .

II Comes to an end, is finished, exhausted .

(a) scaich, no roscach .i. do criochnaigheadh, O'Cl. ro scáich ordan N. `N.'s sovranty has vanished', Fél. Prol. 121 . Ráth Chrúachan ro scáichi (with suff. pron., Stokes p. 361 , but see GOI pp. 419 - 20 ), Fél. Prol.177 . isimmaille roscaich inbolc doblith ┐ intimmun dodenam, Goid. 101.17 ( Lib. Hymn. 63.4 ). ro-scáich nóinnin Ulad fosodain was over, TBC-I¹ 1431 ( LU 5899 ). ní accai corro scáig a tofond, LU 6748 (BDD). a claín trúaig . . . ro scáig do gal ┐ do gaisced, 8569 ( FB 43 ). a ro scaigset a airm dó (ó tairnic, v.l.) when his weapons (i.e. as missiles) had come to an end, TBC-LL¹ 4618 . o ru scaich iarum taisbenad na fledhi `when the display of the banquet was ended', RC xxiv 178.13 . o roscachitar thra na hulisa when all these things had been done, TTr.² 445 . ro sgaith a ngráin, AFM vi 2298.17 . roscāchatar sin uile | nocho mair dīb ōenduine (of persons), ZCP viii 218 § 23 . ro scāchatar na Hathanensta acht sūaill mbec, ITS xli 138 § 321 . nísléicfe i Murthemniu | co roisc obair fer Fēne till the work of the Féni be finished, TBC-I¹ 206 = con roisc, LU 4673 . aicelat sa he acht co roisc int oirdned ┐ int ongud, RC xlvi 237.10 = ZCP xii 371.1 . dergaiter doib co roisc taisealbad bidh, YBL 174a48 ( SG 81.16 ). co roisc a mbe oca till all they have is exhausted, Laws iv 246.10 Comm . co roisc a cuidigh till their meal is over, RC xiii 6.1 . co roisc bēim an cluig till the bell stops ringing, ZCP vii 310 § 5 . in cainnel sin do uhith for a dernaind co roisceth roind ┐ dāil, Cáin Ad. 2 . dhul lais isind airc, co roiscedh díle, Leb. Gab.(i) 10.2 . o roscithet celebrad iarmergi `when the office of nocturns is over', Mon. Tall. 130.28 . o roscithet . . . ind gabail hísin, 140.13 .

(b) in impersonal construction with the meaning brings to an end, completes , the virtual subject being introduced by a prep. (usually DO): roscáig dóibseom tuga a sosta they had completed the thatching of their huts, TBC-I¹ 166 ( LU 4628 ). intan . . . ro scáig do Bricrind a scrutan i n-a menmain, LU 8222 ( FB 17 ). in tan tra rosgaith do Domnall ani sin do apairt when D. had finished saying that, Anecd. ii 74.9 . con roisc dó in taspenad, LL 280b32 = coro láis, LU 1378 ( RC xxi 380.7 ). acht cu roisc dhó a bleithech till his grinding be finished, Lism. L. 1979 . With other prepp.: erbais ris in inailt comet in mic co roisced leo imtheacht till they should have gone, YBL 180b34 . neach ná ro saoíleadh écc . . . acht co roiscceadh lais dioghail greisi a cheneóil `until he should have avenged', AFM v 1606.20 . intan tra roscaich re Sechnall intimmon dogabail, Trip. 398.3 . nech na dichet . . . i cath dibell sin .i. ro scaich aire a man who cannot go to battle . . . that is, he has become decrepit, O'Mulc. 311 . Cf. perh. roscāich ar in nĒrinn n-ūaig | ōnd ūair atbath Fedlimid all is over with Ériu, Bruchst. i 45 § 102 , where, however, we should prob. read: ro scaich ár a nErind uaigh with AFM i 472.14 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. scuithe or


Forms: scu(i)che, scuichi, scuithe, scuithche, scuichthe

n pl. movable property, movables. More particularly smaller animals as opposed to cattle. Thurn., Ir. Recht 56 n. 1 cites the MS. spellings scu(i)che, scuichi, scuithe, scuithche, scuichthe, etc., and suggests that the word may be pl. of scuich or the part. of scuchaid used as a substantive. It may, however, be pl. of the word scuichid, scuithid pig (agent noun from scuchaid?) found in the first three quotations given here: is ocht n-anmanna in[n]a muc, comlachtaid, scuithid, etc., O'Dav. 360 . scuithid .i. ainm do orc, ut est scuithidh sceo banb lomtharr .i. ac ithe scoth. Nó tescaidh a cenn dona scothaib. No ótcí na scotha scuichid, 1428 . scuichid sceo banb lomtarr lupait lintar . . ., O'D. 2225 ( Nero A vii, 152b ). mad nocht aile, gebaidh side fri damscuithe (sic leg.); ni dicead scuithe ar a dluithe `oxen and small cattle', Laws iv 112.7 .i. noco teit in ní scuchas na scota trit ar dluithi, 25 Comm . ba .i. fal, etarba damscuithe `a fence of oxen and small animals', O'Dav. 327 (not necessarily a dvandva-compd.). na scuithi .i. indile, Laws v 496.11 Comm . (gl. seoit, 3 ). dibadh sguithi ┐ annsguithi `moveable and immoveable "dibadh"-property', iv 292.20 . a scuithi uile don eaglais ina neart[sh]lainte `bewegliche Habe', Ir. Recht 32 § 34 . con-ic duine a scuichi uli ┐ a andscuichthi do thabairt ina nertslainti don ecclais, 56 xi a . na scuithi do comraind doib, Laws iii 404.3 Comm . a leth seic ar scuithi . . . ┐ a leth ar scath annscuichthi `movables . . . immovables', v 34.14 , 15 Comm . ni uil eneclann doib na dire a dualgus scuithi, 120.26 Comm . as a scuichtib, 518.19 Comm . Cf. an-s.¤ .i. neams.¤ .i. gan toichned dogrēs, Corm. Y 361 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. tathchor or


n o, m. vn. of do-aithchuiredar.

(a) Intrans. returning: a tadchur huli `the return of them all,' Ml. 34d20 . tadchor as in doiri, 131c11 . taidchor, 117b5 . 131d11 - 13 . ni fil taidchur do dochum in choirpsin ... na bíd taidchur dúnni dano don chorp marbdu, Wb. 3a14 . in taidchor gl. reversionem, Ml. 47b3 . ma arfuirestae díb in taidchur són, 47b6 . iar taidchur dochum a tire, 62b4 . taidchuir dochum a thire `of return to his land,' 62c8 . in daithchuir gl. recursús, 42c26 . taidchuir macc nisrahel a doiri `of the return,' 46a26 . t.¤ a bás i mbás ... tadchor a bás i mbethaid, LU 2686 . ní bia traig cen tatcor, Anecd. ii 41 § 13 . conar dorcha drub cen t.¤ (of death), LL 371a15 . ? a tadhgor Scota do milidh | do chosnam in tiri síar, BB 19b27 . ? o forcend flathiusa Meadh co tochur as Daire Babilonda, MacCarthy 280.15 .

(b) Trans. sending back, away, returning: iarna th.¤ a Pardos, SR 1474 . la t.¤ ... Iohain `the removal ,' Fél. June 24 . bat iascaireda togaide iat ... fri t.¤ in popuil docum cretme, LB 181a4 . Of the returning of a fosterchild by the foster-father: tachur cen mialtur (text) .i. tathchur a daghaltrumu cen dethbiri, Laws ii 164.18 Comm. See Gloss. s.v. iarraith. doluid alali banscal do t.¤ maic for clerech do muntir Patraicc, Irish Texts i 14.11 `to accuse a priest of P.'s household of being the father of her child,' Ir. Hist. Stud. i 132 . ? ina ta[?th]chur ar diumann (sic leg.) for sending her away in contempt, H 3.18, 498 ( O'Curry 1240 ).

(c) cycle (of years), great Paschal cycle of 532 years: in bliadhain dedenach ind lantadchoir o tainic P. i n-Eirind (i.e. 964 = 432+532), AU i 478.12 , and see ii 46 n. cétna bliadain tossaich óigtathcuir, RC xvi 406.14 . ni tig siclus co cenn .v. mbliadan .xxx. ar .D. iar n-ogtaig cóir, Fél. 98.6 , see 465 . See óg compds.