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1 brecc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 brecc or dil.ie/6620
Last Revised: 2019

 

adj o, ā speckled, spotted; variegated; patterned, ornamented: aladh .i. breac, O'Cl. cuirither iasg ṁb. mbedg (MS), Ériu xxii 42 § 9 and 48 n. 4h . ernail dhatha . . . etir brec ┐ dond ┐ alad ┐ rúad, TTr.² 881. tri datha na hec[se] . . . b.¤ ┐ fochanar, Auraic. 5249 speckled (raiment), see Thurn. ZCP xvii 291.16 . i fil ilmíli mbrec mban of women (in) variegated (dress), Imr. Brain 19. cochléne breccai plaid (?) capes, BDD² 1204. cet d'étach gach dadha bricc, IT i 125.15 ( TE Eg. 10 ). bróca brecca bernacha, Todd Lect. vi 60 § 80. écne b.¤ , Imr. Brain 54. ní sladar iasc mbrec for ganim deirg (rhet.), LU 8651. nathir bémnech b.¤ `speckled snake', Thes. ii 327.18 (Hy.v). graig ngabor nglas, brec a mong, LU 3692 ( SCC 33.19 ). daim breca brindled (?) oxen, Trip. 176.15 . na heich breca dappled , Celtica ii 42.32 . a chuilim bhric tig ón Spáin `pied dove', KMMisc. 50.2 . ro brecad do semannaib findruine conid brec (sc. a shield named Briccriu), BDD² 976. ba b.¤ do imdornchoraib na claideb n-orduirn `speckled with the hilts of the gold-hilted swords', Ériu iv 26.26 . go frithathartaib óir bricc friu anechtair with rack-clasps (?) of patterned (?) gold (of scabbards), LL 11193 (TBC). bruiden brec bélfhairsiuṅg, MU² 203. d'aebind bricc of speckled ebony, Alex. 593. mo lebrán brec `with chequered page', SG 56.32 . na Banba bricce `of many-coloured B.', Arch. Hib. ii 82 § 1. ós Bōin[d] bricc ` sparkling ', 92 § 3 . sduadh bhreac dhealbhach um an ndún, DDána 119.17 . san gcrann mbrioc (: riot) on the stained (?) Cross, Aithd. D. 86.11 (cf. A. Ó Dálaigh xxvi 4 ). gur bhó breac ó corpaibh daoíne an tulach, AFM v 1784.23 . cardo benedicta .i. an fuafannan breac `speckled thistle' (Gloss.), ACL i 326.36 . adhbhar gotha dod ghruaidh bhric 'a cause of reproach to your freckled cheek', Giolla Brighde 108 § 3 ​​. See galar.

As subst. fex olei .i. aní imbi brec specks (?), O'Mulc. 42. adberar an Bhrec fría, ó comhmbrecadh taisedh na naomh ┐ na naomh-ogh a n-áoinfeacht . . . innte (a reliquary), BNnÉ 266 § 232 . ? rop ecem secc da selbaib / in b.¤ asin b.¤ Temraig, LL 376a46 . brec mor `great dotting' (a form of Ogham alphabet), Auraic. 6010. rand[aigecht] bec mor andso ocna filedhaibh . . . carrdechnaid vero acna druthaibh . . . ┐ is edh on a b.¤ that is its diversified form (?), IT iii 86 § 86. Cf. § 85.

As epithet in n. pr.: féil Chóemáin Bricc, Fél. Sept. 14. ? innisios fer brec nach beo, SG 362.7 . Appar. n. pr. m.: co B., TBC-LL² 4074 .

Compds. With nouns. Símón Brecc ... brecc-ainech ro bhoí .i. aiged bhrec lais on ardbhruth 'he was mottled-faced, i.e. he had a mottled face from the intense heat (anger ? fever?)'​, Cóir Anm.² ii 26 § 87 ​​​. breccbardne (name of a metre), IT iii 43 § 54 , Murphy Metrics 64 § 59 (see p. 84). brig bladmar, bruthmar, breccbárc, SR 2642. in Bhreac-bhárc .i. lung Fhinn mheic Cumhaill, Leabh. ó Láimhsgr. xvi 1046 . breac-bhriathra . . . / glac íad `verses ?' (to a patroness), O'R. Poems 3339 and Gloss. bairghean, breac-cháca (breach cháca, MS.) beg éattrom `a loaf or little light Ceak', Eg. Gl. 8. Cf. bairghean breac ` barnbrack ' (`barm-'), Dinneen . do butainte brecdatha .i. co ndathaibh éccsamhla, Leb. Gab.(i) 30.13 . meic Blait breacduirn, Acall. 2355. dá breclamainn `speckled gauntlets', CCath. 4675. delg óir . . . / i n-óe cecha breclenni, LU 3709 ( SCC 33.27 ). co rainig . . . in breacmacraid (brecmac rig, v.l.) thiri Armenia the motley youth, RC xx 430.3 . breic-mhias an mheasraidh, TSh. 905. ós breac-mhoigh Éireann, Content. xxx 21. .x. mbrait mbreccphupaill .i. pupaill cacha datha, Ériu ii 4.17 . breacṡolas `the morning or evening twilight ', P. O'C. robrāth na breictheinedh blazing fire, ZCP viii 211.28 . fleadh bhreacthruaille beann `ornamented sides of goblets', Magauran 421 .

With adjj. brecc-aladh piebald , RC xlvi 230.25 . meic borrthoraid brec-bāin, MacCongl. 33.14 . os Banba brecbuic, MacCarthy 184.10 . panathir breccborr huge spotted panther, Rawl. 78a19 . di sciathaib . . .bána breccbudi ` yellow-spotted ', TTr. 1403. geabhuidh lamhuinn mbreacchuir mbláith, KMMisc. 170 § 12. lis ballach breicderg, Acall. 2738. Brec-derg (name of a drinking-horn), 157 . da sheir birrdha brecduba, RC xiii 5.10 . a barr bre[c]glas, Hail Brigit 20 . dá ech . . . brecglassa, LU 8591 ( FB 45 ). gusan mbrúgh mbraenach mbrecṡolus ` light-bespeckled ', Ériu iii 162 § 16. ra beind breccsholais búabaill, MU² 230.

With adjj. formed from nouns. mergeda . . . a . . . breacamlacha `variegated (and) emblematic', Marco P. 61. medon fethech brecbaindech `spotted with pustules', RC xxiv 196 § 11. la fichit brandub brecboirdnech, LL 7285. brat breicbreidech, RC xxi 398 § 33. da n-ocht ṁbliadan brecbuidnech varied and crowded years, LL 14958. o earradhaibh breac-dathacha a banntrachta, ML 38.22 . amail buinne . . . mbreachlasrach with motley flashes, CF 774. brat breclígda immi `of varied hues' (Gloss.), BDD² 1165. gus an mbuinde . . . mbreclinnteach mBuada, MR 104.8 (2 brecc ?). sluagh . . . breacmeirgeach with many-coloured standards, MR 214.y . bloiscbem brecthentech, Lec. 171 ra 26 (brēicthinntech, ZCP viii § 38).

? cumasc slaite breaclíte ┐ lethrannaigechta moire, BB 291a34 = cumasc slaiti brecht, etc., IT iii 84 § 71.

In nn. loc. in compds. see Hog. Onom.

2 díabul

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 díabul or dil.ie/15865

 

n o, m. (Lat. diabolus)

(a) the Devil, Lucifer, Satan (usually, though not invariably, without article): intí diant ainm discessio .i. diabul, Wb. 26a5 ; 29b19 . i péin la diabul, 26a23 . ba formtech Diabul fri Adam, SR 1105 . condat fil fo deilb Diabuil tria bithu (Eve to Lucifer), 1739 . i [n]gnīmaib diabuil, Ériu vii 172 . beth ic fédmandus don diabul, PH 7710 . 8255 . céle Dé . . . dia iomchoimhét for intledhaibh Díabhail, Hugh Roe 260.27 . tré chumhachtaibh an diabhail, Acts x 38 .

(b) devil, demon in general: do diablaib iffirn, PH 7819 . ol na diabuil frisin animm, PH 8124 . léighión do diabluib, BCC § 295 .

Compds. ¤bág (?): tri meic la Simon ba sām | ba dīmōr a ndiabulbhāgh (of Simon Magus) their diabolic alliance (?), ZCP xiv 159 = BB 406b24 . ¤cherd diabolic art: ar a ndiabulcherdaib draidechta, MR 240.25 . ¤chumachta demoniac power: d. iffirnn imnedaig, Todd Lect. vi 69 . ¤dán, ¤dánacht diabolic arts: a ndruidecht a ndiabaldān, Lec. 556b41 = BB 266a55 , and sic leg., Keat. i 210 . og fochlaim fhesai ┐ eolais ┐ diabuldanachtai, RC xii 56 . lena draidecht ┐ lena diabuldanacht, BCC 295 . ¤iascach (?): diabhaliasccaigh inn aeoir, CCath. 4358 .

1 drennach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 drennach or dil.ie/18654

 

adj o,ā (1 drenn) combative, quarrelsome, contentious: drendach .i. debthach, Corm. Y 429 . Dolb d.¤ , Metr. Dinds. iii 304 . fiad in dáim drongaig drennaig (ndremaidh, ndrennaib, v.l.), i 32 . ní dlechtaide dreandach, BB 269b28 . Simon Hircan ard cen on | fuair arg isan adnacol | as tuc or d.¤ con dath | do cennach a chaemchathrach, Lec. 79b43 (cf. 1 Maccabees xiii 14-19 ).

druídecht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. druídecht or dil.ie/18855

 

Forms: draídecht, dráoidheachd

n ā, f. (druí) later draídecht. dráoidheachd f., IGT Decl. § 26 . secret lore and arts of the druids; in wider sense occult science, wizardry . Included in `dán-ogam', Auraic. 5799 . cend idlachta ┐ drúidechta na hEirenn, Lat. Lives 4.14 . co morfhiss ┐ go mórfhastine ┐ druidecht, TBC-LL¹ 1454 . aes in dána drúidechta, 1071 . ó aiti druidechta from (his) teacher of wizardry, TBC-I¹ 1927 = ó Manannán mac Lir, TBC-LL¹ 2587 . druidheacht is idlacht, Todd Nenn. 144.3 . tria brechtaib a drúidechta (of Balaam), SR 4780 . rodúsig demnu tria d.¤ , PH 2198 . co ndíchur eluda draidechta na Cristaige, 1172 . popul na drui[d]ecda, popal iat sén da fognaitis fesa ┐ faistine, CCath. 724 . is e luid do fhoglaim druidechta co Simon ndruid, Rawl. 157.36 . a gcur fo dhraoigheacht, Oss. iv 176.18 . re tioghlaicthibh na dr[a]oidheachta with the rewards of divination, Numbers xxii 7 . In pl. magic arts or practices: tre druidechta druad, IT i 68 . no gniad druidechta, FB § 75 . do fhoglaim ilair ndraigecht, Lec. 84a36 . Attrib. gs. of magical formation: ceo drúidechta, FB § 39 . biasta druidechta, § 57 . in da fiach druiidechta, LU 3784 ( SCC § 35 ). lúath-anál draidheachta, Imr. Brain i 65.22 . na fir druidhectae ro artraiccset do Iasson, CCath. 2823 . robo chath draigeachta he, Lec. 545b29 .

dúthracht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dúthracht or dil.ie/19315
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: d., duthrachtan, duthrachta, duthracht, nduthroctain, duthrachtain, duthracht, duthrachta, duthracht, dúthrachd, dúthrachta, dúthrachda, duthracht

n Gender not attested in O.Ir. (see, however, GOI § 727 ), m. in later lang. (cf. a s. d.¤ n-diuburtach ( H 2.16 ), CF 88 ). Vn. of do-futhraccair. g s. duthrachtan, Ml. 55a17 ; later duthrachta, Laws iv 284.20 . d s. duthracht, Wb. 22d4 , 27c10 , Sg. 3a5 , Ml. 33c8 , 43c8 , and in later lang. co nduthroctain ndil, ZCP xiii 30.5 ; duthrachtain (as n s.), Aen. 697 (d s. duthracht, 698 ). n a p. duthrachta, Ml. 49c7 , 61b6 . g p. duthracht, 54a8 , 56b18 , 24 . dúthrachd m., IGT Decl. § 25 . g s. an dúthrachta , TSh. 10887 . na dúthrachda , 2 Cor. vii 11 .

(a) act of wishing, desiring, longing; wish, desire ; gl. votum, Ml. 33b4 , 43c8 , 44b33 , 48b13 , 49a18a , c7 , etc.; voluntas, Wb. 16c18 . ó duthracht gl. ex animo, Wb. 22d4 ; ex voto, Ml. 33b4 , 43c8 . ni ar ecin . . . acht is ó duthracht a menman badéin dochoid (= voluntate animi), PH 4742 . la d.¤ a chridi, Fél. Ep. 68 . fir-ailithreach iar nduthracht, YBL 166b18 . gabail aitidan tar d.¤ , Laws v 432.19 . orba duthrachta land voluntarily granted (?), iv 284 . Freq. in pl.: comairmidi inna nd.¤ ┐ inna n-accubur dorigensat, Ml. 54a34 . for salachduthrachta your unclean desires, Alex. 915 . ni ferthar catha na cocthi lind ō dutrachtaib nā ō bēsaib, 897 . cách co n-almsain . . . | iar ṅdligud, iar ndutrachtaib, SR 4866 . do réir a dhúthrachta, ZCP viii 209 . Dauid mac Iese in fear togaidi do reir mo chraidi ┐ mo duthrachta, YBL 154b28 . ba hé a nd.¤-sum cungnam lé P., CCath. 1245 . donaib duthrachtib inna ngor, Ml. 44b33 . mo gái, mo chlaideb, mo sciath | . . . | ní duthracht fir máith-laim meirb they are not the desire of a tender-handed weakly man, PRIA xix 540 ( LL 146b12 ). cid mid, cid broccóit flatha, | cid d.¤ duini uithir what a sick man would desire, Ériu iii 104 . a dhuthracht féin [do thabairt] do Chill Da Lua, Cog. 200 . Transf. of object of desire: ib-siu fein . . . in duthracht-sa rob ail leat do ól damh-sa drink thyself what thou wouldst have me drink, RC vi 175 . With obj. gen.: duthrachtan uilc dosom of wishing evil to him, Ml. 55a17 . duthrachtain uilc do denum, Aen. 697 . duthracht marbtha, Laws i 242 Comm. aní nā roich lām cid acht | is écen dam a dútracht I must needs desire it, LU 3936 ( SCC § 44 ).

In phrase is d.¤ limm (folld. by vn. or subord. clause) I desire, long for: ni écen . . . ach[t] is dúdract lib, Wb. 3b21 . is d.¤ linni a dénum dúib we desire that you should do it, 16d3 . is d.¤ leusom atlugud buide they desire to return thanks, Ml. 33b3 . cén co tísam dútracht lind, LU 4001 ( SCC § 45 ) `I wish that I were not going away', Dillon p. 45. nōimh na cceithre raithe | dutracht lim a nguidhe, Ériu i 226 . ger bo duthracht leo calma do denamh, CF 848 . ni ba d.¤ leis do thuttim-siu, TBC-LL¹ 4307 . co nár bo dúthrach (sic) leó eterdeilig[ud] etarru, TTr.² 501 . ? ní du[th]raic lium do marbadh, ZCP vi 101 . ba duthracht leo gea dofaethaisté-su, TBC-LL¹ 4342 , cf. 4363 , 4390 . d.¤ lais di co ronasta Brigit he desired of her that B. should be pledged, Hy. v 54 Comm.

(b) devotion, esp. of worship or prayer: combad duthracht fordúnad (for dunad, MS.) in salm gl. ut devotio carmen concluderet, Ml. 120c6 , cf. 90a14 . dosgnit d.¤ n-ataigh forsan cCoimdhe, BNnÉ 324 . oc dénam a dtráth ┐ a nduthrachta do Día, SG 54 . ag radh a trath ┐ ag denamh a duthrachta do Día, BCC § 221 . ag radh a duthrachta saying his prayers, § 247 . See Ériu xviii 2 .

(c) devotion (to), zeal (on behalf of), good services , generally in phrase dogní d.¤ do: in tslat échtach arrachta | dam ac dénamh dúthrachta, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 336 . déana damhsa do dhúthrocht, 3 C 13, 969.14 . i ndíol an dúthrachta doghní an duine ḟíréanda do Dhia, TSh. 10887 . nach diongnadh do Chorc d.¤ `that he would not have said all he could for C.', Content. xiii 10 , cf. iii 29 . cain-duthracht Sepherus do Alax., BB 494a27 . ceathrar ar ḟichit a lāndām (sc. of the `ollamh') for feacht feili . . . Deichneobar for feili fleadaib .i. duthracht do rig, Lec. 339b2 . d.¤ Moga Ruith do Simon (name of a poem or metre), IT iii 109 , cf. MS. Mat. 272 , 402 . Hence in general eagerness, zeal, goodwill, readiness to serve: ad-cota dúthracht do-rata 'willingness creates one who gives', BFF 62 § 1.2 . trí fáilti coirmthige: immed ┐ d.¤ ┐ elathó, Triads 225 . maille ré dúthrachd, Romans ii 8 . gu madh móide dhiongnus sibh dúthrachd, 2 Peter i 10 .

(d) free-will offering: duthracht co tighnacul | do t[h]abairt uadh, ZCP viii 215 . fricell .i. duthracht bid doberer do chill, O'Mulc. 593 . foirenn díb co n-almsanaib ┐ co nduthrachtaib, Lism. L. 2033 . mac clerech . . . dalta do Brigit teig co nduthrachtaib dissi, LL 283b15 , cf. Fél. p. 64 . ba lá Cairbri an talam arna tabairt do Chonull G. a nduthracht, BCC § 133 .

1 é, hé

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 é, hé or dil.ie/19325
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: ishé, is hé, hǽ, isé, hǽ, hé, asné, ishe, issé, isé, é, hé, é, hésom, hesom, hǽsium, ésium, esium, eisiu, esiomh, eisim, esim, éseom, eseom, eiseom, esen, ésen, eisen, eisea, eision, essium, eissiu, eissiumh, esseo, essem, essim, eissi, eissin, hisseom, heside, he side, éside, eside, éisidhe, eisidhe, eiside, esede, eisidh, esiden, esidein, eisidhein, esein, éisei, eiséin, eisidei, eiseic, ese, esside, hessidhi, eissid, eissidi, eissideic, eisseic, eissein, es(s)ide, bé, cebe, gibe, cidbe, eside, esium, (h) é, éseom, esium, eissium, é, é

pron. 3 s. m. ; fem. , q.v. (later also í) ; neut. 1 ed, q.v. For pl. see 2 é.

In Glosses with copula : ishé, Wb. 4c3 . 25b2 . Sg. 3b20 . is hé, Ml. 36a32 . is hǽ , 102b5 . isé, BCr. 18b12 . mad hǽ , Wb. 27b6 . ba hé , Ml. 24a4 . Wb. 19c4 . asné, 4d16 . Ml. 31b24 . Mark of length sometimes omitted, as : ishe Wb. 25a24 . Ml. 45b11 .

In early Mid. Ir. with copula 3 s. pr. issé, isé ; independently é, hé ; in later MSS regularly é. Before -som, etc. hésom, Wb. 7c8 . 24d5 . hesom, Ml. 53a5 . 90b13 . hǽsium, Ml. 30c5 . ésium, TBC-LL¹ 1744 . 6050 . esium, 1107 . 1189 . LL 223b14 . eisiu, Acall. 1979 . esiomh, TBC-LL¹ 3883 St. eisim, TBC-I¹ 2444 . BColm. 60.6 . esim, 104 . 12 . éseom, TBC-LL¹ 5971. eseom, LU 12a36 . 126a29 . TBC-I¹ 559 . 580 . eiseom, 1222 . 1543 . TTr.² 1451 . esen Corm. Y 276 . CCath. 2615 . ésen, TBC-LL¹ 2893. eisen O'Gr. Cat. 488 ( : seisen). eisea, Dán Dé xxv 53 ( : móirsheisear). TSh. 5134 . eision, TBC-LL¹ 3883 v.l. TD 34. l. 189 . In early Mid. Ir. freq. with -ss- : essium, PH 281. MacCongl. 55.11 . eissiu, Acall. 6017.6708 . 7890 . eissiumh Metr. Dinds. iv 282y . esseo, Trip. 394.4 . IT i 131.12 . essem, Ériu i 126.12 . ZCP ix 156 ( = TBC-I¹ 1543 ). essim ZCP iii 258 ( = LU 126a29 ). eissi, Acall. 2080.3353 . eissin, 7642 . Cf. hisseom, PH 1513 . Before -side, -séin, etc. : heside, Wb. 3c15 . Ml. 100c10 . 102a20 . he side Ml. 100b23 . éside, LL 219a34 . eside, TBC-LL¹ 2230 . PH 929 , etc. éisidhe, Lism. L. 3429 . eisidhe, 424 . eiside Laws iv 138z Comm. . TTr.² 373 . esede, TBC-LL¹ 4502. eisidh, Laws i 8.6 . esiden, YBL 62a27 . esidein, BColm. 52.18 . eisidhein, ZCP viii 551 y ( = TBC-LL¹ 1874 ). esein, PH 1963 . éisei, Acall. 1463 . eiséin, Studies 1924, 242 § 7 . eisidei, Laws i 4.25 . eiseic, iv 46.14 Comm. v 448.30 Comm. Acall. 5944 . ese, Laws iv 16.17 Comm. With -ss- : esside, LU 22a38 . ZCP viii 302.23 . Auraic. 207 . MacCongl. 3.11 . hessidhi, Lism. L. 3888 . eissid, Corm. Y 276 . eissidi, Do Chupur 56 ( IT iii 237 ). eissideic, Acall. 4833 . eisseic, 6034 . eissein, 5819 . 7982 .

In early Mid. Ir. we sometimes find es(s)ide standing for a fem. subst. : oc siair tharisi do .i. fedb craibdech eside PH 943 ; cf. Laws iv 176.24 ( 178.4 ) ; 226.7 .

The O.Ir. quantity of 1 é before the suffix is attested by the rime glēsom : hēsom, IT iii 44 § 60 . Thurneysen remarks ( Thurn. Hdb. § 447 ) that the length of the vowel in ésom may be due to the influence of 2 é which, to judge from Welsh wy, is long by nature. In late Mid.-Ir. however the vowel is regularly short before the strengthening or anaphoric suffixes. The shortening may be explained by the analogy of 3 mes(s)e, tussu s.v. .

A detailed examination of the use of the independent pron. in Old and Mid. Ir. belongs to syntax and would be out of place here ; we give however some illustrations of the typical uses for these periods. Some special uses are noticed in IX.

I Placed immediately after the copula, in the following types of sentences :

(a) bad he for n-ere (gl. portate dominum) Wb. 9d12 . is heside athir inna mmachabdae (gl. Mathathiae) Ml. 74b6 . ishé a ammus lemm that is my guess at it (gl. cum iam fere centum annorum esset) Wb. 2c27 . ba ed á n-oínbiad (gl. mannae) Ml. 97d8 . Símon Bar-ióne...is e eochair na flatha némdai, PH 1639 . tucus aichne fairsim corb'é Ísu I knew that He was Jesus 3736 . ní hé Cormac beus, TBC-I¹ 13 . In Mid. Ir. the pron. is often repeated after the subj. in sentences of this type : (a1) is é gaiscedach as dech fil díb hé, LU 101a39 = FB 14 (hé om. ZCP iv 153 ). issé mo lennán é, TBC-LL¹ 4560 . corb' e metrapolitan na primchathrach he, PH 189 . as é céd-duine tárla dó hé, Acall. 624 . fa hé céidrí Éireann do ṡíol Éibhir é, Keat. ii 1875 . When the second pron. stands for a subst. of different gender from that of the pred. we get the type : is tocrádh mór marbhnadh Dé | ní hé an brón gan adhbhur í, Dán Dé xxvi 1 . dob é ceirtleath m'anma í, Studies 1924, 428 § 9 .

(b) is hésom doradchiúir (gl. Christo Jesu) Wb. 2b9 . is heside dorárricc báas dúnni, 3c15 . is heside robu rí, Ml. 100c10 . Mac Roth...is e timchellas hErind ind oenló TBC-I¹ 1110 .

(c) is he Dia insin (Quis est iste Deus...? Deus sc. ille qui...) Ml. 83c5 . rii benn ced ara neper? Is he rí tuathi insin lasmbiat .vii. ngraid ḟene, Laws iv 328.24 . is hé rí insin loingside siabrai, LU 99a27 .

(d) ba he a ngnimsom molad Dǽ (quorum...officium) Ml. 24a4 . is sí ind inducbal lesom in molad, 126b17 . corrophed mo indeb Crist (gl. ut Christum lucrifaciam) Wb. 24a6 . is e in cetna herdach celebrad ┐ procept brethri Dé, PH 3600 . dob í m'ḟáilte mo riar, Keat. iii 1450 . issé biadh do buí ag M. uidhe cerc ┐ aran, BCC § 122 . Keat. ii 2687 .

(e) is hé rufiastar cumachtae inna diglae...in tí, etc. Ml. 111c13 . is ed as dulem daitsiu m'etarcnae, 103a9 . is é as fhoghar dá gach eon | moladh Dé, Dán Dé xiv 23 . Cf. is e thainic a n-agaid Patraic .i. Sínell, Lism. L. 248 .

(f) asné Crist in lie asrubart, Wb. 4d16 . issi so a chiall, Ml. 65a3 . is e cētlá na sechtmaine in domnach PH 3584 . int shollsi-so...is e Crist mac Dé sin, 3792 . badh í an úaisle ar n-eólaichne, Ériu ix 163 § 6 . gurbh í Éire tobar draoidheachta iarthair Eorpa, Keat. ii 963 . The pron. is regularly in concord with the follg. subst., but cf. is í ar gceann báidheine an bhean, Dán Dé ii 29 .

(g) When the pred. precedes the cop., the word following the pron. usually decides the gender of the latter : in choss is hé oís achtáil, Wb. 12a23 . Crist didiu issí in chathir, 21c5 . cf. i dteangthaibh nach í an Scoitic in languages other than Scottic Content. vi 19 . Cf. on the other hand Wb. 3b16 , 18 . PH 1639

(h) is hé Dia as eola indiumsa, Wb. 8d23 . ní hé apstal citarogab in testiminso, Ml. 38c3 . comad he Nathi bud choscrach, RC xxiv 180 . ba saeth le M. nach he Brian ba ri, 176 . ce nib ed á ainmsom bes foir, Ml. 23d17 . (In O.Ir. the pron. is not obligatory in this type ; cf. issí ind ainim as airlam...ní incorpp, Wb. 3d11 . ni far mbrónsi immafolngi fáilti domsa, 16b8 . is a indocbál fessin condieig cách, 23d5 . ni Dia dudgní..., Ml. 44d21 .) is é mo chorp ro ádnaicis[s]i, PH 3732 . is é an beo do bhí 'na chroich | doní idir eo agus éanlaith, Dán Dé vi 40 . gurbh í an Ghaedhealg fá teanga dona draoithibh, Keat. ii 964 .

(i) The copula may be omitted : he fessin as choimsid dáu, Thes. ii 294.3 . hé cotnarlaic...doib anisin, SR 3659 . é leth luidi, Metr. Dinds. ii 2 . é domrad a n-éccomhnart, BS 48.16 .

II

(a) After interrogatives : cia hé (gl. quis) Ml. 46c17 . cia hé nundixnaigthersiu, 75c9 . ce hé roscríb, Sg. 197a19 . cóich esein, PH 1963 . cidh esen itir, TBC-LL¹ 3843 St. cuich hé in t-airfidech ut ?, Acall. 7525 . cret eissein in t-abhacc ?, 7982 .

(b) After sechi, sechip, cip (cib) : sechi he (gl. si quis) Ml. 35b4 . sechi é cretes de illis Wb. 15b1 . sechi sí (gl. quaelibet) Ml. 65d2 . sechi sí dia rignaib, 65d8 . sechip hé nodapridcha whosoever he be that preaches it Wb. 14d28 . sechip hé dán tra doberthar do neuch, 13a3 . ciphé ade Ml. 26a1 . ponat ergo lunam (cipé) ubilibet computare voluerit BCr. 31c2 . ciped ní, PH 1520 . gib é dig...ni ba missi, TBC-LL¹ 1223 . cip é imress méla...fort, 46 . So far as can be judged from published material cip é (gib é) is regularly replaced in late Mid. and Early Mod. Ir. by the anomalous gi bé (gidh bé), in which bé is fully stressed and alliterates with b. This form occurs already in O.Ir. : cia bé a mmet however big it be Ml. 61b28 . cía bé (MSS. cebe, gibe, cidbe, etc.) dlug bías duib, Metr. Dinds. iii 42 . gipe ra ṡossed (cía bé roisedh v.l.), TBC-LL¹ 6076 . atú ar bhaois gidh bé nach fuil, Dán Dé ix 8 . gi bé do bhronn a dhá rosg, Studies 1921, 258 § 9 .

It may be noted here that the position of the pron. in copula (or virtually copula) sentences in Mid. and Early Mod. Ir. is not always in accordance with orthodox modern usage, e.g. Tadhg esiomh nó a aithgin he is T. or else his counterpart O'Gr. Cat. 488 (= Ir. Monthly 1921, 291 ).

III With 2 os, q.v. : os hǽ (gl. donorum amicus) Ml. 69c4 . oshé, 122b14 . oshe, 123b4 . osse cona licc fora thairr, TBC-I¹ 891 . Similarly with is (s), s, ocus (┐) : deidghin...ina cinn isse níamdo, IT i 119.27 . a inar bláith ...is é étrom, TBC-I¹ 1871 . mar éan is é gan eitil, Dán Dé vii 22 . in scáilfer...sé tailc, IT i 271.11 . andara hech dibsidi ocus se...luath-lemnech, TBC-I¹ 2557 . ocus se baccach, PH 620 . ┐ se ina shessom, 622 . áráit...si imtromm, IT i 271.36 .

IV Independently : hésom triuss, Wb. 7c8 . tría buith adi innim ┐ hǽsium i talam because He is in heaven and he on earth Ml. 30c5 ....nad cho[m] nech acht hesom fesin 53a5 . cen fis accu he buden ina Cristaige, PH 56 . ni nech aile...acht he buden ┐ Dia, 607 . nachar mhair acht é féin amháin, Keat. ii 4179 . cunnradh eile atamaoidni do dhenamh le hA., acus eisin linne, Ir. Deeds, Trans. RIA xv 87.22 . In affirmation : Ferbaeth an e dothæt... imbarach? Eiseom on, TBC-I¹ 1543 = YBL 31a17 . After indá, in(n)a, ná than ( = O.Ir. oldá(a)s, indá(a)s) : fearr neach ele iná hé féin | dá mholadh, Studies 1924, 242 . do ba sine ioná é féin, Keat. ii 1828 . After cen, eter, 1 amlaid, 1 mar, q.v.

Here also may be noticed the type : is móidi a subailchi sin ┐ is laidirede congmus duine a n-agaid a namatt é its virtues are the greater (for) that and it aids a man more powerfully against his enemies thereby Maund. 139 . do benadh an t-iarann as an crand ┐ nir misde do bhi an tseisrech ag trebad é the iron was removed and none the worse was the team plowing BCC § 76 ; in these passages the pronouns sin, é, are asyntactical. Cf. the exx. in Fasc. i 162-163.

The usages classified under V-IX belong to the Mid. Ir. period, and later. Strachan has shown that V-VII were in use before the end of the eleventh century, and well established before the end of the twelfth ; see Ériu i 176 .

The form sé which arises in this period is treated s.v.

V As subject of the copula, following the pred. In early Mid. Ir. we find numerous exx. in which side is replaced by eside, som by esium, etc. (perhaps on the pattern of is éside x, is ésom x), as : in Fiac sin dano mac eside meic E....(v.l. mac sede), Thes. ii 307.3 . Cf. the O.Ir. types : is Diasom domsa, Wb. 1a2 . ni augtor side uilc, Ml. 44d19 ; these seem parallel to : ba cosnamaid Erenn esside an inbaid sin i n-agaid Cathail, MacCongl. 3 - 5 .

In early Mid. Ir. eside, esium, etc. usually follow the pred. directly, while the copula is unexpressed : dalta esseom do P., Trip. 394.4 . bai mac etorro... .i. Mael D. mac A. esside, LU 22a38 . Necódim...sái rechta eside PH 3677 . dalta do C. beos essium, 281 . Whether this type preceded and originated the use of the simple pron. as subj. of the copula is uncertain; there are numerous early exx. of (h) é etc. where the anaphoric pron. would be out of place.

Nicodemus... .i. cara inclethi do Crist he, PH 209 . ní cubaid bás cosmail doib, uair Pól ennacc he, Petar tra...écraibdech eside, 1865 . With copula expressed: combá mac dond ríg hé, LU 22b29 . is la Coin Culaind... hé, 112a24 ( FB 89 ). ba hairchindech na n-apstal he, PH 1637 . ba hōgshlān he, 468 . ba cumang les he, 64 .

VI As obj. of trans. vb., replacing the O.Ir. infixed pron. (The transitional stage is illustrated in the tautological types: cotgair Lugaid amach hé, TBC-I¹ 1063 . connachrancatár hé, LU 59a33 . roscuirset himmach he, PH 110 ): cona ragbad in galar hé, LU 14b31 . rocharsat hé, 121b35 . rochrechtnaig eseom, 126a28 . co cualutar hé, PH 18 . acall-su fessin é, TBC-LL¹ 1652 . guid he beseech him PH 343 . In reflexive sense: do lecc C.C. ar a gluínib é, BCC 274.29 .

VII As subj. of pass. vb.: robaided hé, LU 41a23 . cf. rogabad hí, 41a33 . is annam fogabar he cen chatha RC xxiv 200 . meni frithalter innocht é, TBC-LL¹ 1352 . nach acaltar é, 1694 . rohindarbad asin cathraig he, PH 949 .

VIII Occasionally as subj. of certain intrans. verbs: mas re ré na fochraice táinic amuigh hé, Laws iv 134.13 Comm. noco bia itir hi, 42.2 Comm. ar nach tisad friss he, LL 217b34 . ní raibe a n-aicned duinde eisseic, Acall. 6034 . ni roerchoidigestar do hí (sc. in lassar), Trip. 392.9 . Cf. as subj. of trans. verb: ni torracht Herinn andsin í, RC xii 78 . In such exx. the pron. is regularly separated from the vb., cf. imridh sé éinbhearta is í, IGT, Decl. ex. 1113 ; but: ór ḟás eision, TD 34. l. 189 .

Here may be noted: ol eissidi, IT iii 237.1 . bar ésium (éseom) quoth he TBC-LL¹ 4568 . 5971 . 6050 . ar esium 1189 . bar eissium , Acall. 4615 . cf. ar si, ar sisi, IT ii2 227.34 - 5 . See ol.

IX There are a few special uses of é in a neutral sense, without regard to gender of follg. subst. (cf. 1 ed):

(a) is e cuit in `acht' and the force of the `except' here is Laws iv 42.1 Comm. is e cuit in dono ann, 136.24 Comm. badh é a chríoch...go mbrisfimni..., Ériu ix 164 § 14 . is é críoch a gcualabhair this is the gist TD 31.8 . an é a reic is damhna dhí, 22a42 . iss é sin ciall in sceil, Acall. 3326 . is é áit..., Keat. iii 5055.5199 etc.

(b) in indef. predication, as: ní hé amháin not only that TD 9.11 ; 22.5 . Ó Héodhusa 34.9 ; 54.5 . Mac Aingil 326 . an é nach faici-sí C.? do ye not see C? BCC § 100 . an é nách easbol meisi ? an é nách fuilim saor ? 1 Corinth. ix 2 .

(c) referring to a statement or fact, etc.: rucad in Dond C....úadib...conid é sin méla ┐ mertain ┐ meraigecht is mó tucad for C.C., TBC-LL¹ 2041 (conadh í sin mela is mó v.l.). a Dhé ní d'anaibhse mh'olc | é nach faghaim-se furtocht, Dán Dé vi 34 . re hinghin Anna is é adearar | Dia an t-eitne agus ibh an chnú, x 22 . as é adeirid...nach treabhonn mé...iad, Studies 1923, 81 . is é chráidheas an croidhe | mé ag áineas tar m'eólchoire, 1924, 88 . See Strachan, Ériu i 163 .

For é with neut. or fem. subst. in Mid.-Ir. see Strachan's paper on Middle Ir. Declension, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1905 .

éicen

Cite this: eDIL s.v. éicen or dil.ie/19711
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: égean, éigean, éicin, écen, éigean, lucht éigne

n ā, f.; later also o, m. égean fem. IGT, Decl. § 54 . éigean masc. § 53 . TSh.

(1) In the earliest recorded exx. the meaning is usually necessity, compulsion; cf. ēcin .i. cin ēca. no ēc cána. i. ēc riagla `ecin' i.e. `crime of death' or it is `death of law,' that is `death of rule' Corm. Y 547 : hi cumcai no innecin (gl. in angaria) Tur. 134 . ni écen dob imchomartt ach[t] is dúdract lib, Wb. 3b21 . conabad éicen doberad ní domsa huaitsu act combad tol (gl. ne velut ex necessitate bonum tuum esset, sed voluntarium) 32a12 . soit a n-écin i toltanche convert their necessity into freewill FA 23 . ma egin fo ruair gan a denumh, Laws ii 292.23 Comm. ni heiccen beires ó thoigh | acht do thuillemh tuarastoil ZCP viii 116 § 10 . dena idpairt dona deeib...┐ logfaid do Dia fen duit, uair nosfitir conid écen doberar fort, PH 729 . do ghuidh é fa lamh leis chum síobhail rómhóir do bhí 'na éigean air do dhéanamh a very long journey which he had to make ZCP ii 558.23 . Freq. in the sense of adj compulsory, needful, necessary ; ( éigean .i. dligheadh, O'Cl. refers to Metr. Dinds. ii 2.18 , see Hermathena xiv 468 ). egin .i. dhigthech, ut est is egin mór do thuirimh isin trefocul focra, O'Dav. 806 .

(a) abs.: is hécen ainmne occo patience is needful in it Wb. 4a26 . is hecen sainecoscc leosom for accrannaib innaní prechite pacem they deem it necessary to have a special appearance... 5a5 . ní ecen a thodiusgud asreracht cene, 4d27 ; 26 . 16d7 . Ml. 127d8 . na bad écen for cúrsagad in fechtsa it should not be needful to reprove you Wb. 14d1 . arnap éicen a ngóire i n-æclis, 29a10 . mat anmann adiechta emnatar and is écen comacomol hisuidib, Sg. 189b4 . nípa hécen tene bratha dia nglanad, Mon. Tall. § 6 . § 37 . ni heigen ime riu, Laws iv 162 n. 1 . Asia... tír innach éicen fúr fled, LL 135a45 . ba hecen fer cechtar a da slabradside either of those chains required a man (to hold it) Rawl. 131b26 . as écen do thabairt foraib (gl. indignatio severitatis motus est peccatoribus necessarius) Ml. 49b6 . h[u]are as n-ecen condib oinson tintá in son n-ebraide cosnaib ilchiallaib techtas, Ml. 37a10 . atait tri neithe is ecean cum na coimriachtana, Ériu ix 63.28 . is ecen co n-icthar cech ní, PH 7538 . mac bec doringni in gním sain...nocorb éicen...ingantus de, cia nothísed..., TBC-LL¹ 949 . Cog. 62.24 . ota imad na n-inad anna n-eirginn si...as egin co fuil an talam comcruinn it must be that the earth is round Ir. Astr. Tr. 32 w . ní fhuil ainm oile...ionarb éigean sinne do shlánughadh `non est aliud nomen...in quo oportet nos salvos fieri' TSh. 2088 .

In this use often written éicin (éigin), but the form intended is usually doubtful; the follg. metrical exx. may be noted: in cédḟer ór slondadh sind | ollamh darb écean uirrim, IGT, Decl. ex. 658 . budh éigin trá a thocht asteagh | lá éigin ar ghort nGaoidheal, TD 1.9 . bas dar éigin umhla, 33.15 (but see varr.). an chríoch ḟionnsa ón héigin troigh | a ciomhsa d'ḟéigin d'ardaibh, 41.18 . In mainbad éicin (gl. subjecta est non volens) Wb. 4a20 , the word is acc. after mainbad, cf. Ml. 111b28 , etc.

(b) with dat. pron. or do of pers.: issum ecen precept I must needs preach Wb. 10d24 . níb écen log ye need not pay ( Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 143 ) 16c17 . 22d12 . isim écensa techt I have to go TBC-I¹ 221 (LU). ZCP x 293.14 . Ériu v 209.40 . atabairecen techt ye must go FB 7 . is ecen dam (gl. compellor) Ml. 21b9 . is hecen doib ingremmen do foditiu, Wb. 30c23 . in tan na fádbait a mbiad díles, is écen dia n-anmannaib bás d'fhaghbail, PH 7476 . dó ba hecen (: tēitgel) biathad Echach, LL 183b26 = Arch. Hib. ii 70 . comba hecin di usce...da tharraing, RC xxiv 190.7 . in bocht dana hégen dul fó breith, PH 7520 . ba heiccen doip gan a snámh do dhermat, Fl. Earls 76.12 . is éigean dó cúntas...do thabhairt, TSh. 793 . Attrib. gen.: áine écni, in tan na fagaib nech ni romelad, PH 8366 .

In concrete sense: treb Leui...batir-side soer ó cech écin acht frestal eclaisi Dé exempt from all obligations LB 124a31 .

(2) In a slightly different shade of meaning, force (i.e. exercised by persons upon others); violence; tyranny: écen (gl. violentia) Sg. 51a1 . cisi ecin det-birt as in tir? nim tucc acht ...m'anuabhar fesin, RC xii 72 x . tre ēicin sāruighthe, Laws ii 376.6 Comm. uli eccen ┐ écomland in popuil Rómanaig for in popul Iudaide , LB 154a24 . Freq. in attrib. gen.: forcomul n-ecne `violent seizure' (occupation by force) Laws ii 376.1 . iv 270 z . lanamnas eicne (.i. donither ar eicin), ii 404.14 . connmedh égne forcible billeting RC xviii 194.24 . ni da deoin dochuaid-sium and, acht tre aslach eicni, TTebe 1501 . masa targud eicne tucastur orru do denam in marbtha...ma targud aisi if he led them out by force...if with their consent Laws iii 114.19 C. sí le héigean go n-aghar | ní héidear í d'átaghadh, TD 17.3 . dá mbhentá a chuid tré éigion do dhuine shouldst thou take his goods forcibly Mac Aingil 266 . éigean `violentia' TSh. 7783 . lucht éigne `violenti' 10812 .

In concrete sense, an act of violence, an outrage: is mō .. in écen iná 'n goit, PH 7559 . o fhir na hécni the perpetrator of the outrage 7561 . fer éicne, 7600 . ag agra goidi...ocus saraighthi ocus egni, Laws v 42.19 Comm. cia dobeir inn eicin ┐ inn imluadsa orumsa ?, TTebe 372 . ba hiat eicne doghnítis an loingius-sin...port gacha luingi do loscud ┐ crechad gacha tuaithi..., Lism. L. 2945 . co nderna éccne iomdha i ttuathaib ┐ chellaibh `acts of violence' AFM ii 1150.17 . Cf. éicni fastuda, TBC-LL¹ 5837 . menimthistais écne éc, Ériu v 210.2 . a gcumus...ar éigean ┐ ar mharbhadh daoine, TSh. 1723 . ar an éigin do-rinne Críost ag buain anma an duine dhe, 10515 . cia do lemadh an eigean sin ar a athair CF 310 .

Of a disaster, calamity: roshocht Adraist ar an ecein sin (i.e. the earth swallowing Amphiaraus) TTebe 2972 na heicnea-sea do lecun ar na Tiabandaib, 1616 .

Violation, rape: ecen mire `violating a madwoman' Laws i 176.2 . cu n-aithreosad a heicin muna dernad a toil, ZCP xiii 183.11 . ar bithin eiccni tuc Tir ar a derbshiair .i. Pilomena, TTebe 1862 . adubairt eiccen do thobairt fuirri, 1690 . dá ttugthá éigion mná, Mac Aingil 266 . Here probably belongs: ro órdaig Brigit banfili ...gol ┐ caine marb ┐ eigem fri hecin screaming when violence is offered Dinds. 159 = LL 170bz .

Cf. rucad laeg mo bo a purt éicne uaimse from a place whence it could only be taken by force (?) LL 171a35 = CRR § 3 .

(3) In phr. ar éicin (éicen) by or under compulsion or force: ar écin (gl. coactum) Ml. 18b7 . (gl. invitus) 42a15 . ar ecein, 68b3 . ar ecin nos bered ( Simon, qui crucem in angaria portabat) Tur. 134 . ciatasode lat ar écin though thou keep her with thee perforce Wb. 10a10 . fochidi ar écin ...fochidi o thuil compulsory tribulations...voluntary tribulations 15d33 . ceni thaisid ar ois daregaid ar ecin, Ml. 33b15 . mina this ar ais rega ar eigin, YBL 121b11 . LB 228a46 . tabuir ass hi ar áis no ar écin, IT i 130.4 . ar éiccin no ar áis, Ériu iv 228.5 . co tuc Ogeth huad tria chath | ar écin iarna marbad, SR 5292 . IT i 130.21 . berid ar écin Murni for aithed leis, LU 42a12 . RC xxiv 186.16 . at-ib loim ar eicin and, Laws iii 82.8 . dream timairciter ar ecin do denam thole Dé, FA 23 . a furail air ar eicin dul ina coimlepaid, YBL 63b23 . ciall ar éigin d'fhoráil ort, Dán Dé xix 11 . gur gabsat ar eiccin i nDuibhlinn `forcibly landed' Cog. 34.19 . co ndigsitis...ar eicin co port na Troianna, BB 428a25 . ra airgg Hercoil .. in Troí ┐ ra chúaid ḟurri ar ecin, LL 224b39 . 226b8 (= TTr. 556.686 ). co ndeachaidh Cesair ar eiccin for an caistiall, CCath. 6053 . in daim téit ar eigin a tig in airech, Laws v 164.22 Comm. elaid in gilla asa laim ar eicin, YBL 63b30 ( SR 3213 ). Maelir...do dul ar éccin ar Luimneach, AFM iii 146.12 . a marbhadh dhoibh ┐ é ag triall ar eccin uatha `trying to make his escape' 340.14 . The sl. ending is usual in this phr. in early exx., but exx. of the masc. dat. are also common in Mid. Ir. and Early Mod. verse: fala Dhé ar tí mo thréagaidh | gur mhéaduigh mé í ar éigin, Dán Dé vii 11 . MR 54.16 . do bhiadh oirrim Bhanbha Breagh | ag coinnill Annla ar éigean of necessity TD 7.50 . ní ḟuil do cheart ar chrích bhF. ... acht sí d'ḟagháil ar éigean (: gheabh), 17.4 ; 25 , etc. ag dénamh imechta ar eigen d'ionnsaigh an doruis, Rel. Celt. ii 190.3 . ratréta ┐ imghecht ar eigen acasan ga ghenamh `a forced retreat' 198.8 ; 10 . Later also a-réigin: na gnais ach ger decair dul | teit a reicin rig ulad, Lec. 185rb17 ​. ón ngurt a-réigin 'sní ad rioth | o luchd éididh ┐ each, 24 P 8, 212 . Dánta Gr. 39.40 .

adv Hence: with difficulty, hardly: da roib an eslainte so arrsaidh is a reigin foirther hi, YBL 343b4 . as ar eiccin terna an tIarla fein iarna ghuin, AFM vi 2076.13 .

d' é.¤ by force, compulsion: d'éigin nó d'áis, Dán Dé ix 6 (where éigean would improve the metre). d'áis no d'éigion, Each. Iol. 56.2 .

(4) Difficulty, need, trouble, strait; in relation to war: ras nert ┐ ra greiss in rí...im ḟulang cach éicni ┐ cach imnid, LL 219b24 = TTr. 185 . díscart dín in n-ecin fil fornd, LU 63b9 ( TBC-I¹ 742 ). TBC-I¹ 323 . in trén...ro dingbad cach éicen dind, Acall. 6976 . airc na écen, TBC-LL¹ 2896 . don tí d'ḟoirfed sib assin n-éicin sin (of voyagers adrift in a storm), Acall. 3779 . TTebe 2007 . isin moréicin moir sin, Acall. 3775 . i n-écnib ┐ i n-urgalaib, LL 230a10 . Esp. of stress of battle: bai obair cach oen dib a fis a tuiruchta fen ar met a ecni so hard was he pressed Cog. 186.2 . [i] n-eigin irgaili, TTebe 4483 . in ecen engnoma i roibi, 3438 . a n-éigean ḟeadhma, IGT, Decl. ex. 1358 . fa deācair leó Goll do bheith san éigean sin, ML 136.22 . AFM iii 576.9 . do bhí éigean mór ar E. mun amsoin, eadhon sluagh Chuinn go huile, agas urmhór mhaithe Mumhan uile...iona aghaidh agas dobhí éigion budh mó iona sin air, eadhon Goll...dhá thuargainn, ML 30.7 ; 10 . a n-eigen ag Sagsanachuibh sorely pressed by the English Rel. Celt. ii 202.6 . Of a state of strenuous endeavour: bhíos i n-éigean ag gleic = qui in agone contendit TSh. 10610 . Cf. do ṡloig, gídh ar lór d'éigeann | Iaoich idir éide agas airm, Oss. vi 118.23 . Grievous plight; hardship: in ecen ele boi ann, .i. in tan no roinntea in biad...nos bered in tii ba tresi dib a chuit on anbhánd, LB 155b32 . do innseadar a n-éigean agas á n-anbhḟorlann dhó the distress and oppression they were suffering from ML 82.11 . críoch Mhidhe uile a móir-éigean, ina lasrachaibh leathna 84.12 . ar aoi a héiginsi d' fhurtacht `for helping her necessity' Studies 1921, 75 . Dán Dé xxi 4 . 'gan tí 'ga dtám i n-éigin, Dán Dé xxi 3 . ri heicin na hitad sin the urgency of that thirst TTebe 1776 . ón éigean tarta ina rabhadar, Keat. ii 4983 . ag faisnéis an éigin 'na mbí (the soul in purgatory), TSh. 4263 . Sorrow, grief: ba mór a uchbad ┐ a eigen (v.l. an egaine) lais an scelsin do chloistecht, TTebe 4558 .

Fig. stress; overpowering exuberance: gach coll úr re heigin innte | léigidh a ghlún fillti fáoi kneels under stress (of its burden of fruit) KMMisc. 172 § 26 . go raibhe an oiread soin d'éigean féile...i nGaedhealaibh nár lór leo nídh do thabhairt do gach aon dá dtiocfadh...gan cuireadh coitcheann do thabhairt..., Keat. i 4 x .

Need, necessitousness; esp. famine, scarcity: i n-aimsir na hécne in a time of scarcity PH 7553 . cara na héigne the friend in need Dán Dé xiv 6 . xxi 1 . TSh. 9829 . do bhádar mórán díobh a n-éigion (through famine) ML 8.11 . díoth orm is éigin orra, TD 44.4 . With gen. of thing needed: i n-éigean a furtachta wanting help TSh. 4835 . Cf. dál éicne a distressing business: scarad friu bid dál éicne, Ériu v 210.1 .

Cf. éicin.

COMPDS. éicen-broit oppressing bondage, hence heavy sorrow: lān d'imnedh is d'éigeanbhruid [sic leg.], Niall Mac Mhuireadhaigh, Rel. Celt. ii 266.6 .

¤chless violent feats (?): Caille Con Ruí... | fris' fertais óic écen-chless, Metr. Dinds. iii 308.66 .

¤dál a stiff encounter; a distressing position, dangerous strait: airc na écen na écendál, TBC-LL¹ 2896 . cf. 3030 . egindail ainfine `stress of weather' Aen. 1571 ( Aen. vii 199 ). tugadh éccendáil forra, AFM ii 1042 x . comhaonta do chengal doibh im freccra a cheile im gach n-eiccendáil do bhenfad friú, iv 1214.5 . Ua C....d'foirithin as an airc ┐ as an eiccendail i mbaoi ag Ua D., vi 2122.17 . tánaicc an President go marcsluagh ┐ go saighdiuiribh, uair roba cuimhneach lais an eiccendail i mbaoi la Dál cC. an bliadhain roimhe, v 1654.18 . Tadhg mac Eidighain ḟailidh | go hegeandail nir ḟennigh never showed himself a champion save when he met a dangerous encounter ZCP viii 226 § 17 . ba bes do Romanu fāithi...do tocairiud ina ndocum in gach am no tomaithead egendail forru, CCath. 925 . go ndligheann duine éigean-dáil ┐ anfhorlann a chomharsan d'fhóirithin, TSh. 1838 . cechip tan nó tomaithedh égendail ghabhaidh fair, Hugh Roe, 212.5 (f. 56b) . san éigean-dáil ghábhaidh se, TSh. 2083 .

¤gal strenuous valor: TBC-LL¹ 1666 .

fo-gaib, fo-geib

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-gaib, fo-geib or dil.ie/22696
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: fagebtis, -fuar, fonduair, fagb-, fag-, gheibhther, gheibh, faghaim, faghaibh, fag, fagh, gheibhim, -fagbaim, -fágbaim, -fagaim, -faghaim, gheibhir, -faghair, -fogbái, fogaib, fogeib, dogeib, dogheibh, -fogaib, -fagaib, -faghann, fogabum, dogabmait, dogheibhmíd, -faghmaoid, fogabat, baghabhat, dogabat, dogebid, do-geibhit, do-gheibhid, -fagbat, -faghait, -faghaid, gheibhinn, -fuighinn, do-gheibheadh, -facchbad, dogheibhmis, fogeibtis, do-gheibhdis, -faghbadais, -faghdais, fogabur, fogabar, -fagbur, -fagar, fogaba, bhagaba, -fagba, -faghbha, -fagha, -fagbat, -fogbat, -fagbat, fogabaind, -fagbaind, -aghbhoinn, -faghthá, fogabad, -fagbad, -faghbhadh, -faghadh, -fagbaimis, -agbaitis, fogéb, dogébh, doghiab, -fugéb, baigiub, fogebai, fogéba, dageba, ghébha, do-ghéabhair, doghiabha, doghiabhair, -faigeba, -fuigbe, -foigbe, -i, fuidbe, faigbe, -fuigir, bhfuighir, -fuighbhir, fogéba, doghébha, do-ghéabha, do-ghéabhaidh, -foighe, -fuighe, -fuighbhe, ghébham, -foigheam, -foighbheam, fogébthaidh, fogebthai, do-ghéabhthaoi, -fuighthi, fogebat, -faigbet, -fuigbet, -faigbind, -fuiginn, -fogebtha, -ḟuigbithea, -eá, fogebad, fogebed, fogébed, dogebad, do-ghéabhadh, -fuighbheadh, -fugebmaís, -fagbaimis, -faigbimis, -foigebtais, -fugebtaís, núarsa, fuar, uair, fofuáir, fofuair, foruair, fuair, uair, fuair, -fuaramar, -ḟúaram, -fuarabhair, fofúaratár, úaratar, fuaradar, -fuaradar, foḟuarus, fuarus, fuaras, fuarus, -fuaras, -ḟuaross, fofuarais, fuarais, -fuarais, fuairsem, -fuairsed, fogaibset, fogabar, do-geibhthear, -fogabar, -fogbaither, -agabar, -aghaibhthir, -faghthar, -faghthair, -foghthor, -oghthair, -faghuir, foghair, -aghair, -fogbaiter, faghar, aghar, do-geibhthi, -fogbaithe, -fagtai, -fagthar, -foghar, -aghar, -oghair, -faghthair, fogebthar, fugebthar, do-ghéabhthar, -fuigebthar, -fuighthear, -faigbistar, fuigbestar, -foigfide, fríth, fofrith, foríth, forríth, forrith, frith, -fríth, frith, fríoth, frith, frith, rofrithe, fofrítha, -fritha

v The only instances in the O.Ir. Glosses are: sec. fut. pl. 3 (with inf.) fagebtis, Wb. 8a14 . pret. s. 1 -fuar, Ml. 57d3 . 3 (with inf.) fonduair, Sg. 144b3 . In the later lang. fo in the deut. forms is gradually replaced by do; in prot. forms fagb- is frequently reduced to fag-, forms without initial f- are not uncommon and are recognized by the mediaeval grammarians. See IGT, Verbs § 22 .

Early Mod. instances of omission of preverb are: mar gheibhther , Parrth. Anma 40.18 . gheibh, Corp. Astron. 86 .

Forms occurring after the period of the Glosses: ipv. 1 s. faghaim, TD 22a20 . 2 faghaibh, Dán Dé xii 27 . fag, ZCP vi 88.8 . fagh, Luc. Fid. 276.4 . ind. pres. 1 s. do gheibhim , Luc. Fid. 71.18 . -fagbaim, CCath. 4286 . -fágbaim, PH 2696 -fagaim, LL 175a26 . -faghaim, TD 22a10 . Luc. Fid. 326.9 . 2 do gheibhir , Luc. Fid. 325.9 . -faghair, 325y . -fogbái (torbai), Thes. ii 296.6 . 3 fogaib, Laws iv 194.20 ( SM Facs., 16a ), etc. fogeib, LU 2126 , 2138 . Mon. Tall. 72 . PH 7080 . dogeib, PH 7814 . Maund. 149 . dogheibh, Ó Héodhusa 44 . TD 29.5 . TSh. 790 . 3605 . -fogaib, LU 8632 . -fagaib PH 7992 . Ériu iv 214 § 12 . -faghann, Maund. 263 . TD 16. 1 . 22a4 . Ó Héodhusa 122 . TSh. 1212 . 3645 . 1 pl. fogabum. PH 6120 . dogabmait, 2887 . dogheibhmíd, Ó Héodhusa 111 . TSh. 48 . -faghmaoid, Ó Héodhusa 111 . 3 fogabat, LU 1852 (H = foga-baid, YBL 6a32 ). LU 4732 . baghabhat, BB 322b7 . dogabat, PH 3573 . dogebid, Maund. 263 . do-geibhit, Fl. Earls 52.5 . do-gheibhid, TSh. 511 . 3612 . -fagbat, LU 2229 . -faghait, Fl. Earls 88.20 . -faghaid, TD 16.8 . TSh. 323 . imperf. 1 s. do gheibhinn TD 14.17 . -fuighinn (-faghuinn v.l.) TD 15.12 . 3 do-gheibheadh, TSh. 640 . -facchbad, CCath. 3993 v.l. pl. 1 dogheibhmis, TD 14.17 v.l. 3 fogeibtis, SR 4632 . do-gheibhdis, Keat. ii 234 . -faghbadais, CCath. 2153 . -faghdais 2520 . subj. pres. 1 s. fogabur, PH 617 . fogabar, 403 . -fagbur, CCath. 3341 . Ann. Conn. 1244 § 5 . -fagar, TBC-LL¹ 4448 St. -fagur, Celtica xiii 19.203 . 3 fogaba (= inveniat p. 430 ) PH 5011 . bhagaba, TTebe 4543 . -fagba, SR 2551 . LU 2609 . -faghbha (-fogba v.l.), CCath. 1695 . -fagha, Maund. 263 . Ó Héodhusa 70 . TD 16. 24 . (fuighe v.l.); 24.1 . pl. 3 -fagbat, PH 4193 , -fogbat -fagbat, CCath. 1696 v.l. (-faghbhuid text). subj. past 1 s. fogabaind, CCath. 2725 . -fagbaind, TBC-LL¹ 1173 . -aghbhoinn TD 14.15 . 2 -faghthá, TD 22a9 . 3 fogabad, CCath. 1089 . -fagbad, SR 2567 . 2583 . -faghbhadh, Lism. L. 3040 . -faghadh, Maund. 262 . TSh. 8520 ( -fuighbheadh, 7094 , sec. fut. in form). 1 pl. -fagbaimis, BDD 48 Y (cf. sec. fut.). 3 -agbaitis, LL 153b13 . fut. 1 s. fogéb, PH 2430 . dogébh, Imr. Brain i 60.6 . doghiab, CF 469 . -fugéb, LL 123b25 . in baigiub , Cog. 172.9 . 2 fogebai, LU 11015 . fogéba, LU 208 . TBC-LL¹ 106 . dageba, Cog. 172.10 . do ghébha , Ó Héodhusa 8 . do-ghéabhair, Keat. ii 4513 . doghiabha, CF 118 . doghiabhair, 323 . -faigeba, LU 3912 . -fuigbe, LL 328 f 30 . -foigbe (fuigbe, -i, fuidbe, faigbe, foibe v.l.), Fél. Ep. 147 . -fuigir ZCP vi 286.25 . ní bhfuighir , TSh. 3253 . -fuighbhir, Keat. ii 4501 . 3 fogéba, LU 2029 . doghébha, Ó Héodhusa 46 . do-ghéabha, TD 20.49 . do-ghéabhaidh, TSh. 1376 . -foighe TD 27.19 . -fuighe, Ó Héodhusa 82 . -fuighbhe, TSh. 342 . pl. 1 do ghébham , Ó Héodhusa 10 ; 97 . -foigheam 14 ; 89 . TD 13.29 . -foighbheam, TD 13.29 . 2 fogébthaidh, Anecd. iii 69.20 . fogebthai, YBL 87b17 ( RC xxvi 138 ). do-ghéabhthaoi, TSh. 1950 . -fuighthi, TD 9.56i 3 fogebat, CCath. 1702 v.l. (dogebhait, text). -faigbet LU 2406 . PH 4343 . -fuigbet, 3640 . sec. fut. 1 s. -faigbind TBC-LL¹ 1728 (-fuiginn St). -fuiginn, ZCP vi 286.21 . 2 -fogebtha SR 1563 = -ḟuigbithea, LB 112a35 . (?) -foighthéa (leg. -eá) Ó Héodhusa 112 . 3 fogebad (sic leg.) SR 1131 . fogebed LU 1788 . fogébed, 1817 . dogebad, Ann. Conn. 1282 § 7 do-ghéabhadh, TSh. 3603 . -fuighbheadh, TSh. 503 . pl. 1 -fugebmaís, LU 6890 ( BDD 48 = -fagbaimis Y, -faigbimis D). 3 -foigebtais, SR 5563 . -fugebtaís, LU 2229 .

pret. and perf.

(1 ) 1 sg. fó núarsa (rel.) LU 6024 . fuar (in reply) TBC-LL¹ 1770 . 3 s. fo uair , LL 288a9 . fofuáir, SR 3091 . fofuair, Fél. Nov. 7 . foruair, LL 183b5 . for fuair , LB 132a12 . do uair , RC xxiv 202 § 19 . fuair, Ó Héodhusa 7 ; 122 . TSh. 563 . 1 pl. -fuaramar ni, YBL 110b33 = -ḟúaram ni, LL 260b16 . 2 -fuarabhair, TD 9. 56 . 3 fofúaratár, LU 10579 . fó úaratar , Trip. 2.5 . fuaradar, Ó Héodhusa 74 . -fuaradar, TSh. 1193 .

(2 ) 1 sg. foḟuarus, LL 198b24 . fuarus ib. 28 . fuaras, TD 11.14 ; 14.20 . na (= a n-) fuarus , SR 1758 . -fuaras, TD 14.10 . -ḟuaross, TBC-LL¹ 3674 . 2 fofuarais, SR 1751 . fuarais (rel.), TSh. 7111 . -fuarais, TBC-LL¹ 1770 . 1 pl. fuairsem, Ó Héodhusa 8 . 3 -fuairsed, Ó Héodhusa 3z .

(3 ) 3 pl. fogaibset LU 1792 .

Pass. pres. s. fogabar, LU 426 . PH 7168 . do-geibhthear, TD 13.8 . TSh. 2764 . -fogabar, ZCP viii 303.27 . Laws iv 194.19 ( SM Facs. 15a ); -fogbaither, ib. seems a miswriting of the pl.). -agabar, Laws iii 90.1 . -aghaibhthir, TD 22a55 . -faghthar, TSh. 2152 . -faghthair, TD 10.10 . -foghthor, 29.14 . -oghthair, 10.3 . -faghuir, 7.3 . foghair, 17.8 . -aghair, 28.38 . pl. -fogbaiter, Laws iv 194.22 ( SM Facs. 15a ). imperat. s. faghar, TD 25.16 . aghar, Dán Dé iii 8 . imperf. s. do-geibhthi, TD 14.13 . -fogbaithe, LU 9055 . -fagtai, Maund. 262 . pres. subj. s. -fagthar, LU 6155 (H). -fagaither, TBC-LL¹ 4448 . -foghar, TD 10.23 . -aghar, 17.3 . -oghair, 15.47 . -faghthair, 10.13 . fut. s. fogebthar, fugebthar, LU 10989 . do-ghéabhthar, TSh. 3423 . -fuigebthar, ZCP xi 83 § 31 . TBC-I¹ 2779 . -fuighthear, TD 9. 7 . -faigbistar, LU 8445 ( FB 30 = fuigbestar, Eg) is apparently an isolated form (`a barbarous mixture of the s and the b futures' Strachan, ZCP iii 479 ). sec. fut. s. -foigfide, Cáin Ad. 8 . pret. and perf. s. fo fríth , Hy v 79 . fofrith, LU 10722 . Fél. Feb. 25 . Ann. Conn. 1235 § 8 . foríth, LL 277b21 . forríth, 150a29 . forrith, AFM 123 . frith, LU 183 . -fríth, Hy v 29 . Ann. Conn. 1235 § 8 . frith, AU 1014 . Fl. Earls 88 . fríoth, Ó Héodhusa 122 . do frith (v.l. frith), IT iii 193.15 . rofrithe, Luc. Fid. 382.9 . pl. fofrítha, Metr. Dinds. iii 284.97 . -fritha, Anecd. ii 4.15 .

In general sense finds, gets , hence

(a) finds, meets with, discovers (in a place): feib fonduáir som la auctoru , Sg. 144b3 . fofuair ann fer, SR 3091 . dia mbé nech occá sirfégad imme ... fogéba do cech leth aci agid, LU 2029 . dobert a laimh dar a einech. fogeib teora boulga for a aghaidh, Corm. Y p. 59 . nech bad chalmu ... cosindiu nocon ḟuaross TBC-LL¹ 3674 . cia airm i faigbind in Coin Culaind?, 1728 (a bfuiginn St). ní fúaram-ni ... mnai do dingbala-so cosindiu IT i 74.11 . is annsin fuarustair ... Ruadhán fora cind BNnÉ 322 § 31 . fofrith (forrith v.l.) cenn Póil ... hi féil ind ḟir ..., Fél. Feb. 25 . snechta do nā frith samail re hed cian, Ann. Conn. 1318 § 11 . an cétna long ... fúair Hérinn `the first ship which reached Ireland.' Ériu iv 158 § 35 . ceathracha trath ... fofrith Ere ria ndílind was discovered Leb. Gab.(i) i 16 . do cech anmanda ... fogébad for talmain, Ériu ii 134 § 113 . a faigbed do lindib forsin bhith, § 114 . is edh forfuaradar ina lebraibh, RC x 186.3 . mar frithi a lebraib lindi, Metr. Dinds. iii 346 . do réir ṡeanrolla fríoth i nOxford, Keat. iii 2575 . a llotár dano ond insi sin fúaratár insi máir LU 1767 . fogaibset insi n-aili, 1792 . iar bhfácbháil na ndithrub sin dogabar crích forlethan `you come to' Marco P. 21 . coicc primroid Erenn ..., ní fritha gusanocht, Anecd. ii 4.15 . a n-oidhce geine Cuinn forrith cóicc phríomhróid go Teamhraigh, AFM 123 . mar gheibhther ag Lucas ... san seisedh caibidiol, Parrth. Anma 40.18 . gur cuireadh ...i meidh an mheasruighthe, go bhfríoth ní budh lugha ioná an chóir aige was weighed in the balance and found wanting TSh. 3635 . (cf. 3181 cited below (b)). Cath ... do na frith inntsamail a battle of which no like has been found AU 1014 . bodith ... dona frith samail riam, Ann. Conn. 1321 § 5 . With vn. phrase or dependent clause as obj.: co na fuair cair nā peccad do dénum do Ísu, PH 2718 . Fertán C. cia rochlaid in fagbaid nó in fetabair? can you find out? Metr. Dinds. iii 8 . In later lang. DOGHEIBH AMACH = discovers: no gur fritheadh an sgribhneoireacht ... amach until writing was invented Luc. Fid. 256 . ar na daoinibh gheibh neithe nuadha amach, Corp. Astron. 86 .

(b) with adj. or other compl. of pred. finds (in a certain condition): mongenar anmain fogabar co glan dia stiurad on M. sin that is found pure PH 7168 . go fagtai na fir marbh arnamairech, Maund. 262 . nach faghair sibh seasmhach that you are not found constant Content. xxii 12 . See also feb. fríoth Naoi 'na fhíréan 'na shíl-treabhaibh féin = Noe vir iustus in generationibus suis TSh. 3181 . do fríth easbhuidheach thú, Dan. v 27 (cf. 3635 cited above (a)) ní frith sinne ... commbuidech riam we have never been equally satisfied BColm. 20.19 . dogeibhit na doirrsi foriadhta ar a gcionn, Fl. Earls 52.5 . munab i leacaibh cloch fuairsiod scríobhth iad, Keat. i p. 146 . cionnus do-geibhthear ort an lucht tuillimh ... do bhíodh agat ? what is the disposition of thy hired servants towards thee ? TSh. 4230 (corresp. to: cionnus atáid duit ... ?, 4241 ).

(c) gets, gains, obtains, procures (with Ó, A of source): int áenmacc ríg ... is mō fuair ┐ tuc amach who got and gave away most ZCP viii 111.13 . in tan na fádbait a mbiad, PH 7476 . nem fuair an t-anc(h)ara ... ar a thir got heaven in exchange for ACL iii 307 § 25 . a n-as ail duid dogeba on choimdi, YBL 167a2 . fogeb trocaire treimit he obtains mercy BColm. 78.23 . is gerr co fuigir furtacht, ZCP vi 286.25 . as meisi dúil as anṡádhaile ... dogheibh a betha isin domun that lives BS § 70 . ionnus go ffaghdais a mbethaidh that they might get their sustenance BNnÉ 320 § 20 . no (= do] geibhdís betha gan feidm ndaonda léo acht ... got their livelihood without any human exertion save ... ib. doghebhaitt na hálaidh sin furtacht, 297y . braighe gill as a ffuighbithe eich ┐ airgheadha for whose ransom horses and herds would have been got AFM v 1788.26 . gach aon ... do geip mar chuiss impidhe ... gan bass fiadhnach ... d'faghail `who obtains as an act of grace ... that he shall not suffer death in public' Fl. Earls 70.27 . na hindmasa doberam-ne ... ni huain fogabum iat, PH 6120 . is í comhairle do-gheibheadh ón marbh, TSh. 640 . an teagasg rofrithe ona habsdoluibh, Luc. Fid. 382.9 . With DO of pers. (= dat. of advantage): fag-sa airm ... ┐ eideth dam !, ZCP vi 88.8 . fagh dhamh ... san sgrioptur na briathra so !, Luc. Fid. 276.4 . do-uair Niall ... rigi coidchi da cheneol, RC xxiv 202 § 19 . cearc ... fhuair clú d'fhine Fhearghosa that won fame for Studies 1921, 257 .

(d) gets, induces (some one to do something) causes (something to be done) (with Ó or FOR of pers.): faghaibh gan é d'aithfear, Dán Dé xii 27 . do ráidh an rí ré cách dul ... is ní bhfuair ó neach dul ann he got no one to go Keat. iii 2591 (= ni fuair ó neoch, Cóir Anm. 125 ). fuaradar ó Phádraig an dara heaglais ... do dhéanamh i Leith Mogha they were permitted by P. to build Keat. iii 312 . ni fuigebthar foro tuidecht they will not be prevailed on to come TBC-I¹ 2779 .

(e) freq. with abstr. or semi-abstr. obj. meets with, experiences, undergoes: fofuarais mór do duilgi, SR 1751 . cech pian fogéb ar ainm ṅDé, PH 2427 . mar do ḟuair a chalann crád, Ériu iv 112 § 5 . ar eccla co fuidedh se pían, Maund. 149 . do badh ḟearr lais co faghbhadh cath he would rather have had to fight Lism. L. 3040 . fuaratar troid thenn ... o Gheraltachaibh, AFM vi 2118. 3 . gach ní ... fá bhfuighinn guais which might be perilous to me Dán Dé ix 6 . gurab léir dhó ... nach fuighbbe sochar ná socamhal, TSh. 1133 . frith saothar dermhair ag tabairt an eich ... aníoss, Fl. Earls 88 . na daoine ... dogheibh togbháil suas bharbardha, Ó Héodhusa 76w . conna fuaratar ... aidchi ṅdunaid ... bad mó dód ... dóib never spent a worse night TBC-LL¹ 631 . an t-ech fós, nach faghaibh sbuir do cur uirri who never feels the spur Ériu iv 214.12 . f.¤ bás dies: fogeib in rí bás, Mon. Tall. § 72 . co fúigbe bás croiche, PH 2429 . mas ann do cinded damh-sa bás d'fághbhail, dogébh if it is there I am fated to die, there I shall die Imr. Brain i 60.6 . is truag dham nach eg do fhuarus, Aen. 2602 . foruair macc D. a aidid, LL 183b5 ( Arch. Hib. ii 63 ). co faghdis a n-oidedha ... le cláraibh ... ac rotuitim forra, CCath. 2010 . cen co fagbat ... a n-airlech isin cath though they be not slain in the battle 4275 . faghbhadh ... bas ┐ aidhedh libh let ... be slain by you RC xliii 34z .

With concrete obj. in fig. sense: la macc Rossa frith a lecht his death came about RC xxiii 308 . Cf. fríoth a n-árach `their deaths were brought about' GF, Ir. Monthly 1919, 169 . fríth ilach dó ... i cath birach B., LL 184b45 ( Arch. Hib. ii 83 ).

Often folld. by vn. with poss. refl. pron. (cf. similar use of Welsh cael): nuchun ḟaigbe th'imṡnádud thou shalt not be protected Ériu i 128 . Simon ... fuair a chrochad hi Parthib iii 196 § 12 . ni fhuidhitís a sásadh they would never be satisfied RC xxiv 379w . ó nach fuair a múnadh, since it has never been instructed Dán Dé xix 8 ( YBL 393b18 ). fuair a hurgnamh ... ┐ a fobairt it had been prepared ... and annealed (of a hauberk) CCath. 5215 .

(f) gets (an opportunity of doing), is able (usually with vn. obj.; cf. c, d). conna faghbhadh bheith 'na ecmais could not do without him Lism. L. 1483 . ní ḟuair grádh ná eagla t'ḟos neither love nor fear could restrain you Content. viii 9 . ni faigebhdais scor a n-ech la feraibh Midhe, min dicuirte Mocuda they would not have been allowed to unyoke their horses BNnÉ 303 § 14 . With obj. joined to vn. by DO: dús in fagbaind mo lāma do ḟuligud ... indiu to see if I might redden my hands TBC-LL¹ 1173 . arna fagbatis fini F. iat do fogail so that the tribe of F. should not be able to injure them Lec. [24]a15 ( ZCP x 165 ). mar fuaradar Dál Riada Scotia do thabhairt ar Albain `when the D. R. were permitted to call [A.] Scotia' Keat. ii 5816 . ó nach fuair féin a haigneadh do chalochlódh since he was unable to alter her intention Keat. ii 3039 . For F.¤ ÁRACH, FAILL X (FOR X), see these nouns. Cf. also: ar an gcóir fríoth folmhughadh, PBocht 19 § 9 . With advb. MAITH: atbeiredh cách nár bó maith fríth an marbhadh sin that that slaying was unjustified AFM v 1790.17 . maith fuarais mise do ghoin ... óir is mé do mharbh th'athair, Keat. ii 4508 . maith do-ghéabhdaois clann Ch. ... aonduine ortha d'oirdneadh, TD 9.44 . bith nar uo romhaith fuair in giustiss in basugadh sin re a denomh (= though the justice had no very plausible pretext for that execution), Fl. Earls 60.5 . Cf. bíodh a dheimhin aguibh do nós choguidh na hErenn gur go maith do fuarus misi rem ghabháil `that I esteemed myself to be well off in that I was taken captive' O'Gr. Cat. 57 .

(g) With expressions of time gets = spends, lives (through): dogheibhdís na daoine ré ḟada fán am soin used to live long Keat. ii 234 . ben fuair an saoghal go sona who had spent her life happily AFM v 1692.4 . In the type: Fergal fuair raithi co rath; ... nocon fuair acht oenbliadain, Rawl. 164a41 = Arch. Hib. ii 85 ( LL 185a37 ). the notion is of a period of kingship etc. and it belongs rather to (c).

(h) invents, devises: in sluag dolbtha frith ... la Fotlai BB 377a6 (= RC xv 446 ). conidh edh airecc fuairset, cuibhrighi do chur fair, BNnÉ 296 § 30 . gibé freagra fuaras daoibh, Content. ix 24 .

(i) With I N- and refl. pron. `finds in oneself,' dares, presumes (late): cionnas do gheibhim ionnam féin dul ... ? Luc. Fid. 71. 18 . ní fhuair duine ... ann féin aifrionn ... do rádh, Mac Aingil 113. 18 (= neque aliquis ... missas facere ... praesumebat Beda v 14 ). go bhfuaradar ... ionnta féin éirghe amach i n-aghaidh a dtighearna, Maguires of F. § 25 .

In: nach misi rodusfuighbhe ... duib ī, ZCP viii 547.2 (= ni mé adféta dúib, TBC-LL¹ 1764 ). nach badh eisin radus fuighbhedh duibh ī ib. ZCP viii 547.15 (= dosféta, TBC-LL¹ 1773 ), the modern redactor has replaced adféta by a form beginning with f which gives approximate sense: will find (the information) for you. The sense imparts, communicates is not supported by other examples.

frithchathugud

Cite this: eDIL s.v. frithchathugud or dil.ie/24449

 

Forms: frithchathaigtho, frithcathugud

n u, m. (vn. of fris-cathaigedar) contending against, opposing ; resistance: in f.¤ (gl. impugnationem) Ml. 73a12 . g s. ind frithchathaigtho , 16a12 . frithcathugud .i. fuaitred, O'Dav. 912 . f.¤ fessa `contending against knowledge' (a sign of `bad pleading') Tec. Corm. § 22.4 . malle ri Simon ic f.¤ ri Petar, ZCP viii 332.15 .

gent

Cite this: eDIL s.v. gent or dil.ie/25688

 

n o, m. (Lat. gens)

(a) a gentile : pl. ind eretecdaig, in geint, SR 8339.

(b) a race, a people (?) : trí meic la Símón ... ba balc-gent `a mighty race,' Metr. Dinds. iv 188.4 .

goll

Cite this: eDIL s.v. goll or dil.ie/26369
Last Revised: 2013

 

adj o,ā blind of one eye, purblind: goll .i. caoch, O'Don. Supp. gonais Luchet Goll ina rosc cor mill a suil conid de rod lil Goll de, LU 3177 ( RC ii 88.y ). ro fuc in goll leis in ngilla, Arch. Hib. ii 70.4 . v s. a siriti lethguill (of Cú Chulainn), FB 67 . a trian rocharsa[t] Coin Culainn batís guill cot acallaim, LL 117a8 . Cf. RC viii 60.15 . mac Ferghusa guill, AU i 168.16 (an. 718) . Colman goll (name of a saint), Arch. Hib. i 321.14 . Cairpre goll, Rawl. B 502, 152a15 . Goll Essa Rúaid the name of a amous old salmon, Anecd. i 27 § 21 . ? goll gobra, grech muíce a one-eyed horse (?), IT iii 104 § 201 (more probably a pers. name EIS 253 ). As sobriquet or npr m.: Goll mac Mórna (the great Connaught champion, Finn's adversary), see AS passim . Goll Gulban (a warrior of the Ulster Fian), ib. 3420 . Goll mac Uilechāin, Rawl. B 502, 129a1 . g s. Aided Guill Maic Carbada (title of a tale), RC xiv 398 . briathar ... Shimoin meic Guill (of the father of Simon Draí), RC xliii 58 § 59 . Keat. ii 1891 . comrac in Guill is Gotáin, Metr. Dinds. iv 54.4 . Hence of a warrior in general: Goll do chlannaibh Eoghain, Ó Bruad. iii 210.z . As n. l. a Gull, a hIrgull, Ériu iv 146.25 . See also Hog. Onom. 447b .

imm-rádi

Cite this: eDIL s.v. imm-rádi or dil.ie/27906

 

Forms: imradim, imrádaim, imrordaimse, immeradisiu, imradi, imrordai, immeraiter, imradam, imrádat, imráid, imráidem, immeraidtis, nisnimrade, immerada, arnachaimrada, immimrorda, immarádat, immeradin, imradad, imusráidhfi, imraidfem-ni, immindráitset, immerordus, imrordaiss, immeroraid, immunrordad, immerordaisset, imratid, imratib, imrádid, imradim, imrádud

v indic. pres. s 1 imradim, Sg. 155b3 . imrádaim, Thes. ii 230.17 (Pcr.). perf. imrordaimse, LU 8914 (FB). s. 2 immeradisiu gl. pertractas, Ml. 43c4 . s. 3 imradi, Wb. 17a13 . perf. imrordai, Thes. ii 229.32 (Pcr.). pass. immeraiter (sic leg.), Wb. 14c22 . pl. 1 imradam ni, Ml. 93a5 . pl. 3 imrádat, Wb. 1d7 . ipv. s. 2 imráid, TBC-LL¹ 6013. pl. 1 imráidem, Ériu i 68.5 . impf. pl. 3 immeraidtis, Ml. 61c12 . subj. pres. s. 2 nisnimrade, Ériu i 201 § 26. s. 3 immerada, Wb. 23b24 . arnachaimrada, Ml. 51a1 . perf. immimrorda, IT i 57.58 . pl. 3 immarádat, Wb. 28c1 . impf. s. 1 immeradin, Wb. 14c23 . s. 3 imradad, Ml. 41a4 . fut. s. 3 imusráidhfi, Fianaig. 16 § 46. pl. 1 imraidfem-ni, IT ii2 208.12 . pret. pl. 3 immindráitset, Thes. ii 241.11 (Ardm.). perf. s. 1 immerordus, Ml. 96a3 . s. 2 imrordaiss, Fél. Nov. 13. s. 3 immeroraid, Sg. 197b15 . pass. immunrordad, Wb. 20d10 . pl. 3 immerordaisset (MS. immerodaisset), Ml. 90d16 . Part. adv. ind imratid gl. de liberalitate, Ml. 82b8 . Verb. necess. betis imratib gl. in his reuoluendis, Ml. 96b16 . Later as simple vb. imrádid i.

(a) trans. and intrans. thinks (of), reflects (on), meditates (on), considers, plans: asbeir i tossug as mug, imrádi iterum conderna gnímu moga gl. hoc cogitet iterum apud sé, Wb. 17a13 . imrádat imráti cid maith as déntí `they think thoughts,' 1d7 . nip sain a n-asberat et immarádat, 28c1 . asrochoili ┐ imradi condib sainemail nanní labrathar, Ml. 35d22 . reil fora mbrethir on á n-andach immerordaisset (MS. immerodaisset) `the iniquity which they have meditated is clear from their word,' 90d16 . amal immeradad gl. diliberans, 68c18 . lasse immerordus in aidchi when I had meditated in the night, 96a3 . is di chéin immunrordad condan maicc togu from afar have we been considered so that we are sons by election,' Wb. 20d10 . (intrans. with do) ní imradat dun bethaid frecndairc `they think not of the present life,' Ml. 107c1 . amail immindráitset conacatar fiacc find cuccu `as they were thinking of him they saw Fiacc Find (coming) towards them,' Thes. ii 241.11 (Ardm.). cor' himraided a ailiugud trit-sin `it was proposed to accuse him on that account,' Fél. 40.18 . cibhed imraidi do rad whatever it be that you contemplate saying, SR 1209. Crist i cridiu cech duine immimrorda, IT i 57.58 . conid de imrordaimse | a chomraind ni dlig therefore I consider, LU 8914 (FB). ro imráid Bricriu inna menmain dús cinnas doragad ar imchossaít Ulad, 8106 (FB). imráidset nípád ansu Cu Chulaind acht tuctha a cletíne airi, LU 5801. o náimráided Miliucc indas noastfad intii Patraic, Lat. Lives 59.14 . noimraided a menma dogrés ina mainistrecha his mind continually meditated on monasteries, 87.8 . imusráidhfi neach ... reicne Fotha[i]d Canainne `some one will remember,' Fianaig. 16 § 46. dingēbat in mnái dít connacht-imrāidfe etir `so that she shall no longer think of you,' RC xiii 379.14 . uathad crāibdech umarāidet Dīa, ZCP iii 29.6 . in t-ainm an uair imraiter `when it comes to mind,' Metr. Dinds. iii 414.10 . imráidset techt día déicsin na hindse, RC ix 482.3 . roimraid Lurint dul na degaid L. was thinking of going after him, Anecd. iii 73.3 . aprad Símón in ní imráidim-si uair ro-fitir Dia imráti na ndoine, PH 1768.

Folld. by oc with reflex. meaning: ro imraidset macrad Ulad i nEmain Macha oco, LU 5903. ro-imraidh-sim aici cia teglach a rachad considered (debated) with himself, ZCP i 103.18 . ro imraid Grigoir oca fein cid diamboi in lucaist, RC xlvi 228.7 . roimraidset acu imgabail [anforl]aind, Ériu viii 10.9 . doimraidsedur acu fen Ere dindsaigid, 16.25 .

(b) treats of, discusses, mentions, commemorates: imradim gl. tracto, Sg. 155b3 . a tairbert hí forathmet inna persine immeroraid riam `bringing again into recollection of the person that he has spoken of before,' 197b15 . frissaní immeraidtis hua briathrib `to what they used to say in words,' Ml. 61c12 . slúag már immerádi `the great host which thou commemoratest,' Fél. Dec. 20. bēs nī brēg immarāide `perchance it is no lie thou sayest,' Ériu ii 26 § 9. imraidit co hEimeine mBán ... im deracht they consult with E. Anecd. i 40. 12 . manip ar fodord ... ratir acht is ar airchisecht ... indii immarather if it be out of compassion the words are spoken, Ériu vii 162.8 . ēicsīne ... coibnesa dontí imrordus ēimh `a relative of the man above mentioned,' ZCP vii 305.10 . ní imrordusa for Echaid aní sin co se, LU 10900. Conchobar mac Nessa ... imráter sunda for Ultaib `he is here recorded (as king) over Ulster,' Ériu iv 22.1 . immaroraid fria muntir anísin he discussed that matter with his people, TBFr. 13. in rom-imraidse Conchobar ritsu? `has Conor spoken to thee about me ?,' RC xiv 418 § 34. nir himráided riu in chaingen `they were not spoken to touching the business,' TMoméra 158.22 . imraidset a himdibe ina faithchi sin `they discussed the curtailing of that green,' Ériu iv 124.6 . gidbe no imraided Críst ina fiadhnoisi whoever used to mention Christ, Aisl. Tond. 120 § 1. imthusa fer n-hErend imarter sund, TBC-LL¹ 568. ite in da sen imraiter sund, Laws i 36.25 Comm. imthusa Congail imraiter againd athaidh ele, MR 166.7 . níor hiomráidheadh san Róimh ribh | díochur na gcliar ..., DDána 72 § 4. iomráidh é le hiomad gráidh `speak of Him with exceeding love,' Aithd. D. 75. 39 . iomraidem ... a reimsi `let us declare ... their period,' Leb. Gab.(i) 172.22 . imráiter do mention is made of: imrāiter sunn do aidedaib na prímflatha, ZCP iii 19.39 .

(c) sends: imraidfem-ni ┐ Medb nech úainn co Ailill Find do chobair dúnn, IT ii2 208.12 . imraidhfemne .i. cuirfim, O'Curry 1308 (< H 3.18, p. 603b ).

Vn. imrádud.

mug, mog

Cite this: eDIL s.v. mug, mog or dil.ie/32675

 

Forms: mug, moga, mogæ, moge, moga, mógi, mmoge, mogæ, mog, mogaid, mogaid, mogadu, mogad, mug, mog, mhog, mogad, moga, modh, mogha, moghaidh, mugh, mogh, moghadh, muidh, Mug, moghaid

n u and d, m. In O.Ir. a u-stem ( Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 90 , Thurn. Hdb. § 306 ): n a d s. mug. g s. moga, Wb. 17a13 . n p. mogæ, 3b15 , 8c11 , d26 . moge, 29b2 . moga, 27c17 . mógi, 7d10 . g p. inna mmoge , 29b1 . inna mogæ , Ml. 30b25 . In Mid.Ir. n s. mog becomes usual: ? a s. mogaid, Trip. 110.24 . n p. mogaid, SR 7427 , TBC-LL¹ 423. a p. mogadu, Trip. 228.15 . g p. mogad, 218.15 . Rhys, Celt. Inscriptions of Gaul p. 62 takes mug (-u-st.) and mog (-d-st.) as different words; but they are identical in meaning and the older declension survives beside the later; d s. dot mhog , PH 1424 (but mogaid, 3112 , 4012 ); g s. in mogad , Corm. Y 886 = moga, LB. In late MSS. often written modh: n s. occas. mogha or moghaidh (see 1 mogaid). mugh mogh (-d-st.), IGT Dec. § 21. g s. mac moghadh , ib. ex. 566.

I A male slave or servant (in wide sense); in early texts generally of a serf or bondman , later occas. of free retainers. Translates L. servus in Glosses. cid in coimdiu dodgné fria mug [cid] in m.¤ fria choimdid, Wb. 27c14 . do mug Dæ, 30b26 . m.¤ Solman (of Jeroboam), Ml. 106b6 . m.¤ .i. daer, Laws i 90.23 . ni cria . . . do cimid, do m.¤, do cumail, iii 58.7 . eiric tar ceand mogha islui ara flaith, v 182.11 . cech fírmanach . . . gníd amal cech mog let him work like any slave, Fél. 4.12 . ra deligetar a ndǽr ┐ a mogaid de doeraib ┐ mogadaib fer ṅhErend, TBC-LL¹ 423. no chlechtatis na genti særad a mogad isin sechtmad bliadain, Lat. Lives 59. maith ar mug ni athenar valuables are not entrusted to a serf, IT i 97.17 (prov.) = maīn ar mog ni aithenor, H 3.18 ; cf. ropadh main ar modh m'anacol (i.e. my deliverance would be a boon thrown away), AU 742 (see ZCP xiii 143 , and cf. maín). corcair [sic leg.] immon cumail, mugaid imna fledaib (signs of degenerate times), ACL iii 241.2 . féach cia an mogh, cia an tighearna (= quis servus), TSh. 7732. clanna ar saor, meic ar moghadh, Studies 1921, 75 § 11 . go ndérna modh ┐ sglábh dhe, Mac Aingil 346.2 . do imthighidar . . . mo lucht friotholmha ┐ mo mhuidh uaim (= necessarii mei), ITS xxix 223.34 (as o-stem., late text). céilí na céise is moghaoi na ndán (i.e. minstrels and poets), Keat. Poems 570. m.¤ in ena servant of the water (a kenning for salmon?), see mugna. berrad moga, O'Mulc. 726 (the tonsura servilis or tonsure attributed to Simon Magus). aiste mhog (name of a metre), LB 238db53 .

In Hib. Min. 7.210 : co ndeochatar mudhaigh [muga H] hi tempul lasin canoin (tr. `when the slaves came into the temple'), leg. co nd. [i m]mudu [the psalms ] were lost; cf. ZCP iii 21 § 5.

Often used of a monk or coenobite as servant of God; in later Mid. Ages the expression mog Dé = a hermit (= W. meudwy). mog gor craibdech, ZCP iii 29.14 . nech dothéi do chélidiu co mugada Dé whoever visits Culdees (or) hermits, Ériu iii 104 § 39 a . modh Dé, ZCP vi 36.32 = ditreabhach, ib. 28 . v s. a muidh Dé! 98.15 .

O'Mulc. 820 offers a curious etymology: mug a mugilis genus rubri [= a genere mug. rub.] .i. bīd ag fognam iarna petacht.

II Used frequently in combination with a gen. to form masc. proper names or sobriquets: Mogh Airt, Cóir Anm. 182. Maistiu . . . Moga Airt, LL 49b25 . Mogh Corb, Cóir Anm. 191. Mogh Lāma, Cóir Anm. 59 (name given to Eochaid Ilchrothach). Mogh Néid (Néit), Cóir Anm. 35. Aenghus cét-ainm Mogha Néid, ib. Mog Nuadat, Cóir Anm. 36 , 40 (name of Eogan Mór m. Moga Néit). Mug Ruith (name of a celebrated druid), ZCP viii 332.17 . Mogh Roith, x 343 § 6 . The name is expld. in Cóir Anm. 287 : Mog Ruith .i. mágus rotarum, ar is a rothaib doníth a taiscéladh druidhechta. M.R. was associated with Simón druí = Simon Magus, who was credited in medieval legend with invention of a flying machine; the title magus rotarum may have been bestowed on Simon and have given rise later to the fiction of the Irish druid, the word Mug (Mogh) being used as the equivalent of magus on the analogy of similar Irish names. Mughthigernd, AU 784.

Compds. ¤duine: mairg faemas a anfine | mairg móras a mogduine woe to him who exalts his serf, LL 48a17 = SG 373.8 . ¤latrann m. `a slave-thief ': pl. moghaid ┐ moghlatraind, Acall. 3535 n . for mogadaib moglatrand `pilfering servants', Hib. Min. 66.36 . ? ¤menma: amail descaidh maine mughmenman .i. drochmenman, O'Dav. 1223 a , with gl.: mugh .i. olc; perhaps like dregs, the treasures of a servile mind (i.e. the perquisites of a slave).

rámach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. rámach or dil.ie/34783

 

adj o,ā. (cf. 1 rám and 1 ráma) pertaining to rowing or oars .

(a) of vessels equipped with oars: ag daingniughadh a long eidir ramhach ┐ ruadhclárach both their rowing and their strong-decked vessels , ITS v 68.3 . Esp. in Roth Rámach ( `the Rowing Wheel ', O'Curry), the machine constructed by Simon Magus and Mogh Ruith, for account of which see MS. Mat. 401 fg . ; it seems to have been a primitive flying-machine and the epithet prob. referred to its paddles or wings. Mug Ruith . . . is he luid do foglaim druidechta co Simon ┐ is malle doronsat in roth ramach tic tar Eoraip ria mbráth, ZCP viii 332.13 = doronsat in roith ramaig, LL 331b32 ; cf. Rawl. 157.37 ; roth rāmach, ZCP x 343.19 . in roth ramach ┐ in scuap a Fanait, LB 242b47 ( MS. Mat. 632, App. clii ). Hence with epithet transferred to inventor: Tlac[h]tga ingean Mog Ruith ramhaig, Ériu x 77 § 11 (perh. = Mogh ruith r.¤ ).

(b) of seas and waters and sea-coasts, plied with oars, boat-frequented, marine : Loch Ri ramhach, Ériu x 87 § 99 . d'Ess Rúaid rámach, LL 306b42 ( SG 386.4 ). Ess rónach [rámach v.l.] Rúaidh, Anecd. i 27.5 . bun rámach Raiti, Caithr. Thoirdh. 34.2 (Bun Raite in Co. Clare). im Corcamoroith rámach, ZCP viii 226 § 6 . a righe ramhach `their oar-plied-kingship' (of Corcamruad), Misc. Hag. Hib. 28.19 .

ríagaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ríagaid or dil.ie/35201

 

v ā, inflicts punishment or torture, punishes, executes : noco ba rí ná ríagfa (i.e. a king must inflict punishment), ZCP iv 469.3 . rom-riagthar hi nglaccaib na ndrong ṅdemnach (i.e. in hell), PH 8261 . coro riagad la Simón , LL 128a35 = MacCarthy 172 § 3 (of Sétna k. of Irel., cf. Keat. ii 2205 : do riadhadh a bhaill ó chéile lé Simeon Breacc). do crochad a colla ┐ do riagad iad, CCellaig 846 . coro riagta co mór eat, LB 159b27 . coro riagtha secht fichit diibh `were hanged', AU 985 . cota-riagfaider amail ribar .i. coro tolltar amail criathar, O'Dav. 1381 . ro riaghadh .i. do crochadh, O'Cl. In weakened sense: ? rincne . . . is eisside cat mac .i. iarsinni riachas na macaime becca no rigait [riaghait v.l., sic leg.] na macaim eissimh, O'Dav. 1365 `because it comes to the little children; or the little children reach to it', Stokes; it torments ( scratches ) . . . torment (tease) it ?

rith

Cite this: eDIL s.v. rith or dil.ie/35354

 

Forms: ruth, riuth, riuth, rith, ruth, riuth, riuth, rith, ruth, retho, retha, retha, reth, rith, reatha, rioth

u, m. vn. of rethid, also ruth. O.Ir. n s. riuth, Sg. 106b8 , Ml. 89c10 , 90b10 , AU 763 ; in riuth , BCr. 18b12 . rith, Ardm. 189b2 ( Thes. i 498 ), Bvn. 2a23 ( Thes. ii 33 ). Fél. Prol. 28 . ruth, SR 3107 . LL 203a21 . a s. riuth, LU 8663 . d s. riuth, Wb. 20b6 . rith, Sg. 108b3 . Hy. v 93 . ruth, SR 3285 , 4051 , 6043 , 7411 . LL 236a17 . g s. retho, Ml. 42c19 . retha, 93b4 . Hy. ii 9 . n p. retha, Fél. Ep. 274 . g p. reth, SR 2671 . rith m. (g s. n p. reatha), IGT Dec. § 71.4 . d s. rioth, ib. ex. 1551 .

(a) the act of running; a run, rapid course (in wide sense): leim nó riuth (gl. πήδησις), Sg. 106b8 . innar rith arsid-ne, gl. in nostro vetere curriculo, 108b3 . luid E. lám frisin sruth | ocus nir garit in ruth, Metr. Dinds. iv 354.46 ( LL 203a21 ). no thelged a chlettini . . . ┐ no bered rith baíse 'na ndiaid, TBC-LL¹ 893 . rith fri nem, IT i 124.18 (prov. of a vain attempt). niro ansat don reimim ro-retha sin, CCath. 5544 (of troops rushing to an encounter). dochuadar i cenn a retha took to their heels , MR 318.4 . [dochuaidh] do rind retha as escaped by running , ZCP vi 65.30 . rith in marcaig, O'Dav. 1402 . oc rith isin aeor flying , PH 1733 (of Simon Magus). dorinneas rioth tre lár an tsluaigh, Duan. F. ii 260 § 43 . raoth do denum, Rosa Angl. 130.22 , cf. 326.7 . lúath do rioth chum uilc swift in running , Proverbs vi 18 . i rith (with reflex. poss. pron.) running: co ḟacca mac légind ina rith secci (= iuvenem scholasticum currentem), Lat. Lives 82.6 ( LB 65a20 ). tíagait ina rith . . . cen tairsem, FA 29 . RC xix 146.4 . ? techid G. assin cath . . . ┐ a gilla i rraith, ZCP iii 212.1 ( LU 9645 ); by Stokes taken as = do ráith `only' (? together ; see Metr. Dinds. i 62 n. 22 ). for rith running, hence quickly, forthwith; cf. luid . . . for a rith cosin n-oencrann, SR 1284 . fer ruc breith for fís for ruth who interpreted a dream immediately , 3285 . batar buidig do Dia . . . robdar dimdaig dé for ruth very soon after , 4051 . Cf. 7411 creitted do Patraic for rith, LU 9486 . blith is ith | uaid no chuingitis for rith, Metr. Dinds. iv 20.18 (`in due season', Metr. Dinds. Corr. v 141 ). tairnit duit in tṡluaig for ruth, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 20.14 . Of animals: assan . . . luath a ruth, SR 3107 . oendam retha draught-ox , Rawl. 130b51 ( ZCP iii 4 § 8 v.l.). almai énlaithe . . . berid riuth for sét, FB 49 . Of chessmen: déca a rretha fían fidchell, SCC 30 ( LU 3559 ). But this may be for ṡretha. Of a ship: ra cured in lestar . . . fora lánrith, LL 219b43 ( TTr. 198 ). Freq. of natural objects, heavenly bodies, rivers, etc.: rith ro-seim os bith . . . ind aeo[i]r uair current, circulation , SR 39 . in riuth retae inna airndrethcha, BCr. 18b12 . rith lunae, Bvi 2a23 . riuth grene, Ml. 89c10 . dī grein do rith immalle, AU 910 . Cf. CCath. 938 . do taisceltaib . . . reatha saighnen of the course of lightnings , 3899 . ríth mara buirb tar bruach, IT iii 88 § 103 . uisce reatha running water , Levit. xiv 5 . rith folo (gl. dysenteria) bloody flux, Ardm. 189b2 ( Thes. i 498 ). riuth fola, AU 763 . Cf. PH 2792 . dobeir sās co rith ima braighit a running noose (?), Aen. 3102 . ro glacc corda . . . ┐ do cuir snaidh[m] retha fair `a slip-knot', ZCP vi 297.4 . rith teangadh re toil n-aignidh (= glib chatter), Content. xxiii 5 , cf. xxix 8.

(b) in fig. sense of laws, liabilities, etc.: rith cana Patraic go moirsheisear, Eg. 88 f. 7a ( O'Curry 2186 ). rith chána aicillne, H 3.17, c. 420 ( O'D. 517 ). Of accumulating of interest, fines, etc. and transf. of the interest itself: nochon fuil rith ar in fiach foimrim[e], H 3.18, p. 125a ( O'Curry 230 ). reatha fuillema, Laws v 414.12 . Possibly a similar metaphor is implied in SCC 41 ( LU 3905 ): bés nípad rith lat-su mo lecun-sa . . . cía no trialltá (`Gewinn wär's dir nicht, mich zu verlassen, auch wenn du's versuchtest', Thurn. Sagen 100 ).

(c) career, life : o fororbai Patraic a rith mbúada isin bith, Trip. 170.9 . ba réil ro-blad a retha, Metr. Dinds. i 30.22 . rige la Día a ndeoidh retha, ZCP viii 197 § 2 . do chríochnuigh mé mo rioth (= cursum consummavi), TSh. 2768 . Cf. anad dom rith ro-baisi . . . do bud mithig my career of folly , ACL iii 312.4 .

Compds. ruadhbhuinneadha rioth-arda rabharta running high , TSh. 2079 . ? dochum in tsrotha ruit[h]ruaid, ZCP iii 19.9 ( Rawl. 74b26 ).

1 rúam

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 rúam or dil.ie/35630

 

Forms: ro-úam

n ā, f. perh. a variant form of róm (róim) < Lat. Roma, and used in same senses; in ZCP iv 577 - 8 the derivation ro-úam `a great hole (cave)' is suggested. rūam quasi rōm a Roma(e) , Corm. Y 1090 .

(a) as n.l. Rome: i Ruaim, Fél.² Mar. 4 = hir Róim, Fél. cathair . . . samail re Rūaim Letha, ZCP x 53.26 . hi rRúaim Letha, Ériu ii 192.5 , cf. ib. 11 (but: abb Rómae, ib. 12 ).

(b) a monastic settlement or `city': rúam iarthair betha (of Glendalough), Fél. Prol. 195 (ruaim, roim v.ll.). ruaim coitchenn do Ghaidhelaib (of Daiminis), 206.31 . tír i fail do rúaim (said to St. Brigid of Leinster), LL 50a32 ( Hail Brigit § 26 ). dā chomurtha . . . | ac Lainn sech cach rūaim . . . | muilenn cerr fri comblethad | ocus brat im a bachaill, BColm. 96.17 (distinguishing features of the monastery of Lann). pl. ind locáin . . . it rúama co ndálaib monasteries with assemblies , Fél. Prol. 211 . ticfat tailcind, conutsat [v.l. conucsat] rúama, noifit cella, Trip.², 346 .

(c) a burial-place, cemetery : Babilón a rrúam-som, Fél. Oct. 28 (of SS. Simon and Thaddaeus or Jude, acc. to tradition buried at Babylon). an tAodh isin úir, an rí isin ruaimh, AFM i 334.8 , see Bruchst. i § 99 . ēg in righ 'na ruaimh ar lár, BB 59b7 . is railecc ríg a rúam rán, Metr. Dinds. iii 2 (of Carmun).

(d) of a gathering-place, capital centre or fort, etc.: ainm doróega sech rúama, Metr. Dinds. i 28 (of Tara).

sechtmísid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. sechtmísid or dil.ie/36810

 

Forms: sectmísid

n [i, m.] a seven months' child : Sechtan glossed sectmísid, Gorm. Apr. 24 . Sectan ┐ Sechtmisid, Mart. Tall. do. Seachtan seacht miosaigh, Mart. Don. Apr. 24 . co Símón sáer sechtmisid, Metr. Dinds. iv 186.z , cf. 188.32 . ind oenlo . . . doronuit . . . ind oenló aili rucait . . . i cind secht mis . . . ┐ dano da ṡechtmhisaigh iat diblinaibh, RC xliii 8 § 1 .

tass

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tass or dil.ie/40190

 

n (cf. sos, tost ?) a state of rest, inactivity, idleness: tas .i. comhnaidhe, O'Cl. tarrasair in sruth 'na thoss | dia rémim, SR 1633 . int-aislinge ... | amal teidm torainn a t.¤ like thunder in a calm (?), 3375 . in grian ... | nis gluais rosṁbai inna t.¤ , 5107 . ar domrala sund im th.¤ `since it chances that I sojourn here,' Metr. Dinds. iv 164.31 . etir dēnum neich ocus beith i t.¤ whether active or idle, ACL iii 222.z . airisfet-sa im thoss im shíd, Ériu vii 221.4 . guid iar firdul cia bé hi toss, SR 1608 . co cuala fogur mór inna ngenti ... atrubairt friu bith in a toss prohibuit eos, Lat. Lives 14.8 . a chara, cin cop hē (? leg. co mbé) hi t.¤ | dotrala f[o] aineolass, ZCP xiii 3 § 1 . Frequ. gaibid t.¤ comes to rest, halts, comes to anchor (of ships): am-míl n-ingnad rogab t.¤ , Metr. Dinds. iii 100.15 . go rosgabh an coblach tas `the fleet stands still,' Leb. Gab.(i) 204.31 . ó roghabhsatt tass (sic leg.) an dúsin (of a fleet putting into harbour), Hugh Roe 292.z . In chevilles: Simon is Tatha cen t.¤ , SR 7591 . roimgaib can tas bad timm, LL 32b40 . nuall cen thas, IT iii 45.27 (thais, v.l.).

tíránach, tírénach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tíránach, tírénach or dil.ie/40944
Last Revised: 2019

 

n o, m. (Lat. or Romance loan-word) tyrant: a nglasaibh na dtíoránach, ITS iii 264.10 . an aghaidh an tíoranuigh M., Donlevy 402.17 . do buaileadh in tírēnach fuilēachtach Simon Hercūrt, Cín Lae Ó Meall. 36.24 .

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