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1 adb

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 adb or dil.ie/326

Forms: aidhbhe, adhbha, adhbha

n in phrase a.¤ chiúil. adhbh (chiúil) f. (g s. aidhbhe, adhbha, n p. adhbha), IGT Decl. § 39 . musical instrument: badar . . . timpana et clairsiocha ┐ gach adbh ceóil . . . ag a seinm inntib, Aisl. Tund. 114.6 . orgáin ┐ adhbha ciúil, Desid. 2639 . an adhbh chiúil do bí na bhois / carbh gan sdiúir í na égmais, IGT Decl. ex. 1077 . cor adbh ciúil gan crand glesta . . . an tuath tar eís Coluim Cille, BCC § 366 (= an doman as cruit gan ceis in poem ib.). go n-dechaid an cráisich tres an aidhbh ciúil ┐ tre uchtbruinne an oirfidich, Celt. Rev. iv 112.11 .

Cf. 2 adba , adbann.

1 adba

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 adba or dil.ie/329

Forms: adhbha, -aidh, adbad, adhbhadh

n , f. Vn. of *ad-fen (see Lochlann ii 203 ). Later also t, f. adhbha f. (ó dá chéill an tráth téid a réim asda. d s. -aidh. g s. -adh n p. -tha), IGT Decl. § 4 . Also adbad: adhbhadh (: adhbhar), A. Ó Dálaigh xxxviii 5 .

Abode, dwelling place: Beccán . . . hi Cluain aird a adbae, Fél. May 26 . díambá ha.¤ ind a.¤ sin, LU 2458 . robad á.¤ daíscarsluaig, Trip.² 2399 . it adbai do demnaib indsin `these are abodes of the devil', Rule of Tall. 74 § 42 . a a.¤ bunaid his original home, PH 7302 . isind adbai n-iffernaidi, Ériu ii 142 § 158 . téged cách díb iarom dia adbuid, LB 110b9 . as imdha aitti ┐ a.¤ aili ocon Coimdhi, Lism. L. 3703 . re h-innarba h-anma---in adbaid a n-aigérthar uirre a h-uilc MR 294.2 . i n-adhbhaidh fhalaimh, DDána 17.10 . go hadhba Poil is Pedair, (i.e. Rome), BNnÉ 283.4 .

Of the lairs of animals, etc.: a.¤ ron abode of seals (kenning for the sea), Bruchst. i 65 § 149 ( IT iii 38 § 24 ). ?do berlaib cech mil bladmair / dia n-ergnaib dia n-iladbaib, SR 7264 (could also be referred to 1 adb or 2 adba ). a.¤ én, LU 3046 . condaberat leo dia n-adbai ( adba , adbaid v.ll.) (locusts carrying away grapes), Ériu ii 192 § 3 . a n-adhpaid con, RC xi 130.38 . i n-a.¤ oss ┐ fíadmíl ┐ sinnach, TBC 5996 . dober-sa cach bó ┐ cach ben díb . . . co aitte ┐ co adbái fadessin, 4757 . gur charas an adhbhadh so tream' oileamhuin uirthe (a stag of the oak in the forest near which he was reared), Celt. Rev. x 136.16 .

Various applications: is a.¤ ega an ni atciam abode of death (i.e. a dangerous place to enter), RC xiv 54 § 66 . iar n-adbai escai .i. rofitir in n-a.¤ i mbí in t-ésca il lo ┐ in grían i n-aidchi RC xxvi 18 § 37 . rop a.¤ sciath ┐ scen, Met. Dinds. iii 314.5 . Of the grave: in ben mór in Dagda dond / ní duachnid a n-a.¤ and, LU 4140 . a techt i n-hūire a.¤ `the abode of clay' (i.e. the grave), Fianaig. 10.16 . See also under othan. Of the body: inghnadh eagla gum anmain / mo dul as[in] drochadh- phaigh, ZCP xii 367.4 . a ádbai na ndoel (voc.), PH 8256 . iar ndenumh ádbai indat, 8278 (the body to the soul). Of a warrior: adhbha na gcraoiseach, LL 394.29 . an fer bhus adhbha sochaidhe coiseóna féin Righe `rallying-point', ITS v 26.6 . In Laws translated property: amboi (= ambua) adba .i. domo (= doma) seoit Laws v 182 n.2 . fobith bana.¤ taisic `because female possession reverts', Laws iv 16.24 .i. fon fath is a.¤ dar coir aisec in feraind, 18.12 Comm. In kennings: Adhbha Ír Ireland, TD 19.16 . adhbha . . . chuaine Chuirc Cashel, 5.10 . Of ship: nach raibh aco lóng gan leónadh ná athbha gan fosgla, CF Eg. 22 .

2 adba

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 adba or dil.ie/330

n in phrase a.¤ chiúil. f. IGT Decl. § 4 . Prob. same word as 1 a.¤ musical instrument: co bfogur mbinn os gach . . . vil[e] adba ciuil, Aisl. Tund. 114.22 . Perh. also: m'tabhra fa dheóidh gan deóra / d'adhbha cheóil an chláirseóra, IGT Decl. ex. 1300 . i n-adhbhadhaibh ceoil amháin (= in musicis solum instrumentis), Keat. i 40.11 . an tan do thaighleadh a lámh / a nadhbhuidh chiúil go cómhlán, Mann. and Cust. iii 273.40 . noch . . . gléasas dóibh fein adhbhadha ciúil, `instru- ments of musick', Amos vi 5 . Without qual. gen. guth adhbhadh viols, Isaiah xiv 11 . ar adhbha dheich ttéad, Ps. xcii 3 . Cf. adb, adbann, aidim. In meaning of adbann: dob' í a adhbha ciúil / . . . / seinm a each, síonghlór na sriobh, L. Cl. A. Buidhe 156.73 .

adbann

Cite this: eDIL s.v. adbann or dil.ie/338

Forms: adhbhann, Adhbhann

n o, m. (ad + 3 fonn? See Lochlann ii 203 ) Later also f. adhbhann f. IGT Decl. § 11 . strain of music, tune: goltraige .i. adhband trirech imefuilnge gol, Corm. Y 721 ( Anecd. iv 61 ). esnad .i. abhran (adban, v.l.), O'Dav. 777 . oda (ᾠδή) .i. adbond, Fél.² xcvi gl. 1 (1) . sirrechtach do chaeiniud .i. adbonn no bind do toitim, O'C. 1296 ( H. 3.18, 539 ) = adhbann, 1473 (ib. 653 ). adpand do seinm `to play a tune', Mon. Tall. 131.29 (§ 10) . rochachain . . . / tri hádbaind do barr in chraind / .l. bliadan cech adbaind, Fél. 158 § 23 ( LL 368 marg. inf.). trí ségainni Hérenn . . . a.¤ a cruit `a tune on the harp', Triads 89 . ar chumas n-adhbhann (: dall) `for power of melody', Studies 1920, 98 § 9 . da seinntea adhbunn do coiscfedh dia geran hí `if thou wert to play a strain', St. Ercuil 672 . an adhbhann chiúil, TD 23.7 . ba bhinne ná adhbhann ciúil, Oss. iv 4.19 . ni thabhair aphann da h'áidh / ni cheis re comhrádh macáimh she pays no heed to any tune, Ir. Texts ii 75 § 17 . In meaning of 2 adba : le sámhthachuibh seinnfidhe / ar ádhbannuibh iorghuile, IGT Decl. ex. 455 . As n. pr. Adhbhann (name of a girl), Ériu v 82.28 .

Cf. 1 adb, 2 adba .

? adbi

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? adbi or dil.ie/365

n segar tri flatha for adbi .i. fir bis for in ceilsine flatha in feiceman toichida, O'C. 1821 ( 23 Q 6 (RIA), 46a ). Leg. adbai (1 adba )?

? ad-ranna

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? ad-ranna or dil.ie/543

v (*ad-? *ath-?) distributes, apportions: ar adbud ar áne atronnai argart glan húa i cathair Conúaill .i. . . . ro ernáe gart glan, ACC 121 ( RC xx 400 ), Luscai la Macc cuilinn / cain decheng adrannai (: Glandai) `thou apportion-est(?) a fair couple', Fél. Sept. 6 . cretta fuidbechta fuaím talman triuin tormaid écnaithi adrainfet comarbae cumachta (rhetoric), LL 13862 . ? adba in ríg rí ad-ranna / fors ndáilte fín co finne, LL 3561 = adba ind rig. ríad rinde (rí adrindi, ri uasrenda, ri uarranda, ri uas rinni. ri uas roinde, righ os runda, ri co raindi v.ll.), Met. Dinds. i 30.44 . Ed. suggests reading rí ós Rinne king over Erin, v p. 125 . ? ad-rand (atrann, adhrann, adhrand, v.ll.) a theora ēigme ass Fing. R. 562 (LL 270 b 44) , JCS ii 254 . See also ad-annai.

aidbirseóir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aidbirseóir or dil.ie/835

Forms: adba(i)rs(e)óir, aibirseóir, airseóir

n m. Also adba(i)rs(e)óir, aibirseóir, airseóir (Lat. aduersarius, Ped. i 215 . See Vendr. Lex.)

(a) adversary, enemy: ab aduersario .i. ōn adbirseōir, Corm. Y 16 . diuers- arius .i. aibhirseoir, Ir. Gl. 517 . cred uma rucais do cumachta buaim nach marbaim in t-aiberseoir so?, Fier. 47 . a aidh- bheirseoir na n-uile (i.e. the world), DDána 53.3 . ar clai a n-aibheirseor, Smaointe B. Chr. 5967 .

(b) an t-a.¤ the devil: dochím an t-aidberseoir aga furail aran tríur bratar . . . gadaighecht do dhenamh, BNnÉ 55 § 56 . tainec an t-aibirseoír i ndeilb duine, BCC 222.16 . fuascladh an chinidh dhaonna a hanbhroid an aibhirseora, Keat. ii 3178 . meallann an t-airseóir le temptásiūnaib, Párl. na mB. 1748 . ná buaireann an t-ādhbharsóir an t-anam, Trompa na bhF. 4297 . ar ilchleasaibh an ādhbhar- sōra, 4017 . an diabhal ┐ an t-ādhbhairseōir, 4407 . Note also: d'fhir claite na n-aibirseoradh `demons', BCC 224.30 .

2 aite

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 aite or dil.ie/2535

Forms: aitti

n [f. ? n s. in aitti , BNnÉ 327 § 53 ]. abode, dwelling: aidde ┐ aittreb díabail (of hell), LU 2235 ( FA § 30 ). co aitte ┐ co adbái fadessin, TBC 4757 . dia modaib amraib aildib / dia n-aitdib dia n-ilarmib, SR 732 . dorime an mac a.¤ ile lasin n-athair, Anecd. i 51 § 3 (= mansiones multae, Johann. xiv 2 ). ba handsin ro suidigit aidi ┐ aitreba doib, Aen. 1298 . bid fás t'aitti siu, BNnÉ 325 § 41 . dochuaid cach dib dia addi ┐ adbuid budessin, PH 648 . tempul ┐ tégdais ┐ addi ┐ inad Dé, LB 234a43 . loscind . . . do linad na naiti ┐ na nínad fithisi ┐ fotoll in tiri, BB 240a45 . ba bec a n-a.¤ ┐ a n-adba i n-dunaid ind rig, RC xxv 34 § 6 . beich tectaid ait no aide i mbun craind, Laws iv 180.27 Comm. ní lamhadh én na hethaid a aidi (aiti v.l.) na adhbha do dénam i mbarr crainn, CCath. 1770 . bregthar asa aiti is enticed from its den (of a serpent), 3088 . ba haitte (háit, v.l.) cumhsanaidh dósam eisidhe (of a bear in the hollow of a tree), BNnÉ 317 § 5 . gur bó h-aitte ┐ gur bho h-adbha do chonaibh allta, FM v 1654.1 . ? tar áthu tar inberu tar aittiu (rhet.), LU 8627 ( FB § 47 ). ? scéo aitti ailmi fri etnai eocrith (rhet.), LU 5511 (TBC).

áitt

Cite this: eDIL s.v. áitt or dil.ie/2826

Forms: átt, áttaib, átachad, áitt

n f. Perh. orig. átt ā, f., cf. d p. áttaib, Críth Gabl. 173 , átachad, IGT Verbs § 106 . See Mac Airt, Celtica iii 263 . Vendr. Lex. Lochlann ii 213 .

(a) place, situation, position, dwelling: hi cech ait isin chathrig, Ml. 68a13 . co cach inchruth a thige inna áttaib córaib with all the furniture of the house in its proper positions, Críth Gabl. 173 . ni fuair ait forstarrasad (of the Ark), SR 2572 . ro facsat ait na scainnre do S., CCath. 3697 . áit buailte do thabhairt dóibh a place for defeating them, Mac Aingil 1748 . arna shuidhiughadh san áit is onór- aighe don chlár, TSh. 855 . na háiti d'folmughadh, IGT Decl. ex. 723 . a buird 'na n-áitibh gá n-uaim planks being joined in their places (of a building), DDána 119.35 . anuidh an conn- suine bog na áit féin remains unchanged, IGT Introd. 26.31 .

Abode, dwelling: ra curit ina n-aitib ┐ ina n-imdadaib (of men after feasting), CRR 20.2 . a hait ┐ a hadba, TTebe 186 . do chuaidh gach aon díobh d'a ait (bhaile v.l.) féin, ZCP iv 400.19 . techit na harrachta asa n-attib, PH 743 . aitte (háit v.l.) cumhsanaidh lair (of an animal), BNnÉ 317 § 5 . hi senáitibh slechta Conuill Chernaigh in the hereditary seats of the race of C., FM vi 2186.12 . anmhain ar ar n-aitibh fein in our own districts, O'R. Poems 3906 .

Passage (in a book): gibé thuigfeas na háite do haith- leigheadh linn, Eochairsg. 111.1 . do réir na háite sin (in Bible), TSh. 22 . léaghthar san áit chéadna, 285 . ar lorg na háite-se san Leabhar Ghabhála, Keat. ii 796 .

Perh. crossing-place of a river in: hae aite (in a list of things (on private property) of which there is no exclusive owner- ship) i.e. salmon seen at a river-crossing can be appropriated (?), Laws v 482.23 (see Mac Airt loc. cit.). Or w.r.t. the location of one's house, EIF 286-87 . Or áe as in the plant-name áe aba, Peritia xvi 390-92 ; see 1 áe.

In phr. á.¤ i n- as conj. where: a tírib beó ait inna bí bás, LU 9996 . ait hi funend grían where the sun sets, 3691 ( SC 33 ). áit i mbaí a h-adba inmain, Sc.M² 24 (e) . áit i comraicfead díabolnámaid, BDD² 733 . lige Fergusa maic Rōic āitt in rohadnacht ar Mag nĀi, Arch. iii 3.3 . áit i farggab C. . . . a chend .i. cenn-áitt F., TBC 2915 . tomaidm Linmuine edón Locha Echach áitt dollégad síl nD., RC xvi 413.16 (Tig.). áit ar marbhadh C., Keat. iii 2545 . Note also: áit mal con- nairnechtatar where they met, TBC 1441. 1565 .

Combines with interrog. to give cáit where (in dependent and direct questions) (perh. a modification of O. Ir. cote, see Mac Airt, loc. cit.): ní fes do Galafas cait a ndeachaidh, RC x 185.9 . do c[h]uireadar fesa da fhis cáit a rabatar, ML² 911 . cait hir-raibe? PH 201 . cāit a fhuil Finn? ML² 1492 .

(b) place formerly occupied by someone or something: ní fuaradar acht a ait ann they found the place empty, ZCP vi 76.13 . do níd áit leabhar dona tuatadhaib they take the place of books (of images), O'Hussey TC 143.12 . fear a áite his successor, Mac Aingil 6004 . cead . . . an easbuig . . . nó fhir áiti delegate , 4389 . fear āite Chriosd, Parrth. Anma 2934 . do dhiúltuigh . . . ar gealladh d'oifig is d'fhurthacht is d'áit dó place, office (of an Irish chief who resisted the bribes of the government), Hackett xl 192 . imprint, mark: co fil āit a beōil isin c[h]loich fóss ann, BColm. 64.8 . lorg cneadh ┐ áit áladh, DDána 54.9 . Hence in phrase i n-á.¤ with gen.: nach faicim acht fís . . . i n-áit an mhóir-eoluis cheirt instead of, Content. xvi 87 . mar íoc i n-áit an tsochair `as requital for those benefits', ix 26 .

(c) In phrase of doubtful meaning do áitt , diait, diad etc. See Mac Airt loc. cit.: Ri ro sáer Iacob do aitt / do láim Isau meicc Isaic, SR 7313 . teine do áitt etc., for exx. see 1 teine.

áitte

Cite this: eDIL s.v. áitte or dil.ie/2828

n (Mid. Ir. by-form of áitt Celtica iii 264 ). place, situation, position, dwelling : tuc in rí aitte doib isin cathraig Anecd. iii 69.23 . i ccúas croind, ar ba haitte (háit, v.l.) cumhsanaidh dósam eisidhe BNnÉ i 317.21 . dosgní Ruadhan iartain aitte (derc, v.l.) ┐ adba isin talmain 322.29 . ? aiti .i. cumdach O'Dav. § 175 . aitedha daenda 'human dwellings' CCath. 3961 .

aittenn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aittenn or dil.ie/2832

n o, m. See Vendr. Lex. but also ÉC xxxvi 63 . furze, gorse: paliurus .i. . . aiten, Thes. ii 46.18 ( Philarg. 18 ). rusco .i. aittiun, 47.8 (ib. 50 ), 48.30 (ib. 119 ). aitend .i. āith-tend, sech is āith is tend, Corm. Y 56 . onn .i. aiten, Auraic. 1194 . is on aitenn tucad int ainm is onn frisin fidh n-ogaim, 5582 . lossa fedha .i. aitean, fraech, gilcach . . ., 1156 . int aitend no in fraoch, 2834 . sliabh fraich ┐ aiteann, Laws iv 276.19 Comm. aiteand, dris, fraech, 148.1 . im dire . . . do aitin do luachra, i 166.29 . biaid immad aittin ann / i tírib áilli Érann, Met. Dinds. iv 306.23 . tri droighnibh ┐ drisibh ┐ aitinn arrachta do chirr- badh a cuirp, ÉC i 85.23 . ro tréghdadh a throighthe . . . lá haitten an tsleibhe, FM vi 1900.13 . ? nír adba rosc fír ineithle maíssi aitind serthi capaill, IT iii 99 § 164 . As sobri- quet: Oengus cenn aittinn, Rawl. 152a51 . Compds. ¤-chaith- rech having furze-like body-hair: Ethne Aitencáithrech, LU 3246 ( SC 4 ). Mugain Aitencaetrech, 8405 ( FB 28 ). M. Etan- chaithrech, TFerbe 119 . re M. Aitinchairchech (sic), Death- tales 22.6 . See Ériu i 117 note . ¤-garbh: san tír aimhreidh aiteanngarbh, Cog. 100.12 . ¤-ṡlíab: mar cech n-attennṡlíab, Met. Dinds. iv 140.4 .

athba

Cite this: eDIL s.v. athba or dil.ie/4661

x see 1 adba (Add. and Corr.).

bech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bech or dil.ie/5523

Forms: beach

n o, m., also [ā], f. See Gleasure, Ériu xxiv 186 ff. beach m., IGT Decl. § 171. f., § 39 . See Wagner, KZ 76.81 f. and Hamp, Ériu xxii 184 f. on orig. form and reflex in mod. dialects. bee: b.¤ gl. apes, Sg. 47a11 . síl ṁbúadach ṁb.¤ n-Erenn, Fél. Feb. 13. timthirecht b.¤ the to and fro of bees, BDD² 1169. cobair mb.¤ ┐ bu i noibiull (tasks exempted from the law of Sunday), LB 204b48 , cf. dol a ndiaid mbeuch no bóu a n-aibiull, Anecd. iii 22.8 . cen fhoche, cen chernuban, acht beich duillebhair Temhrach (during the sovereignty of Conn), Airne F. 343. nī rī arm acht arm bec beich the bee's little sting, Measgra Uí Chl. 149 § 18. Freq. in Laws, see in particular the tract entitled Bechbretha, Laws iv 162 - 202 . do tigerna in beich `by the owner of the bee', iii 434.5 Comm. cin b.¤ `injuries in the case of bees', 432.13 . tairgille ar bechaib the t. for bees (of security against damage committed by bees), iv 162.1 . foloingatsom beochu co cend mbliadna aithirruch, 172.15 . cetna breth . . . im chinta b.¤ for Conall (sic leg.) Caech caechsite beich (sic leg.), 178.13 . ili bethamain .i. beich, RC xxvi 34.3 and note. lut[h] b.¤ .i. sail sin ar a blath ┐ ar a canach (name of ogam letter s), Auraic. 5624 , cf. a lūth beach .i. blāth soilech, Anecd. iii 44.10 . dibech . . . . .i. . . . ni-b. quia apes in commune vivunt a non-bee, O'Mulc. 310. beich óghlána d'argain `plundering laden (?) bees' (of a rash act), TD 18.34 . beich gan mhil, DDána 81.34 . amhuil thiaghuid na beich a ndiaigh na meala, Desid. 6710. nid bheach nests of bees (being eaten) (i.e. honeycombs), O'R. Poems 164. léaghthar . . . nach bí cailg i rígh na mbeach, TSh. 9728. Fig. in phr. b.¤ éoluis, b.¤ éoil guiding bee: beach eóluis na héigsi Aodh / do chuir sí a haire d'éntaobh / . . . / fírbheach eóil na healadhan, LBranach 1 , 4 , see n. an éin- bheach eoil (of the Blessed Virgin), Aithd. D. 63.24 .

Note also: beith beca bithaille ac dordánaigh ar na torthaibh `little bees', Ériu iii 156 § 9. Cf. bethamain.

Compds. ¤ adba apiary; hive (?): amhail teagoid beich a beachadhbha a lo . . . ḟoghmhoir, ZCP x 287.3 . ¤breth: Laws iv 162 see above. fintiu griain i mbechbrethaib isi deirbfine i mbech- brethaib tir bes da nesom fo-da-loing, 172.4 . ¤díbad: bechdibaid `mortality of bees', AU i 468.23 . ¤dín: im turorgain do bechdin, Laws i 166.27 , glossed: i ngait na cesach b.¤ , 170.19 Comm. ¤lann beehive: siubal na saithe mb.¤ os a mbechlannaib i lló ainli, CCath. 5887. foirched fírbeach a bruinnibh b.¤ , FM vi 2224.3 . ¤lus: saithchi . . . b.¤ os bechlusaib `honey-flowers', ZCP vi 285.26 . ¤ṡlat (?): cath cro cearnach cíchblaith beach slaití, IT iii 89 § 116. ¤ṡlúag: Curoi ro hir dam . . . .x. mbeichluaigh (.i. saithe b.¤ ┐ lestra) buain bee- swarms , Ériu ii 3.11 . ¤theillén, see teillén.

1 cacht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cacht or dil.ie/7531

Forms: -a

n g s. -a.

(a) person in bondage, slave : admider de .uii. cachta cichside crissa, secht moda mogu (sic) fíthe mór- gníma moghsaine I adjudge therefor seven slaves which girdles will encircle(?) (judgement of Sencha), O'D. 2204 (Nero A vii, 141b), cf. c.¤ .i. cumal nó innillt, ut est secht cachta cichsite crissu, O'Dav. 345 . admiudur de secht cactu (.vii. cumala, LB) cichsite crísu, Corm. Bodl. 16 (s.v. mann). c.¤ .i. cumal .i. bantraill, O'Mulc. 265 . c.¤ .i. cumhal, O'Cl.

(b) bond, fetter; bondage, captivity, confinement : manimthair c.¤ na cumrech, SR 1280 . di ócbáe . . . / alloeg fo gaile cachta, 5427 . dosrat fo chrúach cachta, 6739 . fofuctha i cachtaib co cían / is in carcair co Iosíaph, 3264 . Petar fo ch.¤ cuibrig, Gorm. Aug. 1 . mo máthair do brith a c.¤ , Ériu iv 98.2 . is comus cachta berar [for] uisque hi tirib Gréc `power of impounding', Dinds. 128 ( RC xvi 80 ). rogabta i cact they were taken prisoners, AU i 336.11 . Of sieges: rogabadh c.¤ foraib i mMaen Chonain they were besieged, AU i 374.13 . slogad la D. . . . do ch.¤ for Gallu Atha Cliath `to besiege', 458.4 . ar a n-gabtis c.¤ dicein fris in longport, 434.20 . ? Of impounding cattle: [g]aibiut baetha cachta indliged, Laws ii 76.19 . ? Of obligatory service: ni dleaghar . . . cáin na c.¤ , BR 124.16 . ? is indligthech do rig na tecmalla dail cachta do indechad in uilc, H 3.18, 249.13 . Note also: fo chléire cachta, SR 5991 . cléir chachta `band of bondmen', Met. Dinds. iii 158.17 .

(c) In fig. and extended uses. Duress, hardship; asceticism : da raibh i ngalur no i c.¤ , Ériu xix 8 § 9 . dogné túaslucud cachtae (cachta MS.) `practise deliverance from bondage' (rule for holy life), Ériu i 198.5 . robu inmuin c.¤ (of the religious life), 138.13 . fiad na slógaib i sír-ch.¤ `trance', Met. Dinds. iii 224.14 . Esp. of fasting : iar sirc.¤ in chorgis `after the long privations of Lent', Mon. Tall. 156.6 (§ 68) . iar mbuaid cravaidh is cacta, Ériu xix 12 § 4 . c.¤ .i. trosgadh, O'Cl. c.¤ .i. gorta, Lec. Gl. 291 . Stowe Gl. 267 .

Constraint, compulsion (almost equivalent to gess, Plummer MS. notes): ro gaib Fuaimnech . . . c.¤ for rigraid Teamrach cin digh cin biadh . . . co ro ícdais i dalta fria, O'C. 2361 ( Eg. 88, 28 (29)a ). c.¤ do gabail for rigraid Erann, 2363 (ib.).

Of the body (regarded as a prison after the fall): lecid mo chorp . . . / inna ch.¤ cen chumscu[gu]d, SR 2058 . Perh. also nocon alaind mar atai / cid ardotralaid hi c.¤ ? 1307 . luid . . . asa ch.¤ (of the death of Colum C.), LU 653 . a alt a olcc / a ch.¤ a chorp, IT iii 84 § 75 . mo brig brig ro scaich a c.¤ , YBL 316b19 . Note also: Lugaid . . . / rocrīch a c.¤ / fo gné glaine . . . his life, ZCP xii 379.21 .

(d) Various: a drech abban ceirbo c.¤ though she was deformed(?) (of a mermaid), LU 3077 (`though she was a bondmaid', Fél. 53 ). ós Charmun c.¤ , Met. Dinds. iii 8.87 . ro cuiread in cath go c.¤ , Todd Nenn. lxix 23 ( BB 43b11 ). Cf. c.¤ common, general ; fa c.¤ generally , O'R.

Common in chevilles: a Christ cen ch.¤ , ZCP i 497.9 . rotfīa mo chen-sa cin c.¤ , vi 266 § 7 . búaid cen ch.¤ , LU 3753 ( SC 54 ). bad adba chaingen can ch.¤ , SG 366.29 . Críst . . . mór da c.¤ , Buile S. 32 . deoda in c.¤ Fél. xxv § 7 . cialla c.¤ , SR 2335 . caṅgnib gleraib, gloraib c.¤ , 4569 . fo chucht c.¤ , 6169 . cuairt c.¤ , 6551 .

As n. pr. C.¤ mac Ilguine, ZCP viii 217 § 6 .

In n. loc. rí Cairn Chachta, LL 24089 .

Compd. cēsud do c[h]uirp c[h]achtbāin pale from bondage, ZCP viii 232 § 3 .

caingen

Cite this: eDIL s.v. caingen or dil.ie/7832

Forms: caingen, cain

n ā, f., later also o, m. c.¤ m., IGT Decl. § 53 . f., § 54 .

(a) suit, claim, petition, message : caingin no fugall gl. negotium aduersus alterum, Wb. 9c4 . in tan luaithfider a ch.¤-som hi tig Dǽ gl. cum iudicium agitari ejus coeperit `his case', Ml. 57c7 . nī ar cais nā miscuis .i. nī ar dēnum chaingne for nech, Corm. Y 285 . do tosach caingean, O'D. 539 ( H. 3. 17, 433 ) `of the precedence of cases', O'Don. Suppl. as i mbreth is dia cach caingne (of end of the world), Laws i 22.6 Comm. , perh. for as í in breth as dead . . . . ar nach cnedh bis slan ré mes is di caingin la feine, O'C. 1819 ( 23 Q 6, 46a ) = di caingiun, O'D. 423 ( H. 3. 17, 324 ). tiachtuin d'acra a caingne, Laws ii 86.6 Comm. iman caingean frecnairc, O'D. 579 ( H. 3. 17, 444 ). Maxim, Johan, Ernan / conc[h]uire mo ch.¤ , Gorm. Aug. 17 . co cuibdi cach caṅgni, LL 16607 (RC xlvii 293.y). cen gūbreith . . . / . . . / acht in chaṅgen fīr `but (finding) the true facts', KMMisc. 262 § 17 ( LL 18878 ). cia caiṅgen dotuc aniar ? Rawl. 82b7 . beir . . . / gusin coimdid mo chaingin, CF 88.3 . ar impide th'aingel / co n-ilar a cc.¤ `with all their pleading', Ériu xix 3 § 5 . im Sairial seolta caingean `who prospers causes', Dán Dé xxv 55 . dár gcabhairne im chaingean / daghaighne mná (: aingeal), PBocht 18.4 . ná bérad breth forsin caingin sin, Ériu iv 126.13 . tāinic aingel ar mo chend / c.¤ daingen ar mo ci[u]nd, ZCP vii 307.7 . fer lan . . . do cosnam cacha caingne fa tabrad a lam `in upholding every cause he undertook to plead', Ann. Conn. 1307.9 . conciuchlat[h]ar do chainccen your affair will be heard, ML² 508 . ? do fhregair in sámaid sin / a cánaib is a caingnib, SG 69.18 .

In phrases: c.¤ fri claim etc. against: [intí] bes im caingin fris, Laws ii 86.2 Comm. im caingin fri righ no seanadh gl. tocomracc, v 396.x . im chaingin robui de muintir Tamlachti friss, Mon. Tall. 157.7 . cia c.¤ fil det-siu frin-ne ? PH 3216 . téit etc. imm, la, fri ch.¤ goes etc. on a message, presents a case: dorrími Sencha . . . in caingin immá tullatár, LU 8745 ( FB 56 ). in c.¤ lasa tancais `the matter concerning which thou hast come', CCath. 4065 . timarnad duit nád dechis . . . / fri caingin (quaingen, caingne, caingeana, v.ll.) na athchuingid / as do liss cot' écc `for business or begging' (command to a monk), Ériu iii 108 § 52 . Note also: ma ta side a caingi a (? leg. i caingin) diubarta, Laws v 504.14 Comm. senchus .i. cuis is cain . . . .i. caing cain ingena (? leg. caingin, caingena) .i. cas caingine, i 30.30 Comm.

(b) dispute, controversy , question (for discussion): aí, cuis no caingean `controversie', Eg. Gl. 66 . tabair . . . comarli . . . .i. im cangin dilgotha cid dogénam imme, LU 9768 . i n-ecmais na caingni sin, 9771 . cepe nom bera . . . cen forus mo caingni chucu, 10260 . fri cosc ┐ cuindrech na c.¤ , Anecd. i 44.19 . fuaradar caingin doilig maxima quaestio , Lat. Lives 77.2 . batar caṅgni imda sunn ic Aed `questions', RC xx 46.21 . búaidh caingni cecha hairechta `victory in every assembly', xxvii 276 § 30 . in bóroma o Lagnib / tóroma do chaṅgnib cland, LL 16842 (`a service of the family tribute', RC xlvii 325 ). ro chóraig cach caingin ┐ cech n-imresain, 1477 . is caiṅgen / bith frisin less n-imdaṅgen, Auraic. 5124 . im cach c.¤ ro fiarfaig de, Grail 2188 . nobetis caingne ┐ écraiti dúibhsi, TTr.² 124 . caingni do chrichnachadh, TTebe 1141 . dénam comairli imon caingin sin, FDG² 685 . ic gleud ch.¤ na mór-ṡluagh `settling the dispute', Celtica iv 34.479 . romain ar gach caingnib / mac Muire go n-ainglib finna[ib] may . . . protect me against all disputes (suits ?), ZCP x 347 § 21 . coscar cacha caingne do commaidem `to triumph in every struggle', MR 258.23 . smuainiud cindti cacha caingni for solving every problem, 94.2 . críoch ar gcaingne `issue of our dispute', Content. ix 4 . an t-ord caingne `method of discussion', xxiv 3 . With ceist: césta ┐ caṅgni in choicid d'ordugud, TBC 868 . oenach . . . / cen cheist cen chaṅgin cen chreich, LL 27826 . du ceastaib ┐ du chaingnib domundaibh `worldly questions and cases', Auraic. 48 . ré heidir-ghleodh ceasd ┐ caingean, CRR² 16 . ceist ┐ c.¤ , PH 9 .

(c) Less specifically business, matter, affair : in cois ┐ in caingin ara-rogbad in salm gl. causam cantici `the matter', Ml. 74b11 . i cach caingin gl. in negotio, Wb. 25b5 . bid imda a n-airgne garba / is a caingne allmarda `piratical exactions', Fen. 66.10 . díchuirthar úain . . . tairmesca na c.¤ . . . saegulla (exhortation for Lent), PH 4993 . ba nefní leis a c.¤ ora maid in cath remi (of Protesilaus), LL 32287 `their dealing', TTr. 1475 . bad adba ch.¤ can chacht / bad adba aingel mon port (of Tech Molling), SG 366.29 . c.¤ in bāis brais, ZCP vii 302.27 . aingil Dé dom dín / fon caingin clé atchíam, KMMisc. 254.2 . suairc in ínis rangamar / imdha a cnuas is a c.¤ , 317.15 . cá c.¤ uil bar fargam what are you proposing to undertake(?), FDG² 638 . dōib fēin bid olc in c.¤ , ZCP v 22 § 9 . beg air . . . c.¤ na namad `the doings of the enemies', TFrag. 154.13 . is i caingean is coru `policy', Cog. 122.21 . rí an bheatha ceann gach caingne `Lord of all causes', Aithd. D. 75.16 . do bert . . . laimh imna caingnibh sin do fhorbhadh `to carry out these charges', Hugh Roe² 216.15 .

In prep. phr. with IMM: im chaingin ind anmchairdini `concerning the matter of spiritual direction', Mon. Tall. 135.11 . cia ro thuttis im chaṅgin t'ingini, TFerbe 253 . im caingin na ndaoine do déndáis aithricche `in the case of men', RC xxv 396 § 10 . cionnas do ghéndaois im caingin na nDanar, TFrag. 118.1 . With TRE: tre c[h]aingne con on account of, Sc. M² 21b .

(d) In later lang. also covenant, pact : dorinnes c.¤ re-m shúilib ( Job xxxi 1 ), PH 7800 . ro snaidm si a c.¤ , Grail 2291 . in c.¤ cona rathnachus tucsatt `guaranteed pact', St. Ercuil 358 . ar coilled a caingne re Ruaidri `had broken his covenant with R.', Ann. Conn. 1315.12 . in c.¤ sin C. ┐ M. `arrangement between C. and M.', CCath. 1163 . nī scarthar a c.¤ , ZCP iii 32.22 . an té ler cailleadh a chor / a caingean Dé do diúltadh, IGT Decl. ex. 1355 . fada súas fa bhrúach mBeirbhe / crúach sgeimhle ó chrúas do chaingne, 1373 . deadhuil chaingne na ccumpán `after the breaking of covenants', Studies 1921, 588 § 3 . lucht crúadhaighthe caingneadh (chaingean, v.l.) réidh `men who harden easy covenants', 1919 , 256 § 4 . ní fhuil ar chléircibh caingean, Measgra D. 55.18 . `the clergy have no status(?)', Gloss. ní bhí caingean ná cairdeas idir a lucht aittreabhtha (of vices of the body), TSh. 2948 .

(e) In chevilles: c.¤ ṅglé, SR 5463 . clothach caingean, Anecd. i 60 § 86 . caingean ceart, SG 24.23 . caingin nach gann, ZCP i 121 n.z . nochar ch.¤ cle, BCC 40.16 ; 168.29 . ? Cf. cainig (leg. caingen ?) cain, SR 3753 .

Compd. With adj.: bidh cath-buadhach caingen-glic `wise of counsel', BR 8.13 .

1 cía

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cía or dil.ie/8965

Forms: cía, ci, cá, gá, cá, gá, cár, cá, cía, citné, cia, ciodh, cisne, cipé, cipé

interr. and indef. pron. Given in list of interrogatives, Laws v 6.1 ff. Comm. ; for forms permitted and prohibited in classical verse see IGT Introd. § 16 . See Thurn. Gramm. §§ 456 - 460 , Strachan, Ériu i 6 ff. , Bergin, Ériu xii 205 ff.

A As interrogative.

I General form cía (ce, ci) (`unstressed or weakly stressed,' Thurn. Gramm. § 456 ) without indication of gender. In later lang. freq. cá, gá (cf. gia, TBC 56 , giá, 730 etc.). who? what ? (in direct and indirect interrogation).

(a) With dependent verb (as conj. part. or in accordance with Bergin's Law). As subject of vb.: cia beir búar o thig Temrach who takes? LL 1566 . cía rét Brega? LU 9306 . ? cia saig do rús Herind. . .? LL 1787 . cía taisiu? LU 6307 . cia bátar do bésa? Tec. Corm. 7 . ní fitir R. cía-rraba / crích `whose was', Met. Dinds. iv 4.45 . immoscoemorcuir ceptar hé, Corm. Bodl. 34.21 . As object: ce róich `how far . . . extends', Sg. 26a11 . cia roich eneclann? Laws iii 536.1 . cia-roig dire? Ir. Recht 13 § 14 . cia fairneac? Ériu xi 44.3 . cia acca whom didst thou see? LU 7135 . bec a ḟis duid cia do ordo, Anecd. i 7.5 (do(o)rdo, SCano 198 `what I croon', Gloss.). So also in cíar(r)icc (separate article). Rarely cid in this use. Nom. cid dernad? LL 251a18 . Accus. cid dernais? LL 251a39 .

With inf. pron. usually cich-: cichib foruireth? . . . fon- roireth imned what has been caused to you? TBFr. 399 = ZCP iv 45.28 . cichib-roerad? what has been prepared for you (i.e. how have you fared?), IT iii 237.62 = cichib roér ol Bodb. Nin foruireth nammaith olse, LL 246b24 . mnā brataiter . . . cichi brata? cichi aig? cichi goin? who abducts them? TBC² 1081 (cicen, cíche, ciche, LU). ? ciche bárogell a regg / sonend ┐ dubdonend, LL 376a4 . Exceptionally: ar feisidh ciab dergeine `who has made you', Blathm. 91 § 6 . fir gontair, mnā brattar, bai agthar . . . cistabrata, cisdagata, cisdabeir? TBC² 2989 . See ZCP xxii 29 .

With copula: innaní asbertis cipad a déne ind hesséirgi `that used to say what would be the swiftness of the resurrection', Wb. 25b27 . conid fessed cia bed flaith inna diad, Ml. 89b7 . For cía ba chan see can.

Hence in various adverbial meanings. (b) how ? cia Ulto ána acca? LL 13439 . cumma cīa-thōetsat imbi, Sc.M² 3 (`how', Gloss.). cía festa `how should ye know?' Met. Dinds. iii 48.12 . cia ḟacci ar sluág? TBC 223 . is cuma dó c.¤ eipli, Liad. and Cuir. 20.17 `how he dies', Meyer Contribb. 363 . With deut. form: cía dorochair Cróeb Dathi? Met. Dinds. iii 148.1 . Note also: cīa tairicc? Tairic hi cind teora mblīadna when? ZCP viii 312.29 .

(c) where ? In later lang. cá, gá (nasalizing), with narrative tense cár. cá `lochdach', IGT Introd. § 16 . Orig. with téit: ni fetatar cia deochaid where he went, LU 3329 ( SC 12 ). nocon ḟess cia deochatar, LL 290a27 . With deut. form of vb. cia dochuatar ass? where did they go? TFerbe 565 . In later lang.: cá ngabhaid? Oss. iii 232.5 . Keat. Poems 1545 . cá bhfaighion tú an raidhirc so? ZCP v 215.419 . cā ndearnais do c[h]ēad- c[h]reach? Feis TC 145 . cár ghabh, 490 . cá ar fríth é? ZCP v 215.418 . carbh ail les dul, St. Ercuil 981 . With attá: ga ffuil maithe na Féine? Duan. Finn ii 322 § 15 (see iii 151). ga bhfuil suim . . . na naitheantadh `what is the abridgment?' Donl. 52.22 . ro fhiarfaigh I. ca rabe A., St. Ercuil 25 . do f[h]iafraigdur dī cā raibhe sí whence she was, Feis TC 1666 . Note also cia racha, ITS xvii 188.1526 etc.

(d) With fíu glossing Lat. quam, how (great, etc.): cia fíu .i. mór ní gl. quam admirabile, Ml. 17b12 - 13 . gl. quam (sollicite), 23a10 . ce fiu gl. quam maxime, Sg. 114a3 . See Dict. Fasc. F 159.16 ff. and compare cia fiú me bheith beó etc. how can I remain alive? ITS xvii 159.963 .

(e) With follg. noun (often as antecedent of rel. clause). With masc.: ciachruth gl. quomodo, Sg. 212a1 (see cruth). cia dune ind inni-sseo gl. qualem . . . hominem, Ml. 35c33 . cia mod .i. imba do gres . . . `what measure', Ml. 100d4 . Perh. also in the follg.: dús cia port indib maith óigedacht `in what place', Wb. 26b24 . cia salmscribdid conicfed són `what psalmist?', Ml. 14a6 . amal nad finnatar sidi cia loc sainriud dia regtais, 99b10 . cia randdatu bis indi, Sg. 27a12 . cía cethrar? Rí ┐ brithem etc., Críth Gabl. 536 . cia file ar secht ccumha- luibh dlighidh what poet . . .? Ériu xiii 18.4 . cia fot atúsa isin chotlud sa how long? LU 6359 . gá fad? TSh. 1618 . ca sén dob ferr? Ériu iv 224.13 . ca ræt in muirn . . . ar-at- cluineam? TTebe 1901 (see crét). ca hinad? LB 137b51 . gá cara don uile as fhearr? A. Ó Dálaigh xv 5 . DDána 50.12 . gá fhios nach . . . (ḟ = bf?), O'Gr. Cat. 456.10 . gá chúis fá . . ., 12 . cár bh'iongnadh? Hard. i 204 .

(f) With fem.: cia airm `what place', Wb. 12d18 (see cairm, cáit). ceseirc gl. quam caritatem habeam, 14d15 (differently Thurn. Gramm. 289 ). ce meit gl. quanto, 33a1 . ce mét aimmser bes indi `what times may be in it', Sg. 25b16 . ce méit a[s] sinu aís quam A. `how much older', Wb. 34a5 . See méit. cia dú gl. quo, Ml. 40c7 . cia inni soas `how He turns', 123d8 (see note). cá huair díscáeilter in doman nó cá tráth thiucfus Dia? RC xxiv 382.32 . ca delb rogabais? Ériu iv 104.15 . cia ben is mesa do mnáib? ZCP viii 113.11 . cá slat is slimghile bas? O'Gr. Cat. 332.27 . ga hobar dhíbh nach doiligh? Studies 1921, 588 § 1 . gá breath rug féin ar an bhfear? Dán Dé xxv 16 .

(g) With neut.: cia eret mbete oc m'ingraimmim-se `how long?' Ml. 33a9 . cia airet bis micomus etc., Laws ii 186.6 . cia hairet, PH 1501 . See airet, cairet. anfis ca cinel aire nos beir etc., Laws i 188.6 Comm. cia forcenn doberthar foraib, Ml. 33a9 . na fetar . . . ca galar . . ro-t-básaig, CRR 3 . cia indas conaittechtatar a n-íc, Ml. 90b16 . décaid . . . a arm cia indas rundgabsat, 55c1 (see indas, cindas). cia leath reghma? Anecd. i 2.9 ( SCano 25 ). cia tír, ZCP viii 318.33 .

(h) cía with follg. prep. and noun or pron. rendering oblique cases of Lat. pronn. (see Thurn. Gramm. 228 - 229 ): cia ar neoch gl. ad quid, Sg. 217a5 . Cf. cia erneo gl. quam ob rem, Ml. 101a4 . ci erniu gl. quamobrem, 47b1 . cairhe biit, Sg. 242b1 leg. ciairneo = quamobrem, n . ciarrét gl. quamobrem, Ml. 48c2 . cide gl. de quo (cia de? cid de?), Sg. 3a9 . cia du neuch gl. ad quem . . .? Ml. 16a9 . cia dunaib hi do foirmsed gl. de quibus adderet? 35a17 . cia du forcunn gl. quem ad finem, 33a9 . cia du rét gl. cui rei? 121d1 . cia isnaib hí gl. in quibus, 49c13 . cia in n-erbirt ṁbiuth gl. in quem ussum, 46b28 . cia i n-olcaib gl. in quibus malis, 23b2 . ci onaibhi, gl. quibus, 47a10 . cio ainmnid dixnigidir gl. ex quo sit nominatiuo? Sg. 207b3 . ciofut gl. usque quo, Ml. 20a17 . 93a15 . ci ho fothaib són gl. quibus (dementiae facibus accensi sunt), 16b19 . ci o retaib gl. quibus rebus, 35c35 . gl. ex quibus rebus, 44d24 . cio thomus gl. qua libra etc., 55d16 . So also probably in later lang.: cia chuige a ndírighmid ar nurnuigh, Donl. 364.16 . ca as a tangadar, St. Ercuil 1412 . casa ticit siat, Ir. Astr. Tr. 146.1 . Hence perh. in later phr. gá d'ulc what is the harm of? (see Fasc. N-O-P 135.37 ff., Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z ). gá d'ulc bogur an bhása? IGT Decl. ex. 758 . gá d'ulc mé gan mothugadh? ex. 224 . gá d'ulc óigrí eslobar? O'Gr. Gat. 470.9 . Cf. cair. See Éigse xii 136 .

(i) In phrase cíadono why (then)? (see Thurn. Gramm. 289 See further Éigse xii 136 .): ar cia dono gl. ut quid autem, Wb. 2d10 . hóre ro-n-ortigestar dia cedono tuidecht friss `why then?' 6a4 . ce dono rigne occo `what, then, is the good of prolixity in it?' 8d15 . cepu dono adrad dǽ do thabirt do Pool? 7d16 . ciapu dono dún indarpe geinte `why should we then expel the Gentiles?' 19a14 . ? ēludh ann for romhuir / nícon fess cia dona, ZCP x 344.13 .

(j) In various constructions with adjj. In early legal texts with superl.: cia measom do cain ts.? `what is the worst of . . . ?' Laws ii 194.1 . cia dilsiumh d'ḟiledhoibh, Ériu xiii 31.2 . cía háithemh eó? acais dlighidh, etc., 25.6 . Prob. also: cia so do rinnibh etc. 20.30 = ciaso do ninnaib, O'Dav. 1289 . In later lang. in phrase gá beag is it not enough? ga beag mur ḟáth duilghis, IGT Decl. ex. 1057 . cá beag d'fhiadhnaise? Studies 1920, 97 § 2 . gárbh fhearr céim, 98 § 6 . gá bheag dhúinn dá dhearbhadh ort is it not proof enough for you? Content. vi 25 . Freq. with compar. in rhetorical questions. Cf. ga meisde ┐ ga c[h]an ┐ ca d'ulc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z . gá cruaidhe ceisd what more difficult question (is there)? DDána 12.1 . ga deacra ní do neithibh? IGT Decl. ex. 938 . car doilge [le] inghin Taidg / éc Aodha aird . . . / inā d'Echtaigh a bás bróin / Corbmaic hūi Cuinn . . . , ZCP vi 269 § 4 . ca ferr duind ar mbeandacht do chur . . . go fer in liubair sea na a fágbail aigi? LU 2769 (colophon). gá fearr m'áis-se ná m'aindeoin how is it better to get my consent than to constrain me? Dán Dé i 5 . ga feirdi me do m[healladh]? Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.2 . cá bud fherrde, PH 7582 . gá misde don cholainn chriadh / an t-anam d'faghbháil ilphian what harm? Dán Dé xxv 41 . m'uabar gá mó mínáire? O'Gr. Cat. 346.33 . do Mhuire gár mhó guasocht? Dán Dé xx 47 . Note also: cá minic do chionntaidh sé `how often', Donl. 320.28 . an lícc dimor uccat fil forsan tulaigh, cía mó atá i ttalamh dhi na uása how much more of it is in the earth than above it? BNnÉ 8.16 .

II Inflected (`more fully stressed', Thurn. Gramm. § 456 ) cía, cisí cid, citné etc. In classical verse the forms cia and ciodh are stressed, see DDána 12.1 , 58.35 . `cía, can, cúich . . . were in direct interrogation used with the copula *esti (cf. mod. Ir. cé h-é) . . . ', O'Brien, Féil. Mhic Néill 88 .

With indep. form of verb (a) cía m.: cia beraid doib a remeperthe `who will refer to them the aforesaid?' Ml. 37a9 (perh. transition from I(a) above). Usually with rel. clause: cía rédes ruind? BDD² 294 etc. cia dib gebus t'forba? RC xxiv 194.1 . cía de as sru[i]thiu? Críth Gabl. 492 . cīa nād cūala? ZCP xi 109 § 7 . Prob. also in follg., where there is no mark of rel.: cia con-icc ní dúun? Wb. 4b11 . cia folínfea? 12d14 . cia dobera íc do Sión? Ml. 34d5 . dús cia atrebea isin chathraig `to learn who will dwell in the city', 35b24 . cia de dogega `which of them I shall choose', Wb. 23b33 . dús cīa díb do-ngegad, Sc.M² 19 . caidi bad ferr la hUltu, a mmarb nō a mbeo . . . ? TBC² 681 (cia dé, LU). do fiarfaidh A. de cia dá cloind do beith etc., ZCP xi 128.34 . quis est horum qui vicit . . . .i. cia ro blaiss bethaid? LL 281a32 . cia aca is rogha leat? Hard. i 274.y .

(b) cid n. (rel. frequently marked): cid aem no-dom-bera-sa cucuibsi, Wb. 1a8 . cid atobaich cen dílgud cech ancridi `what impels you . . . ?', 9c20 . nícon fitir cid asbeir, 12c22 . ro fitid cid aridfuirig a foilsigud, 26a11 . dús cid forchomnacuir indi `to learn what hath happened therein', Ml. 16c5 . cid du-gén-sa osme `what shall I do, even I?', 30b9 . ní fintar cid attrebthar and `what is possessed there', Sg. 200b13 . niconfetadar cid fodruair `they . . . knew not what had caused it', Mon. Tall. 147.13 . asbert nicon feddur cid fil do sirgabail na biaide I do not understand your continual singing of the Beati, 127.2 . cid dogén? ZCP viii 113.9 . cid tuccais ō Guaire what hast Thou got from G.? Arch. iii 2.10 . With subst. vb. in nasalising rel. clause what ails, what is the matter with? see attá. With copula: nad fes cid as maith no as olc [do] denum, Ml. 51b7 . dober Dia aithesc cid as denti no cid as imgabthi, 51b8 . cid as dech do mnáib? what is the best type of wife? ZCP viii 113.5 . Note the variation in: na cóig guthaidhe, cía dhíobh as glan no as neamhghlan, no ciodh as cáol no as leathan da bfeadhuibh oireaghdha, ┐ créd atá na ndefhogh- rachuibh etc., IGT Introd. 1.10 .

With nouns in sense who is? what is?

(c) m. cía (also occasionally with other genders, and regularly with ainm, see Ériu i 9 ): cia haes esca? SR 7964 . cía méit in gill? Críth Gabl. 282 . cía [a] míad sidi? 586 . cia th'ainmsiu? LU 10774 . cía hainm? what's your name? BDD² 264 . cía hainm dá mnaí? 365 . cia n-anmand what are their names? TFerbe 357 . cīa cétliaigh robūi ind-Ēirinn? ZCP viii 105.12 . cía bar lín-se is[in] indsi-se? Ériu iv. 142.21 . nī hētur cia hainm in maic aile, ZCP viii 293.24 . cia don teora crannsa an chroch, Dán Dé iii 27 . cia an monghar mór-sa? DDána 85.6 . cia an duine bhias beó = quis est homo? TSh. 3125 .

Forms in -so, -su etc. (cf. indic. pres. 3 s. of 2 cía. See Celtica vii 38-42 ): ciaso baili ata in crann? SR 7931 . ciaso buaid duinne? Bodl. Dinds. 27 . cia so gním what deed? TBC 958 . cíasu anmann bai for suidiu? IT ii2 195.153 . nī fetar-sa ciasu adba etc., Fing. R. 969 . ciasa bas . . . do bean . . . in bas-crann? Ériu iv 116 § 26 (`whose hand?'). ciasa fogealtad son? .i. miach cacha mis, Laws iv 106. 15 Comm. ím comirc doib ciasa hairm ín ro scuirsid, 106.22 Comm. ciasa run, Auraic. 5210 (císi, v.l.). ciarsat comainm celisiu what's your master's name? LL 9041 (TBC). carsat comainm? Acall. 390 . ciarso choma no bértha dó? LL 8937 (TBC). garsa gním sain? 9990 (TBC).

(d) cía with pron. who is? cia tussu díxnigedar who art thou? Wb. 4c24 . cia hé nu-n-dixnaigther-siu gl. qui sis, Ml. 75c9 . ciahé gl. qui (sit), 14d14 . cia hé `who is it?' 46c17 . ce hé roscríb `who it is that has written', Sg. 197a19 . cinní sin frisnaiccai siu `whom dost thou expect?', Thes. ii 227.30 (from intí-sin, Thurn. Gramm. § 460 ). cia so who is this? Anecd. i 8. 23 ( SCano 257 ). cía so? Sc.M² R 10 . cīa and-so? 11 (for inso?). cia tusu? RC xxiv 200.9 . fochtuis Feilis scela de, ce he budein, ZCP vi 25. 18 . cīa pad cīa . . . acht . . . Condere . . . who should it be but C.? Ériu i 114 § 3 . beag a fhios agad . . . / cia misi d'fhearaibh Eireann, Studies 1924, 243 § 17 . With -so, -su: cía so thú? LU 10768 = ciasu tu, Ériu xii 170.3 .cársa cúich thú? Mer. Uil.² 90 . cársa cía[s]ib-si etir? 250 .

(e) cía with follg. prep. as antecedent of rel. clause (cf. I(h) above): cia dia fiachaigedar gl. ad quem debeat, Ml. 44b3 . cia forsa tiagat? `on whom do they fall? Laws ii 178.3 . nicon-fes cīa ō-tucad, Sc.M² 3 . cia ar nach tug a thrócuire? Dán Dé xxv 46 . cor dib Painiel dian / Gabriel cia ar nach cor? KMMisc. 254.14 . d'iomad rogha ag Día dá dhiomda / fola cía dá ttiobhra ar tós, IGT Decl. ex. 109 .

(f) cisí, ces(s)í with f. noun: cisí chomairle ǽm `what indeed is the counsel?' Ml. 34c18 . cissi slabrai in díscer sa? LU 5162 (TBC). cissi gáir seo? 4475 . císí (sic) suillse mór sucut? BDD² 591 . áil dūn a ḟis . . . cisī rāth so, Ériu viii 157.6 . Freq. with follg. rel. clause: cessi aimser hi rogbath `at what time it was sung', Ml. 24d10 . cisi aimsir hi for- comnactar in gnimai, 97a5 . cisí digal didenach dumberaesiu a Dǽ, 100d5 . co n-eperthae cia aiccent ┐ cisi aimser derb thechtas, Sg. 26a6 . cisi rann dogéntar di, 27a13 . cesí aram gl. ad quod genus uel numerum refertur, 197b3 . cisi chiall bís indib `what is the meaning that is in them', 217a2 . cisi muime bat tualoing what fostermother could have? Blathm. 100 § 32 . cisi mathair con bert / an geinsi? ib. (MS. cisi in, text). cisi gnuis . . . forta napsalmo? Hib. Min. 3.76 . cise noail noclanna `by what oath shall it be settled?' Laws iv 142.3 . cisi airm hi tá L.? LU 3620 (SC. 31). rāidh frim cisé (ciséd, v.l.) dāil di ṡund dogénum, Arch. iii 294 § 13 . cisi breth rucais? Rawl. 113a2 . cissí dichuimni rod dall? LL 21767 . fég darisse . . . cisi chonar dotháet `look again, what road is he coming', RC iii 183.33 . inderb . . . cisi uair no cisi aimsir regthair, Ériu v 120.3 . cisí hairle do beradh, Hugh Roe² 292.14 . With ellipse of rel. clause: tair limsa . . . co ndérais. Cisí dígal? MU² 1034 . Also somet. with other genders: ciasi animnairme (ainm n-áirme) fil . . ., Hib. Min. 2.41 . ciasi ord fil forna psalmu, 6.196 . ra iarfaig . . . cissi log conattaig, LL 30975 ( TTr. 156 ). occa scrúdadh . . . cisi cruth no aithfedh, Hugh Roe² 96.15 . Note also: atbertsat cipsi magen i ferfaithe in cath, Dinds. 188 ( RC xvi 274 ).

(g) cid with n. noun. In sense what is? cid aes ṅ-esci? BCr. 32a9 . cidh dire Mac-ḟuirmidh? Ériu xiii 25.27 . cid an ní seo? BDD² 242 . cid damhna bar ndocesaid? Arch. iii 310 viii 3 . ciodh achd ar ghrádh no ar ghrádsa / clár págsa d'fhior ón Aodhsa? IGT Decl. ex. 137 .

With follg. rel. clause: imrádat imráti cid maith as déntí `as to what good is to be done', Wb. 1d7 . cid ḟolad ṡluindes, Sg. 25b17 (see note). ce torad gl. quem . . . fructum habuistis? Wb. 3b29 . cid chenél gl. quod genus . . . refertar, Sg. 197b3 . Perh. also: cidechor (= cid dechor) gl. quae sit differentia, 23a2 . In difft. constr. (cf. II (c) above): ced torbe doib etarscarad . . . fria tola what does it profit them? Wb. 13c6 . ce torbe dúib-si . . . in fogur-sin, Ml. 12d5 . ced slīab inso thall? TBC² 614 .

(h) cid with pronoun: ced ed tra `what is it then?' Wb. 3b28 . cid so? Mon. Tall. 130.15 ; YBL 118a23 ; ZCP xiii 179.3 . cid sin? BDD² 448 . cid ón `what is that?' RC iii 184.25 . ceadh sibh acht na seacht dtroighthe what do you amount to? DDána 53.21 .

(i) cid with DO. With follg. neg.: cid dait-siu . . . nád bod latt curadmir, etc. why shouldn't you have? LU 8139 ( FB 10 ). cid daib . . . nach mair[b]fed sib? TTebe 1865 . cidh damhsa cen dul d'iarraidh a maithme why should I not go, etc.? RC xxvii 294 § 38 . Note also: cidh duibsi what think ye of it? (?), RC xxvi 366.13 . cidh dhúinn déanamh a bhfeasa `why need I tell of them?' Content. iv 27 .

(j) cid with DI: cid de ón what does that matter? LU 6361 . cid de-side why so? TBC 5580 .

(l) cid with prep. and rel. clause: cid asa fordailtea grád túa[i]the on what basis have the lay grades been laid down? Críth Gabl. 6 . Sliab B. cid diata whence is it named? RC xv 301.5 . cídh día ndearnadh Adhamh, 23 E 26, 5.18 .

(m) In similar construction in meaning why? With AR: cid arind epur frit why do I say it to thee? Wb. 5a31 . cid ara ndluthid caratrad friu iterum? 27a30 . cid ara todlaigther inso, Ml. 32a5 . cid ara fodaim int ais firian inna fochaidi? 55d11 . cid armad machdad etc.? Sg. 167a4 . cid arṅdid huathuislib ildaib disruthaigedar? 198b3 . cid ar bad? Thes. ii 227. 34 . cid ara n-eperr Críth Gablach? Críth Gabl. 1 . cidh ar a fhuil Cuncha ar in inadhso? ZCP xi 40.35 . With DI: cid dia leícid cundubairt for drecht uáib? Wb. 13b12 . cid dia n-éirena(i)tar? Críth Gabl. 121 . rofiarfaig . . . desim cid dia mboi fora iarrair, Grail 1522 . With IMM (later FÁ): finnaid . . . cid imma ndernad in t-id, LL 8053 (TBC). cidh ma tancais alé `why hast thou come . . . ?' Ériu iii 158 § 11 . cid 'ma n-iarthai? TTebe 1700 . cid . . . 'mara loirgis, TFrag. 118.15 . ciodh far dhoilghe trí thairnge? DDána 40.10 . innis dúinn ciodh fa ttánghuis, Duan. Finn i 78.16 . ciodh fa ttiobhradh, IGT Decl. ex. 1311 .

(n) cid as adverb, why ? cid no mbetha . . . on what account shouldst thou be . . . ? Wb. 4c24 . cid na déccaid? Fél. Prol. 201 . ced nach maith? Trip.² 1968 . cid nabsin Fedelm-sa . . . cichsed, LU 8296 ( FB 22 ). Tond Chlidna cid aréracht? Met. Dinds. iii 214.54 . cid éige, a bean? Celtica iv 16.154 . cidh tāi a[g] gul? ZCP viii 559.5 . cid . . . na caithi do chuidich? Ériu v 36.19 . do chách ciodh nach aithréasda? DDána 58.35 . cidh na ro chomaillis an gealladh doradais? BNnÉ 295 § 22 . Cf. cid ane . . . meic na mbachlach . . . do chomram cucum what business have the sons of rustics to be contending with me? Sc.M² 12 .

(o) where ? whither ? With téit: co n-at[h]comaircter nde cid ted, RC xiii 222.5 . cid nothēigid ? ZCP xiii 176.8 . co fesamar úait . . . cid thége whither thou goest, Ériu iv 140.5 . ní fedar festa cidh rachad, Anecd. i 77.9 . cid lotar ? LL 12826 . cid ghébmoe ? BDD² 245 . Exceptionally with attá: d'iar[r]aidh fhessa . . . cuith a roiphi in ingen where, TTebe 33 (leg. cáit ?).

(p) In phr. cid tra acht, see trá.

Plural forms.

(q) citné, citni (prob. from cia ata n-é ` who, what (is it) that they are?', Thurn., ZCP xx 372 , Gramm. § 456 ). assindet sunt tra citné cumacte diandid cóir infognam what are the powers, Wb. 6a9 . citne gl. (sí . . . quaeritur) quae (gentes), Ml. 16b13 . cit né briathra robatar `what were the words?', 61b7 . cit né robatar `what were they?', 8 . asindet ón ciné (leg. citné? edd.) fochainn . . ., 101a3 . citni rig reachta . . . / robatar 'sind amsir sin? SR 2347 . citni trenfir dotiarmór- setsu? LU 10261 . cit n-é uisce . . . do-ríadhad? BDD² 456 . ni fetar citne briga / mo dul i teach cor-riga I do not know what good there is in my going into the house to kings, Ériu v 30.2 . citni cenela na fuillet, Rawl. 69a29 . indis . . . dam . . . / citne clerig notrefet, / citne oic notndeirget, Thr. Hom. 110.16 , 17 . citne tire in geinseadar? Leb. Gab. 234.20 = Keat. ii 741 . Without follg. noun: citné foruar what are they which He has prepared? Wb. 8b5 . citne and dī rott eblatar? LU 10284 . citn-éisidi? BDD² 555 . ? citne in ferand? LL 15993 = Todd Nenn. 222.3 (ceisi urrand, v.l. 223 n.).

(r) cisne (described as an `iarmberla', Auraic. 1308 ): cis n-é amuis ata chórai? Críth Gabl. 578 . cisne lesa . . . tascnat . . . ? Laws i 230.21 . cisne tri leaca robaid? v 450.1 . cisne sgéith sguirde caithche? Ériu xiii 17.15 . cisne trí gealla nád fuilled . . .? 33.28 . cisne tri horba doranaiter la Féne? O'C. 2167 ( Eg. 88, 5(6)a ). cisne a trí a nemtiger cléirech, O'Don. 2209 (Nero A vii, 144b). cís ní doghair oes eiscí? IT iii 262.12 . cia on cotagair æsa escai? 61.18 = cis non dogar eassa uiscci? Leb. Gab. 264.13 . Exceptionally with pl. ending: cisneíd side ? . . . baes ┐ aneolus ┐ eitges, ZCP xii 363.2 .

(s) cis (see ZCP xx 372 , Ériu xiv 140 ): cis tána? ZCP xx 372.19 . cis n-dithle `welches sind Entwendungen?', 17 . cis duirn díolmhuine dlighther? Ériu xiii 23.5 = O'Dav. 584 . cis dúar dían drongaighther . . . ? Ériu xiii 26.2 = cis [i] duar etc., O'Dav. 883 . cis daghmaine domain dingnaith? O'C. 2460 ( Eg. 88, 37(38)c ). cis rechta na gaibter a fiadhnaisi? 2600 ( Eg. 88, 51 (52)b ).

(t) Phr. cis lir how many (are) ? See Bergin, Ériu xiv 140 ff. cislir .i. cia lear no lin na sochaidi, Laws v 4.x Comm. cis lir tairgsin cach fine `how many are the . . . ?', 463.13 . gabála báise cis lir `the ways of folly, what is their number?' Tec. Corm. 14 (24.2) (gabail, v.l.). With follg. noun and rel. clause: cis-lir fir for a nasgar how many men are there who are bound? Ériu xiii 31. 21 . cis lir lanamna docuisin la feine? Laws ii 344.1 . cislir fodhla fil forsan mbron? Anecd. v 24.16 . With follg. rel. verb: cis lir ata chóra[i] do ríg do giull how many (things) are legal . . . ? Críth Gabl. 505 . cis lir congellait? Laws i 230.3 . cair cis lir dos-liad . . . ? Ériu xiii 30.33 . Rarely with pl. -t: cesc citlir topuir, O'C. 505 ( H. 3. 18, 257 ). See 2 lir.

(u) c(i)ata: ciata glinni con-daigi? MU² 65 . cata cuir con-daigi-siu? 72 . ciata builg itir ón? RC xiii 66 § 67 . ni fedadar ceta inada . . . no indsechtais, CCath. 776 . Note also: cialín nasluag . . . / . . . ceti arbair, SR 7907 .

B As indef. in a variety of phrases.

(a) cía with noun: cia port i mbai a mathair wherever her mother was, Vita Br. 4 . cía baili i ffod as iatt sin / oidheadha na n-ócc eistidh `whatever place they may sleep' (reading i ffaoíit with note), Leb. Gab. 188.3 .

(b) cía with vb. (conj. and prot.): cia tīasam wherever we go, Thes. ii 299.30 (Hy. i). cia bronntar indi, Críth Gabl. 234 . cia taccra(i) whoever may claim (them), 425 (see 398 n.). cía denar cia therar whatever I do, whatever I say, Ériu i 227.5 . nocha n-érlai asin chathraigh acht cía térnai do rind gai, TTr.² 158 . a n-athair rempu cia thé `where'er he went', Ériu iv 100.2 . In chev. with adverbial force: cia bé however it be, LL 382 , 15039 . cia bia, Rawl. 137a38 . cia de do teacom- nacair whichever it happened to be, Blathm. 98 § 25 (see notes). Cf. ciade gl. uter, Sg. 242a1 . ? is derb ní báes cia 't bera, Met. Dinds. i 36.95 .

(c) cía with indic. of attá: cia bai dia chalmacht . . . bái dia nertmaire however brave he was, TBC 773 . niconibdis bandai cormmai . . . cia bith ara tecmainged dóib `they used not to drink a drop of beer whomsoever they might happen to meet', Mon. Tall. 129.19 . ( Ériu xii 209 ). cipia frisa ferthar tnú whoever shall be an object of envy, Ériu v 211.69 ( Ériu xii 209 ). cía búi de `whatever came of it' (cheville), Met. Dinds. iii 396.23 . cía baoi dhe .i. gibé dobhi dhe, O'Cl.

(d) cip, cib with noun: cib cenél tra diaro scribad ind epistil to whatever people, Wb. 3b20 . cip port i ndēntar, Cáin Ad. 36 . Usually with cruth however it be, at all events: cipcruth bíid páx libsi etc., Wb. 5d33 . cipcruth tra, 12d24 . ni confetor cib cruth ind aingel fa dia, Blathm. 100 § 31 . See cipindus.

(e) cecip with noun (see Meyer Contribb. s.v. cech ): cecip maighean i raegbadh wherever, FM i 30.3 . cecib tan tiostaois, v 1552.4 . tre bithin gona, no fiabhrasa cecib diobh whichever it was, vi 2024.5 . cecib nech tairisnighes iniort an coimdheadh, 2126.1 . cecip cruth foghabhtais, Hugh Roe² 86.2 . In follg. the use is strictly speaking interrogative: ní feas cecip tucht i tudchaidh, FM iii 286.3 .

(f) cipsi with noun: cipsi aitt i loich dosfail, Rawl. 127a44 . cepsi cruth, BB 22b13 (for cip c.¤ , Ériu xii 208 n. ). cipsi cruth `no matter how', Hugh Roe² 290.22 . cipsi mbith dáil for congra, Hard. ii 292.y . airlim n-eicne cipsí whatever it may be, Laws iv 92.z .

(g) cissí: ro geall Sir Persaual di sin cidhsi cor ara fetfad, Grail 1979 . case chruth i mbet, Táin 348 .

(h) cía bé, cipé, cid bé etc. with noun ( Ériu xii 208 ): cia bé a mmet `however great it may be', Ml. 61b28 . cipé leth tiasam, Thes. ii 299.42 . gidhbe an smólach ní chodhlann `even the thrush does not sleep', Duan. Finn i 84.30 . cipe cruth, LU 3870 ( SC 38 ). cipé rí bes hi Caisiul, ZCP viii 315.27 . ce-b e nech and do-neth . . . , PH 478 . cipé a léire baistither in duine however devoutly, Ériu i 218 § 3 . gidh bé neimh- dhéine do neinn, Dán Dé xiii 8 . cidh bé dhíobh staid, TSh. 3986 .

(i) cía bé, cipé etc. with verb: ciphéade (sic leg.) asberam `whichever', Ml. 25d11 ( Ériu xii 209 ). cipé da mbad áil etc., MU² 560 . céb é uabsi comallas frimsa hé, LU 9013 ( FB 76 ). atú ar bhaois gidh bé nach fuil, Dán Dé ix 8 . gidh bé ara geall, 16 . cibé labhras, TSh. 1781 . acht gidh bé éistios riomsa, Prov. i 33 . gidh be ar bith bheanas ría `whosoever', vi 29 . Note also: mairbt[h]eim coich bē a dīe, Corm. Y. 419 .

(j) cipé as adv. at all events , etc.: cipé gl. ubilibet, Bcr. 31c2 . do gessaib ríg T. . . . / . . . cocad ruind co bráth ce bé `howsoever it be', CRR 54 . fiū cōicait cumal cipē, Fianaig. 50 § 27 . is maith liom a theacht gidhbé, Oss. vi 166.12 . ciphe de, BB 398b6 .

(k) cíabed, bad, beith etc.: ciabed ammet inna fochaide however great, Ml. 39a13 . cia beith a lin na noged however numerous the guests, Vita Br. 7 . ce bad hé frisa ndénte to whomsoever ye should do it (so Ériu xii 210 ), Wb. 9c24 . ciabadh hé richt a mbeith `in whatever shape she might be', Ériu xii 154 § 18 (TE). cebedh si maigen . . . a mbeith `in whatsoever part of Ireland she might be', ibid. cé beth da lánáille, ZCP viii 208.29 (but see Ériu xii 206 ). ge do beith do méit a tindenuis, Mer. Uil.² 146 . ciabadh e, Blathm. 96 § 20 , restored as ciabad de `whichever it be'. cia beith no co bia-so fó mebail whatever happens, Lg. 10 .

(l) ciped (see Ériu xii 208 ): ciped techtas nech `whatever it is that anyone has', Wb. 12d41 ( Ériu xii 210 ). gip ed no raditís, TBC 152 . cipead dommaire `whate'er befall me', Ériu ii 90 § 16 . gibedh o ttíosadh whencesoever they shall come, TFrag. 190.16 . ciped mac díb no gabad gasced, TBC 1089 . giped chuin at some time or other, 3338 . ciped laa . . . forsa m-be notlaic mór (cidped, cipe, gebe, cip, MSS.), Ériu ii 208 § 28 . cip ed de at all events, CRR 4 .

(m) cid: cidh urrunnus nodleisead in t-athair `whatever proportion . . . the father is entitled to', Laws iv 60.24 Comm. cidh dergoine daon, O'Dav. 585 = cib dergona daon, O'Don. 2199 ( Ériu xii 206 ). cid dusgní whatever he do, BColm. 100.9 . Cf. cidh ead dogneth hEchtair do calma imon Troi whatever brave action . . . , BB 433b24 .

(n) cid cía: cid cía bes inti whoever be in it, BColm. 52.21 . seanfhocal súd solus a chiall / ciodh cia do chum, Ériu xvi 132 § 2 . cidh cia ro chodail and 'san aidhchi sin nochur' chodail Didho, Aen. 873 . cidh cía donī, ZCP x 51.7 . na cionnta gidh cia 'gá mbeid whosoever shall have (i.e. commit) sins, Dán Dé v 13 . ? gidh cia frí senadh atúaidh, Duan. Finn ii 166 § 44 . Note further: cia bad cia dia theilcfead (sic) sop, Ériu v 34.8 . cid bé cia thú `whoever thou art', TTebe 4720 . ciped chia díb nomarbtha artús, RC iii 183.8 . gidh créd do íar Aitheirne, IGT Decl. ex. 1377 .

See 2 and 3 cía, cóich.

dín

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dín or dil.ie/16570

Forms: dína

n u,m. IGT Decl. § 95 , Verbs § 83 .

(a) protection, defence, shelter: robo d.¤ ┐ dītiu diar feib, TBC 535 . nech da tic mo d.¤ one who can protect me, PRIA iii 1893-6, 536 § 18 . d.¤ anma, ascnam nime, Ériu ii 66 § 12 . is ferr d.¤ cloth oldás d.¤ mbiid, Tec. Corm. § 11.3 . d.¤ m'athar aitchim-si, ZCP viii 202.25 . nāch bīad a dīn for talmain that there would be no shelter for him on the face of the earth, 114.z . dogébthái bar ndíon i Cluain meic Nóis, SG 55.26 . cia thrialltai teichead ní focus díb bar nd.¤ , Alex. 222 . tri c. bliadan . . . atú fo d.¤ gach daire | ní fhaca mín mōrmaighe, BB 394a3 . ni fuighbea (sic leg.) do dhin romumsa gan do bhas leam, Aen. 3174 . Alba gan díon a ndiaigh Ailín defenceless after Allen, Rel. Celt. ii 216 . acht go bhfaghdaois díon ┐ sochar an dlighidh, protection and benefit of the law, Keat. iii 5759 . d.¤ .i. daingean, Stowe Gl. 71 . Common in chevilles: d.¤ cert, SR 3011 . d.¤ cloth, 4915 . d.¤ cech síd, 6615 . comeis lini . . . d' ugaib do din no do digrais da sinser in succour or kindness to an elder, Cog. 48.19 . gorab díon no gurab daingen in trachta[d] ceille doberr as na corpa `that the commentary which is brought from the texts may be a defence', O'Dav. 737 . AR (FOR) d.¤ depending on (cf. ar scáth): mé ar díon duine 'na ndeaghaidh | míol mara arna mionshro- thaibh, Bk. of O'Con. Don. 379a26 . ollam. .i. uille in lín bis for a dínsom oldati na gradha olchena, Laws iv 358.13 Comm.

As quasi-vn. act of sheltering, protecting: coimde . . . dom díon dom imdegail, Arch. iii 220 . ic d.¤ láech-ban is láech-fher, Met. Dinds. iii 378 . co tanic Petar is Pól do d.¤ na mac mbuilid mbind, Fél.² xxxvi . taispenaidh bur crodhacht da bar nd.¤ fen, RC xix 282 § 212 . tig tunica . . . mar adairc do dhion na sūl o urchoidibh forimileacha, 3 C 19, 99ra1 . Criosd da choimhed Dia da dhíon, Rel. Celt. ii 321.27 . dúil do chleach- tadh reacht mhic Dé do dhíon . . . to uphold the law of Christ, Ó Bruad. ii 202 . gurab léor . . . ughdarás na hEagluise . . . d'á dhíon gurab ionghabhtha an t-Aifrionn to defend the point that, Eochairsg. 13.34 . Dimin. (metri causa): drem as doig diar ndínón (dionon, MS.), Gorm. March 14 . Note also: téid ar dhíon, DDána 87.15 , explained in Gloss. as `ar a choimeád'.

Attrib. g s. dína sheltering, protective: a dhuis díona in degshlóig, SG 265.6 . na coillte díona dosmhóra, 266.15 . in drong díona, 353.13 . sgiath dhíona, A. Ó Dálaigh xxi 8 .

With AR protection, shelter against: ní díon ar dhoininn na ar dherthan bheith ann, Buile S. p. 114 . din ar diabal in Duileam, Lec. 363b36 . fod dhin ar na pecaibh nac tainic to protect you against future sin, Lib. Flav. 36rb x . a nd.¤ ar gach nindliged, Laws v 24.19 Comm. dia nd.¤ ar in duinebaid, Lism. L. 4805 . gan díon ar olc, Keat. Poems 1173 . Note also: i ndíon ar dháimh protection over, Keat. Poems 590 .

Of persons, Muridach . . . d.¤ nAirther M. protector of Orior, Arch. Hib. ii 72 § 36 . a ri na righ is tu mo d.¤ , IT iii 11 . a Phátric . . . a d.¤ Gáedel, Met. Dinds. iii 378 . am d.¤ cech dochair, ZCP iii 236 (TE). Flathbertach d.¤ cech deoraid, LL 182b2 . ba d.¤ do nochtaib, ACC 85 ( RC xx 268 ). rofaith mo d.¤ mo ditiu, FM an. 906 . díon anbhfann is tearmann dáimhe, Keat. Poems 465 .

Of places: rofhágaibh a curach a scalpaibh carrag fo d.¤ fo díamhair in shelter and concealment, Ériu iii 154 § 7 . adba in ríg . . . ba d.¤ ba dún ba dindgna, LL 28b18 . rucsat co diamair dia nd.¤ | immad fíadaig is fíadmíl to their shelter, Met. Dinds. iii 246 . doronsat catair . . . ┐ ba din iside on Scitia . . . co descert na h-Asia, BB 411a27 . in tan rosiacht Nisus d.¤ a place of shelter, Aen. 2124 . den .i. d.¤ no daingen, O'Dav. 737 . do thréig sé a dhíon amhuil an leomhan `his covert', Jer. xxv 38 .

(b) covering, thatch, roofing: do chleithibh . . . do dhíon ┐ do dheaghsheisg, ML 76 . tech . . . fo dhíon ocus fó thégar, SG 292.27 . faidhit (leg. saidhit?) d.¤ clāraigh uasa mbarcuibh, ZCP i 404 . d.¤ d'fhidhbadaib uasa a roofing of timbers, 384 . do mhullach tighe do bi se do cur fa d.¤ , BCC 309 . fé dh.¤ tighe, GJ vi 152b17 .

(c) sparing, husbanding (cf. caomhnadh in same sense): Síol Néill ag neimhdhíon a gcrodh unsparing of their wealth, Bk. of O'Conor Don 136a17 .

(d) In legal sense remission (?): anaid ind athgabail la fer do dobeir a forus co ngill no d.¤ no dithim until pledge or remission (?), [end of] delay in pound (?), Laws ii 128.25 Comm.

Compds. ¤armda: daingen d., MR 236.14 . ¤athair protecting father: dílleacht gan díon-athair, TSh. 1170 . deibhléan . . . dearóil gan díon-athair, 6621 . ¤barr: is mo Dia d., IT iii 52.4 . tanic Padraic . . . ar dinbarr leigeand, Lec. 584b1 . ¤brollach vindication or apology prefacing a work: díonbhrollach nó brollach cosnaimh Forais Feasa ar Éirinn, Keat. i 92.70 . ¤chomét: a théach adéarainn do dhíonchoiméad, Keat. Poems 577 . a Iosa a dhíonchoimhéud na foirbhtheachda protector, Parrth. Anma 285.20 . ¤fhál: ar daingne bid dínfhal, Gorm. Oct. 19 . ¤lethan broad-sheltering: sgiath d., Atlantis iv 176.27 . ¤mór: confacaid dosaball díonmór fó bláth, SG 351.31 . ¤scíath: a protecting shield: go haisiog a ndínscéithe, Ó Bruad. iii 14.16 . ¤toirt: rothinól d. tachtai, a protecting mass, SR 5971 .

dindgna

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dindgna or dil.ie/16590

Forms: dingna

n io,m., later often treated as t-stem in pl. dingna m., IGT Decl. § 2 . Compd. of dind?

(a) height, eminence, mound (gen. of low elevation, either natural or artificial); a summit, a top: cach áth ┐ cach díngnai . . . is áth ┐ dignai (dindgna, LU) Medba a ainm, TBC² 1353 . nocho tarnastair mo rosc for tulaich ná dingna, 3411 . adfēd dō a n-iathu ┐ a n-áthu . . . a mardingnu (n- arddingdnu, LU), 622 . o dingnu do dingnu ┐ o aill do aill, Im. Br. ii 287 ( LU 1238 ). i ndindgnaib ┐ i cnocaib, FA 14 . de dingnaib doss from the tops of bushes, Thes. ii 290 . in sliab . . . co ndairib co ndindgnaib summits, Met. Dinds. iii 302 . for dindgnu secht nime, Fél. Ep. 120 . do diṅgnaib richid rindgil, SR 4094 . Isu Crist . . . rotairnid de dingnaib richid, D iv 2, 74va29 . do dingnoip rightighi nemda, Fl. Earls 234 .

(b) a landmark, a notable place, a monument: lia Ailbe primh-dindgnai Maigi Breg (of an obelisk), AU 998 . dindgnai Laigen . . . in sluindet na senchaide? Met. Dinds. iii 66 . dindgnai Temrach the mounds and monuments on Tara Hill, RC xv 280 . a n-anmand for dindgnaib uaislib hErend, LL 13b43 . d'iarraid cnoc ┐ dingnadh in bhaili ir-rabutar . . . maithi Fian, Acall. 1488 .

(c) earth-built fort, stronghold in general (used in juxta- position with dún, daingen, etc.): robo chalma in chathir-sin ┐ ropa dangen in d.¤ (of Troy), LL 227a30 . rathocebaind mo d.¤ , 307b27 . cumsat ratha is rodindgna, 162b49 . ra-loisc . . . a ndúni sa ndingnada, 27a18 . adba ind ríg . . . | ba dín, ba dún, ba d.¤ , Met. Dinds. i 30 . ni raibh dún no daingean no diongna dogabhadh ris an gláim, Cog. 114 . ra denam dunad ┐ d.¤ , CRR 6 . i ndindgnaib (.i. hi cumtaigib) Dé Athar, Rawl. 106b28 , 31 . i ndindgnaib degfhlatha (i.e. heaven), Arch. iii 219 . a ngeba do dinghnaib ┐ cathrachaib i nEdail, Aen. 1201 .

(d) Fig. of anything pre-eminent, supreme (common in chevilles): fo fiadnaib i ndinngaib gal, SR 6051 . di dindgnaib Roerenn = potentates, Thes. ii 295 . athair na mórchethra | mó d.¤ dam domun (of the Dond Cualgne), IT iii 246 . dingnaib dál, SR 4949 . ZCP iii 21 . línib dindgnai, Met. Dinds. i 32 . dingnaib rēimenn, ZCP vii 309 (= aidble remenn, Reeves Ad. p. 274 ). do raighnibh . . . ┐ do firdingnaib na lann, CCath. 5245 . Perh. also: ba dingna in deghmhaccraidh, Duan. Finn i 52.2 , ` outstanding, distinguished (?)', iii 253 (see dingna).

doéscair

Cite this: eDIL s.v. doéscair or dil.ie/17585

Forms: dáiscuir, daiscuir, doescair, doiscairem

adj i

(a) n buffoon, jester; adj jesting, jeering, flippant: dáiscuir gl. scurra, parasitus, Sg. 56b2 . ic athḟescain na . . . delbi doescairi druidechta, TBC 2748 . nā rup oirfited lind fégad furseori ┐ dáine doescaire (= praeconum aspectibus), PH 6873 . nā roluaidemm . . . briathra doescaire (= scurrilia), 6880 .

(b) common, mean, vulgar: daiscuir gl. uulgari (conuersa- tione), Ml. 37b5 . ní ba roescaid ar ná ba dáiscuir (doescair, v.l.) do not demean yourself by too much bustling, Tec. Corm. § 19 (p. 38) . is doescair cach can etach n-imbe a man has no self-respect without his clothes, O'Mulc. 462 . cranna doiscairi common trees (= ligna vilia), Ml. 92d6 . gebē bēss fora n-iarair | eter daescair is diamair, | is eol dam cen tíme tra | anmanna binne in berla both exoteric and esoteric, Lec. 55b22 . Common epithet of devils: doescair (of Satan), SR 948 . demun doescair, FA 30 (LB). Superl. inneuch as doiscairem hi tír Israhel, Ml. 105b7 .

Compds. ¤duine common person, one of the rabble: cenmotat . . . drubhar-sluaigh ┐ daescar-daoine, Leb. Gab. 78 . da drabarsluag ┐ da dæscor-dainib, YBL 105a29 . ¤ṡlúag the common herd, rabble: hua doiscarslog gl. uulgaribus, Ml. 90c10 . nábad ardd a chongbál i talam, ┐ robad ádba daíscarsluaig, Trip.² 2399 . nárbhat dian re daescarṡluagh, Acall. 587 . dáescarsluag díc[h]oimsech an domain déin, ZCP viii 208 . buidre fri daéscarṡlúag turning a deaf ear to the rabble, Tec. Corm. § 3 (p. 10) . ní bhí dúithche san mbioth gan daosgar- shluagh, Keat. 1 56 . berthar a fir maithi ina dún co hE. ┐ biathtar a ndaescursluag a ndūntaib seachtair, Lec. 409a25 . conid de garar feil Moing[finne] frisin Samain icon dæscur- sluagh Samain is vulgarly termed the feast of M., BB 264a7 . in spasmus . . . is de gairit an daoscarsluag crupan, 24 B 3, 125.36 . Of an army, common soldiers, the rank and file; camp- followers, sutlers: issé lín ar ndúnaid cenmothá ar ndaescor- slúag ┐ ar mná, TBC² 189 (LU). cia lín dorochair and do daiscorslog, 2003 (LU). a ndirmanda diana daescur[sh]luaig ┐ a ṅgeraiti gaiscid, TTebe 2802 . triochad laoch i ngach luing gan áireamh a mban ná a ndaoscarshluagh, Keat. ii 1241 . Esp. of host of devils: iffrind cona dǽscorṡluagh, FA 3 (LU = doescursluag, LB). diabul cona doescarsluag, PH 8225 ; 6169 , 8143 . an diabhal ┐ a dhaosgar-ṡluagh, TSh. 1455 . daosgar-ṡluagh deamhan, 1974 . Lucifer co n-a daosgors[h]- logh demnaidhe, Fl. Earls 156 . tresna daescurshluagaib disciri . . . deamnacda (in Hell), TTebe 190 .

do-etha

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-etha or dil.ie/17604

Forms: dóeth, do-sn-ethat, da n-ethat

v (*to-eth-, Ped. ii 514 ) goes to, visits, approaches: aitherruch donethand athach di ghoith tentidi, Ériu ii 122 . tetha Silend . . . adba ná ba tairsech tur visits, i.e. washes (of a lake), Met. Dinds. iii 376 . doetait (doedait, v.l.; leg. doethaid ?) guth treothu `voice comes through them', Auraic. 363 . nibu degming donetad (= donethad ?) a chorp fadesin `it were not difficult for him to go to his own body', Wb. 13d20 . Pass. pret. impers. ? dóeth cucai, TBC² 1131 (LU). dóet chucai, 1126 (LU) = doeth Cuchulaind, YBL. Perh. also: tóhet o Chormac i ndiaid maic B., Ériu iii 136.34 .

The forms do-sn-ethat, da n-ethat ( attacks ), LU 5583 , 6073 ( TBC² 1099 , 1599 ) may be influenced by or belong to this vb. Cf. ad-etha.

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