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Cite this: eDIL s.v. ad-rími or


Forms: adrímiu, -airmim, -airmiu, adrimi, -airmi, adrimi, atarimi, atrim[i], adindrími, -áirmi, -ármi, adrimet, atarimet, adrimther, adrimter, adrímter, adrimiter, adrimetar, -ármidhter, -áirimh, adrimtis, atarímtis, -arim, adríme, adrimet, adrimther, -árimther, adrímed, -airmed, -airmitis, adrimfem, adrímfiter, adrímfetar, adrímfinn, atarurmius, adruirim, -arraim, barruim, adruirmisset, a-ta-ruirmiset, adruirmed, aírmithi, áram, áirmid

v (* ad-rím-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 602 ). Indic. pres. 1 s. adrímiu, LU 9323 . -airmim, Sg. 205a2 . -airmiu, Thes. ii 338.2 . 2 s. adrimi siu, Ml. 24b6 . -airmi, LU 10269 . 3 s. adrimi som, Wb. 14d2 ; Ml. 24a13 . atarimi, 111c17 . atrim[i], 49a11 . adindrími, -áirmi, Wb. 13d17 . -ármi, 6a1 . 3 pl. adrimet, Ml. 129d19, 22 . atarimet, Sg. 26b6 . Pass. sg. adrimther, Ml. 46d24 . Thes. ii 246.26 . Pl. adrimter, Ml. 99d9 . adrímter, Sg. 202a5 . adrimiter, Thes. ii 246.28 . adrimetar, Ml. 111a10 . -ármidhter, TTr.² 193 . Ipv. 2 s. -áirimh, Ériu ix 177 § 7 . Indic. impf. 3 pl. adrimtis, Ml. 91a6 . atarímtis, Sg. 188a3 . Subj. pres. 1 s. -arim, Wb. 14d17 . 2 s. adríme, Thes. ii 28.32 . 3 pl. adrimet, Ml. 103b5 . Pass. sg. adrimther, Thes. ii 10.6 . -árimther, Críth G. 2 . Subj. impf. 3 s. adrímed, Ml. 21a4 . Sg. 69a5 . -airmed, Ml. 46b31 . 3 pl. -airmitis, Trip.² 1885 . Fut. 1 pl. adrimfem, Ml. 14d5 . Pass. pl. adrímfiter, Sg. 153b1 . adrímfetar, Thes. ii 229.30 . Condit. 1 s. adrímfinn, Trip.² 2107 . Pret. and perf. 1 s. atarurmius, Hib. Min. 3. 383 . 3 s. adruirim, Ml. 28d5 . -arraim, 49c9 . barruim, TBC-LL¹ 4761 . 3 pl. adruirmisset, Ml. 101b2 . a-ta-ruirmiset, Sg. 188a1 . Pass. sg. adruirmed, Wb. 2d7 . Part. of necess. aírmithi, Wb. 8c13 . See áirmide. Vn. áram. Later as simple vb. áirmid. IGT Verbs § 68 .


(a) counts, numbers, computes: amal as ndliged fir bís i n-arim do neuch atarimi `to one that counts them', Ml. 111c17 . ar mad iar n-aicniud adrimther, Thes. ii 10.6 (Bcr).— atairim-si, ol si. Atairimi iarom — count them . . . he counts them, Irish Texts i 3 § 9 . rimfed rind . . . .i. no airmebad rétglanna nime, ACC § 64 ( RC xx 258 ). tuccait . . . a murthréta mucc a fedaib . . . ro rímit ┐ ra hármit, TBC-LL¹ 76 . ada usce nosbera . . . for nim atrímther a laug, LB 228 marg. sup. og iarraid co nairmither fri re `full price of fosterage is reckoned by the time', Laws ii 174.19 . iss é dédenach roarmed it was the last that was numbered, BColm. 92.21 . noco n-airimther ganim mara ni hairemthar ar marbad do macaib ríg, RC xviii 173.12 . co-n-airmestur gainemh mara, RC xxiv 381.4 . do áirmhius noí fichit scíath, ZCP viii 223.1 .

(b) In more general sense of records, recounts, mentions: in gnímai adrimter hi libur iudicum , Ml. 99d9 . nī rurīmiu nī āirmiu / a ndorigēnai ind nóebdūil `I cannot reckon, I count not what the holy creature hath done', Thes. ii 338.2 (Hy. v). co n-árimther inna grá[d] téchtu that he may be reckoned in his proper grade, Críth G. 2 . in tan nach a ngradaib flatha airimter na riga sin, Laws v 24.z Comm. cech martir adrímem, Fél. July 17. Ep. 87 . roairmiustar (roairmestar v.l.) D. douibhsium a n-anmanna, Anecd. ii 55 § 17 . ni roarmide hicond rig Leue no Beniemin it has not been told that L. or B. were with the king, Rawl. 79a7 . atrímead filid na n-G. comtís . . ., Alex. 249 . airem daib seanchassai . . . bar múinntire relate to them, Alex. 191 . ní ruirmiu, ní airémha . . . / a tainic de ancessaib Eireann . . ., AFM ii 600.17 . ni aireomamaid a cogtha, L. Chl. S. § 37 . a ccreacha . . . ni hairimter hi leabraibh, Cog. 38.21 . d'eis ar áirmemar / ar M. in addition to all we have recounted of M., BNnÉ 223.11 . ar áirmhis oruibh d'eachtaibh / do shíol E. `as for the deeds you have told of the race of E.' Content. iv 18 .

(c) takes into account: ni armim-sea ón I take no account of that, TBC-LL¹ 5085 . cona hairmithea bunad eitir `original ownership is not reckoned (i.e. taken into consideration) at all', Laws ii 370.3 Comm. nír airmedar na h-esbada sin o ranic an Maél Flidaise leó they did not count (i.e. they made light of) these losses since they had the M.F., Celt. Rev. iv 206.31 . díanam airmitis-[s]e mu bráthair oc raind a feraind if my brothers should take me into consideration in the dividing of his land, Trip.² 1885 . mad t'árim . . . bail i m-biat dagláich . . . nít ármem itir ┐ nít imradem, TBC-LL¹ 1853 .

(d) counts as, regards as; considers to be: is samlid atrim[i]som in forcomet sin amal bid coscrad dognethe do `it is thus he reckons that protection as though it had been destroyed', Ml. 49a11 . bāeth, buide . . . macne Ailb (nailb v.l.) āirmi (airmighther v.l.), Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 13 § 1 `thou reckonest the sons of A.,' Ériu xii 201 . ise an Toirrdelbach sin as mó airmhid Conallaig orra do brisedh catha Chnuic an Bodha `it is to this T. that the C. give the most credit on their own side for winning the battle. . .' L. Chl. S. § 56 .

(e) searches out, investigates: adrimisiu gl. rimeris, Ml. 24b6 . adrimi son gl. adpendit examine, 24a13 .

II In idioms with prepp.

(a) ascribes, assigns to (DO): a nadruirmed do Abracham .i. fírinne tri híris `what has been counted unto A. even righteousness through faith', Wb. 2d7 . is secht ṅdana airegda airmither do'n Spirut noem `seven excellent gifts are assigned to the Holy Ghost', PH 8029 . ní armither . . pian . . . dona anmannaib, the souls are not considered to suffer pain LU 2120 ( FA 18 ).

(b) counts as (AR): ni áirmi som ón ar chumscugud `he does not count that as change', Wb. 13d17 . ní nairmi ar bethaid etir `he reckons it not as life at all', Ml. 82a8 . combad ar gair aicnid adrímed in suidiguth `so he would reckon the position for shortness of nature', Sg. 69a5 . as ar chenél cruche adrímther in coicsath `fellow-suffering is counted as a kind of cross', Thes. ii 246.26 . adrímfinn ar nempní i condiulcc in maithiusa tarfas dam, Trip.² 2107 . Hence a.¤ ar x do y counts as x on the part of y: adrimtis-som ar aithissib dunni buith fut recht su `they used to count as reproaches to us', Ml. 91a6 . dorolaig in peccad ┐ ni narraim ar chaire do, 49c9 . fis timnae ndæ . . . is ar sainemli adrimther to neuch rudfinnadar `knowledge of the commandments of God is reckoned as excellence to him that knows it', 46c24 . iss ed sin armither ar adnacul dóib for that is regarded as their burial place, LU 2533 . is ar martrai atrimther dó `it is reckoned to him as martyrdom', Mon. Tall. 146.19 . atait tri cuir tindtai mac beo-athar im a athair nach airmead (= áirmet) liubair na Feine do ar ingaire a tindtog, Laws v 436.23 . ar ní armide ar laechdacht duit-siu comrac frim-sa sund it would not be reckoned as bravery for you, LL 14137 .

(c) considers as, places in the same category as (LA and ETER): participia .i. ataruirmiset la gerind `participles i.e. they have reckoned them with the gerund', Sg. 188a1 . is la noeb scriphinna atarurmius I have included them among the sacred writings, Hib. Min. 3.83 . cid nácham airmisiu . . . lais na trén-firu sin . . . cid dam nachat airmébaind etorro? why dost thou not reckon me among those strong men . . . why should I not reckon thee among them? LU 10269 . uair airemthar do-sum itir deib é da eis `he shall be numbered among the gods', TTebe 2187 . do bhríogh go n-áirmheann an eaglais idir na hoibreachaibh trócaire . . . é, TSh. 5624 . With AR: áirmid eólaig ar mnāib āill[e] a haimsire ī the knowledgable consider her as one of the beautiful women of her time, ML² 485 .

(d) a.¤ x for (ar) y reckons x against y, blames y for x: ba treissi . . . don aithrighe . . . inas dona holcaibh ro áirmittis deamuin form which the devils reckoned up against me, RC xxvi 372.7 . nā hāirimh ar Chorc na cclīar / gē do-bheradh toir is tīar do not blame C., Ériu ix 177 § 7 . oramsa do hairmhedh riamh / a n-dernsabair . . . / daibh fein áirmeocthar anois, Caithr. CC § 60 . With FRI: nicon airmi fri nech cia ba menic thi does not count it against a person, Laws v 76.11 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. aiccend or


Forms: aiccent

n o, m. Also aiccent (Lat. accentus, Vendr. Lex.) accent (gramm. term): ind (leg. int?) a.¤ bias forsind ainmnid, Sg. 207a6 . coneperthae cia aiccent ┐ cisi aimser derb thechtas, 26a6 . buith ind aiccind in fine `the accent's being on the end', 213b1 . nert an aiccind, b3 . huare is fo oen (sic leg.) aicciund adfiadar, 74b8 . iar riagoil chenelaig a.¤ indobriathraib amal as ṅdliged aicend indóbriathraib olchene, 220a5 . do chenéul in aiccendaib, 75a7 . Perh. infl. by aicned nature (or is this the word intended?) in: comacomul . . . ceneóil ┐ . . . folaidh ┐ airmhi ┐ aicenta, Auraic. 1902 . is e int a.¤ hisin, ib. dinin disail a forbaidh .i. a aicnid lasin Laitneoir, 1544 , aiccent, 4130 etc.

1 aicned

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 aicned or


Forms: aigneadh, aignidh, aigeanta, a., a., aicnid, aicniud, aigenta

n o, n. Later m. aigneadh m. (g s. and n p. aignidh, aigeanta), IGT Decl. § 49 . (referred by Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 544 to a compd. *ad-gní. See Vendr. Lex.). n s. a.¤ , Ml. 146a2 . a s. a.¤ , 67c12 , ZCP vii 299.15 . g s. aicnid , Wb. 32b6 . d s. aicniud, Ml. 17b26 .

(a) inherent quality, essence, nature: combad a.¤ nindib a nolc gl. naturalis `that the evil is natural in them', Ml. 76a11 . a.¤ ind reto, 20a19 . is trom . . . ho aicniud, 20a20 . foillsigthir as nísel in doinacht iar naicniud, 25c5 . atgleinn assa aicniud fessin air is inunn folud techtas frisin bocht, 61a8 . fri a.¤ inna deachtae, 67c12 . ni ó aicniud na cétne tuisten act is o aicniud pectho doforchosalsam ó adam gl. eramus natura filii irae, Wb. 21b4 . fírmac aicnid ní a uccu gl. filius meus es tú, 32b6 . cesu locdatu as a.¤ and, Sg. 217b12 . ba tressio tol aicniud will was stronger than nature, LU 10730 . sechtar aicniud duine preternaturally, RC ii 402 § 43 . i nd-oendacht aicnid ┐ i trédacht persainde, PH 7086 . ro túaslaicthe for a.¤ na ndul dia ndernta they have been dissolved into the nature of the elements from which they were made (of the dead), LU 2518 . muna raibhe i nacchaid aiccnidh contrary to nature, ZCP x 16.23 . tīagat sium asa n-aignedaib cōirib they leave their proper natures(?), viii 104.7 . aigneadh an ois éigcríona the instinct of the young stag, Content. xxv 7 . aigned suighte fil indti sen they have magnetic properties (of stones), BB 7a13 . a oifficech dia dīrgadh i n-a aignedh cōir `a driver directing it in its proper function' (of a mill), Fl. Earls 72.16 . Opposed to poetical invention: is fuirmed filed romīdair ina hanmand sa dona airc[h]etluib do ṡluind na n-ilaltae . . ., nī ha.¤ romīdir leo, Corm. Y 41 . Attrib. g s.: is firindi aignidh dia lentais `they followed Natural Truth', IT iii 202 § 80 . ferinnsci aicnid, is e in fer, ferinnsci saerda, is e an neam i.e. natural as oppd. to conventional masculine, Auraic. 595 = f. aigenta, 3126 (cf. aicnetae).

Nature as a basis of law: cid i n-agar breithemnus berla Feini? . . . i fir ┐ dliged ┐ aignead, Laws v 2.2 . fir n-aignaid, 430.23 . i mbreathaib aicnigh ┐ cuibse in judgements oḟ nature and conscience, 452.20 . a fir breith iar cubus ┐ aigne, ii 18.20 Comm. a hurd Feine ┐ aicnidh, v 466.21 . in tan na fuidbiter a cosmailius hi is a breth a lom-aignid `when no parallel case is found it is to be taken from bare nature', 8.z Comm.

In phr. fo a.¤ according to the nature of: fo aigned a graid, BCrólige § 21 . is fiach fo a.¤ ar inti dorinne, § 61. fo a.¤ na ré, O'D. 1651 (H. 5.15, p. 21a). fo a.¤ na fogla `according to the nature of the trespass', Laws iv 76.1 Comm. fo a.¤ cetmuindtire urnadma no adaltraige, 44.y Comm. fo aignedh craind, 170.15 Comm.

(b) mind, spirit, feeling: do ṡaine ergna ┐ aigenta ┐ inntlechta, CCath. 1617 . dearóile th'intinne ┐ th' aigeanta `how miserable thy mind and spirit', Keat. iii 3150 . cessis a menma ┐ a a.¤ ┐ a innithim forthu, CRR § 26 . tuc toil a menman ┐ a haigenta dhí, RC xxix 132 § 46 . as gairdiugud menman ┐ aicenta dúin, Acall. 287 . ar dorat Dia a seirc ┐ a grad fom a.¤ , BB 239b2 . ra érig . . . fích immarcraid i nacentaib ánruth, LL 240a13 ( TTr. 1724 ). go ndearna . . . taom budh aithreach dá aigneadh, TD 17.59 . do chuaid a aigned as a inadh he was beside himself, Celt. Rev. iii 10.31 . aigneadh dúnta 'gun rígh ruind since the king's mind is closed against us, Ériu iv 220.19 . ba brisedh aiccnid mor la Cesair sin `that was a great heartbreak to Caesar,' CCath. 3321 . In phrase do-ice a.¤ x for x is moved (towards, by) (cf. do-icc cride for, s.v. do-icc II a): tainig aignedh C. andsin ar briathraib na hingine C. was greatly moved at the girl's words, TTebe 4606 . tanic a n-a.¤ co mor forro the Greeks were greatly moved for them, 3125 . In sense of high spirit, courage: mosgail th'aigneadh, eirg ad lúireach, SGS iv 138 § 5 . anger, wrath: eirghidh a.¤ in cleirig friu, Lism. L. 2972 . ni lamdhais . . . ní dó . . . ar mhét a aicnidh, 2999 . rocendsaiged . . . a.¤ O., TTebe 2959 . do ḟiuch a ḟearg ┐ do ardaigh a aigneadh, ML 138.30 . amal rochúala Cairpre / téit a a.¤ i n-airdde `his anger is roused', Metr. Dinds. iii 444.66 . benaidh aignedh Molaga fris et téitt bás Molaga's anger struck him, Irish Texts iii 21 § 18 .

(c) disposition, character, behaviour: a.¤ ailgen cen ainble, ZCP vi 264 § 10 . ronbé ō christ aigned n-arge, ACL iii 297 § 55 . ba hanrata a.¤ ind fir sin, TTebe 1544 . fear dob aithreamhail n-aignidh `like his father in disposition', TD 17.37 . a Eoin go n-aigneadh coluim (to John the Baptist), Dán Dé xi 19 .

(d) mind, attention, thought: ni roibe a aigned isin ernaighthi, RC xii 330 § 18 . suidh th'aigneadh im uradhall `do thou heed my words', Dán Dé xi 2 . caide th'a.¤ uimmi siút? opinion, Acall. 7537 . intention, idea: an t-aignedh do g[h]abhabhair do láimh `the said resolution you have taken', Ériu xv 50.29 . fillem go ár ccéudaignedh uime so, Geneal. Tracts 20.16 . ar demni ind aicnid, lúthige ind láthair ┐ méit na gaile the certainty of the intention (of performing a feat), LU 9142 ( FB 88 ). a chor i gcrích do réir aigeanta an tí dar thiomna é, TSh. 6145 . In phrase is a.¤ la: ní bad aigned la haon co fetfaide a ngeinemain nobody would ever imagine, Aisl. Tond. 109.2 . más aiccnedh libh a lenmain `if ye mean to abide by it', BNnÉ 288 § 276 . atá i n-a.¤: ni fuil i n-aigniudh co bfuighbhe an breth connaighe o Ultaibh it is not to be expected that you will get the reward you expect from the U., ZCP xiv 226.6 . dia mbeith in aigneadh dhó a shláinte dfaghbail if he were likely to recover his health, AFM v 1772.9 .

(e) knowledge, science (cf. 1 ecna(e)): dá n-iccad a.¤ oendrúad if the skill of any druid were of avail, LU 3549 ( SCC § 29 ). ard shaoi . . . in gach aicniudh atces do dhuine, AFM ii 1166.16 . gebé haigneadh ar a dtiubhra mé aire `to what study soever I apply myself', Carswell 195.9 (O'Rahilly compares aigniodh nuaidhe, Desid. 6449 , see p. 362).

1 ail

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ail or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: oil, oili

n i and k, f. (See GOI § 320 and ZCP xvi p. 183 ). oil f. (g s. and n p. oili), IGT Decl. § 14 .

(a) boulder, rock: cid armbad spiritalis ind a.¤ . . . isi ede ind a.¤ rúnde, Wb. 11a19 . asind a.¤ `out of the rock', Ml. 93b9 . in lind . . ./ do ḟuc doib asind ailig (: maig), SR 4068 . dind a.¤ tuargabad asin tiprait, Trip.² 1067 . co mmemaid a chenn frisin n-ailich, 1507 . cobsaide ailech `firmness of rock', Thes. ii 356.4 . a.¤ (.i. cloch) trom, LU 9949 . petra lasin Laitneoir, a.¤ lasin nGaedel, Auraic. 1087 . dobertha ailge arda foa doitib, RC xii 434 § 37 . mo shuidiugad amal cech nailig ele isin múr clochisea, LB 157b8 . bás Mongāin . . . don a.¤ doteilcc Artūir air, ZCP vi 269 § 7 . enghuba esa ra ha.¤ , SG 366.25 . do bhí an oil ar muin Mhuire / far loigh tuir na trócaire (of the stone at the mouth of Christ's tomb), DDána 20.42 . atā foillicht a choss issin ailigh, Fl. Earls 208.22 . a.¤ .i. cloch, O'Cl. a.¤ áobhta .i. ail aithbhe .i. cloch frith ar tráigh, ib. With defining gen.: a.¤ chloiche large stone: ro bai a.¤ chloche ar a cind, IT i 82.2 . trascraid . . . oilche cloch forru, Aen. 2209 . darsin oilig cloiche, LB 126b23 . a.¤ adartha see 1 adrad. Fig. a a.¤ na sonairte (in a litany to the Trinity), Hib. Min. 43.12 . uathmar a.¤ (of God), SR 4773 . Of persons: ind a.¤ bratha . . . in t-occlaech ard allata, CCath. 2917 . in a.¤ mbratha nach fuilget nerta trenmiled, BB 419b16 . a.¤ cothaighthe gacha comlainn, AFM v 1340.17 . a.¤ ollaman a firmly established teacher, ZCP iv 237.27 . a.¤ firindi, Anecd. ii 8.24 ( Airne F. 272 ). ? Moisi mo cech n-a.¤ / i toisigecht in popail, SR 4451 . Aron ba amru cech n-a.¤ , 4513 .

In n.loc.: Colmán Alo, Thes. ii 269.41 (Ardm.) aduersum Coirthech regem Aloo C. king of Ail (Clúade), 271.33 . See also Hog. Onom.

Compd. ¤-bla stone boundary-mark, Laws iv 142.16 .

(b) grave-stone (cf. 3 oil): cu fil a ailcha imbi, Fianaig. 38.12 . cid glic fri ailchi uara `though he be cunning at carving cold stones', Fél. 188.9 . oil adhmaid a stone of remembrance, Ériu x 80 § 42 . beim fri ailchi aicetail .i. co mbi aicetul anma in fir nod cren accomul noguim .i. ogum na creca do beth illic firt, O'Curry 484 ( H 3.18, 251 ). iomdha oil úir san eing-se, DDána 92.2 . ail leachta grave-stone , Laws iv 142.17 Comm.

(c) monument, memorial(?) (cf. ailad?): forácaib ailgi ┐ airisni da márgnímaib, LL 221a33 ( TTr. 299 ). rolín in domun uili d'algib a nirt ┐ a níachais, 222a46 (ib. 380). d'ailgib ┐ d'air[is]nib a nirt, 225b45 (635). ailche ┐ airise a gnim, BB 414b45 . dia ailgib ┐ día gaiscedhaib, TTr.² 1501 .

(d) foundation, basis (of law, etc.): ar it é trénailig (trenailche, trenailce, MSS) in sin frisa n-astaiter bretha in betho, QML xiii 4 § 1 . is and do-n-icfad na duba digeanna cen a.¤ cen fasach `without foundation without precedent', Laws v 480.20 . co nailchib roscud ┐ fasach ┐ testemuin, O'D. 2211 (Nero A vii 145b). breth cen ailig, Triads 244 .i. gan hailche 'na timchioll, .i. rosg ┐ fasach, p. 43 . Sencha . . . ni conberedh breth ngua gin teora ailche astudha cacha bretha, Laws i 24.23 . sruth do aill . . . do foxla ailche . . . imtha samlaidh in fer samailter fris; baidhidh droch leighniudha fortabhraidsi co nailchib testemna ┐ cedfaidhi, iv 356.12 . ni íadat iubaili for étechti a.¤ , LU 3473 `prescriptive periods should not close upon a foundation of illegality', SCC p. 34 . is ae fo a.¤ .i. iubaile tsaorratha inso, Laws ii 198.2 Comm. ?laighidh a.¤ for naesaib, iii 220.21, 24 , 226.21 . a.¤ .i. dliged no briathra, O'Dav. 631 . a.¤ .i. dliged (B. na f.), ZCP v 486 § 6 . a.¤ (also ailech) anscui(ch) the lit. immoveable rock i.e. unshakeable testimony: for-toing a.¤ anscuichthe lais (.i. for-toing airdi no aimseir . . . no laid no litteir . . . it hē mairb in sin fortongat for biu, nī fortongar cenaib) an immoveable rock testifies along with him (i.e. a sign or time . . . or a lay or letter . . ., those are the dead that testify against the living, without them there is no over-ruling testimony) ZCP xv 361 § 46 (xvi 228) . feitheam for-toing fir fri hailche andscuithe, O'Curry 1890 ( 23 P 3, 22 ). it he a secht in sin con-osnat cach n-imt[h]aithbech: fiadnaisi inraici, ailig anscui[ch]thi . . ., Bürgschaft 21 § 62 . tri filidecht techtai, tri ailge anscuichthi, tri airmitin sen, ZCP xii 363.35 . ni ruc C. breth riam cen teora ailig ancsui[ch]thi breth occa .i. ailig aicnid gaisi etc., CF 73.4 ( SG 89.30 ). ?do fuair . . . a liomhdha (= líomhadh?) an algaibh `in the noble arts', Oss. v 146.5 . See also under 1 all

Cf. 1 ailech.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. anforlann or


n (forlann) o, m.

(a) great superiority in numbers, overwhelming odds: damsa nība hanborrlond (said by Cú Chulainn of Fer Diad), TBC-I¹ 2394 (= ecomlond, TBC-LL¹ 3205 ). gan fobairt in anforlainn not to attack the superior force, CCath. 3749 . mar dorocht Dáirine donn / rop adbal in t-anforlonn, SG 367.40 ( LL 298b46 ). ro ba mor in t-anborlann . . . in da chath mora d'ḟulang, Acall. 3148 . ro fhuaisg. . . . an irgail fris an a.¤ `pressed the fight on unequal numbers', MR 274.8 . gidh deich deich céad beithdis ann / dhūinne nī badh hanforlann, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1822 . tanicc sé do chabur Sir Gyi on anfurlann-sin overwhelming onslaught, ZCP vi 30.21 . no go rucc anfforlann orra fo dheoidh `but they were at length overpowered by the main body', AFM iii 356.8 . odchualattar . . . dáil an anfforlainn dia nionnsaiechidh `the approach of such an overwhelming force', v 1736.15 . fuair goin 'na guin anḟorlainn, DDána 64.13 .

(b) straits, difficulty, plight: a n-airc nó a n-éiccion nó a n-anbḟorlann, ML 86.19 . do innsedar a n-éigean ┐ a n-anforlonn dhó, 82.11 . doba doiligh leó an t-anforlonn a raibhe M., ITS v 126.z . d'fhóirithin ar n-anḟorlainn, DDána 74.16 .

(c) injustice, oppression: anforlond na indliged, PH 4150 . cia hain[i]m no a.¤ tarraid sib, Ériu v 154.146 . rap anforlond aicnid lé dímiad . . . Í. di, LL 222a17 ( TTr. 359 ). do digail a n-eccorach ┐ a n-anbforlainn forro, Ann. Conn. 1256.5 . d'fhōiridhin a hanbhforlainn, O'R. Poems 4063 . feadh éagcaoine a hanḟorluinn / do-chí an Bhanbha . . . , TD 24.33 .

(d) In more general sense violence: fuair esgal is anforlond, Metr. Dinds. iii 128.18 . ris an ndroing chailleas a maoin . . . lé gadoighibh nó lé hanfhórlann oile (= violencia), Desid. 3396 . ag smuaineadh ar anfhorlann luchta an díomusa, TSh. 614 . imris oidedh anfforlainn fair put him to a violent death, BNnÉ 322 § 28 . trē anfhorlann na teine bhíos faoi, Párl. na mB. 3475 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. ar-midethar or


Forms: -irmadadar, -ermaitis, -irmissid, -irmastá, -érrmadair, -irmadatar, -armadatar, airmaisiu

v ( air-mid-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 578 . See also 385 where irmith, Wb. 12d24 , is regarded as a possible ipv. 2 s.) Indic. pres. 3 s. -irmadadar, Wb. 28a21 . Indic. impf. 3 pl. -ermaitis, Laws i 24.33 Comm. ( -ermaititis, 24.11 Comm. ). Subj. pres. 2 pl. -irmissid, Wb. 27c29 . Subj. impf. pass. sg. -irmastá, LL 290a14 . Pret. and perf. 3 s. -érrmadair, LU 6025 . 3 pl. -irmadatar, Wb. 5b2 . -armadatar, Ml. 54d17 .

Vn. airmaisiu. IGT Verbs § 65 .

(a) hits (a mark), aims at, strikes: focheird . . . in sleig . . . co n-érrmadair áth a da chulad, LU 6025 ( TBC-I¹ 1558 ). 's é lacht rodasurmaid (of milking cows), Metr. Dinds. iii 220.48 .

(b) attains to, succeeds in doing something: ni irmadatar fírinni tri rad `they attained not truth through grace', Wb. 5b2 . conirmissid taithesc coir do cach grád `so that you may attain the answer proper to every grade', 27c29 . ní ermadair nech díb a suidi none of them succeeded in sitting, BDD² 1376 . ni ermadair . . . aichne adnacuil a maicc, Trip.² 1441 . intan nod (nád ?) nermaititis . . . a fir aicned (leg. aicnid) do cuiredh bolga for a ngruadaib when they did not attain to truth (of judges), Laws i 24.11 Comm. 'ga teigema in tigernus no ar a n-uirmesa in aird-rige or who may attain the monarchy, MR 146.16 .

See airmaisid.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. breithemnacht or


Forms: brithemnacht, brithemnacht

n ā, f. O. Ir. brithemnacht (breithem). GOI § 260. judging, judgment, adjudication: doairchet a-llaa ṁbrithemnacte sin, Wb. 6b26 . léicid iudicium deo .i. brithemnacht bes huilliu (an leg. (?), ed.) nísṅdenaith gl. non ergo amplius inuicem iudicemus, 6b29 . ni epur brithemnact for nech, 8d26 . ní gette na brithemnachta becca erriu ref. to de minimis iudicatis, 9c8 . amal bete som in impudiu inna brithemnacte `in the encompassment of the Doom', 9c10 . combad firián a brithemnacht gl. iudicandi, Ml. 89b15 . brithemnacht firiáin gl. iudicium `righteous judgment', 89b13 . iustitia is du firinni brithemnachtæ téit, 109a2 . air biid aslach oc eráil inna brithemnachtae condárbastar gné firinne fuiri, 95b6 . bith soer som as in brithemnacht hisin `he will be free from that judgment', 57c7 . med brithemnachtae dæ, 57d8 . brithemnacht gl. sanctione, 40a3 . mad fír in brithemnacht bess in mente , Thes. ii 4.32 . breithem an breitheamhnais bīas agan breitheamnacht at the Judgment (of Doom), ZCP viii 199 § 4. atchota milteṅga brithemnacht, LL 345c1 ( RC xlv 14 § 21 ). ni aidlingcet o nachaib rechtaib na fúiglib na brethamnachtaib, acht recht n-aicnid namma, Alex. 850. M. . . . sui brethemhnachta ┐ seanchais `doctor of jurisprudence', AU ii 36.1 . ollamh breithemhnachta Ua Failghe `chief brehon', AFM ii 888.18 . In legal texts: concertaim breithemnacht (sic leg.) bais, Laws i 12.24 Comm. lúan do br(e)ithemnacht, do choccertad túath for adjudication (in order of engagements of a king), Críth G. 544. in tan as [re] brethemnacht sin. In tan is re conairib fuigill, etc. `pronouncing of judgment', Laws v 6.16 Comm. in ord breithemnachta `in the laws of the Brehons', i 16.15 (Preface to Senchus Mór).


Cite this: eDIL s.v. cíall or
Last Revised: 2013


Forms: cíal, ciall

n ā, f. IGT Decl. § 39 . Also somet. cíal in O. Ir. Glosses and in poetry. nessu célaib .i. nesso ciallaib, LL 24378 . cēill: budéin, ZCP xiii 245.6 .

(a) Of persons sense, intelligence, mind : nípí ciall la nech dogní insin, Wb. 29b11 . druáilnithe a ciall gl. corrupti mente, 30c18 . nad mbí ciall la nech disluindi dliged remdeicsen `has no sense', Ml. 50d1 . nech lasnabi ciall, 50d2 . co mber[at] á céill n-erru, 20b11 . co céill ┐ chond, LU 3910 ( SCC 42 ). rom-snáidet . . . / cund, céill, curp com anim, Fél. Ep. 52 . nocho fom' cheil-si / dochuaidh do chial, IT iii 93.22 . leig as in drochciall fora tai ┐ dena mu chomairli-sea `folly', Aen. 576 . it ferr cīalla oldās cīall two heads are better than one, ZCP xi 86 § 42 . ni techta cond 'na ceill fo-mic, Laws v 510.4 ( ciall . . . fomac, SM Facs. 1b ) glossed ciall codnaid, 20 . tanic trell dia ceill, LU 4029 ( SCC 48 ). ar ḟebas do chrotha ┐ do ceille, 8226 ( FB 17 ). bae c.¤ dunetta aice (of Dond Cúailnge), TBC-LL¹ 6162 . ní réid la céill mbuirp in se `uncouth intelligence', Blathm. 159 . Mugain miadmas co morchéil, TFerbe 824 . in tan . . . roaisicc Dia a chell dó, Grail 3750 . ata saillechta cella (sic) do (of a minor), Laws ii 46.18 Comm. Ailbhe í ar chéill 's ar chuimhne, DDána 99.2 . seacht gcathaoireacha céille (of the daughters of Humility), 55.15 . cíalla glice na ngente, Celtica i 96.260 . dá chrádh céille éadair ann a twofold grief of mind is to be found therein (of death of chieftain), DDána 110.16 . ar mearughadh céilli, Mac Aingil 111 . com[h]lán i ccéll ┐ a ccorp `sound of mind and body', RSClára 114b .

More particularly wisdom, good sense, skill : rángadar na teachta re céill, ┐ re conailbhe, ┐ le hairmhidin `wisely(?)' (`charged with submission'), ML 104.22 . ar sith, as tre cheill do righneadh, Leb. Gab.(i) 12.16 ( Lec. 272 vb26 ) = iar sisd is iar ceill dorigneadh, BB 23a16 . in rigan ecnaid óg ḟial / tochur ria no co degciall, LL 19297 . tre cell ┐ tre comairli, CCath. 6161 . cend comhairle ┐ céille . . . Connacht (of dead chieftain), AFM ii 1132.8 . Of course of action, ní c.¤ with Vn. it is unwise to, it is imprudent to: nior chiall bheith ag ar mbrosdadh sensible thing, Aithd. D. 3.6 . ní ciall déanamh dearmaid, DDána 14.13 . ní fhuil chéill id dhearadh dhún `twere senseless of Thee to disown me', Aithd. D. 77. 31 . níor chiall uadh it was not wise of him, Ériu i 97.30 .

In transf. sense of a person: gabh, a chiall, mo chomairghe, DDána 67.6 .

(b) Of bodily senses: do chiallaib gl. ad sensus, Sg. 139a1 . cóig cialla cuirp `his five senses', Ériu xvi 135 § 56 . maithi a roisc na nabocc maithi a cialla, v 236.83 . mo chúig cialla 'gum brath bíd, Dán Dé ix 3 . Of feelings, emotions : srian léd chéill níor chuireabhair, Content. xxiii 5 . do oscail se a cial, Smaointe B. Chr. 5250 . Cf. ní frith luth seirce sóerligi / na celle conom thicse, LU 8329 ( FB 24 ).

(c) In a variety of more general applications intention, cause, reason, idea : in chiall toḟaiscthe `der Verstand des Herauspressens' (one of the cóic conara fugill), Cóic Con. 24 § 24 . rinne nir chuimseach a ciall (of a monster), Duan. F. i 79.9 `intention regarding' (Gloss.). flaith nime d'Eochagān (sic leg.) ān / is lān a chridhe dia chēill attention, ACL iii 308 § 32 . fa clé an chiall a perverse intention, Dán Dé xxvi 29 . ann adlecthar mesi fein / . . . rim cheill `with my consent', Fen. 304.8 . cion na sainte / . . . ag sin ciall chaillte na hanma (of the sin of avarice), Dán Dé xxxi 37 . ar iomad ele do chialluibh certa `for . . . many other just reasons', RSClára 95a . ní gan chéill do adhuin t'fhíoch, Aithd. D. 84.27 . caidhe nach córa an chiall `how much greater reason', RSClára 104a . ciall mo gháiri ní léir linn, O'Gr. Cat. 346.34 .

(d) Of words, texts, etc. signification, meaning: ciarid-beram a céill though we express their sense, Sg. 26b2 . immaircide frisin ceill `suitable to the sense', Ml. 27d22 . sechis in chiall gl. intentio (psalmi), 61a29 . forsin dib ciallaib fil isind emulari , 56b37 . huare is lán chiall indib chenae gl. huiuscemodi verba non egent casu, Sg. 140b3 . issí inso sís a chiall gl. est sensus, Ml. 50c1 . a folad ┐ in chiall gl. vis et significatio, Sg. 27a8 . ni lugae mbis ind menme hisin cheill `the thought is no less occupied with the meaning', Mon. Tall. 39 . etir cheill ┐ fhogur, LB 241a marg. inf. iar ceill Cirine in Jerome's meaning (of the word), Hib. Min. 9.292 . do-ghén . . . míniughadh céille ar an rádhsa, IGT Introd. 24.12 . re saoibh-chiallaibh `by foolish etymologies', Content. v 8 . ag buain ceille maithe ass, BCC 300.31 . cialla na n-aislingedh, Grail 2679 .

Of grammatical forms force, function, meaning : hua cheill gníma ┐ chesta, Sg. 77a7 . ciall sechmadachti `the sense of a past', Ml. 98c10 . chiall ainsedo, 67d24 . is ilar són hua cheill `it is plural in sense', 45b20 . aithne ar chíalluibh uathaidh ┐ iollraidh, IGT Introd. 2.16 .

(e) In phrases. slán céill safe and sound: no theighdis slan ceill dia tigh, Blathm. 38 . ní ris sís slán céill, BS 72.20 . for (ar) céill in one's senses: mairg dobēradh cath don fēin / da mbet ar cēill, Fianaig. 80.1 . intan nobid Comgan for ceill, Ériu v 20.7 . airis for ceill, MR 8.16 . guais nach bear ar chéill choidhche `I may never have sense', A. Ó Dálaigh xxxix 2 . cond céille = c.¤: nír chond ceille in col, LL 4378 . arnacha-ndechrad a chond ceille, TBC-LL¹ 1709 . c.¤ chodnaig: ecodnach da frisciter ciall codnaigh `who is expected to come to the use of reason', Laws iii 156.25 Comm. iar tiachtain ceilli codnaig do, v 218.23 Comm. ciall chapaill little or no sense, Mac Aingil 6140 . in ti ac na bi faitechus ceille use of reason, Laws v 508.22 Comm. ( SM Facs. 1b ). táinic an chiall bhreugach chuige .i. an codladh, ITS v 38.23 . étrommae céille loss of reason, insanity : táinic édtruma chéille . . . dó, CF² 450 . Cf. édromacha chéille, Luke xxiv 11 . In chevilles: dia do chéill, DDána 54.15 . fo chiall `good the sense', Blathm. 19 .

Phrases with vbs. do-alla, gataid, benaid, céill di gives up (hope of), despairs of: talsat a céill di ṡaíre, LL 31490 (TTr.). antan . . . tallus mo chéill dia thorbu dam, Ériu iv 134.10 . See 1 do-alla. iar ngait cheilli dia n-anmain `after losing all hope of life', ZCP i 406.11 . See gataid. do ben gach neach díbh ciall dá anmain, CF² 736 . iar m-ben . . . do chelli dia bethaid, LB 143a33 . ba buan ceille do chabhair, Stair Erc. 1537 . mairg bheanas chéill don chruinne (`to try to understand'), Magauran 643 . ben do cheill . . . dot tir ┐ dot talmain exi de terra tua, Lism. L. 707 . See benaid. See díscaíl. With cuirid: gur bo marb mórán do clandaib C. ar cur céille do'n cathimresan (`after the effort of screwing themselves up for the fight'), Caithr. Thoirdh. 127.24 . tráth do chuirset céill do'n cath (`when they were baulked of the fray'), 128.1 . Note further: do chuaidh a ciall do'n cathírghail they lost hope of, Caithr. Thoirdh. 99.15 .

do-cuirethar ar chéill (for céill) calls to mind: torala Dia ar cheill do degnimu `let God bring to mind', Ml. 43b15 . intan forathmentar ┐ docuredar ar céill `when it is . . . kept in mind', Ériu ii 136 § 122 . tachraid forcéill ┐ airem daib seanchassai . . . bar múinntire, Alex. 191 . na healtain do chor ar céill / as blogh d'ḟertaibh in ḟíréin, IGT Decl. ex. 303 . With difft. constr. foceird mo ceill im drungo, LMU 17 (Eg.) `my reason is agitated about the hosts', (LMU2). Later with cuirid and personal object recalls to reason, to sense : a chur ar céill gér chás deacair (of conversion of St. Augustine), DDána 59.11 . meisge an phobail . . . / ní hobair mná a chura ar céill `to bring them to reason', PBocht 9.23 . buime an leinbh (sic leg.) gá gcur ar céill (of Mary consoling the holy women), 13.15 .

cuirid i céill expounds, proves, declares : ní mór dod mhaith chuire a ccéill, Bard. Synt. Tr. 228.17 . lá in Chairn a gcéill cuirfidhear `will be ever remembered', O'Hara 123 . cuir-se i gcéill `explain', A. Ó Dálaigh xlix 10 . as fer tengtha (sic leg.) eile do chuiredh a ceill dó gach ní da n-abradh C.C. ris, BCC 262.32 . m'éigse i gcéill muna chuirinn, Aithd. D. 46.4 . cuir do bhagar i gcéill thuaidh / más ann creidfidhear é uaibh, Content. xviii 168 . ionnus go gcuirfeadh i gcéill do'n léaghthóir nach fuil tabhacht i seanchus Éireann `might give the reader to understand', Keat. i 50.3 . Note also: níor chuir Brian céill na cheanaibh ignored, Content. xiv 18n. ciall do chur san iompódh to take heed of the change (? but see Ed. note), PBocht 22.2 .

do-gní céill takes thought; employs skill : do-ghéanadh chéill rem cháineadh `he would take thought before reviling me', Aithd. D. 74.17 . Cf. nī faigebthar-side itir . . . acht ma doronad cēill occai, TBC-I¹ 1576 = dorónaid ceill glossed ceilg, LU. Cf. nī rādh go cēill (.i. go ceilgg), ZCP v 487 § 15 (B. na f.) = ciall .i. cealg, O'Curry 1464 ( H 3.18, 651 ). fris-cuirethar céill see fris-cuirethar, frecor.

gaibid céill for, g. for céill expects : hó ro gaibther c.¤ for riuth s ... (? scíth or séim) 'when a tiring (or easy) pace is expected', Wb. 13b13 , Ériu xxxiii 165 . argaibidside céil for báas in tain téte don chath `expects death', 9a3 . fiadnaise fir galair gabes ceill for eccaib, O'Curry 1617 ( 23 Q 6, 6 b ). diä dardāin gabus-sa / cēill for ingnais maicc m'athar, Bruchst. 52 § 116 ; 'on Thursday I expected the death of my father's son' Ériu xxiii 49 . ra gabsat céill ar a mbreith i tírib ciana, LL 31491 (TTr.). o ro gab ceill for anad, LU 2249 ( FA 31 ). is in coiged uair . . . intan rogabsat cell for a collad ┐ for a cumsanad re seitfidaigh na natrach settled down to, BB 495a16 . ro gabsat ar céill . . . comallad fir na faistine, 429b25 . do gabatar ar chéill gan chunntabairt gurab é in Clárach . . . adchonncatar `imagined', Caithr. Thoirdh. 51.4 .

For ciall .i. tionol, O'Dav. 362 see fo-cíallathar II.

Compds. With nouns.: domrimart gáir na gáithi / im chotlud co cíall-báithe `with vacant mind', Metr. Dinds. iii 226.10 . in fitir for cialbann clú / cia dú cosatiagam dé? SR 7967 . iar ccur do Brian . . . Maolseachluinn Mór as a chiallchogair confidences, Ériu i 105.7 . conad hí ar comcisiu ┐ cottomus ar ciallḟer, LL 32429 (TTr.). cīallḟlaith . . . con gaib side a chrícha cen choscru cen chernu a prudent ruler, ZCP xi 86 § 46 . ciall-gháis Chormaic `wisdom', MR 116.14 . ciallrunugud aicnid , Cóic Con. 24 § 24 . ciallrunugud cert caid, 27.9 . la ciallrunugadh eir[i]c, Laws iii 408.9 Comm.

With adjj.: tricha robhi in ciallbhog caemh / ina ri Diarmoíd na ndhamh simple-minded(?), BB 57a15 . ? is imdha duine data / ┐ cuire is cialbhrata (: dhíarmada), IT iii 68.17 . fear . . . cunnail craibhtech cíallchonaich resourceful(?), RC xii 320 § 1 . saī coitcenn, ciallconaigh, AU iii 46.6 . See féchemanda. co glice ciallgaesmar, Stair Erc. 298 . bhí sé ciallghlan diadha, Hackett² xxx 154 . mná cori ciallmathi, LU 3888 ( SCC 40 ). gnúis meicc Cairne cíallmíadcha (-miacha, v.l.) `of noble sense', Ériu iv 94.14 . macc slattraim síl Chuind cíallmór, Ériu iv 104.8 . Cf. i nDaim Liac Ciannāin canair / marb hua ciallmair Congalaig, Arch. Hib. ii 94 § 25 (see Ed.'s note). na ceithre comhfhocail . . . chumaidhi chialltarctheacha `expressive maxims', MR 90.4 . fer nár certmur cialltreabar, BB 427b30 .

With vb. ¤rúnaigid(ir). Legal. considers carefully; decides after deliberation: nach claoine eile ciallrunaigther ann .i. feall no éithach, O'D. 795 ( H 3.17, col. 570 ) = ciallrunaither, O'Curry 2395 ( Eg. 88, 31a ). cocrathar urchonn urthach .i. ciallrunathar uasal testugh (leg. testughad) ona codhnacha, O'Curry 1770 ( 23 D 6, 37 a ). na cocra cert .i. nech na ciallrunaigenn, Laws iii 34.18 Comm.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. commórad or
Last Revised: 2019


vn. of commóraid.

(a) Perh. act of honouring, exalting in: in recht aicnid . . . / boí in Coimdiu 'ca ch.¤ `magnifying it', Metr. Dinds. iv 152.88 . am cheann do chomóradh 'was given preferential treatment over me', Ériu lxiv 162 § 1.7 . na rēgiōin chomhfhoixe ag a chomhmōradh, Fl. Earls 112.25 .

(b) act of helping, furthering, re-inforcing : Críst . . . / . . . dia ch.¤ `prosper him', Metr. Dinds. iv 162.228 . Israelda do chommorad, Alex. 453 . do commorad uilc ┐ anindi chaich dib re chele, TTebe 2743 . T. . . . cona muintir do tocht do chommoradh meic U. to reinforce, AFM iii 546.4 . dochum na heaglaisi corporrdha do chomóradh = reparare (Gloss.), Beatha S. F. 304 .

(c) act of celebrating, holding, waging (of functions, hunts, battles etc.): do chommōrad na selga-sin, Fianaig. 52.5 . do chommóradh oirechtus ┐ aoibhnis, RC xxiii 12.2 . cen cocadh do commórodh (sic), Acall. 2498 v.l. i commorad aig ┐ irgaili leo, Cog. 174.13 . ceann cumdaig ┐ commortha cacha claen-dala, MR 200.23 . gan rí do'n cinel cetna do commoradh caidhche to crown(?), Celt. Rev. iv 12.28 .

(d) act of comparing : ge trom an tuisci ag a comoradh re haer, Ir. Astr. Tr. 12.5 . ní fhédann an tór nó an croistal (sic) a com(h)óradh = cannot equal it, Job xxviii 17 .

1 cubus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cubus or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: cuibse, cubais, cuibse, cubais

n (com + fis). g s. cuibse, later somet. cubais. n a p. cuibse. Somet. confused with cobais (cf. a d s. cubais and: is í so mo ch.¤ , SG 115.10 ). For mod. forms see Éigse ix 166 - 7 . conscience : infiadnisse doib ácúbus gl. testimonium reddente illís conscientia ipsorum, Wb. 1d6 . friar c.¤ , 14c8 . benad fria ch.¤ fessin `let it concern his own conscience', 20c8 . arnarala forc.¤ áiri gl. (nihil interrogantes) propter conscientiam, 11b21 . c.¤ .i. anam. ut est for c.¤ righ atá, O'Dav. 545 . c.¤ ┐ aicned, Laws i 144.21 . 208.5 . fri cuibse na creisen `consciences', iii 30.z . a mes fri cuibsi areir maithe gacha tuaithe, O'Curry 2219 ( Eg. 88, 16a ). co nglaine cuibse, Laws iv 32.20 . a fir aicnid ┐ screptra ┐ chuibhsi `according to the justice . . . of conscience', BCrólige 12 . tri timorgain cuibsi no gnuisi, O'Curry 21 ( H 3.18, 9b ). co slan cuibse, Laws v 156.17 . ratha cuibse ┐ ciche ┐ cride, LL 4941 . cen cuid cubais, Snedg. u. Mac R 10 § 19 . cach mes co c.¤ , ACL iii 226.z . ? focheird deit ch.¤ . . . la slemni `send him away from thy confession', Mon. Tall. 128.3 (cobais?).

In asseveration: asrupart . . . nach fitir a chuphus for bith cidh nobiadh doib that he had no idea, Anecd. ii 49.z . ma do rat a c.¤ re bas cuna ro dlecht in flaith `declared on his conscience', Laws ii 274.25 Comm. adbeirsium fria c.¤ fadein is innruic gach ae `mind', 50.16 Comm. dom ch.¤ úag / ba turus trúag `by my innocent conscience', Metr. Dinds. iii 188.4 . dar ar c.¤ , MU² 594 . is c.¤ dún . . . ni tiberther, MR 22.7 . dar fír ar cubais, TBC-LL² 99 . for c.¤ cáich inna lucc, Ériu iii 100.x . ar fír do chubhais riut, Acall. 5824 . mo chubus ám, ar sé, Stories fr. Acall. 19.516 . dar mo chubhas, Keat. Poems 340 . doberim fam chubuse/ . . . / go bhḟaca, LL 396.4 .

In the phrase: for c.¤ the sense approximates to that of for commus (commus): dús ind airim banscala for a c.¤ ┐ . . . and geba mo anmcairdessa take responsibility for (?), Mon. Tall. 150.12 (`confession'). ni aurcuil . . . deit a tír ind erlama fort ch.¤ do fodil a toraid do bochtaib at your discretion (?), 160.5 . fer graid gaibes eclais for a chubas, LB 12a37 . co ro ladh for c.¤ hua Suanaigh fadeisin `left to the conscience', BNnÉ 313.4 . ro battar secht nduine form comus [s]a . . . ┐ or ┐ arccat, graighi ┐ alma bo cech duine, for mo c.¤ [s]a sin uile at my disposal (?), 303.1 . manach . . . ar ata an doman fora c.¤ , 22 . anchore . . . cen ní for a ch.¤ , Ériu ii 222.23 (`with nought upon his conscience'). Note also: nach clérech nádairlégfa dia ch.¤ `who shall not read it aloud conscientiously', Ériu ii 202 § 19 .

Compd. ¤-brath complicity in crime through previous knowledge i.e. complicity of mutus co-operator: c.¤-brath (sic leg.) .i. an fear bhíos ag ceilt an uilc, O'Don. Suppl. citing Mac Fir Bisig. fiach c.¤ braith, Laws iii 104.25 `complicity in crime'. do-sli(d) cethraime cubus braith, i 272.34 Comm. fíach cubhusbhraith ó daoirchelibh, Ériu xiii 49.z . is edh is fer cubus braith cindti ann, duine aca mbid fis an marbtha ria na ndenum, ┐ cinnti co r[o]isidh robud uadh; is edh is fer c. b. cunntabartach ann, fis . . . ┐ cunntabairt ann an roisidh fis uadh, O'Curry 1693 ( 23 Q 6, 13 a ).


Cite this: eDIL s.v. deinmne or
Last Revised: 2019


n orig. nt, usually , f. (di + ainmne). IGT Decl. § 3 . impatience, eagerness, haste: trí maic beres neóit do deinmnait, Triads 144 . d.¤ im biad, ZCP vi 261 . immradud ina mbíad i n-ámsir áine, ┐ d.¤ impu, PH 8387 . ní thíscad a drucht do rind ind ḟéoir ar denmni ind aicnid , FB § 88 . ba d.¤ mor la Cesair, CCath. 3293 . fogheibhtis ech ele . . . ┐ teighedh fuirre gu luas ┐ denmne, Marco P. 96 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. dímíad or


n u, m. (míad) dishonour, disrespect, treating with contumely: fo dimiad cech anrechtach, SR 8335 . cen d.¤ , 5843 . coṅgerdar cen dimiada | dochum flatha sech tedma, 8367 . ni uair dimiad `she had no lack of honour', Metr. Dinds. iii 434 . ní har dimiad nā essonoir di, PH 67 . dimiad dom chleirech, dom clog, Fen. 220 . in d.¤ doratsatar Gréic . . . do Throiannaib, LL 228b1 . iar tabhairt dímiadha do a naonach Tailltenn, SG 72 . do dighail for T. in dímiada móir tucsat for Grécu, TTr.² 562 . in d.¤ ro-imdig for a rig, MR 30 . robatar fo dáire ┐ dim[i]ad, Alex. 317 . fo dhimiach ┐ fo dhimigin, MS. Mat. 551 . más é as tuar dímhiadha dhamh, DDána 101.34 . ic fulang . . . dímiada ┐ tarcasail, LB 256az .

With subj. gen. and DO: Media . . . rap anforlond aicnid lé d.¤ ┐ dímbríg ┐ dímicin Iasóin dí the dishonour . . . which J. had done her, LL 222a17 .

With obj. gen.: cid fódruair lat-su mo d.¤ sa fíad andrib ilib?, LU 3902 . do digail a dímhiada ar D., MR 110 . robaoi ina mhenmain aithe a dhímhiada ar Sh., AFM vi 1972 .

1 dír

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 dír or


adj (a) due, proper, fit, meet: d.¤ .i. dlisdin, Lec. Gl. 163(M) . dir .i. dleisdín, Stowe Gl. 51 . d.¤ .i. dlestanus, 318 . Generally folld. by prep. DO: ni d.¤ dúib ní disund nothing of this is meet for you, Wb. 27a26 . ni diír do noibad aní forchanat what they teach is not proper for sanctification, 31b17 . is d.¤ .i. is dethiden do gl. ad illum pertinet, Ml. 30c4 . amal is d.¤ do mogaid as befits a servant, RC ii 386 § 6 . ní gata Adomnan fīachu ar . . . fine dia mbí d.¤ to whom they are due, Cáin Ad. 29 . adae .i. ad dee .i. dīr do Dia, Corm. Y 67 . i n-as d.¤ d'eclais, 962 . is do is dir inndi is canticum dindí doberar a claiss hi croit, Hib. Min. 287 . is é ná facaidh ní nár bhu d.¤ dhó do fhaicsin that was not proper for him to see, Lism. L. 4894 . déansa gach ní is d.¤ do dheaghdhuine, ML 100.6 . laidh . . . is d.¤ ┐ is dligeadh d'éicsib d'aisneis, MR 92.4 . cech fírmanach dond eclais dian d.¤ gníd amal cech mog to the church to which it is due, Fél. p. 4 . espuc do nach diur adhultrus, Laws i 58.22 . ro imbir fair cach ada aili ba d.¤ do imbirt for tarb idparta, CCath. 959 . diambadh d.¤ fuil do snām if blood were fitted for swimming, ZCP xi 62.6 . do leith fitt . . . is d.¤ insin that (word) is applicable to a half-ration, Mon. Tall. 156.21 .

Used absolutely without complement: cech ní is d.¤ dlegmait do rad, LL 139b12 ( RC xlvii 304 ). corrthair .i. . . . nō co hor .i. co himel as d.¤ a breith it is proper to bring it to the edge, Corm. Y 336 . ma indligedh dogne in flaith resin cele is d.¤ imsgar fris, Laws ii 274.11 Comm. robba d.¤ recht aicnid [uile] inge cretium the law of nature was right except for the faith, i 16.17 . as forra féin ro ba dir clú an mhadhma do bheith, AFM v 1648 . niptar dir na oiss | immá duma dess, PRIA xix 534 .

(b) belonging to, appertaining to: tectid cach cumachte as díir do dia that belongs to God, Wb. 26a6 . conic do pianad-sa ┐ pianad cech oein as d.¤ duit torment thee and thy seed, PH 6600 . ni fuil sund neach na pad dir (duall, v.l.) dait o a athair no mathair, BDD § 13 . carn ind ríg in fess cía rí | dianid d.¤ ? to whom it belongs, Metr. Dinds. iii 202 . tuatha Fochmuinn . . . for Almuin ┐ anas d.¤ di hi finíbh, BB 255b40 . forumai sár for cach toil . . . acht anas d.¤ dí fadesne but what is accordant with itself (luxuria), Ériu vii 138.4 .

Folld. by gen.: do neoch ba d.¤ udbarta issin tempul everything that belonged to . . ., TTr. 1223 ( LL 233b5 ). gen nach ngnim is d.¤ mugsaini to do nothing appertaining to servile work, Anecd. iii 21.8 . ní bus d.¤ clóine anything involving wrong, Ériu ii 202 . menma aircisechtach di cach duine acht ní bas d.¤ pecath save for aught that involves sin, Ériu vii 160.28 . trūail .i. dir uailli í it is a sign of pride, Corm. Y 1240 .

(c) necessary: ní nad d.¤ do trachtad int sailm what is not necessary for a commentary, Ml. 25a6 . ised ro bo d.¤ do Césair toídhecht docum in tshenaidh Rómhánaigh C. was obliged to . . ., CCath. 213 .

As subst. [n.] one's right or due: Lind mná féile . . . | ainm na linde 'nar báided | is é a d.¤ (díl, v.l.) maras dise this is its proper title inherited from her, Metr. Dinds. iii 294 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. dlechtanach or


adj o,ā (dlechtain) lawful, proper, legitimate: fedligfid iarsin i méit dlechtanaig . . . a folaid ┐ a n-aicnid dilis, RC xxv 238 § 10 . an ní as dleachtaineach dhó, Desid. 748 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. echtar, or


Forms: echtargendi, echtargeindi, echtargeindiu

prep. with acc. without, outside: echtar comairbirt mbiuth pecthae hi robammar (gl. foris eximus extra quod fuimus) Tur. 108 . echtar recht [sic leg.? echtarecht MS] .i. docoid tar recht n-aicnid hinnun (gl. cis naturae leges Sg. 217b16 . noteged echtar chathraig [sic leg. ? echtarchaig MS] Ml. 54c18 . feil docuiridar echdar corgus a feast that falls outside Lent Mon. Tall. § 22 . Cf. arcichset loman lonngliaidh na da err eplaid hechtair, acht regaid fer dar fer indocht astig si, Anecd. v 14.17 (for v.l. see IT i 104.11 n. , Hib. Min. 55.13 ). See also anechtair, díanechtair, sechtair.

COMPDS. echtarchenél a foreign kindred; a foreigner, alien (the latter meaning could have arisen from an attrib. gen. ¤cheníuil, which is suggested by some exx., but the adj. ¤chenél is perhaps to be classed with findbarr, milbél, etc. Cf. chrích, below): no gebtais echtarchenéla a tír Trip. 170.3 . nach cland no bertis do echtarcenélaib, 202 . 13 . as eadh líon lotar clanna N....cenmotat echtaircenela Leb. Gab.(i) i 78 . AFM i 444.9 . na buada doberat leo a hechtarcenelaib in domain amuigh, Aen. 1963 . acca n-iomchoimhétt ar chuanaibh ┐ ceithearnaibh ┐ eachtarchenélaibh, AFM vi 2250.20 .

The following may be attrib. gen., unless ¤cheníuil is to be classed as an adj. of the i-decl. (see Thurn., Thurn. Hdb. § 345 ). fer echtarcheniuil, Aen. 2906 . oicc echtarchiniul (v.l. echtairceniuil), RC x 222.127 . cosnamh a n-athardha frissin ainffine n-eachtaircheneoil sin, AFM vi 2070.4 . rí eachtaircheneóil (of a king ruling over an alien kindred) AFM ii 1074.9 .

¤chian outlying, remote: fona crichaib echtarcianaib, Aen. 230 .

¤chined a foreign tribe: is aire sin ro gabasdair eachtarcineada tire Breatan, Todd Nenn. 68 = BB 207b1 .

¤chinedach foreign, a foreigner: eachturchinedhoigh do lot na hEirenn, TFrag. 112 .

I a foreign territory: Froech mac F.... soermacamh na nDomhnannach a n-imdealaib a n-echtarchrichaibh, ZCP xiii 166 . coná caémhnacair dul i n-echtaircrích, AFM vi 2266.16 .

II a foreigner, stranger: dia ticed áighi no echtarcrich, Marco P. 23 . ní theit lucht na criche sin a gcathuibh acht da mbe conblicht forro doberuit echtarchricha dia cabair, 169 . g p. for breith áighedh ┐ echtarcrich, 24 .

¤fine an extern kindred, an alien tribe: a reic fri echtarfine `to sell them to persons extern to the tribe' Laws v 128.17 . do fir echtarfine, iii 52.24 Comm.

¤geinde of foreign birth: echtargendi (gl. alienigen(a)e) Ml. 37b30 . ind echtargeindi foreigners 103d21 . hi lama echtargeinde (gl. in ius venit externum) 100c15 . a p. echtargeindiu (gl. alienigenas) 29b16 .

¤tháin an extern herd, a herd from another territory: da n-indillib bodein...d'innillib echtarthana, Laws iii 232.15 .

¤thuath an outlying or foreign people: fuba fri hechtartuatha `attacks upon strange tribes' Laws i 160.3 Comm. tiagait meic Aeda in-agid na n-echtarthúath sair LL 275a31 .

1 fásach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 fásach or


Forms: fassag, fásaige, fasaigib, fasaig, fássach, fasaigib

n o, s, n. (?) n s. fassag (mbreth), O'Mulc. 495 . n p. fásaige, see below. A legal precedent, a decision which has passed into a maxim; a proverbial saying: fāsach (no fāisech) ... .i. dobir in brethem cosmailius don chaingin ima fuiglither ... ┐ adfet iarom in [m]brith ronucsat brethemnai gaotha fuirre, Corm. Y 611 . canaid in breithem fassach fir-aicnid ┐ roscadh filed, 1224 s.v. tuirigin. fassag ebraice transgressio .i. robuth ann riamh ce dorearacht, unde dicitur: fassag mbreth .i. quod dixerunt qui de hoc mundo transierunt (i.e. a saying of the ancients) O'Mulc. 495 (cf. Corm. Y 433 ). ní huasligethar nach mbrethemuin mani fassach fírinne fiastar, ZCP xi 93.6 . cisne tri leaca ... nād fuaslaici dliged nā fuigeall nā fāsach, Laws v 450.2 . cf. rae tae torae nís fóirithe fola na fásach, Ériu xiii 29.28 . ar us seanfasac la feine, Laws iv 154.21 (with gl.: ar is sencinded, 156.4 . O'Dav. 906 ). a breith gin fasach `without a precedent' Laws v 352.4 . i sreathaibh roscaigh ┐ fasaigh ┐ airchetail precedent (ancient ruling) Auraic. 337 . is cían o as fásach ni gebthar cath cen ríg, LU 1514 ( MU² 1012 ). in gaedhealg fasaig (.i. i fis ogae), BB 300b3 . d du. ar in de fasaigib no dareithet: ni fognai lam laim, ni daim enecland anadh `from the two maxims which give relief' Laws i 228.16 . pl. it fasaig ┐ roscaid berthe [leg. berte] brethe (= judgments are decided by precedents and maxims) ZCP xi 89.23 . fasaige na filed precedents, maxims (one of the kinds of `bérla tobaide') Auraic. 1303 . fasoighe (fasaid v.l.), 4620 . asberad araili comad e in berla Feini fasaigi na filed ┐ co nach berla fo leith etir, 1337 . dogniat ina firta condat fasaige, Anecd. v 25.14 . g p. lín fássach `a number of precedents' Triads 178 . d p. brithem fri brithemnas ar roscadaib ┐ fasaigib , LU 9790 = Trip. 566.4 . ní fuigledar nach fuigled nad bí co fássaigib fírinne fossaigedar a breith unless he support his judgment by just precedents ZCP xi 82.2 = manip co fasaigib firinne fo gabthar, 89.23 .

1 fír

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 fír or
Last Revised: 2013


Forms: fira, fíri, fira, fír, ḟír, firithir, firium, fíream, fír, fir, fíre, brithemnachtae, fírmessa, fircarat, fír

I adj o-ā

(a) true, veracious , used as pred. with cop.; as attrib. usually in composition with noun, seldom following it. f.¤ ... a uero latine , Corm. Y 639 . gl. verus Ml. 24d16 . 60b11 . as f.¤ aní chanas, 24d14 . is fāss dúnni a pridchimme manid f.¤ , Wb. 13b14 . f.¤ inna rādisiu what thou sayest is true LU 8455 ( FB 31 ). dūs in f.¤ mar atbeire, SR 1268 . in fir a n-atfiadat?, CRR 29 . is f.¤, ol se, is e so Crist, PH 679 . ni f.¤ sin (contradicting a statement) 2715 . Absol. confirming a preceding fact or statement: f.¤, ar se, ingen fil and, LL 259b43 ( LMU 5 ). f.¤, ar in drai, RC xxiv 174.15 . f.¤ is munter Dé fogniat [sic leg.], Snedg. u. Mac R 9.21 = is derb, ar siad, is munter Dé, RC xxvi 136.27 . Adv.: co mbia co f.¤ esergi that there will truly be a resurrection PH 1074 . uere .i. co f.¤ , 7983 . atberim co fír fír frib ..., 5036 . go fíor, Duan. F. i 28.3 . pl. it na huili besgna ata fira , Thes. ii 7.26 . at fíra do briathra, PH 794 . IS F.¤he is right: olsodin nad f.¤ ndoib however in that they lie Ml. 16a10 . ba f.¤ ám do Ch. aní sin, TBC-LL¹ 5767 . 4692 . 5719 . fír dam, or A. ni fīr or L., LL 288b27 . ni f.¤ dún ar mbeith amlaid we err (in claiming) to be so PH 7945 . más f.¤ dhamhsa if I am not mistaken O'Dav. 1244 . IS F.¤ LIMM I deem it true, I believe: do retaib ata chosmaili fri f.¤ la doini ┐ bes ni bat fira la Dia, Ml. 51b8 . BID F.¤ it will prove true, come to pass: bid f.¤ a tairngire Wb. 2c19 . hóre bas f.¤ quod dicam , 17d20 . Cf. pret.: ba f.¤ son re cind in tres laí it came true ( happened ) LL 283a9 . Used idiomatically in assenting to a proposal or the reverse: cuir in da chend, a L., issin carpat ... Bid f.¤ for L. it shall be done LL 110b31 ( RC xiv 422 ). ní bá f.¤ sin that shall not be! LU 8199 ( FB 14 ). Mer. Uil. 46 . ni ba f.¤ ... Cet do rainn na mucce it shall not be that C. divide the pig ScM. 9 . ROP F.¤ may it come to pass Hy i 39 . corap f.¤ amal atrubrabar! PH 2774 . amen .i. rop f.¤ so be it 7981 . MAS Ḟ. (in later poetry) if it is true = `according to statement', `it is said': an séad, a Dhé, ina mbia ar mbríogh | más fíor is é bhus dia dhúnn, Dán Dé xxiii 11 . éantoirrcheas, más ḟíor, iaidséin, TD 26.7 . ionann ḟáisdine, más ḟíor, do mhac is d'adhbhar airdríogh, 21.31 . más ḟíor dá lán according to many 28.40 . fír dhe (cheville), Duan. F. 25.4 ; ii 68.10 . As attrib.: breth f.¤ , SR 3321 . dar mo bréthir ḟ.¤ , IT i 122.1 . g s. f. inna Trínóite fíri (fire v.l.), Hy ii 42 . Cf. foxal fainne fíre SR 3594 (but see fíre). pl. bretha fira , Ml. 89b14 . teora coibsen fira, IT iii 197.24 . tri bliadhna fira .xx. `righteous' (?) BB 50a24 ( MacCarthy 414 ). sgéla fíora, Duan. F. ii 2.3 . d s. as adv.: ind fír (gl. amen) Wb. 14c32 . ind ḟír (gl. vero) Sg. 106a5 . Equat. firithir lebor as true as LL 43b23 . Compar. ataa ani as firiu oldas a ndeda sa, Hib. Min. 10.348 . is firu damsa! ní firiu duidsiu! I am right! you are wrong! Ériu viii 157.15 . atberait aroli comboi ... ┐ is fíre són, LB 148a10 . superl. firium, Laws i 106.1 (?). fíremh, Ériu xiii 17.30 . Cf. fíream, Laws iv 34.1 .

(b) genuine: pleurisis fhíre ┐ pleurisis nach fír true pleurisy and spurious O'Gr. Cat. 188 § 45 .

II subst. n. later m. g s. cosmailius fír , Ml. 55d25 . arach fir , Cóic Con. 17.1 (other exx. below); later fíra, fíre.

(a) what is true; truth, right: gáo et f.¤ , Wb. 14c22 . f.¤ n-uile sicut dixi (gl. veritas facta est) 16b22 . f.¤ neich, 30d14 (= iustitia). fer nolabrad f.¤ ┐ no chairiged gó, PH 825 . tan renas ... a ḟir for in gae when he barters truth for falsehood (i.e. right for wrong, of a king) ACL iii 315.6 . f.¤ n-aignaid ┐ screbtra truth natural and revealed Laws v 430.23 . Ailbhe co ffīor `A. the truthful' Duan. F. i 6.3 . With poss. pron.: abbair a ḟ.¤ frind, LU 4544 . ráid a fh.¤ dūn tell us the truth about it PH 1063 . is é a ḟíor this is the truth of it Ir. Monthly 1928, 549 . isé a ḟíor is ní brēcc dhamh, ZCP viii 225.3 . sinagoga ... congregatio ... ed a f.¤ isin laitin `c.' is the right word for it in Latin 113 § 4 . ce raib se ina fh.¤ though it be true PH 7324 . In asseveration or adjuration: dar f.¤ ar cubais, TBC-LL¹ 110 . ar f.¤ do gascid, 4663 . for f.¤ do ḟlatha, LL 251a48 ( TBFr. § 23 ). for f.¤ th'ainich ┐ t'anma, LL 251b1 (ib.). Concrete: co n-indistar fir cacha ceatramhan until a truth (true story) be told for every quarter IT iii 196 § 40 . IAR F.¤ according to truth, really, actually: delb nad bí iar f.¤ (gl. imaginis) Ml. 91d1 . túarascbail ... inna n-airecht sin amal itát iar f.¤ as they are in reality LU 1997 ( FA 6 ). is iat sin na fírUlaid iar f.¤ , ZCP viii 326.9 . na hIúdaide cristaide ... na hIúdaide iar ḟír, LB 158b19 . isat cara iar ndreich ... cen cop ed iar f.¤ , PH 3100 . Cf. iar fíraib truly, really (?) LL 5b49 . tría fhíribh, Duan. F. i 88.13 (: ríghe).

(b) a pledge, guarantee: dobretha f.¤ fris .i. f.¤ ciche ┐ gruaide, nime ┐ talman, grēine ┐ ēsca, etc. Rawl. 132a31 ( Ériu xi 95 ). ro lasett each an ríg ... for f.¤ comairci Colmáin, BColm. 90.6 . adguiter f.¤ hOengasa [leg. nOen.] ... fris ┐ fir flatha na nDéisi, Ériu iii 140.170 . cf. la fior flatha frisa ngaibther, Ériu xiii 31.3 . da fir dhec flatha, below, end of (c). cach fír dar ná tecar slán `every pledge that is not transgressed with safety' Metr. Dinds. iii 6.65 . Cf. ferr fir fonaidm .i. na trebaire a pledge is better than a bond O'Curry 1756 ( 23 Q 6, 34b ) = O'Curry 511 (t. cen folad) (< H 3.18, 259 ).

(c) an attestation; a proof, test, ordeal: technical term in Law, one of the five `conara fugill' or recognized methods of procedure in pleading, see Cóic Con. p. 8 , 17ff . Here perh. i mmes fíra, Ml. 26c12 (see fíre). is ed so acarar [sic leg.] forin conair fugill is fir: cinta comraitti ┐ anfoit lanḟiachaig ┐ cach cin imna dir logad no trocaire, Cóic Con. 17 § 5 . uide īce in fira .i. in fir lai ┐ in fir Dé ┐ in fir cuir ┐ cunnartha ... in leth-fir testa ... in lan-fir teasta, O'Curry 333 (< H 3.18, 183 ). Cf. Cóic Con. 67 . mac mná dobheir fior i logh a ruice, Ériu xiii 31.28 . f.¤ nDé a religious ordeal or attestation: in inbaidh aititnither ... is fir nDé uadh ...; muna aititnighe ... is arra cuir ..., O'Curry 2003 Comm. (< H 4.22, 30 ). comadh ann robeth in fir dé so lais iar nemfadbail fire daoine, Laws iv 294.7 Comm. co dtisadh a bfir do cach iar bfir De (.i. na eclaise) ┐ duine (.i. na tuaithi), O'Curry 1607 (< 23 Q 6, 5a ). lia do fír fri ... aiṅcessa māra (.i. fris inni is anfis do neoch forna fagabthar breth acht fir ṅDe) thou shalt follow (the way of) ordeal in cases of, etc., Cóic Con. 16 § 3 . 37 § 50 . is cranncur fíre De docurethur ru, O'D. 900 . (< H 3.17 c. 644 ). f.¤ testa compurgation: O'Curry 2591 (< Eg. 88, 50b ), see Cóic Con. 67 . lucht fira compurgators: Cóic Con. 32 § 29 . in t-espuc, is greim cuicir gobas a lucht fira a leith re dainib ele, ┐ ni gabann acht greim aengraidh i leith ris fein, O'Curry 1058 (< H 3.18, 438a_b ). f.¤ dochum reilgi an attestation made in a churchyard Cóic Con. 64 § 14 . Ériu ix 114 . f.¤ n-airisme fri haltoir the test of standing at the altar Laws v 470.34 (see IT iii 192 ). f.¤ caire no crannchuir ordeal of the cauldron or of lot Laws iv 294.3 Comm. coiri fír .i. lestur ... fri dealochadh firindi ┐ góa, IT iii 191 § 21 . crand fīr `test-tree,' tree of ordeal Laws iv 146.27 ; a name for the aspen , Auraic. 1195 . tal no slisean seancraind, leasdar Baduirnd, trelia mothar no fir n-airisme fri haltoir, no fir fogearrta no comperta naime: ate ind sin fira ro suidistar Padraic do gleod fer nErend, Laws v 470 (see IT iii 188 , where three of these are included in the da fir dhec flatha `the twelve ordeals').

(d) right, due: ara tisad a f.¤ cach that everyone might `attain to his right' Laws i 152.1 . oc tacra a ḟír `arguing his right' Trip. 128.3 . is im fir ban ciato-imargaet roe `about the true right of women' [ = for a case (i.e. dispute) of women ?] Laws i 150.13 . Cf. fria hiomasdad a ffíor fri breith, Ériu xiii 34.7 (perh. belonging to c).

(e) various phrases: F.¤ CATHA `truth of battle,' a just cause in fight: risnā ragbad ríam ... f.¤c. nā fornirt [leg. fornert ?] comlaind, TBC-LL¹ 5083 (perhaps against whom neither equal nor superior numbers ever prevailed). co nā gabdais f.¤ c. fria n-athair that they might not have right on their side in opposing their father (of the three Finn Emna) Dinds. 140 , corresp. to: cumbad olc a f.¤ c. i n-agaid a n-ardḟlatha, Metr. Dinds. iv 44z . ba fearr a f.¤c. ┐ comlaind sin im a nduthaigh [sic leg.) ... innas im an ferand forgabala, Cog. 70.6 . táinig re síol bhflatha Fáil | gan ḟíor gcatha do chongbháil it turned out ill for ... that they had not right on their side TD 18.28 . éirghidh ar Ulltaibh, óir atá fíor gcatha agaibh chuca, Keat. ii 5643 . feirrde m'fhior chatha sa sin my cause of quarrel is the juster Content. xiv 4 . tré neimhḟíor gcatha in an unjust cause viii 24 . F.¤ FER fair play (in combat), single combat: acht cor damthar fir fer dam, ol se, atbér. is cóir f.¤ f. do chomollod ... ar ní f.¤ f. do slúag mór muinterda brisiud for óenfer, LU 9213 ( FB 94 ). nosgeodainseom huile ... uair rombrisiset fir fer fair, TBC-I¹ 809 (= LU 5284 ). rop áil damsa or L. conumrabad fir fer úaitsiu. cidón? or C. connachamthised úait acht oenlám. ar ni ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 122b5 ( RC iii 184 ). ni damar f.¤ f. dam na comlond, TBC-LL¹ 4706 . ní rodamhadh f.¤ fer ná comhlann fo coimhlíon dóibh acht ro chinn an t-iolar ar uathadh, AFM iv 996.14 . is and sin conbocht f.¤ f. fairseom ... día lotar in cóicfer cucaiseom, LU 6240 . dogniat aní sein ┐ dobreth a f.¤ f. fris, Ériu iii 137.50 (but Rawl. B 502, 132a31 has here: dobretha fir fris .i. fir ciche ┐ gruaide, etc., cited above under b). fior fer frisa ngaibhther, Ériu xiii 34.10 . Cf. muirbhfit ... iat i bhfir aeinḟir, RC xliii 24.9 . F.¤ FÉNE the truth (justice) of the F., itbath fir Fene, Laws i 150.17 . adbath fir Feiniu manipad cuicthi, 250y . F.¤ FLATHA the word of a prince; justice of a ruler: ní fíor flathu deit, a rí ..., a n-udbere thy sentence is unworthy of a just ruler RC xii 64.26 . co comet fir flatha .i. mess cacha bliadne, etc. (effects of just rule) xvi 280.7 . is tre ḟ.¤ flathemon cach recht rán ... cach tír toirthech, ZCP xi 81 §§ 12.14 . tré ḟíor ḟlatha ... tig ... iasg i n-inbhear, Content. vi 67 . asbertatar U. a mmarbad. ni thó, ar sisi, ar is coll fír f.¤ damsa the U. said that they should be killed. Nay, said she, for that is a violation of a prince's truth on my part RC xvi 281. 2 . F.¤ NGASCID fair fighting: ní f.¤ ṅg. ... comrac frimsa co n-oenláim, LL 116b39 ( RC viii 58 ). Cf. ní fír laechdachta dó tuidecht ar mo chendsa LU 6014 .


A With subst. common as adj. prefix in sense

(a) veracious, true, just: ¤brithem a just judge Ml. 27c1 . dond ¤brithemain, 26c11 (gl. cognitori) Wb. 8d25 . ¤brithemnacht a just judgment: g s. ¤brithemnachtae (opp. to gūbrithemnacht) Ml. 103c2 . ¤breth id.: pl. -a, SR 8325 . ¤dliged just, true rule: fili ... nach oide fīrdhlighidh ZCP viii 208.22 . ¤dul: iar f. (: dīlgud) according to right procedure, as is meet SR 1607 . ¤mess true, righteous judgment: ind fírmessa (gl. aequitatis) Ml. 103d1 . ¤mod: fīrmod sōn, Corm. Y § 149 . firmodh son, YBL 245 a 54 (Immacallam In Dá Thúarad) , ZCP xxi 325 . ¤scél true account: ni innisim acht f., Acall. 1428 . Less freq. in later texts; cf. fírferg: rinn ar bhḟírḟeirge ` just wrath ' TD 3.12 .

(b) veritable, genuine, real (very common; cf. older Engl. use of very < Fr. vrai): ¤dia: conapad f. mac that the Son should not be very God Ml. 21c12 . Wb. 2d8 . fíordia ... fíordhuine very God ... very man ZCP viii 199.22 (but: in fírdía the true God , opp. to dee ` heathen gods ' PH 433 , 2347 ). ¤duine: ní for fírduine rolaset a ṅgona acht is for corthe cloche, Thes. ii 343y (Comm. on Hy v 66 ). amal fírdhuine like a veritable human being PH 5642 . ¤aingel: messimir inna fíraingliu `the very angels' Wb. 9c10 . ¤mac: f. aicnid ní a uccu `a very son of nature, not from adoption' 32b6 . conid f. Dé Ísu Crist, PH 2179 . ¤chlann: Eua ..., fotha febda fírclainne of genuine offspring (?) SR 1064 . ¤chorp: is a ḟirchurp a doenachta atracht Crist a bás the real body of His humanity PH 6743 . Cf. further: am fírisrahelte a true Israelite Wb. 23d30 . is iat sin na fírUlaid the genuine Ultonians Rawl. 156b46 , ZCP viii 326.9 . frisna ¤adnacla (gl. non in domibus sed in sepulcris) Ml. 83d3 . is ¤briathar Dé (gl. non ut verbum hominum sed ... verbum Dei) Wb. 24d22 . fíor-fhraochdacht genuine fury (= asperitatem veram) TSh. 8130 . in ¤gním the real action Sg. 139a3 . inna ¤neuturáldi the true neuters 140a6 . ¤chara a genuine friend: g p. na fircarat , CCath. 5562 . cf. fiórnámha `a veritable foe ' TD 13.8 . ¤chlérech a true cleric: las na firclerchiu, Mon. Tall. § 13 . ¤dia the real God PH 433 (see above). ¤flaith a true, rightful prince: issin t[ṡ]ossud na fírflatha, LU 10752 ( TE 11 ). cosin f. (i.e. God) SR 1812 . ¤ true King: isé in fír-rig (of God) PH 1808 . Passing into sense of exact: ¤chenn sróna the very tip ZCP iii 34.19 . co firc[h]leit[h]i sleibi Olimp the very summit CCath. 5629 . i ¤dorus Chilli M. right in front of Trip. 136.16 . gáeth ... ina ¤ētan right in their faces LU 2184 ( FA 26 ). hi firmedón na cuardae the very centre BDD 72 . ¤mhullach Sléibi Smóil the very top Acall. 3925 . i ffiorthaobh ratha Oiligh the very side of the fort Leb. Gab.(i) i. 180.18 (cf. a dorus assa firthoeb (of the Ark) SR 2468 , where pref. seems otiose). 'na firiarthur right at the west end SR 4256 . ¤iarthar in betha, TTr.² 40 . frisin n-eclais a ¤thuaid due north of the church SR 4440 . i ¤ichtur inn aigeoin the very bottom CCath. 1386 . (hence adj. ¤íchtarach: superl. don chuid is fíríochtaruidh don bholg the innermost parts Proverbs xxvi 22 ). for a fir-uachtur on its very top SR 4332 . i ffíorthosach na bliadhna, AFM vi 2096.4 . ó fhíorthús na n-aimsear from earliest times TSh. 2917 . Very common with abstracts = true, genuine or merely intens. downright, sheer: ¤aicned: bretha firaicnid `judgements of true nature' Laws i 16.10 . a fīraicned screptra ┐ chuibsi, Ériu i 214.6 . ¤athrige genuine repentance PH 2241 . ¤chaín true smoothness; gentleness , in phr. f.¤ fáilte a hearty welcome: IT i 120.32 . Acall. 5830 . Ériu iii 164.11 ; xi 195.35 . ZCP vi 31.15 . ¤deacht true Godhead Hy ii 42 . ¤déirc true charity: tobar ¤deirce, ZCP viii 199.21 . ¤féchain scrutinizing: aca firechain cona dligthech, etc. looking to see that it is lawfully ... Laws iv 20.27 Comm. , cf. aca ¤dechsain, 22.29 , ZCP viii 205.33 . ¤grád true love: idir an bhfíor-ghrádh ... ┐ an grádh tacair, TSh. 8953 . ¤ítu intense thirst: follscadh firiotan, Leb. Gab.(i) i 28.2 . ¤less real profit SR 322 . ¤róen a downright defeat SR 5092 . ¤thnúth ` deep envy ' Ériu iv 92 § 5 . Oft. apparently otiose and freq. used for sake of alliteration: togha fírbhech ár bfoghluim `of most genuine bees' O'Gr. Cat. 475.22 . ar a fad nó ar a ¤leithett, AFM vi 2082.1 . agá fforach ┐ acca ffírlenmhain, 2318.1 . cossmhailes foichedh -bheach, 2224.3 . an faircle ¤leac fionnaolta na feineistre [sic leg.], Hugh Roe 288.27 (f. 76a) . ag déanamh fíorluit is foghla, Keat. ii 3262 .

(c) forming real compds. in which the meaning of subst. is modified: f.¤chruithnecht selected (?) wheat LU 8121 . ¤íasc salmon: cora ḟiresc `a salmon-weir ' RC xxvi 136.23 . bratan fireisc, Lism. L. viii 18 . lethar fírésc `salmon skin' MacCongl. 89.9 = cris d'iucraibh fīréisc, 122.35 (see also u. -uisce). ¤lemnacht fresh milk LU 8120 ( FB 9 ). Acall. 829 . ¤thipra a spring LL 30a1 . ¤uisce fresh water (opp. to brine), spring water ZCP v 24.2 . CCath. 1742 . BColm. 52.11 . Fl. Earls 90.20 . Études Celt. i 86.16 . Proverbs xviii 4 . eisg firuisgi fresh-water fish Rosa Angl. 40z .

B With adj. as advbl. pref. in sense truly, genuinely, downright or merely intens. ¤amnas very keen SR 1830 . ¤cruind perfectly round 36 . ¤derb quite certain Wb. 12c12 . ¤doim ` really poor ' Mon. Tall. 46 . ¤éolach ` truly learned ' Ériu iv 144.8 . Oft. merely for alliteration (cf. A, b above); faideran ¤gorm, Acall. 367 . fomor ¤grán[d]a, 1884 . féige finn ¤ṡolus, LL 385c23 . In such adjs. as fírbrethach just in judgment ( Ériu i 122.9 . ZCP xi 96 § 55 . Cáin Ad. 21 ), ¤epertach truth-speaking ( PH 6499 . RC xxv 396.16 ), fír belongs to the noun fr. which the adj. is formed. ¤ferr truly the best: an agh dob fhírfhearr dar n-ealbhaidh, PBocht 4.9 . C With vb. (chiefly in poetry), intens. or merely otiose (met. gr.): rofirchrap, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 69 = IT iii 99 § 164 . ga file nach fiorchuala?, Top. Poems 24.12 ( Top. Poems² 224 ). cía lia fer le fír-gairthir `is rightly called' Metr. Dinds. iii 60 . fíreba[i]r (: fīnemain) will be quaffed (ibid.) ACL iii 238.23 . fírníamhfuid will purify Ezekiel xliii 26 . fírfoscaigfider, Rawl. 111b15 (gl. on: forbuascaigfider). mōr fiad resa fīrtheichet from which they flee in earnest Ériu vii 4.15 . ro fíorthiorchanadh lá fáidhibh was foretold truly AFM vi 2298.8 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. fithissigud or


n u, m. (fithis) pathfinding (?): ised is chonar fugill ann, in brig etarglethi ┐ in chiall toḟaiscthe ┐ in f.¤ menman ┐ in ciallrunugud aicnid [tremidirgius] menman[a] ┐ aicenta na fecheman o thinscital a tacrai ..., Cóic Con. 24 § 24 ; 57 § 132 (= fisiudnugud, ZCP xix 172 ). fithisiugud techta trom, Cóic Con. 27 § 5 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. folud or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: folad, -aid, folad, foluth, folad, folid, folaid, foluid, folaith, folith, folaid, folaidh, folta, ḟolad, n-ilḟolod, fola, folaid, ḟolaid, foladh, folta, fol-, folaid

n folad, -aid (later also fola, see below) o, n. later m., somet. f., see below. For suggested etym. see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 39 ; Zupitza, KZ xxxv 267 ff ., Thurn., GOI § 104 . n s. (with art.) a folad , Sg. 27a8 , cf. Ml. 25c8 , cited below. a s. a foluth , 39b8 . a folad , 9a14 ; b4 . g s. folid, Wb. 32b3 . Sg. 138a5 . ind folaid , Ml. 22d9 . in foluid , 74d4 . folaith, Sg. 27b9 . Bürgschaft 29 § 78 . folith, Mon. Tall. § 86 . n p. folaid, Laws iii 54.3 ( SM Facs. 52a ), Laws v 54.3 ( BB 341.44 = folaidh, YBL 197a34 . a p. folta, Laws v 430.3 . Bürgschaft I § 55 ; 63 . g p. fri slond n-ilḟolad Sg. 28b22 = n-ilḟolod, 72b1 . In later lang. often treated as fem.: n s. fola, d s. folaid (see ZCP xv 325 ; xvi 220 , and cf. 2 fola). n du. dí ḟolaid , PH 1766 .

According to Charles-Edwards, in the Irish law of contract the sense is (a) wealth , (b) goods and services owed in virtue of a contract, (c) consideration , (d) the relationship of each party to a contract. Both folud and frithfolud can also mean obligations arising from an offence, FS Jenkins 346-47 . See Cáin Ad. 28 § 43 , Stud. Hib. xvi 27-31 . (a) substance, material (`folad can hardly be rendered by a single word. It denotes that which constitutes the essence of a thing; in the case of words, the idea they denote; in contracts, the objects or liabilities to which they refer; in the case of lords and clients the essence of their relationship , the correct discharge of their reciprocal obligations,' Thurneysen, ZCP xiv 374 . See also MacNeill, cited below under (d). In Wb and Ml used to translate Lat. substantia in sense substance nature, essence (both of material and immaterial things): a folud inna doinachtae Ml. 25c8 . du f.¤ nephchumscaigthiu `to an unchangeable substance' 110d16 . dochum ind folaid tanaidi inna anmae 22d9 . assin f.¤ appriscc inna colno, Wb. 9c10 . atat dí ḟolaid ann .i. folad duine ┐ folad diabuil, LB 174a13 ( PH 1766 ). is aenḟoladh ┐ aenadbar dūn uili, Alex. 877 . aondía ┐ aonḟoladh ZCP viii 204.27 (cf. Iosa Criosd ... as folaigh n-aonaonta, Ériu xiii 18.27 ). i meit ... a folaid ┐ a n-aicnid dilis, LU 2562 ( RC xxv 238 ). diabul ... cid ina ḟolaid diles no araile fuath tarmchruta, RC ii 398.2 ( Lat. Lives 97 ; `in propria substantia'). amal bedis esrainti din folaid corptai, BB 498b37 (of the Brahmans, = erranta ind fola , Alex. 923 . erandai indo fola, Anecd. v 5 ). In material sense: dus imbi maith a f.¤ (of testing malt) Laws ii 242.18 Comm. ( SM Facs. 29b ). púdar ... arna cumusc re fliche .. a foladh thsiltech `to liquid consistence' O'Gr. Cat. 242.18 . feoil .. aga mbia f.¤ tiugh, Rosa Angl. 42 . Cf. foladh `the thickness or thinness of meat or drink ' hence the expression foladh ieamhair et foladh séimh in old physic books, ' P. O'C. a f.¤ imarcach na lennand, Rosa Angl. 42.25 . a f.¤ na bincindi `in the substance of the brain' 226.15 . In loose sense: gearr go bhfuair [lucht na Traoi] folaidh a n-uilc `the result of their wrong-doing' TD 18.22 (cf. 2 fola). tarngaire cen folta promises without performances ZCP iii 25.20 = fotla, v.l. folta, Ériu vii 138 . Cf. under (c) below.

(b) in Sg used to transl. Lat. substantia = substance, signification (the notion which a word, esp. a noun, stands for, see Thes. ii 61 n .): gl. significatio 39b8 . mani decamar sainfolad cacha rainne, 26b9 . a f.¤ ┐ in chiall (= vis et significatio) 27a8 . issed a f.¤ cétnae sluinditae it is the same substance which they express 9b5 . ni inchoisig in son a f.¤ cétne .. iar ndígbail in tinfith (gl. ut si auferatur [aspiratio] significationis vim minuat prorsus) 9a16 . hercheilīuth folaith definition of substance (function of a noun) 27b9 . a f.¤ foṡuidigther fond ṡun the substance put under the word (the notion expressed by the sound) 73b3 . ar chuit folid .. ar chuit suin, 138a5 . Oppd. to accidentia `accidents' 189b10 .

(c) substance, property, wealth (common meaning in lit. (the exx. are not always easy to distinguish from those under d) : cid doratais ina tindscra? mo delg bec, or D. Is bec ind ḟola, or cach, YBL 118a14 ( RIA MSS. Ser. i 174 ). tecmalla A. a folud ┐ a inmass issin less, LL 118a3 ( Irish Texts i 34 ). cen dān cen folad (ḟolad, folaid v.l.), ZCP iii 449.20 (.i. cen inme R). trian a folith do fodail do bochtaib, Mon. Tall. § 86 . missi ac crábud 'sa comaid, | tussu ic éirge ra folaid, LL 300b17 ( SG 371.16 . perh. 2 fola: rising with a grudge, in anger ?). cisne folaid tra rotbiat-sa uainne ? (= what return shall we make you), Anecd. i 41.22 . co foltaib máine ┐ tíre, 42.4 . Cf. as i falaidh bia do ann | nem is talamh uaidh da chiond, ZCP x 24.7 . folaid cruidh no bethamnais, Laws ii 338.25 Comm. ( SM Facs. 38b : fol-. The text is: nach an be do ḟolaid cena, where Thurn. reads ... be doḟolaid, ZCP xiv 392 ). bid commaithi a folaid fri himscarad doib (of separation of wedded couple) Laws ii 388 ( SM Facs. 43b ; Stud. in E. Ir. Law 54 ). tecor folad mbritheman, CIH ii 402.7 . .i. da tecarthar ni da folud cruid on brithemain, CIH ii 402.12 . aisecc a ḟola ┐ a dhuithche dá gach aon, AFM vi 2334z (`his blood and territory' O'Don.). ag buain a bhfola ┐ a bhfearainn díbh go foiréigneach, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 177.22 ( Caithr. Thoirdh. 2.32 ). Esp. of cattle and stock (cf. foladha .i. spréidh no áirnéis cattle P. O'C. ): folod sechta lais—.vii. mbaí ... | .vii. muca ..., .vii. caírig ..., Críth G. 89 (= Laws iv 304 ). cf. Críth G. 432 . soīre ecalsi Dé cona muintir ... ┐ a n-ule folud beudu ┐ marbdu, Cáin Ad. 34 . dlighidh ... bōthar do uisge, cona ḟolaidh, Ériu xiii 33.21 . can tucsaid a folaidh (= folad, LU 5793 ) whence have you brought the kine ? TBC-I¹ 1321 (= can doberid in n-alaid ?, TBC-LL¹ 2030 ). can tucsait hi foluidh cruidh, TBC(C) 613 . a mbad seisc dind ḟolud the cows that were without milk TBC-I¹ 1128 (= LU 5608 ). berar 'n-as blichta dond alaid dó those of the cows that are in milk TBC-LL¹ 1695 = don folaidh St. co foladaib ┐ indilib Cuailṅgi, TBC-I¹ 902 (= folodaib, LU 5378 ). co n-acotar in tain folaid issan gort, ZCP iii 228 § 3 . foladh bó dicitur , Cóir Anm. 108 (fanciful derivation of sobriquet Finnolaidh), cf. oladh ainm do bhoin, Keat. ii 3680 . Cf. mad cētchin [cech cin; eccin MSS] dono a foluth no dona muccaib ..., Cáin Ad. 42 .

(d) in Laws, the pl. folaid is `a frequent term for the means, material or otherwise, by which a person sustains his functions or liabilities' (MacNeill, MacNeill, Law of status 275 n. 2 , cf. Thurn., cited above): a teasband de foltaib caich, teasbaid dia cataid, Laws v 70.9 (`what is wanting from each man's means is wanting from his dignity' MacNeill op. cit. MacNeill, Law of status 275 ). ar indí crenas in fer túaithe dia dagḟoltaibh hi túaith co n-árimther inna grá[d] téchtu i mbí i túaith, Críth G. 2 ( Laws iv 298 ) i.e. the member of a tuath purchases by his means his due rank in the tuath. Cf. ma ḟoi bera f.¤ (MS. foled) a thige co mbi f.¤ mbóairech should the property of his house increase until it becomes [equal to] the property of a boaire Críth G. 81 ( Laws iv 304.3 ).

(e) in Laws also used to denote, of contracts, the objects or undertakings to which they refer; of lords and clients, that which constitutes their mutual relation, their correct conduct towards each other in their respective capacities , Thurneysen ZCP xiv 374 ; Cf. Stud. in E. Ir. Law 110 . Similarly of the `fine' towards its members: ni coir nach cor cen lanfolad .i. folad lanloigi, 23 Q 6, 34b ( O'Curry 1757 ). cach cor cunu foltuib, cach fola(i)dh cunu frithfolai `an jedem Vertrag mit seinen Objekten, an jedem Objekt mit seinen Gegenwerten' ZCP xiv 373 § 36 ( Laws ii 286 ). cach fola (.i. in set turclaidhe) SM Facs. 34a . na folada chuir ┐ conartha, H 3.18, 482b y Comm . ( O'Curry 1208 ). is dileas cor cid gan folaid, 23 P 3, 23 (21)b . cor comair is ruidles ... ┐ dligthir a folaid o dib leithib, ZCP xiii 21.24 ( Bürgschaft § 19 ). Cf. do fet focra folad .i. as remtechtai lium foccra ... do tabairt fair anas fola athgabhala do gabhail de 23 P 3 ( O'Curry 1874 ). ite folaid fír flaitheman ... for a tuatha the obligations which a just ruler has to his people Laws iv 334.10 = Críth G. 525 (`the sustaining means of a true ruler over his tuatha' Mac Neill, MacNeill, Law of status 303 , does not suit the context). Cf. nenaisc Corpre ... for Dergthene ... folta dar esi flatha, Ériu vi 149.61 (see ZCP xi 32 ). is da foltaib fine gaire cach fir fine fogne fine ina foltaib coiraib. folaid cōre fri fine cen ni cria neach acht ni ria, etc. `proper duties towards' Laws iii 54.3 ( SM Facs. 52a ). tir do beir i coibche mna ... nad urnaigead a folta coire Laws v 510.6 . ni saigh naidhm folta for feichemain, ZCP xiii 22.18 (see transl. and comm. Bürgschaft § 27 ). iccaidtar frisin flaith ... ma beith ina foltaib coirib if he has duly performed his obligations as chief Laws ii 326.3 ( ZCP xiv 388 ). ma fris-rognaither flaith foltaib `if the [proper] services have been rendered to the chief' Laws ii 318.9 ( ZCP xiv 385 ; cf. the note on flaith foltaib' xvi 210 ). mad maithi a folaid (.i. im lubair ┐ im tech n-aidhedh ┐ im fochled ngrad) Laws v 54.3 ( BB 341a44 ). is óg lōg ainech cech grāid ... mani aurcriat a folaid `the honorprice of every grade ... is perfect, unless their qualifications diminish' [i.e. by dishonorable acts on their part] Laws iv 318.20 ( Críth G. 303 ). gabait ma folta condoragbu a frith[ḟ]olta [they] `affect his property till his counter-qualifications are regained' Laws v 178.15 Comm. (see frithfolud). ni théid ḟoluigh na friothfolaigh cāin n-einech, Ériu xiii 14.14 . filidh ad-ógha [leg. = ada ógha ?] fireona folaidh, 18.8 . óighe a bḟolagh ib. 3 . (of bards :) ... go tabair saoire dhoibh la. honngus, ┐ a ffolta ar chena, 44.4 . mád ógha a bfolaidh fria tuaith, ┐ eagluis 32.19 . fosernar saorḟolta, 22.28 . mac go sesaibh saorfolta ib. 27 . tir aduberar do eaclais ... nad oide folta ata cōire fri hubairt (.i. nocu comoigenn-si na folaid is cōir dī risin tī tuc udbairt), Laws v 430.3 (10) . Cf. folta coire; folta techta, Stud. in E. Ir. Law 110 ( Laws v 510 ). ce cuintestar lánḟolaigh gusna filedhaibh. ni mó dleghar dhoibh ionas dona gradhoibh eagalsa ┐ dona gradhaibh flatha ┐ dona Fénibh ..., Ériu xiii 19.11 . tar flatha firḟolta, ZCP xi 95 § 47 . conóiged dliged téchta cech ḟir ... foltaib fíraib do thúathaib ata lais cintaib láime (duty of a king) Tec. Corm. § 2.24 . ni ba ri ri gan folaidh, Ériu xiii 31.14 . trebairi cen folad, O'Curry 511 ( H 3.18, 259 ). folaid [folta v.l.] chutrummae equal objects (in a contract i.e. adequate consideration on each side, oppd. to `diubart' Tec. Corm. § 3.32 ). Cf. bid cert im chotomus folad, Cóic Con. 19 § 11 = 50 § 100 . nach forbech bis la ríg Ciarraige do righ Locha Léin fācabar la Ciarraigi ┐ la rig ┐ is hoén inna foltaib ō rīg Locha L. (i.e. the king of L.L. is under the same obligations towards the king of C. ?) ZCP viii 316.15 . intan nomber ri C. a giall do rí[g] Locha L. dober dano rí Locha L. a giall do rí[g] C. fria folta tecti, 316.17 . mad togu .. la C. a ndul co rig L. conaimsa folaith doib .i. rechtaire huadaib la rig L. ┐ iiii lanamna, etc. if the C. prefer to join the king of L. considerations have been established for them, viz. etc. ib. 316.8 . Cf. flaith na folad, Metr. Dinds. iii 102 (v 256) . Of an article borrowed for a definite period: mana tairi dia ind laithe airchinn sin atrire cen folaid n-airligthe, Laws v 370.14 Comm. f.¤ lóige price equivalent, price ; f.¤ cinad what is payable in reparation for crimes (of trespass etc.): ni tabur caithe tire ... ar do-baidet a fochraic a folta (duine ro recustar fearand ann sin ┐ is i fola loigi do-ratadh do dia chind, beith fo cintaib ┐ ... dibaigid in decreic loigi do-ratadh dia chind in folad cinad dleagar de), ZCP xvi 220 . Cf. nirbo ferr ind fola oldas fochraic in tire, Caratnia § 16 . fer bis fri folta chinaid fine who is liable for the crime-reparations of a `fine' Laws ii 126.13 Comm. (- fol- H 3.18, 378a ). in fil folta innā sesed in feichem for araile ... ? fil ēcin. caide ? ni anse : toing do Dia, etc., Bürgschaft I § 55 ; similarly § 56 .

(f) equivalent, consideration; reason, cause: a sense arising out of preceding (cf. 2 fola) : int slabra dobeir don mac tar folaid (fol- MS.) na gaire do denam `in consideration of his doing the duties of maintaining the old' Laws ii 364.21 Comm. (expl. of `macslabra gaire,' cf. is ruidles .. macslabra dar folaid, iii 310.7 , and see iii 54 cited above under e). Here, perh.: ar Christ coem tar folaid immeasurably noble Fél. Ap. 10 (p. 471) . is cath écoir duitsiu in cath sin do thabairt do rig Muman i folaid a ingine is marb accut, Acall. 3019 . raghaidh láoidh na haghuidh uaim | a bfalaidh áoir I Annlúain, Book of O'Conor Don 13a . ro hainmniged son dono cid asa lucc cetharda (a folad cethardai, Harl.) for a fourfold reason Hib. Min. 14.459 .

In: di chumoil dí chos ar formteacht ┐ folad, H 3.18, 17a ( Laws iv 362.3 : `two cumhals for the leg, for walking and supporting' the correct reading is evidently `folach' or `fulach,' which is translated). ? fir foluith (in list of persons who become accessories to crime) ZCP xii 361.25 ( H 3.18, 8a ); leg. fola as in Irish Texts iv. 15 § 9 , § 10 ?

See anfolad, (anblod), frithfolud, mifolad, and cf. 2 fola.

fot, fat

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fot, fat or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: fut, f., fut, fuit, fod, fad, fuit, ḟ., ut, fot-, fota

n (n s. orig. fut. u, acc. to Pokorny, ZCP xvi 458 ; see fota. But all the exx. we have of gs. are -o- decl. Probably cognate with Lat. uastus `vast,' GOI § 80 ). o, n.; later m. f.¤ n-aicnid , Auraic. 1343 . d s. fut, Ml. 20a17 , etc. g s. fuit, Sg. 3b5 . 6b19 . fod, fad, IGT, Decl. § 38 ; iv § 98 (for: an ḟaidsin, IGT Decl. ex. 1006 , see section (c) below).


(a) of time or duration: f.¤ lai and (gl. solstitio) BCr. 18c1 . f.¤ saiguil (gl. diuturnitatem) Ml. 145d9 . eter f.¤ ┐ gair Sg. 5a9 , 12 . déca tossach gemrid ... a fuacht, a f.¤ , LU 3607 ( SCC 30 ). ni fil comus for a f.¤ nā for a ngairde, Laws v 314.11 . cipé tí, bid se f.¤ a ṡaeguil that will be the length of his life (i.e. he will die) TBC-LL¹ 1768 . fichi bliadan ... fat flatha Féic LL 128a8 ( MacCarthy 168 ). tri ced bliadain fod a reimhis, Leb. Gab.(i) i 56 . fad láetheadh length of days Proverbs iii 2 . Cf. fot n-anala Padruic hic , O'Curry 1765 ( 23 Q 6, 36a ). gearr lá dá ḟad 'na ḟoghair however long TD 5.3 . With prolept. poss. = how long: dirsan a f.¤ co n-erbart it is a pity you delayed so long to speak LU 10745 (= a ḟad, Ériu xii 166 ). machdad limsa a ḟ.¤ co tecat I marvel that they are so long in coming LU 5621 . ar a ḟat leis tíchtain timchell because he thought it took too long to go round TBC-LL¹ 5814 . imbel a scíath ac a smechaib doib a ḟat leo go lectar ... such is their haste to be let ... 5200 (= ar a fad St). siat ac toirsi ... ara f.¤ leo robadar for loingis, Aen. 1157 .

(b) of space. ... a crich iar fut, iar lethet, SR 2640 . boí f.¤ n-aurchora eturro, LU 6787 ( BDD 32 ). críoch L. gidh lór a fad, Studies 1948, 488 . f.¤ ┐ lethet ┐ airde ina heclaisi PH 6352 . naoi nduirn a f.¤ , ZCP xiv 348.1 ( SM Facs. 29az = Laws ii 238 ). boí ... dia f.¤ na lamae so long was the arm LU 9068 ( FB 82 ). is e fod rohordaiged in coimling the distance fixed for the race Aen. 980 . f.¤ ferlāma da crund, CCath. 5604 . rop e airde na froiged ... cubat fir cu ḟ.¤ láime os a chind, LB 120b36 (= fat, BB 241b41 ) = cubat fri fut a lame, SR 4251 . fad láimhe laoich do chrann, Keat. ii 5199 . fad a láimhe ┐ a loinne d'folmughadh eidir é ┐ cách, TD ii p. 228 (= feadh, i p. 59 ). isin fhad as mo fhedaid dul on grein, ITS xiv 98.x .

See also under (f).

(c) used adverbially in acc., gen. or dat. (of time or space): no theigtis fot n-aurchora riam, BDD 13 St. batar imalle fri L. ... f.¤ a n-ámsire as long as they lived PH 774 . in aine dodena nech fuit na bliadna archena at any other time throughout the year LB 48a9 ( PH 4979 ). ic ēgmig impu ... f.¤ a n-anali till out of breath LU 1902 ( RC x 56 ). na bīd D. fut ind ṡamlaī oc breith na hēnbrethi, ZCP xiii 179.1 . Cf. do luid ... A. cuccaiseom ... f.¤ na geamoidhchi = travelled throughout a winter's night (?) Anecd. i 2.3 . luid B. for teched ... fut n-aidchi, RC xxv 34 § 5 . co trilis f.¤ da lám fair hair twice the length of an arm LL 319b6 = fuit, Rawl. 147a51 . nocha bia turbaid in fat sin air during that time Laws i 198.21 Comm. do an sé an fad sa gan éirghe, Ó Héodhusa 63.6 . an fad bhíos duine ag innsin sgel, Mac Aingil 169 . an ḟaidsin (: aicsin) = so long IGT, Decl. ex. 1006 (marked lochtach, apparently because the gen. `an ḟ.¤ ' was mistaken for n s f. Cf. IGT IV ex. 1031 , and the mod. use cited Ériu xiii 181 ).

(d) with interrog. pron. adj.: ciofut how long ? (= ci ó fut, GOI 289 ) gl. usque quo Ml. 20a17 , 22d10 , 32d5 ; quamdiu 93a15 , 113d10 . ci f.¤ (gl. quatinus) ZCP vii 480 . cia f.¤ atúsa isin chotlud sa ?, TBC-I¹ 1844 ( LU 6359 ). nocon edudur cia fad rocuired orra anadh, Laws i 252.19 Comm. dia innis dam ca fad mo ṡa[e]gal, RC xxxv 204.16 . ca fat co ṅdingentar feis Temrach ? how long will it be till ... Acall. 7544 . ca fad do bhí sibh mar soin ?, TD 28.11 .

(e) as rel. adv.: figlis fut baí as long as he existed LU 640 ( ACC 23 ). i fat bethir ic a marbad, TBC-LL¹ 1782 . fat garde bess tussu i fuss `long or short be thy stay' Ériu vii 221.3 ; f.¤ gairde rabae ..., 223.1 ( LL 208b11 ; 41 ). fat gairit do biath ina leapaid leighis for as long or short a time as he should be Acall. 7186 . biaid Issu cot' imdegail | f.¤ gairdde bessu mo le | ┐ in bachall ..., RC xx 54 = fod goirid BCC 372.29 . foth [leg. fot] gairde bether ac denam na lubra, H 3.18, p. 332 ( O'Curry 682 ).

(f) with prep.:

AR F.¤ (AR FUT; see also FOR F.¤ , IAR F.¤ , below, the three prep. are easily confused in some MSS) through; throughout (= for fut): ro boi L. tri chet bliadna ar fut in mara, LU 2966 . gach dú hi rabhatar ar fud Erenn, Cog. 212.3 . berrad lethan ar fud a chind all over (?) TBC-I¹ 2573 (= iar bhfud ?). geilt ... ro bhoi ar fhud an fhedha, BS 100.11 . do badhusa ... ar fad an oilein, BNnÉ 49.24 (= perlustrantes insulam V. SS. Hib. i 105 ). co rabhatar ... ar fut a céile mingled together (in confusion) AU iii 546 (of hostile armies). mo mallacht ... do na mnáibh do chuir a raib do dubh ... ┐ do lebraib agum ar fud a chéili (scribe's colophon), O'Gr. Cat. 123.3 . In Laws in technical phrase: athgabail ar fut `distress with stay' Laws i 208.19 = a. ar ut ib. 7 ; (contrasted with: a. tulla `immediate distress' ib. 24 ). anad ar fut `full time of stay' 84.15 Comm . dibadh ar fut heritage `in the direct line' (oppd. to: do chūl nō do thaīb, fig. use of sense b) Laws v 292.12 Comm. beiridh dibadh sguithi ... ar fut, ┐ nocha beirinn do t[h]aib ib. 0 . gan briathra ele ... do chor ar a fud = mingle any other words with it RSClára 9a .

With DI: da forraig dec i tir cumaile dia f.¤, se foirrge dia lethet `twelve f.¤ in a t.c. in length, six f.¤ in its breadth' Laws iii 334 Comm.

FOR (AR) FUT through; throughout: nad mbíad ... for a fuot, Trip. 70.22 (= for a fout, 760 ). no beth for fut in betha, BB 412b3 . do bí ... ic á íarraid for fut in domain, CCath. 139 . cuiridh in rí coblach ar fad na Sinna co cluain B., ACL iii 209.5 (perh. for iar bhf.¤ but cf. follg.). go n-imgheann ar fud an fhásaigh, TSh. 2517 . Later sometimes for ut : tainig ... for ut Mídhe, BB 38a42 = for fut M., LL 12a10 . in tan batar ... oc marbad na nI. for ut na cat[h]rach LB 155a20 . tancatar co ro lensat in coicir for ut na coilled 275a10 .

FRI F.¤ : sníset fri fat hi fogail, LL 197b5 ( Metr. Dinds. i. 244 ).

I F.¤ afar, far away: a bfaigsi 's a bfud near and far IGT IV ex. 1040 . rucsat ... tafond ... i fat forro hunted them far away TBC-LL¹ 1451 . ro taifnetar [in t-ēn] a f.¤ fairgi away to sea Aen. 2986 . regaid ind longas hi fat, LU 6617 . na hoilithrigh tainic a fad, BCC § 258 (= de longinqua venientes regione Reeves Ad. p. 61 ). is iat dorat [ = da-rat ?] sund i fat, LU 3836 ( SCC 37 ). rochuir Ultu a fad drove ... far away RC xvii 18 . cuir a bhfagas is a bhfad | fios uait, Studies 1948, 487 . do chuiris ... i bhfad uaim `longe fecisti ... a me' TSh. 4253 . cuir a bhfad uáit briathra ..., Proverbs iv 24 . re ndul i bhfad, A. Ó Dálaigh xl 4 . Cf. ós róen na ndruad find i fat, Metr. Dinds. iii 230 . Of time, for long: suan hi fat, LU 3610 ( SCC 30 ). gé táim i bhfad i gceas da n-áireamh, Keat. Poems 539 . i bhfad riamh suil ráinig mise long ere ever I came TD 11.2 . gibé cúis do chuaidh i bhfad | 's nach fuair a freagra whatever question has been long disputed and found no answer Content. ix 19 . ó tá mo dheóraidheacht agá cor i bhfad (= prolongatus est) TSh. 5941 . For: i fout, RC xvii 159 (= AFM 590 ) see 2 fót. At length, in full: tarfas dam ... i fat cach sid fail i Cind Febrat, Metr. Dinds. iii 226 . roaisneis dam ... sudigud na fert i fat, 228 . Cf. amail asber i fut Feinechais ni urnascat ... passim (?) H 3.17, c. 70 ( Laws i 186.13 Comm. ). co n-abuir tall i ḟut ḟeineachuis nach dilius ..., Laws ii 270.16 Comm. na sē ba fuilit a fut feinichais ... it inann ┐ na cuig seoit fuilit isin tSencus ┐ na sē samais[ci] fuilit isin Crich Gablach, O'Curry 2545 ( Eg. 88, 45bb ).

IAR FUT: conacca in cnoi ar fut na haband chuce floating along the river towards him LL 116b17 ( RC viii 56 , iarsan v.l.). a leth tuaiscertach dind abainn iar fut cuit Coirpri `the northern half [side ?] of the river lengthways was C.'s share' Trip. 148.15 (1724) . tanic ... iar fut mara Torrian do Chréit, LL 3a25 . saighet tenedh do thuidhecht iar fut Laighen aniardhes, AU 960 . Absol. to the full extent, altogether , is do suigiu ro suide slan ngill iar fut (.i. ... iar fut eneclainni), Laws v 340.20 (346.18) . cuic seoit ana do dec (.i. da tecait da ba .i. iar fut) five `seds' (i.e. which amount to two cows, i.e. altogether) iv 152.15 Comm . na cuic seoit iar fut `with time' i 92.12 Comm .

DAR (TAR) F.¤ along, through: imruláith ... dar f.¤ choicid Concobuir, LU 8576 ( FB 43 ). dar f.¤ Fánat, Ériu iv 106 § 57 .

(g) gramm. length (of sound), long quantity: eter f.¤ ┐ gair, Sg. 5a9 . do immolung fuit apud poetas , 3b5 . f.¤ suidigthi ... f.¤ n-aicnid length by position ... length by nature Auraic. 1342 . comardugud fuit ┐ gair, 1353 . dobeir in G. forshail for fot amal ro[n]gab srōn ┐ slōg ┐rl., 1356 . forbaid fuit `accent of a long' [vowel], 824 .


I Dvandva - compd. : fotlethet length and breadth: talam dian fonn fothacht f., SR 32 . fatlethet Tephi ... .lx. traiged, LL 162a5 (= Metr. Dinds. i 8 ).

II In other compds. : fot- as first component takes the place of fota.

With subst. : ¤dáil see faddáil. ¤dúscad vigil, watching: gorta, fuacht, fadúsgadh, Mac Aingil 309.10 . ¤fégain : ag faidḟéghuin ḟonn n-ainiúil viewing from afar (?), long gazing at (?) IGT III ex. 427 . ¤fér long grass: faidfhér, O'Gr. Cat. 487.12 (= DDána 326 ). ¤réidigiud : fáth fadréidigthi fergi, YBL 304a4 (`of mitigating anger' MR 161 ). ¤scél : ... na faidsgeóilsi do gherradh, Mac Aingil 169 . ag cur fhaidsgeal ... a measg na bphecadh ib.

(b) adj. derived from subst. e.g. cenn, cos, saegal, scíathán, stuidér : omna faidchennach long-headed IGT, Decl. ex. 69 . a druith na halla | senaraigh corra ... fodchossaigh, IT iii 99.2 . in leanb geinter ann is fotsaoghlach he long-lived C IV 2, 9.17 . iolar faidsciathánach long-winged Ezekiel xvii 3 . má ní tú so go húaignech fadstuidérach with long meditation Mac Aingil 29 . Cf. 2 fúait.

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