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fili

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fili or dil.ie/22070
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: fili, filid, filid, filed, filid, ḟilid, fileda, filed, file, fileadha, filidh, filed, fili, fili

n t, m. n s. fili, Wb. 31b19 . Sg. 29a3 . LU 10942 , etc. a s. filid, 10944 . d s. filid, Sg. 140a1 . g s. filed, 71b16 . n p. filid 63a14 . ind ḟilid , 162a3 . Ml. 26b10 . a p. fileda, Sg. 63b4 . 212a11 . g p. filed, Rawl. 124a46 . n s. file, LU 10941 . Rawl. 156b5 . IGT, Decl. § 21 . n p. fileadha ( Keat. iii 1239 , etc.) is proscribed as incorrect, IGT Decl. § 21. ex. 784 .

Orig. seer, diviner (cognate with Welsh gwelet, see Thurn. Heldensage, 66 ), and in earlier documents generally implies occult powers or knowledge : fili gl. propheta, , Wb. 31 b 19 . imbass forosnae .i. dofuarascaib sechip ret bas maith lasin filid ┐ bes adlaic dó d'foillsiugad, Corm. Y 756 . is a Senc[h]as Mar ro airled comdire do rig ┐ epscop ┐ aige rechta litre ┐ sua[i]d filed for-can di cendaib, Laws i 40.16 ( ZCP xvi 175 ), with gl. : .i. in sui file[d] ... da faillsigend imad a sofesa ... co ndenand rand can smuainedh .i. cen imradud, Laws i 42x Comm. firt filed (a miracle wrought by a poet) AU 1024 . See also ZCP xix 163 , IT iii 96 § 155 , Imr. Brain i 46 , Corm. s.v. Mug eme , Coire Brecain ; RC xxvi 8 . For `fili' and `drui' as interchangeable terms see Plummer V. SS. Hib. i clxi , clxii . Poet (historian, panegyrist, satirist), man of learning (the `fili' in early times was not always sharply distinguished from the `breithem' and `senchaid,' and seems originally to have united all three functions : ni dhligh cúairt no cennaighect | ar ni fili fíreólach | hi feidm eoluis ilcrothaigh | manip co fēigh fessara | cīsa tenna is tuarustla | ... ; ni dlig cuairt ... | file nach dron dechraighfes | sochur dochur dílmaine | drēcht cech tīre thic, ZCP iv 237 . Leb. Cert. 236 . on uair dona ronuc Aimirgin Glungel cetbreth i nEre robu la filedhu a n-oenur breithemnus, cusin Imacallaim in da Tuar i nEmain Mache .i. Ferceirtne file ┐ Nede mac Adna ... Ba dorcha didiu in labrad ro labairset na filid [sic leg.] isin fuigell sin ┐ nirbu reill donaib flaithib in brethemnus ronucsat ... Do allad didiu brethemnus [sic leg.] ar filedhaib iar sin, acht a nduthaigh de, ┐ ro gab cach d'feraib Eirenn a drecht don breithemnus, Laws i 18 Comm. Cf. dichetal filed, one of the things by which law is preserved in tradition, ZCP xvi 175 = Laws i 30 . canaid in breithem fassach firaicnid ┐ roscadh filed, da cois ina brethe in sin, Corm. Y 1224 . See also the tract on The Privileges ... of poets, ed. E. J. Gwynn, Ériu xiii p. 2 ff .) : amal as ho molad ┐ adamrugud in choimded intinscana in salm sa [isamlaid] forcentar dano amal dundgniat ind filid linni cid in sin, Ml. 26b10 . filidh (gl. poeta), Ir. Gl. 1 . Of Latin poets Sg. 63a14 . fili .i. fī a n-aoras ┐ lī a mmolas ┐ brecht a fuacras in file, Corm. Y 600 . f.¤ ... .i. seircid foglamo. nó ... fī fora aeir ┐ lī fora molad, O'Mulc. 537 . duarfine ... ainm d'filethaib .i. fine duar .i. fine foccul, Corm. Y 445 . rosiachtus glún Amargin filed coro molaim ríg as cach feib i mbi, LU 10298 . rātha eturru secht ṅdruid, secht filid, secht n-ócthigirn. na secht ṅdruid dia rímsad tría brichtu, na secht filid dia ṅglámad ┐ dia n-erḟuacra (`the seven druids to bewitch (?) them by means of spells; the seven poets to satirise them and denounce them') Dinds. 161 . nemed .i. fili ... ar is a fidnemedaib fognitis filid a ngressa, O'Mulc. 830 . nem-uath fri filedaib iarsinni aerait nech co n-epil de, 830 f . asbert in fili nodnaírfed ... ┐ no áerfad a athair ┐ a máthair ┐ a senathair ┐ docechnad fora n-usciu conná gébtha iasc ina inberaib, LU 10946 ( Imr. Brain i 46 ). Applied to Virgil , Sg. 29a3 ; Epimenides Wb. 31b19 . ar ba faith, ar ba file (of David), Hib. Min. 5. 157 . ro can in filid ┐ in faith .i. Bec mac Dé, Cog. 10.22 . Find fili, mac Rosa, LL 311b53 . c56 . Rawl. 118b30 . gen. Find filed m. Rossa, 117e28 . Faifne file, LL 160b11 . Ferchertne file, Rawl. 156b4 . ZCP viii 326.1 . The `filid' was commonly attached to the house-hold of a chief. The calling was hereditary and the office of `fili' to the head of the clan was, in later times at any rate, often the prerogative of a particular family : fili Conchobair in tAed, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 22 . Fergus Fínbel, file Find, Dinds. 52 . Fergus Fínbél, fili na Féinde, Acall. 3017 . file Chon Raoi, Feircheirtne a ainm, Keat. ii 3524 . clann Fhir bhisigh .i. fileadha Ua nAmhalghaidh ┐ Cloinne Fiachrach, Hy Fiach. 10 . adubhairt ris file do bheith 'na ardollamh aige féin ar aithris na ríogh roimhe, Keat. iii 1465 .

duais ḟiled is ruidles .i. a ndoberr [sic leg.] i logh natha acht rop iar firinde ┐ choir mbeith in nath the poet's fee is absolutely conveyed, that is, what is paid for a poem, provided the poem be truthful and correct ZCP xiii 20.19 ( Bürgschaft 7 ). coic gne in berla tobaidi .i. berla fene ┐ fasaige na filed ┐ berla etarsgarta ┐ berla forttide [fortcide v.l.] na filed triasa n-agaillit cach dib a chele, Auraic. 1303 . berla na filed, part of the sixth year's course of the student-`fili' IT iii 38 .

From early times the `filid' formed an important and highly organized corporation classed among the `saer-nemed' (privileged classes) : tri nemid uaisli ... .i. espoc ┐ flaith ┐ file, O'D. 1631 (< H 5.15, 16b ). it e saernemead filead and .i. ecalsi, flatha, filidh (.i. graid filedh), feine, Laws v 14.10 . There were seven grades of fili, of which the highest was the ollam filed : in t-ollam filedh iarna uirdned ag rig tuath the fully qualified poet when appointed by the king of territories Laws i 42z Comm. ollamh fileadh ` master poet ' Studies 1919, 74 . Cf. O'D. 1214 ff ( H 2.15A, p. 84 ). in t-ollam sair ... adeitig lasin ugdar ni bud mo do na cutruma risin ollamain filed, no risin ollamain mberla no risin fear legind, Laws v 92x Comm. secht ngrad filed : ollam, ansrut[h], cli, canae, dos, mac fuirmid, focluc, O'Mulc. 537 . IT iii 96 § 155 . RC xii 119 . See also Laws iv 358 - 60 . v 26 ; 56 ff . is a ndanaibh defrighet ┐ dearscaighit gach grad filedh o raile i sos ┐ i segda ┐ i n-aircedal BB 296b29 ( IT iii 6 n .). sé dá rádh go riacht tusa | ... seacht ngradh na bfilidh ar fad ..., Gofraidh Mac an Bhaird, 23 L 17, 148b . The fili was at all periods distinguished from the bard (q.v.), whose qualifications and status were inferior (in: a bhfilidh, dá ngairid báird, Keat. i 70 , he is rendering Camden : poetas, quos bardos vocant) : cescc cidh dlighedh i ffil an bhairdne lasna filedhoibh ... ? amhail roghabh rithim arradh Mettuir, as amhlaidh ataid na báird cona mbairdne arradh na ffiledh, Ériu xiii 42.4 . dichlannaigfiter filid cona biat filid etir acht baird tantum , Rawl. 111b14 ( RC xxvi 44 - 5 ). is aire tra na dlegait baird acht letheneclann na filedh uair na frithgh[n]at, uair ni [di]reanar a ngradhaibh filedh neach na frit[h]gnat no o nach frit[h]ghainter the reason bards are entitled to only half the honor-price of poets is that they do not serve [ = practise their art], for `dire '-fine is not paid for any in the grades of a poet who do not serve or are not served BB 296b33 . Amal forber cach gradh filed seach araile im mod soís in oircidail toimside, forber ... cach gradh dibsom [viz. the bards] seach aroile IT iii 24 . fogluim na .uii. mad bliadna .i. brosnacha suad .i. bairdne na mbard ┐ dlegair dond ḟilid a ḟis, ar is he accept na sechtmad bliadna don ḟilid, 39 . ni dír báird acht dír fileadh | fis cach righ is a dhlighedh, Leb. Cert. 182 . The fili in his twelve-year course of study ( IT iii 31 ff .) had to master the various metrical tracts and oghams, memorize a mass of verse and prose tales, and learn certain methods of incantation : is hi ... foglaim na hochtmaide bliadna .i. fiscomarca filed .i. duili berla ┐ clethchor choem ┐ reicne roscadach ┐ laíde .i. tenm laída ┐ immas forosnai ( ZCP xix 163 ) ┐ dichetal do chennaib na tuaithe ┐ dín[n]ṡenchus ┐ primscéla Hérend olchena fria n-aisneis do ríghaib ┐ flaithib ┐ dagdhoínib. Ar ni comlán in fili chena, sicut dixit poeta : ni ba dúnad cen rígu. niba fili cen scéla, IT iii 49 - 50 . in-feded in fili scél cacha aidche do Mongán, LU 10942 .

Sometimes in sense a learned man, one skilled in literary composition in Irish, dist. from the Latin author on one hand and the unlearned Irishman on the other : a ngrad con-deilg lasin Laitneoir is eatargoiri a n-ainm lasin filid `the comparative degree of the Latinist (writer of Latin) is named inflection by the [Irish] poet' Auraic. 640 . possit ┐ comparait ┐ superlait lasin Laitneoir .i. fothugudh ┐ forran ┐ formoladh lasin filid : maith ┐ fearr ┐ fearrson lasin nGaedeal, 645 . maith, etc. (.i. lasin nGaedel coitchend a n-ecmais in filed, fothugad immorro lasidhe) 657 . ocht ndeich tra atrimet filidh na Goídilce the Gaelic poets reckon eight (metrical) feet Corm. Y 447 .

ollam

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ollam or dil.ie/33808
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: olloman, ollamh, oll-aimh, -amhan, -aimh

n [o ?], n, m. (< oll `great' Ériu xviii 54 ). d s. ollum, Ériu xviii 54 . g s. olloman, LU 302 , 361 . a s. (? d s.) eter ríg ┐ ollomain, 10306 . ollamh, IGT Dec. § 51 (g s. oll-aimh, -amhan ; n p. -aimh , -amhain; a p. -amha, -amhna). Both declensions are used side by side in late Mid.Ir. and early mod. texts, the o-st. being preferred in sing., the n-st. in pl.

(a) An ollave, the highest grade of `fili' (in O.Ir. ollam may have denoted an office as much as a grade of learning; later used to denote the grade alone, UR 91-94 ), Laws v 26.25 (ollum). filid oldam, anroth, clí, etc., ZCP v 499 § 7. secht ngrad filed .i. ollam, ansrut[h], etc., O'Mulc. 537. He was entitled to a retinue of 30, a number lowered to 24 at the Convention of Druim Cet in 590: no bid .xxx. i cléir cac[h] olloman, LU 302. ro dígbait iar sein a clíara .i. xxiiii. i cléir ind olloman, 361 . ollamh .i. oll a dhámh .xx.iiii., Corm. p. 33 = [o]lldam, Corm. Y 993 . His specific form of poetic composition was the `anamain' (`mór' and `bec'): anamna ollaman, IT iii 31.25 ; 59 § 112 , §113 . anamaín . . . is dán olloman, Corm. Y 39 ; cf. O'Dav. 1072 , O'Mulc. 537. An ollave was attached to the court of each of the provincial kings, often to those of sub- kings; and there seems (at some periods) to have been an `ard-ollam' who exercised authority over all the provincial `filidh'. int ollam filedh iarna uirdned ag rig tuath, Laws i 42 z Comm. ollamh Uladh Fercertne, TBC-LL¹ 5467 St. Gilla C. Ua Slebin ollum Ulad, Cog. 120.2 . ar ollamh nUladh, TD 3.9 . The inferior grades of `filidh' had to discharge various offices for the ollave, such as keeping his two dogs (task of the `cana') and fostering his children (that of the `drisech'); and the erenaghs (airchindig eclaisi) had to maintain his horses, H 3.18 p. 133 ( O'Curry 239 ). Among his functions, acc. to the same passage, was that of guarding the King from occult dangers: dlegar don ollam beith i fail in rig im snamad (leg. samain) dia snadad ar siabrud, ib. See further Heldensage 66 fg. In wider sense: am ollom, am gáeth, LU 10628 = IT i 141.5 (loquitur Sencha m. Ailella). ollam britheman, LL 29b21 . Later an expert in any art or science, a professor : ollam breithemhnachta Ua Failghe, AFM ii 888.18 . ollam Tuad- Muman re timpanacht, AU ii 510.18 (an. 1360) . ard-ollamh Ereann i ccruitirecht, AFM ii 1170.12 . ardollam a scribiund, RC xviii 193.13 (Tig.). ollamh legha Fer Manach `chief physi- cian', AU iii 346.8 (an. 1490). ollamh leighis Fearmanach, AFM iii 554 z . clann Chraith a ollamhain ré dán, clann Chruitín a ollamhain ré seanchus (of O'Brien, chief of Thomond), Keat. iii 179 . ollam cerda a master craftsman (of Daedalus), ZCP iv 238.26 . secht n-ollumain ghabhunn master smiths, Lism. L. 2931 . mur ollamh cuarta . . . nā mes misi do not count me a vagrant bard, ZCP ii 348.18 (late 16th cent.). Of a woman: ba hollamh i ngach eagna i, Ériu v 78.12 .

(b) chief : ollam ard … caide side? nï, amail [rond-gab] rí Connacht… 'a high o. … what manner of man is this? For example, the king of Connacht' Ériu xviii 49-50 (Míadṡlechta) . In early poetry used of warriors: mandrais arma athar ollam as a master he destroyed the weapons of his [grand]father Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 7 § 4 (text uncertain). caine dind dem i foat ollomain (of the burial-grounds of warriors), ib. 20.6 (= ollo- mhan, LL 380a12 ).

As npr. in the name (prob. a title) of Ollam Fodla, one of the early kings of Ireland: dá mac la Fiacha Fínsgothach .i. Eochaid (qui et Ollam Fodla) ┐ Araidhe, Cóir Anm. 249. docer Ailderg Dóit . . . la hOllomain, MacCarthy 164 z ( LL 127b52 ). co éc Olloman, MacCarthy 166.3 ( LL 128a1 ). mac Ollaim Fodla , MacCarthy 296 k ( BB 12a35 ). is uime ghairthear Ollamh Fódla dé, do bhrígh go raibhe 'n-a ollamh i n-eagna ┐ i n-eolus ré reachtaibh is ré dlighthibh d'ordughadh, Keat. ii 2057.

Compd. ¤thairngertaid m. ollave-elect , Tromd. Guaire 224.