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1 cet

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cet or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: -a

(Lat. licet (see licet), Meyer, Wortk. 102 ; Misc. Hib. 30 no. 9 ; Pokorny, ZCP xviii 159 (licitum). Otherwise Marstrander, RC xxxvi 386 ; Fél. Gloss.; Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 88 ). In later lang. treated as m. with g s. -a: d'ḟagháil an cheda chéadna, RSClára 64a . d'ḟiss a ceta, Ériu i 132.77 .

I As interj. or asseverative agreed, permission granted, yes : c.¤, c.¤, or cách. Do-géntar airiut, BDD² 215 . c.¤ ol Máedóc, LL 285b21 . c.¤ gl. fiat sicut uís, Thes. ii 240.8 (Ardm.). Prob. also in: slēchtoid intan cairigther, / intan promthar epred ced, ZCP vii 312 § 24 . With follg. clause: cech dilmain . . . / c.¤ cia dig etc., LL 19052 ( Fél. 4 ).

II v Constructions with copula.

(a) bed c.¤ ol D., `it shall be done', Mon. Tall. 130.23 . gnim nat bu c.¤ `illicit deed' (chev.), Blathm. 59 . is c.¤ `it is allowable', Mon. Tall. 144.4 . in tan bas ch.¤ `at the time appointed', Metr. Dinds. iii 132.51 . bis a nos gen gob lan-chead, MR 250.6 . In cheville: fuair īarla Crinna ba c.¤ / sé blīadna finna fichet, Arch. Hib. ii 85 § 37 .

(b) With follg. DO (2nd and 3rd pers. only). Usually in sense must, is to (context not always sufficient to indicate precise meaning): is c.¤ (ket, MSS.) duit ó día . . . (text incomplete), Thes. ii 258.5 . `supra scr.: licet tibi a deo ire in abbatiam', Zeuss 1003 . is c.¤ duitsiu . . . t'imthechta . . . do innisin you must give an account of yourself, LU 1227 . is c.¤ duib-siu a forsingud foraib, 4439 . is ced dó a bith marbh masa ced ra Dia if he is dead it is God's will, RC xxvii 296 § 62 . is c.¤ don inat-sa topur amræ co bráth and this place will have, etc., BColm. 52.13 . is cett d[ū]ib can dergad for nech in laithi-sin you must not wound, etc., 84.3 . is c.¤ dūib a thomailt, Ériu i 46.24 . ced dūib héc mene fagbaigh if you do not find him you are as good as dead, ZCP xii 246 § 16 . is cet duitsi cidat corr 'you are to be a crane', BCC² 245 § 6 . is cead di-se bheith 'n-a coirr (a curse), Keat. iii 1416 . Note also: tabradh cro[i]s Crīst dar a hucht / adradh don Rīgh darab ced who has permitted, willed (this affliction), ZCP vi 270 § 15 .

(c) With follg. LA: rop ail damsa . . . dul . . . is c.¤ lind . . . acht co tís . . . aridisi go ahead, but don't forget to come back, LL 14034 . —foemaim-sea sin . . . for C. — c.¤ lem . . . , for L. I agree, LU 8488 ( FB 34 ). c.¤ lim cenptís desruithe, Fing. R. 230 `while admitting that', note. c.¤ lim cid marb, c.¤ cid beō it is all the same to me, ZCP iii 37.16 . cia forsa ndígéltar iát ar B. . . . is c.¤ lim arse, cid for mac mo mathar on whom are they to be avenged? as far as I am concerned on me, LL 301a32 . is c.¤ linne a c[h].-som `His will is our will', BColm. 66.15 . is cead liomsa, a Dhé, mo dhul I am content to die, Dán Dé xxv 17 . rofiarfaigh E. do [Sh.] nar c.¤ le a tabairt do B. whether she would consent to be given (in marriage), ZCP vi 280.36 . With force of wishes, commands : is cett limsa in cloch so forsa fuilim . . . corob í nomimurcora, ACL iii 309.24 . atā ech isin linn-si thiar, ┐ is c.¤ lim a toidecht fom carpat harness it to my chariot, RC xii 346 § 41 . Hence in imprecation: is cead liom-sa an ríoghan go n-a hinnilt do bheith i riocht dá choirr (curse pronounced by Colum-cille), Keat. iii 1412 . as ced lemsa an charrac so dobheith mallaighthe, BNnÉ 255 § 124 .

III As noun.

(a) In general sense of permission, consent, will : fri cach c.¤ (chev.), Blathm. 197 . im gaindi a ch.¤ nō a thol, BColm. 6.z . [be]ndacht cech nóeb cona ch.¤ , Ériu viii 69.55 . M. fa calma a c.¤ , BB 50a11 . co c.¤ fri cach [n]gnīom goodwill(?), ACL iii 320 § 93 . cead ón chroidhe is dábhar gconnradh, Dán Dé x 17 . mo ched-sa fri ced an Choimdedh, BS 4.28 . do chuir an baintigherna a ced a leth Eoin, Smaointe B. Chr. 4555 = illa rogat J., Gloss.

(b) With follg. gen.: cead díomais oram ná hiarr permission to be proud, Dán Dé xix 12 . ni fhuair Mac D. ced sitha fris, Ann. Conn. 1342.11 . ced slighedh . . . trena cathraigh, Stair Erc. 1857 .

(c) With vn.: ní thiobhra an corp cead a mhúinte will not allow itself to be taught, Dán Dé xix 6 . gan chead caoi, ii 23 . Later with independent Vn. construction: ced . . . / dol permission to go, Duan. F. i 73.20 . ní cead tusa dá thomhas, Dán Dé xiv 19 . gan ced iompódh go deó agad, RC xxiii 10.15 . cett . . . clocha . . . do chnúasach, Maund. 179 . With Vn. introduced by prep.: ced Finn / fa dhol, Duan. F. i 67.19 , see iii 55 . oc gabail [c]eda o Dhia cumm degulta ris asking God's permission to separate from Him, PH 7341 . tug fa ghoin an chígh a chead, IGT Decl. ex. 1271 . Cf. tuc A. . . . a ced cuige sin, BCC 98 .

(d) With prec. prep.: can chead do thigerna in raeta without asking the owner, PH 7541 . gan chead dod lucht fhaire in spite of, DDána 14.12 . gan ced gan ceilebhradh don comhairle without asking permission of, AFM vi 2142.24 . ní hinmheasta go mbiadh comhmór na hÉireann do ríoghacht —gan chead do Dhoctuir Sanderus—gan airdfhlaith ` pace' Dr. S. (in polemic), Keat. iii 87 . gan cead do bhreugaibh Luther, Eochairsg. 11.30 . ní go gcead / do rachadh d'éag `never with my consent', Aithd. D. 39.43 . go gcead duid by your leave (satirically), Content. vi 153 . go gcead dod ghairm `with all respect to your calling', xiv 1 . go gcead don onoir saving your reverence, Luc. Fid. 4220 . a fagaind ōn rīgraidh sin / do būar, do brat, do bīudh, / dobēraind ar aendecair / d'aenfear do c.¤ do trīur, ZCP v 23 § 28 . do (di?) ch.¤ with gen. do chead Dé na ndúl 'twas the will of God, IGT Decl. ex. 945 . ní nochdubh coidhche dom chead / do chairdios gratuitously, O'Hara 1333 . `if I can help it', Content. xviii 6 . a chora id chead to ask your permission, Aithd. D. 31.17 . maith gach cás re a chur i gcead, PBocht 1.41 . cech gnīm dia tē bad la c.¤ (rule for religious), ZCP vii 310 § 3 . ó Christ c.¤ in accordance with C.'s permission, LL 374c59 . tar a c.¤ , ZCP i 104.12 .

(e) gaibid c.¤ oc: ag bhar dtiomna níor ghabh cead `asking no leave of your testament', Content. v 147 . géabhad (sic leg.) cead ag do dhá ghairm `I will pay due deference to your two titles', xiv 34 . Later takes leave of, bids farewell to: gabhait a gced `they took their leave', Fl. Earls 46.6 . rogab G. ced agan ríg, ZCP vi 81.21 . ro gabhattar ced, ┐ ceilebradh ag an Iarla, AFM vi 2082.6 . le blanndar na mbanchuire sróllmhar / . . . / geabhad cead I shall renounce, Hackett xxvi (addit.) 65 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. frithing or


adv (cf. 1 eng `track'). Only in phrase: i f.¤ backwards, back, in the reverse direction , either with poss. pron. or gen. of conair or some similar word: do imtigh si i f.¤ na conaire back the same way (apparently = homewards ) Moling § 5 . rosoidistar a f.¤ in sēta [sic] cētna, ACL iii 311.11 . i f.¤ na conairi, TBC-LL¹ 684 St = i frithdruing LL. ní cuimgedh ... impódh a f.¤ [i fritset v.l.] na conaire cétna, CCath. 2314 . impogh a fritheing na conaire cedna, Stair Erc. 1657 . do iompodh ... a bhḟrithring [sic] na conaire ML 16.12 = ina rithing, ML² 225 . a ffritheing na conaire dōip se lēige, Fl. Earls 54.20 . luidh ... doridisi ina fritheng RC xii 62 § 22 . tidecht na rithing aridisi , MacCongl. 13.29 . tucc an rí arís na rithing o pianaibh ifrinn brought back the king BNnÉ 220.11 . tug ... tarrang ar an sleigh ina fritheing = attempted to withdraw the spear (from a wound) MR 286.8 . ro raoineadh orra suas ina ffritheing co hAth luain they were driven back AFM ii 936.8 .

Passing into sense again: luidh Brenainn ... for muincinn mara ina f.¤ dorísi, BNnÉ 64 § 93 . doraithne in grian ina f.¤ dar colair fhuinidh, 24 § 7 . In fig. sense ? fear déarca do dhéanamh ... i bhf.¤ no i bhfásach one who bestowed alms whether with return or without (?) Hackett xl 230 .

Sometimes without sense of return: ro gluais [Hercuil] a fritheing in tseda docum Palus, Stair Erc. 1272 = `toke his way toward the Palus' Lefevre ( Sommer 390 ). Cf. ní ḟaca tusa ... lá creiche Chl.M. an tóir ag tocht id f.¤ , Aithd. D. 37.42 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. frithissi or


Forms: (f)ridis(s)i, ris(s)i, rís, dorissi, dorithisi, frithisi, frithisi, ḟrithissi, dorís, aḟrithissi, arís, doridise

n later also (f)ridis(s)i, and with contraction ris(s)i, rís. a s. of fritheis < frith-éis ` return track ' (see Strachan, ACL i 230 ).

I In O.Ir. used with poss. pron. corresponding to the subject of a vb. of motion: 1 sg. co tīs ... mo f.¤ till I come back RC iii 346x ( Aisl. Óeng. p. 63 ). co ndechus mo risi TBC-I¹ 1304 (= mo rísi Eg.; dorissi LU). 2 sg. do téis dorissi thou shalt return LU 5772 (= dorisi, TBC-I¹ 1301 , dorithisi Eg.). toi ... do frithisi, LU 5667 . 3 s. m. tintaí a frithisi he returned LU 5664 . doluid in biail a rithissi ar chenn in[na] samthige, Tur. 131 . huand uair nunda bertatar co tanaic á f.¤ till it [lit. she, arca] returned Ml. 82d9 . 1 pl. ara tísam ar frithisi that we may return LU 4509 . 3 pl. a tabirt a f.¤ as in doiri their being brought back from the captivity Ml. 131c17 . Amhlaiph ┐ Imar do thuidecht a frithisi do Ath C. a Albain `A. and C. came again to Ath C. from Alba' AU 870 . conrictís a ffrissi, LU 5700 (= a frithsie Y, hi frithisi, Eg. with conf. of i n- and a n-. Cf. last cit. in II a, below).

adv II Middle Irish forms and uses.

Both do ḟrithissi (dorísi, dorís) & aḟrithissi (arísi, arís) early become petrified forms used indiscriminately without regard to number, person or gender. When f, or ff is written it is seldom certain, and in later MSS. unlikely that any specific personal form is intended by the scribe (any more than in modern times it is felt in `arís'). In consequence of the general confusion of unstressed final -e, -i the final when retained is often written -e ( doridise : glé, SR 1412 ). The original meaning of the phrase is lost sight of, and mere repetition is commonly expressed.

(a) in the reverse direction, back (to the same place), used with verbs of motion: no forcongrad furre co n[d]igsed ar cúlu doridisi cosin corp ... asar escomloi, LU 2251 ( FA 31 ). for a chulu ... ni thanic doridise, SR 2556 . toi forsna heochu ... dofrithisi turn the horses back LU 5667 . dothoet ina frithlurg afri[t]hisi i tir nU., Trip.² 412 (= convertit iter suum ad regiones U. Ardm. 5a ). dolotar ... dochum nErind doridis fora culaib, Lec. Facs. 276ra42 . tecait ... secht srotha ... dorís isin topur, Metr. Dinds. iii 288 . Similarly with other vbs. to denote a reverse process: in Rí dorósat a chrí | ro fuirim a frithisi, Metr. Dinds. iv 242 = hi f.¤ , BB 410a46 . Cf. doeth [impers.] chucai hi f.¤ TBC Eg. ( ZCP ix 148.4 = a f.¤ , TBC-I¹ 1126 , a fridisi, LU 5607 ; cf. 5700 cited at end of I).

(b) again, once more (of repetition) : dodilgfitis dō ... a chinta doridise, SR 1412 . robamar ni fecht co cátaid acut ┐ no bemmís dorisi dia mbad ail duit, LU 3917 ( SCC 43 ). nocon imbēra som for Ultu a cles sin dorísse, LU 5136 (doríisi Y doridisi Eg.). dosrimchell aridisi fa thrí in cruth sin, 6511 . samail in catha catharda ro gníead etir M. & S. do gnim doridisi, CCath. 912 . co ro hathcumdaiged Hierusalem ... doridise les, Lec. Facs. 25vb38 = co ro chumtaiged ... aridisi , Rawl. 74a10 .

(c) again i.e. subsequently, afterwards: conid uaithib sin rogeineastair tri saerclanda Erind doridisi (after they had been nearly exterminated), Lec. Facs. 186ra21 . doriṅgni in tres gním isin bliadain ar cind doris, TBC-LL¹ 1069 . dorinneth Papa ... don treas Bonefacius ... don cethrumad Bonefacius aris, ZCP xiii 184.18 . gach ní atchluinim ... fá bhfuighinn guais ... arís anything ... which might be dangerous to me afterwards Dán Dé ix 6 .

Passing into sense in addition: tri bliadnai xxx tri mís ┐ ix lathi dorís ... soegal Meic De, LB 146 marg. inf. Cf. is mór a lobra ... Mad a máthair ... is lobru sidi doridisi she is even feebler (than her daughter) Trip.² 269 .

With added implication of in return, in requital: romarb Aed Sláini Suibne, ro fhácaib sen mac .i. Conall ... conad é sin romarb Aed S. doridisi, SG 75.2 = YBL 171b44 . marbaid side a brathair ... ┐ romarb a mac side doridhise (i.e. his brother's son killed him) Lec. 36b40 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. soïd or


Forms: -oí-, soidid, sóifitir, sóibfitir, soithe, soithib, soud

v Freq. also with diphthong -oí- (-aí-), see GOI § 644 . soidid, IGT Verbs § 42 .

I Intrans.

(a) turns, turns round; returns: no soe gl. averti, Ml. 44b15 . cia inni soas, 123d8 . sōithis Adamnān fri brēitheir a māthar, Cáin Ad. 8 . soissit saer saeth laechdaigh, AU i 294.18 . sóis in mac for cúlu, MU² 174 . acht nad sui for culud, Laws iii 78.6 . muna fitir si ┐ ni soand-sum, v 204.20 Comm . mad dia soa foen ocai, Ériu viii 122.18 . a sóitís dáine deisel, Metr. Dinds. i 24.140 . ba de sain soiset fo thuaid, ZCP viii 118 § 23 . dorat . . . a lā[i]mh ind-agaid an muilind ┐ soais reime ar tuáthbel, BColm. 58.25 . ro sai cen usci `he returned without water', RC xxiv 198.10 . ro sai úa Domhnall ina fritheing, Hugh Roe 136.8 (fo. 36b) . ro soidhsettar in eachraidh isin mhuir, BNnÉ 325 § 43 .

(b) changes: glé rosoí gné Emer, LU 3890 ( SCC 40 ). ro sóe lí, SR 7379 . ra sáit gnéthi da gnúsib, MU² 500 . ara mence soas gné | a gnúis ri úair ṅdochraite, Ériu v 211.78 . nirosoiset na gega do benadh de a ndath féin tria bitu, D IV 2, 42v b45 . s.¤ dath dies: cen tam cen galar soi dath, Fél.² cviii 28 . rosgab claimi, ro soi dath, SR 4641 . da tora rí Macha saifiter a datha, CRR 22 .

II Trans.

(a) turns : niro soí nech díb aiged ind eich in frithlorg, LU 2953 . ? dia faebra fichi cessóe cía bera na sui forellig na tulle miscais, 6637 . bé sues srotha coctha for cúlu, O'Dav. 536 . cu rasoad in lassar . . . in agaid na gáithe, Lat. Lives 94 § 89 . ro-soud in soigit for cúlu co Gargán, PH 7185 . cethra harathru . . . rosoeiset an bhuain doridhisi, Lism. L. 1506 . o' tcualatar Bretnaigh inni sin, soidhit Aodh Guaire for cula doridhisi, BNnÉ 322 § 30 . sóitear cinn na n-each fó dhes, SG 26.21 . ? To this: mad don snadud ron gabthar asrenar log nenech in snaite, ┐ suith na hathgabala in sen co ro gabaiter aitherrach it turns (i.e. ends) the distresses (?), Laws i 92.4 .i. impait in athgabail in ni hisin, 98.20 Comm . With reflexive pron.: sechidú notsoesiu `wherever thou turnest', Ml. 112b6 . With suffixed pron.: soithi as na diaid dar siúir `he goes out after it across the Suir', RC xiv 245.6 . sōithi sī dono (soithsiu dono, soithise dó, v.ll.) īarsin Ronnat co Brugach mac Dedad, Cáin Ad. 12 . sōethe (soete, v.l.) si dono for muin a meic conusrala isin ārmuch, 7 .

(b) turns, changes, overthrows : ru soad gl. peruersa, Ml. 101a6 . soe Crimthan coscrach cing | cet catha clu cohind, Rawl. 116a30 . minic me ar an fhaith[ch]i-si | o rosaoi mo chéill, BS 138.12 . hi t[i]ugnair ticfa cith sóifess in bith uli fri hoenuair, KMMisc. 146.20 . ro-shói fuil do chnáim dó ar imecla, PH 4141 . coro soadh a ainm dó ┐ doratad Mordrens fair, D IV 2, 40ra40 .

(c) turns, converts, perverts : in tu-sa ro-shói mo brathair-si? `art thou he who hast converted my brother?' PH 2127 . in cenél dóine-sea ro-shoiset in uli Iúdaide co na cretit dam-sa, 1751 . togaethfaid sochaide soifid iliu h-é, LL 119b49 .

III With prepp. With A leaves : sai as aridisi , Ériu i 116 § 6 . na soífeadh O Neill as an Mumhan go Beltaine, AFM vi 2164.5 . ro sae esti hi tíribh Gallia, CCath. 201 . With co turns towards : co Issau soid, SR 3055 . ro-sói Pól co Petar ┐ atbert fris, PH 1830 . sóifit ceóil co bachlachu `music will turn unto boors', RC xxvi 40 § 212 . is ann sin rosoei Colmán mac Lenin cusan Coimdid, Lat. Lives 105 § 102 . returns to: sout . . . co tech Guaire, ACL iii 3.26 . soais go a muintir `he returned to his people', Leb. Gab.(i) 78.20 . ro saoi co muinntir Cluana hIraird, BNnÉ 305 § 19 . rosoí cusan maigín asa tainic, D IV 2, 57ra42 . an tan ro shuidhsiot gusan ngobernóir go líon creach, AFM vi 1912.6 . With DO returns: ní soa dondi asa timthach `it does not go to the person to whom the clothing belongs', Ériu ii 206 § 27 . rosod ind arc sa da dam, Rawl. 79a13 . soáidh MacCarrtaigh . . . dia taigh, RC xviii 45.30 (Tig.). With FOR in phrase s.¤ (cath) for overthrows, defeats : rosoied in cath for Tolamir `the fortune of battle turned against T.', RC x 184.28 . soiter for Roen doridhisi ┐ maidheadh fair, AFM ii 814.14 . rosoadh for mharcsluagh na nGall, Hugh Roe 148.7 (fo. 39b) . turns against : do aithe . . . a eccora for ó nDomhnaill ro shóidh an fir-Dhia . . . fair, 258.26 (fo. 69a) . mairg bíos cen bráthair | sóid gái for uathad, SG 364.z . With FRI turns towards, returns to: is ed as slíc . . . foísitiu in mídénma fía[d] doínib ┐ ingell ná[d] soífea friu aithirriuch a promise that he will not turn to them again, Críth G. 311 . soid fri haithrighe, Laws v 202.7 . atchimm in coimdiu . . . co soam ria n-ar cenel that we may be reunited to our kindred, PH 6642 . rosō sidhe friu, ACL iii 311.4 . turns against, attacks : rim-sa ní rosoa do drech, ZCP i 497.7 . frisa saefidis a ndromand, CCath. 2683 . sóidh Hectoir fris ┐ beirid rúathar n-adúathmar adócum, TTr.² 965 . ro shuidh friu as a h-aithle he attacked them, AFM v 1756.2 . With I s.¤ x . . . i y changes, transforms x into y: rasoisitsi ón i ngoi ┐ anfír ye have turned it into falsehood and untruth, Ml. 103c15 . castorpollux ní eperr acht hilar dóib do gres in hilur dano asberr a rind hi roṡoithe, Sg. 73a11 . statim ro soad hi coirm ┐ bolad fina fair, Irish Texts i 10 § 30 . coro sóad i mmil, Trip.² 171 . gabais a nathraig do lár | Moisi . . . | noscroith nodosai i fleisc, SR 3863 . soit a n-écin . . . i toltanche fognoma do Dia, LU 2161 . In pass.: sóifitir i clóini, Wb. 26a21 (leg. sóibfitir, Edd.). sóifither ecna i ssáibbretha, RC xxvi 40 § 214 . in foirenn . . . roptar cendsa fris ar tus ro-soitea i fheirg . . . fri hElizár, PH 6562 . Note also: sóifid fiannas i cella ┐ i cleirchiu championship will give way to cells and clerics, RC xxvi 40 § 213 . acht corosoie for cula i cobais ┐ an aitrigi, D IV 2, 70ra15 . With o turns away from: ceine nosoifesiu húaim, Ml. 33a1 . rosoisset a toil hua thuil dáe, 124c6 . amal soite a slúaig úad, soid a grád ┐ a gráin for cūlu, ZCP xi 86 § 45 . soaid . . . Dia o na doinib . . . in tan sharaigit he, PH 2354 . With RÉ turns before, is defeated by: sáifiter sluaig re secht cléithe slúaig Ulad, TBC-LL¹ 4976 . fiachtar imaireg aindrenda etorra ┐ soither ria Conall C. puts his enemies to flight, ZCP xiv 260.5 . soidit ind fir riam asin taulaig imsoat Lagin ina ndīaid, Otia ii 86 § 4 . nir soiter do gnuis frit naimdiu, ar ro soisiu remamsa since you retired before me, BNnÉ 304 § 16 .

Part. soithe gl. aversum, Ml. 94c15 . honaib soithib , 46c2 .

Vn. soud.