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1 búas

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 búas or dil.ie/7292

 

n ā, f. See Gwynn, Hermathena xxiv 60 ; Thurneysen, ZCP xx 381.

(a) stream, flow, gush (of water): ron tart a brága cen buais, LL 21168 `his throat dried up without water (?),' Bodl. Dinds. 39. cath Buasi co mbuais (: cluais), LL 6760 ( RC xxix 212 § 17 ). tecait co húais, ra gním ngle, / secht srotha, búais cen búaidre `in an untroubled gush', Metr. Dinds. iii 288.14 .

(b) Fig. of poetry expld. as art, knowledge: būas .i. āi, Corm. Y 199. buss (sic) .i. ai, H 3.18, 65a7 . bues .i. sofis, 633b24 . buas .i. sofis naircetail .i. arinni thic imbas iar mbuais, inde dicitur barr buaise, 64c26 . gur 'lus būas bang na Bōinde (B. na f.) .i. guribh sé an elada do bhí 'sna cnāibh imais, ZCP v 489 § 10. erraind nais a sruth buais .i. is uais ind rann fil ocum ar imbud mo dagḟessa .i. ollamnas `from the stream of science', RC xxvi 24 § 80 ( LL 24462 ). būas (leg. B., Thurn. loc. cit.) .i. soes n-arc[h]etail (imais add. , LB, note 2) arinní dothēt imbas īar mbuais (leg. mB., Thurn.). Inde dicitur isna Brethaib Nemed: `barr būaise', Corm. Y 148. Corm. 8. soillsighis sruthlinn mbarr mbuais buadhchu, Anecd. ii 75.11 .

pn As name of river Bush and in nn. loc., see Hog. Onom. B. (one of the rígusci Érenn), BDD² 1460. ó Buais co Commur Trí nUsce, Ériu vi 147.18 . d'Inbiur Buasse bruchtait srotha, Todd Nenn. 266.7 .

claíne

Cite this: eDIL s.v. claíne or dil.ie/9339

 

n , f. (cláen)

(a) unevenness, crookedness, slant, stoop(?): for fonnad cen chul .i. for carpat cen chlaine, LL 24569 . it é teóra anmi fil for mnaib Ulad .i. cluíne ┐ minde ┐ guille, LU 3256 ( SCC 5 `crookedness', Gloss. a stoop(?) ). gan chaime gan claeine (of a well-aimed cast), IT ii2 139 n. 10 . ges do colladh claine cind `with head inclined', Leb. Cert. 12.9 . an iall gan chlaoine `straight', Aithd. D. 81.7 .

(b) Of eyes, squinting, squint: cua ainm na claine isin tsengaidilc, TBC-I¹ 2611 . cen chloeine na suilib acht amal no betis fri grein, LB 127b42 .

(c) Of hair, waviness(?): meisde th'fholt cam a chlaoine / gan locht ann acht an fhéire `only too lissom is thy wavy hair', Aithd. D. 11.17 . ar chlaoine i gceibh `in the flowing of her hair', Magauran 999 .

(d) the name of a metrical fault (see cláen): ar lochduibh . . . mur atá cáoiche, no cláoine, IGT Introd. 2.25 .

In n.loc.. Ua Dúnáin Dhomhnaigh Maighe Dá Claoíne, AFM v 1290.y (an. 1507) (`of the two slopes', O'Donovan).

Fig. in moral sense, iniquity, perversion, wickedness; bias; in pl. evil deeds: do cach ceneoli cloine gl. iniquitati, Wb. 3b25 . sóifitir i clóini gl. in omni seductione iniquitatis, 26a21 . hi lloc á cloine gl. in locum . . . iniquitatum suarum, Ml. 28a10 . ni ba cián ṁbete oca cloinib, ibid. arinní gnís in peccad ┐ i mbí . . . in chlóine, 29b11 . con rancatar huaisletaid cloine son gl. ad summum impietatis, 90d20 . ba sab indarbai clóine (of Patrick), Thes. ii 314.6 ( Hy. ii 23 ). scarad frisin clóini, Fél. Ep. 424 . do mórath cecha firinde. Do dinsim cecha clóine, Hib. Min. 327 . do cosc gacha claine, Laws i 8.19 . issed is [ ] leisin cenn, caendirgud a memor don claine for atait `error', iii 34.26 Comm. ní bus dír clóine anything to which (the word) iniquity might be applied(?), Ériu ii 202 § 17 (bes cil ┐rl, v.l.). ar bélaib ríg na claíni (sc. the Devil), LU 2416 . dlighidh claoíne cuindreach iniquity calls for chastisement, Ériu xiii 22.5 . forsna rigu . . . bite co cloine ina pecthaib perversity, PH 6230 . fá fhreagradh a gcúis i gcúirt gan chlaoine, Keat. Poems 916 . ? a ndiuide nó a gciuineas nó a gclaoine, 835 (`disinclination', Gloss.). Attrib. g s. soiri domnaig . . . gan gnim cloini, Anecd. iii 21.5 .

comaithches

Cite this: eDIL s.v. comaithches or dil.ie/10690

 

Forms: comaithgess, comaigthes, comicheas, comaithchesa, comchesa, comaidhcis

n u, m. (comaithech). Also comaithgess, Trip.² 1671 . comaigthes, Hib. Min. 76 § 2 . comicheas, Laws v 462.19 . g s. comaithchesa, O'Curry 23 ( H 3.18, 10b ). comchesa, Laws i 272.y Comm. As o-stem comaidhcis, O'Curry 723 ( H 3.18, 346 ).

(a) neighbourhood relationship, legal situation of a comaithech, local community relations after land has been cleared and apportioned: bretha comaithchesa inso .i. c.¤ cangaibter a comorbus cenn congaibther c.¤ a comrainn selbha athar ar lín mac, O'Curry 23 ( H 3.18, 10b ). cid ara neibenar comaithces cumagnais andsin ? (sic leg.). arinni is comaith gnais caich diaraili do lomrad smachta ┐ cáiche; araili is comaithces arinni is cuma no do gaib aire fri aithech ┐ aircindech fri bachlach why is it called neighbourhood of equal association ? . . . otherwise it is neighbourhood because the nobleman takes it equally with the commoner, Laws iv 68.2 ff. (cf. O'Dav. 524 ). can forbeir coimaithces ? A ilchomarbus (sic leg.) . . . Conrandat comarba cetamus a randa ┐ a sealba ┐ imfen cach dib fri araile, ┐ dobeir cach dib diguin diaraile, 68.19 ff. cid dofet a comaices ? Dofet rand ime what takes precedence in c. ? 70.1 .i. comaircim cid is remthechtach isin aithechus cumaide, 5 Comm. co dentar coimaices ? Anrandtar aile ar treisi; ingaibtar aile ime dia cuicti; inforcindtar aile dia dechmaide; incomalltar og ime dia mis, 18 . a ui Chuinn, co roich comaithceas crich ? . . . Co mmuir co ruth, co romuir, co roilbhi, co ramut bidbad (i.e. the division of land extends as far as forest-land, sea, mountain etc.), ZCP xii 363.11 . comhaithches ann so: Nach tír ná techta díorainn do muigh, no sleibh . . . dlighidh urrann innibh . . . ┐ rod do ṡliabh . . . this is a rule of c.¤ , any holding that does not include a portion of uncultivated land and mountain is entitled to such a portion and to access to it, Ériu xiii 33.18 . ni tuailing breitheamnacht la Feine na fiastar tellach ┐ comicheas mbruigrechta, Laws v 462.19 . brithem beras breith coir eter da comaidech rofiastar teora delba comaidcesa .i. smacht ┐ aithgin ┐ cathaig three aspects of the law of neighbouring land-holding, ZCP xii 363.4 ( O'Curry 20 ). atait secht n-aile la feine a comaithces nad usa adrodmaither a ratha: tond aile, tracht aile . . ., Laws v 270.13 . atait secht n-oirgni a comaithces, nadcon tuillet smachta . . .: ag imsoi dia eol, ag fris'roscrad a chond . . ., 268.17 . do denam a cota don c.¤ duty of a `comaithech', ZCP xv 315.27 . cadiat smachta ime ┐ comaicesa ? Smachta ime, rama fri clais, soc fri coraid, biail fri dairime (comaithig who failed to fence their holdings were subject to the confiscation of their tools), Laws iv 72.1 . arindi do nairgella cach ara cethrai a coir comathcesa frisna cethri comaithchiu ata nesom immidbiat, i 260.10 .i. ro comilledh in athachus comuidh do reir coir, 274.25 Comm. slán cech comaithchius curthar gellaib every neighbourhood relationship is sound, PRIA xxxvi (1923) 309.3 ( Laws iv 340.22 ). ar ocht cethraib bite for comaidches .i. bai ┐ mucca, eich, cairigh, gabair, cercca, beich, geoidh (i.e. which `count' in the rules of c.), ZCP xii 363.7 ( O'Curry 20 ). cain comaidhcis, O'Curry 723 ( H 3.18, 346 ). beo-dili fine . . . ni fuil ni eistib, a cuairt comaicesa (i.e. no payment is due to anyone on cattle found straying within the territory held by the comaithig), Laws v 324.19 Comm. a fidh chomaithchesa woodland subject to c., O'Curry 1026 ( H 3.18, 432a ). ised is cinta comaithchesa ann, iní do dena re hoiledaib ┐ re hairbedaibh, re fer ┐ re arbar . . . offences against neighbouring landholders, Laws iii 186.1 Comm. nocho biaid comaithgess and in saeculum no settled occupancy(?), Trip.² 1671 . no is coimiches boi occu imon usqe (i.e. they had a right to the water such as would exist under the law of c.), Celtica iv 6.8 . ro baí imresain . . . im comhroinn ┐ im comhaightes a ccriche, AFM vi 2086.16 . Note also: ogṡaire na hecailse co brath, can ch.¤ sliged no cailled acht a bith i coi[t]chend . . . do cach Midiuch neighbourhood rights, Misc. Arch. Soc. 144.z .

(b) proximity, neighbourhood, occupation of adjacent territory; neighbourship; neighbourly relations : o sunn rancatar fodes / co Ioseph hi c.¤ , SR 3650 . comaithig . . . do M. Huī Māil ┐ ba holc . . . a chomaithcess doib (`neighbour- ship', Gloss.), Fing. R. 955 . dligid c.¤ caomclōdh, Anecd. iii 14.21 . ona borbaib barbardaib filet i c.¤ Gréc, LL 31207 ( TTr. 390 ). BB 416a25 . i lleth ri sruth Níl fodess / fri Affraic a comaidchess near(?), LL 16243 . Meoit ri hArmein aníar / i comaithchess nach rochian, 16267 . ba fae do cechta[r] de a comriachtain ┐ a comadces to encounter one another or to be in one another's proximity, Cog. 58.21 . Dall is Dorcha rís aneas/ri cromtha rí comaices, BB 351b44 . comhaithcheas .i. comharsanachd, O'Cl.

(c) strangeness, dissimilarity : ó chomaithcheas ┐ ó éxsamhlacht na ngalar `strangeness and variety', De Contemptu 1049 . Gramm.: gach táoibhréim úathaidh théid a coimhitheas (gcomoighthes v.l.) no is faide iná a ainm úathaidh which takes on a different form, IGT Decl. § 21 (75.17) . ó théid a ccomhuidheas tar a chruth féin, Introd. § 18 .

(d) estrangement, enmity : dogniter iarum comhaighthes friu ┐ diultad `unneighbourliness', Lism. L. 2898 . id bhrugh ní bhí coimhidheas / re duine do ṡíol Eabha, DDána 120.34 . táir ar gcoimheighthios cogoidh `our violent estrangement was a trifle', Studies 1921, 589 § 6 . dar gcora i gcomhuightheas `of setting us at enmity', Aithd. D. 65.21 . ní neamhoircheas / rí 's a chlann i gcomhaightheas `estranged', 7 . ? doberim mhe fein cen comaithes duid ┐ dena do bail fein dim, ZCP vi 49.2 (`without opposition'). is let-sa misi cen comait[h]us, 37.x . ? an grath (= .d) bes comhaitheas dia luighi, O'Curry 507 ( H 3.18, 257 ).

dechmad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dechmad or dil.ie/14893
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: dechma, dechmu, dechmud, deachmuid, deachṁuidh, deachṁughaim

old derivative of deich, Gaul. petru-decameto-, CIL xiii 2494 . Holder 980 .

I o-ā, adj. Tenth . Always before its subst. and preceded by the article: decmed, Ériu lviii 97 (Computus Einsidlensis) . sin dechmaid lá, SR 6327 . in deachmadh bliadain flaithiusa Tibhir, MacCarthy 282. 10 f.b. isin dechmad bliadain a ríge, 298. 13 . ib. 290. 2 , 14 . foglaim na dechmaide bliadna, IT iii 54 § 99 . in d.¤ aithne, PH 7764 . decima ostensio: in d.¤ taidbsi, 6720 . in d.¤ grád, 7160 . isin d.¤ chaipdel, 7456 . an deachṁadh coṁartha aran mbás, TSh. 51. 3 .—With ellipse of subst. and omission of article (see CMCS xlviii 51 n. 42): dechmad grád talman, MacCongl. 51. 11 (cf. nói ṅgrád nime ┐ in dechmad grád talman, LL 45 b 34 ). dechmad nert | talman tríuin, Ériu xxii 27 § 5 .—Now under the influence of deich pronounced with slender ch (th = h): deichṁeadh, deithiú, W.M.; cf. Rev. xi 13 : an deichṁeadh cuid don chathair. Thus also Sc. deicheaṁ, HSD. Macd.

II Subst., ā, f.

(a) a space of ten days dechma, Laws ii 106. 2 . dechmu, ib. i 262. 5 ; 264. 11 . dechmud, i 264. 12 . Acc. for nom.: deachmuid, ii 90. 20 .—Frequently in the Laws = anad dechmaide a stay of ten days ( Laws i 80. 32 ). One of the four periods (uidi) for notice of Law: arinní robdur cethri uidi robátar for furógru dlige aon ┐ treisi cúicthe ┐ dechmu, i 262. 5 . n s. d.¤ fri rudrad, i 78. 14 . fri rurud, ii 90. 20 . adfogarar dechmu do feine fiachaig...ar as dechmud fri saigid, i 264. 11 ; ii 106. 2 .—g s. leth na decmaidi v 68. 5 . re ré ndechmaide, iii 532. 17 . ib. i 192. 12 f.b. ; v 66. 4 f.b. co iar ndechmaide, v 306. 9 . a s. cid arná segat cúicthe nó dechmad, i 236. 12 . co dechmaid = co cenn ndechmaide; conár fastur doib cu dechmuid, ii 48. 4 . O'Dav. 950 . —d s. for dechmaid, Laws i 152. 1 . is díles iar ndechmaid, ii 310. 8 f.b. ib. v 308. 3 . d p. direnar i teora dechmadaib, v 394. 8 . Law-terms : anad dechmaide a stay or delay of ten days: dechmad .i. a. d., i 80. 32 ; 192. 13 f.b. ; 236. 20 . a. d. ar cach nathgabáil gabar de, i 200. 30 . O'D. Suppl. apad dechmaide a legal notice of ten days, 1262. 22 . abad teora dechmad, iv 2. 20 . athgabál dechmaide distress of ten days: a. húine ┐ aile...┐ d., i 208. 2 ; ib. 192. 10 ; 210. 22 .— íc ar dechmaid, Cáin Ad. 38 . airḟuacra decmaidi, Hib. Min. 66. 6 . nosbiathaim co cenn dechmaide IT i 141. 26 (CC). ZCP v 503. 16 .—Obs.

(b) one of ten equal parts, a tenth .

(1) In a general sense: cathir dronoll...mét don domonn a dechmad, SR 344 . masé dechmad a ḟeraind tucustair in duine amach, Laws v 38. 10 . tabar dechmad in ḟiadhuigh dún, Acall. 919 . gabais dechmaid cechtar nái (viz. na mbairgen) ┐ benais dechmaid in tóchta...fil dechmaid sund ar MacC., MacCongl. 23. 12 sq.; ib. 23. 16 , 18 (g s. dechmaide); 25. 4 . deachṁadh na deachṁadha, Levit. x 38 . Sc. deicheaṁ: bheir mi d. dhuit I will give you a tenth part Macd. 325 a .

(2) In a specal sense after the introduction of Christianity, translating Lat. decima (pl. Lat. decimae: dechmada): the tithes of the Church. haec decima .i. dechmadh, Ir. Gl. 43 . According to the Brehon Laws the laity was obliged to pay dechmad and primiti (primitiae) to the clergy. n p. dechmada ┐ primiti ┐ almsana, Laws i 50. 27 . dán do eclais .i. dechmada ┐ primite ┐ rl., iii 18. 26 . na dechmada, v 450. 23 . a p. isé (viz. in flaith) dobeir primidi ┐ dechmada ┐ almsana don eclais, v 12. 28 . d p. do dechmadaib ┐ primittib, v 266. 11 ; 122. 21 . g p. fuaslugad dechmad, v 450. 15 .— for dánaib ┐ dechmadaib na hecailsi, LU 30 a 27 = FA § 25 . ní dligid dechmaidiu, O'D. Suppl. from LB. tug F. a roga feraind do Chormac... tuc dano a deachmadh do, BB 234 a 4 . quasi anni nostri decimas damus : doberum...mar bad dechmad ár mbliadna PH 4936 . ib. 4939 - 40 . is do deochainib ┐ do ṡacartaib dobertís dechmada ┐ prímite ic áes rechta decimae et primitiae, 6012 . a p. dechmadu a máine, 4172 . érnaid dechmada na nuli filet ocaib do ḟulang na neclais, 7251 . Gadelica ii 123. 2 . d. dérniud or do díl pay tithes PH 7251 . sná díol deachṁugha ar aonchor, Gadelica ii 128 l. 618 . Donlevy 144. 25 . Rel. Celt. ii 278 st 16 (deacbhuidh). d. do glaccad receive tithes: anúair ghlacfuid na lebhítigh dechmadha, Nehemiah x 38 . doghlacas an deachṁadh, Hebrews vii 9 . —Instances from the Bible: n s. deachmadh, Levit. xxvii 32 , ib. x 38 . pl. bhur ndeachmadha, Deuteronomy xii 11 . d s. deachṁuidh, Levit. xxvii 31 . g s. gabáil deachṁuidh , Deuteronomy xxvi 12 . g. na deachṁuidhe, ib. dechṁadh na dechmadha, Levit. x 38 .

(3) Of any tribute to the clergy, no matter how big or how small: tucsat cúiced Laigen trian a clainde ┐ trian a nindmais do naem Pátraic conid Cnoc na Dechmaide ainm in chnuic sin ósin anall, Acall. 4825 . —The sense `ten things, articles or animals' which is given in O'D. Suppl. appears to have no support (one would expect †décade or †deichde).

MOD. v. I, II (b ). Lhuyd. Coneys. O'R. Dinneen Sc. deachaṁ: thug e dha d. de gach ní , Gen. xiv 20 . HSD. Macd. Phon. deicho, O'R. ann.—Hence deachṁuighim (vn. deachṁughudh) I pay tithes; deachṁughaim id. O'R. deachṁaich , HSD. deicheaṁaich , Macd.

do-airgella

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-airgella or dil.ie/17138
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: do-n-airgelltar, doaircelltar

v (*to-air-gell-?) gives pledges (for a thing): arindhi donairgella cach ara cethrai (.i. arinni ara taburtar geall torridhnech tar cenn a cethra, 274 ) `gives pledges for his cattle', Laws i 260 . ara tairgealla cach ara ceathra for cach n-aile (.i. co tuca cāch gell toirithnech fri cach cinaid doniat a cethra), iv 124 = ar na turgellad (.i. gu tugadh, etc.), O'D. 2178 ( Rawl. B 487 ). tairgillne donairgelltar do, Laws ii 122.1 . do-airgealla (= do airgelladh, O'D. 2181 ) cach diaraile, Laws iv 128 . ni tairgealla neach fri raile, 138 . do-n-airgelltar, ii 120-2 . doaircelltar, 122 .

See tairgille, tairgellad.

do-airicc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-airicc or dil.ie/17140
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: tair, to-m-air, to-n-fairne, nā tar-sa, tar, tairr, tairre, tarr, tarra, tairced, tairceth, toircidh, do-nd-airic, thairic, tharic, tairic, thairc, taircet, taircther, do-m-aircedh, tairced, tairccedh, tairgidh, taircitis, tairgidis, do-air, do-mmair, condomthair, nachumthair, nīcontair, donnair, toir, tair, -tairi, do-airset, tairset, tairiset, -tairesad, tairsead, -tairsed, tairsiudh, tairisedh, do-t-aircibe, do-t-aircceba, do-far-faircebha, tarceba, targebu, tairceba, taircebe, tairgeba, toirceba, tairgfi, do fair, tair, do thairgebad, taircebat, ni tairset, tairchebad, do-arnacair, tharnacair, tarnacar, do-dn-arnic, do-da-farnaic, farnaic, ndo-f-arnic, tarnaic, tarrnaic, tarrnaig, rotharrnig, dtairnig, tairnic, tarnecamar, do-n-arnactar, to-sn-airnechtár, tárnactar, thairnechtar, thairnectair, tairnegtair, doarnactatar, con-tornachtatár, to-sn-airnechtatar, ó thárnecatar, conatornacadur, tarncatar, tuarnect

v (* to-air-icc-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 553 ). IGT Verbs § 9 . Ipv. 2 s. (the forms occurring are originally subjunctive) tair, Ardm. 18a1 ( Thes. ii 241 ). TBC-I¹ 295 . Metr. Dinds. iii 378 . to-m-air, TBC-I¹ 1070 . to-n-fairne, Ériu iii 140 . nā tar-sa, ZCP x 306 . tar, TD 2.3 . tairr, Ériu iv 144 ; v 28 . tairre, CF 582 , 686 . tarr, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 40.5 , sic leg. Ir. Review 1913, 625 . tarra, Imr. Brain i 68 . Acall. 2089 . RC xxviii 314 . 3 s. tairced, LU 1569 ( IT ii2 213 ). MacCongl. 117.33 . tairceth, IT ii2 209a . 2 pl.? toircidh, Cog. 86 . Indic. pres. 3 s. do-nd-airic, O'Mulc. 291 . thairic, tharic, SR 4699 , 6741 . tairic, RC xxi 378.4 ( LU 1361 ). CCath. 2483 . thairc, TBC-LL¹ 1784 (tair, v.l., cf. PH 899 ). 3 pl. taircet, Metr. Dinds. ii 10 . Imr. Brain § 14 (tairget, v.l.). ? Pass. taircther, Corm. Y 1262 . Impf. 3 s. do-m-aircedh, Anecd. i 73 ( ZCP xi 161 ). tairced, SR 4605 . tairccedh, AFM 806 (cf. tairgidh, IT iii 195 § 33 ). 3 pl. taircitis, Dinds. 117 . tairgidis (as past subj.), RC xxvi 134 .

Subj. (forms often indistinguishable from those of do-roich and do-airret) pres. 3 s. do-air, Laws v 508.2 . do-mmair, Hy. vi 11 , 16 . RC xv 489 . condomthair, Hy. vii 59 . Ériu iii 198 . nachumthair, LL 307a2 . ( dūs in tair, TBC-I¹ 1141 , nīcontair, 2757 seem to be fut.; cf. also donnair, Trip.² 1344 = Lat. Lives 35 , ZCP x 225 , if this is from the same verb.) toir, CCath. 462 . ? do-d-áir (MSS. dodar, do dar, dod dor), Éigse xx 143 § 5 . tair as fut. perf. hypothetical, Laws i 62.23 ; ii 232.5 , etc. cipead dommaire, Ériu ii 90 § 16 . -tairi, BDD 128 , 129 , cf. Ériu i 203 . nim thaire, ZCP vi 260.4 . 1 pl. ? co tairsem, Ériu iii 143 § 5 . 3 pl. do-airset, Fél. Sept. 20 . tairset, Fél. Dec. 13 . Hy. i 45 ; cf. tairiset, Laws ii 58.20 . -tairesad (leg. tairsead?), Cog. 50.17 . Impf. 3 s. -tairsed, Trip. 382 . Laws ii 58 . co tairsidh, Aen. 2676 . tairsiudh, BNnÉ 321 . Laws ii 58 . tairisedh, ZCP x 276 ( noco tairsidh í, IT ii2 129 , if not subj. pres. 2 pl., may belong here. í may be the subject, cf. the var. adubhairt B. go raibh fledh aige . . . ┐ gur gheis do a fagbail no go ccathadh í until he should have consumed it). 3 pl. ¤tairsittís, BNnÉ 13 . AFM vi 2016 .

Fut. 3 s.

(a) (-b-) do faricba (= dobaricba), RC x 66 . do-t-aircibe, IT ii2 190 (Eg.).

(b) (infl. of gaibid, see Ériu iii 191 - 3 ) do-t-aircceba, ZCP xiii 276.2 . do-far-faircebha, RC x 66 n. 2 . do fairgeb, 66 n. 1 . tarceba, RC xii 88 § 97 . targebu, 82 § 79 . tairceba, ZCP viii 195.5 . taircebe, x 52.25 . tairgeba, IT ii2 194 . ni toirceba , Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 36 .

(c) tairgfi (-b-, late), ZCP viii 547.25 = TBC-LL¹ 1784 v.l.

(d) (-s-) do-n-air (sic leg.? do fair, v.l.), ZCP x 225 (cf. Lat. Lives 35 ). ? tair, TBC-I¹ 1141 , 2757 .

3 pl.

(b) do thairgebad (= do-t-airgebat?), IT ii2 190 . taircebat, 193 (Eg.) tairgebhaid, BB 418a19 .

(d) ni tairset, TBC-I¹ 3131 ?

Condit. 3 s.

(b) na tairchebad , Ériu iv 26.18 .

Pret. and perf. 3 s.

(a) (depon.) do-arnacair, SG 406.3 . ni tharnacair , RC xiii 30.29 . co tarnacar , LL 262b31 ; 49 . BNnÉ 98 § 6 . ZCP x 411.17 .

(b) do-dn-arnic, ZCP viii 195.4 . do-da-farnaic, Fél. June 10 . do farnaic , RC xiv 416 , x 66 . a ndo-f-arnic (= ndo-b-arnic), 64 . tarnaic, TBC-LL¹ 420 , etc. co tarrnaic , TBC-I¹ 2616 . ní tarrnaig , TFrag. 26 . rotharrnig, CF 1021 . go dtairnig , TD 11.26 (-ic(c), v.l.). tairnic, 25.77 (MSS.).

1 pl. tarnecamar, ZCP iv 242.24 . 3 pl. do-n-arnactar, Wb. 7b13 . to-sn-airnechtár, FB § 55 . tárnactar, SR 6939 . ni thairnechtar , IT ii1 178 . co thairnectair , PH 5292 . tairnegtair, RC xiii 30.31 . doarnactatar, Leb. Gab.(i) 144.7 . con-tornachtatár, LU 10098 ( Imr. Brain 64 ). to-sn-airnechtatar, FB § 55 Eg. ó thárnecatar, TTr.² 1601 . conatornacadur, Imr. Brain 64 v.l. tarncatar, LL 308a1 ( RC xiii 112 ). Pass. pret. s. tuarnect (?), Fianaig. 10 § 3 .

(a) comes: tair dum berrad-sa, Ardm. 18a1 ( Thes. ii 214 ). tair dom chobair, Ériu iii 31 . LB 262b75 . tair lemm 'come with me', Echtrae Chonnlai 121 § 5 . tairced fer ar mo chend-sa, IT ii2 213 . TBC-I¹ 748 . a Phátric, tairche ┐ tair, Metr. Dinds. iii 378 . ni tharnacair Conall, RC xiii 30 . tarra co luath a comfochraib dūin, RC xxviii 314 . tárnactar 'na dáil, SR 6939 . tairced int angel do nim i comdāil Aroin, 4605 . tair don chath, BS 6 . nā tairgidis arīs docum nErenn, RC xxvi 134 . Ériu iv 26 . dofarnaic reme co faidchi na hEmna came onward, RC xiv 416 . tairgebhaid na Troiana for ar ndail, BB 418a19 . āilit . . . R. . . . ar co tairsiudh co cutrama friu `that he would come into conformity with them', BNnÉ 321 . co tairsedh riaghail dromann na sciath (sic leg.) . . . isin cōir cētna doridhisi so that the row of shields might return to the same order (?), CCath. 5847 .

(b) With infixed pron. obj. or accus.: to-m-air, a Lugaid, TBC-I¹ 1070 . a ndo-farnic (= ndobarnic) arráer do-f-aricba cach naidchi ye shall every night get what ye got last night, RC x 64.2 . do-t-aircceba mid cuill a cuachaib airgit thou shalt get hazel-mead, ZCP xiii 276.2 . Anecd. i 73 = ZCP xi 161 . domairnic sund tipra, Anecd. 63 = ZCP xi 156 . tosnairnechtár fleda mōra feasts came to them (i.e. they found, got), FB § 55 . hōre don-arnactar Crist `because they had approached Christ', Wb. 7b13 . targebu deogh firu hErenn, RC xii 82 . do thaircgebat (= do-t-a.) uaindi tri doim, Anecd. i 11.9 ; cf. IT ii2 190 § 3 . do airset ar ndala `may they visit our assemblies', Fél. Sept. 20 , cf. in dál . . . tuarnect im robánad `the tryst . . . has been kept by me in pale death', Fianaig. 10 , and the doubtful reading condatornachtatar in dáil (i nd.¤?), Imr. Brain § 64 .

(c) Hence finds, gets (in some of the exx. which this meaning suits there is probably confusion with fo-airicc finds, e.g. condofairnic in Mac Óg for duma shidha in Bhrogha, ZCP v 524 , cf. dofornic lánamni ar a chiund hi síth C. . . . foránic alaili hi nDumu G., Imr. Brain i 53 ). for cach oen tarnecamar on all whom we have met, ZCP iv 242 . ni thairnechtar fodail they had not arrived for the distribution, IT ii2 178 . asbert . . . ara n-aurthaitis do Emain co tairsitis ōl and, TBC-I¹ 613 (do-airret?). co tairsem a sen-anmann that we may find their original names, Ériu iii 143 . Perh. also: tairr .i. arinnī taircther ind cach biad, Corm. Y 1262 (do-áirci?). dūs in tairsimmis a baegul whether we can get a chance at him, TBC-I¹ 1650 . TBC-LL¹ 667 . Hugh Roe 48 . dūs an ttairsittis iad to see if they could take them, AFM vi 2016 . is mairg taircebe in cuire unhappy who survives till that band, ZCP x 52 . mairg thair iadsan d'aithle cháich, O'Gr. Cat. 556 ( fúair, A V 2, 76b ).

(d) comes to an end, is completed, finished, exhausted (probably arising from perf. tairnic has come = is over; cf. is inbechtain ma tairnic leis deredh a imacollma he had hardly made an end of speaking, CCath. 5186 ; go ttairnic crich ┐ comhchaithemh a n-uile chostuis, Fl. Earls 188 ). tarnac ┐ tairnic .i. do críochnaigheadh, O'Cl. innuraid . . . .i. in bliadain tairnic and the year which has just ended, Corm. Y 783 . doarnactatar cumhacta (sic MS.) gach iodhoil ind aimsir na geine coimdetta, Leb. Gab.(i) 144 . tarncatar a rīg-leptha `his royal beds have ended', RC xiii 112 = SG 388 . Esp. common in subj. with co n-: co tairsed a gabáil till its recital should have ended, Trip. 382 . leicid cairdi dūn co tair in t-aifrinn till the mass is over, Fél. p. 116 . ní rag co táir in cluichi-seo, RC xiii 108 = SG 386 . co tarnaic in cluchi sin d'immirt, ib. nī ḟētaim-si fācbhāil na crīche nogu tair a coisercadh uile until its consecration is finished, Lism. L. 1819 . tarnaic an dairtech the (building of) the oratory is finished, RC xxvii 288 . ó tharnic in recles do chumtach, Lat. Lives 61 = Trip. 470 . tarnic in bith the world is over, ZCP v 23 . tairnic do ré thy span is completed, Ériu i 124 . trén tairnic a worn-out champion, ACL iii 239 . tarnic ar lón our provision is exhausted, RC xxxiv 312 (= thairnic linn ar lón, LB 279a21 ). co tairrnig sdair Sērluis thus endeth, Fier. 258 .

With DO of pers.: o tharnic dond ingin a haithesc, LU 10054 . co tair dúind ar toisc do dénamh, Imr. Brain i 64 . co tairnic do raind na muici, Anecd. v 15 (= cor ránic dó, IT i 105 ). go dtairnig dhúin dáil na gcorn, TD 11.26 . ro imbir a chluiche co tarnacair dō ar in fidchill, SG 405 . ni thairnic dhó acht sin do rādh anuair, etc. he had barely finished these words when, BS 48 . With FRI: o thairnic fri h Ísu osaicc dia apstalu when Jesus had done washing His apostles' feet, PH 5265 . With LA: ic ól na coibledi sin co tarnacar leo, MU² 128 . cu tairnic leo athnuaidiud . . . gach neich romillset, RC xiv 36 . go ttairnig léo a raibhe d'uisge aca do chaithemh, Ériu v 186 . in tan tairgeba lemsa, dena cennsa frim anmain when all shall be over with me, Ériu iii 30 . With ó: ní tharnaic uad acht a rád he only managed to say, TBC-LL¹ 2071 . ni tharnic úan do rád, 645 .

do-fairget

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-fairget or dil.ie/17617
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: dofairget, toirgden, tarctait, toirg, targadh, targa, toirgiustur, targa[d, targad, targasa, targa[d]-sa, dofarcaid, do-farguid, dofairgi, targ(a)id, tarc(a)id, toirgid, rothairgid, targadar, do-fairges, tarcas, tairces, targas, tarcus, taircid, doaircend, dofaircenn, tafairg, ttaireoghuin, targus-sa, do-airg, rairccset, doraircsiter, taircced

v (*to-ro-ad-guid-, Bergin, Ériu xi 139 ). The deut. forms found are no doubt back-formations. Indic. pres. 3 s. dofairget, Laws v 272.9 . Cf. O'Dav. 655 . toirgden, BDD² 314 . ? 3 pl. tarctait, ACL iii 303 . Subj. pres. 2 s. (as ipv.) toirg, BDD² 322 (see Gloss.). 3 s. mana targadh biadh `was offered', leg. targa unless he offer (?), Laws i 220 Comm. Pass. s. dia toirgiustur , ib. Pret. and perf. 1 s. targa[d, Acall. 1986 etc. targad, MR 128 ff . targasa, leg. targa[d]-sa (?), 130 . 3 s. dofarcaid, Imr. Brain i 46 . do-farguid, Laws v 502.22 ( O'Dav. 979 ) = dofairgi, ZCP iv 227.10 . Usually targ(a)id, tarc(a)id. toirgid, TBC-I¹ 1336 . rothairgid, SR 2953 . 3 pl. targadar, Imr. Brain i 67 , etc. Pass. do-fairges, IT iii 36 n. 6 . tarcas, Anecd. i 47 . tairces, TBC-I¹ 2437 . targas, Ériu iii 162 . tarcus, Laws i 114 Comm.

Later as simple vb. taircid. Note also pres. 3 s. doaircend, Laws v 210 . ? dofaircenn, Anecd. v 26 n. 7 . ? tafairg, ii 122 Comm. Condit. 1 s. go ttaireoghuin , Luc. Fid. 319 . Pret. 1 s. targus-sa, BS 20 (§ 16) . 3 s. do-airg, Alex. 610 . 3 pl. do rairccset , AFM v 1360 . ? doraircsiter, Anecd. v 26 n. 2 . Vn. 1 taircsiu. IGT Verbs § 9 .

(a) offers, proffers: tairg tri damu dóib offer them, BDD §§ 33 , 34 , 35 . targa[d] dhō muinci sealga, Acall. 1986 . rothairgid Laban lán lōg | ar ingaire do Iacōb, 2953 . ? tuc dam th'ór is t'arget, | dāig rofairgged dam since you have offered (them) to me (?), TBC-LL¹ 3099 = mēd rotfairced (t later) dam, TBC-I¹ 2288 . dothairced cach dib a dáil offered (delivered) his judgement (?), SR 4521 (cf. YBL 292b34 , LB 122a2 ). ? ellgid sé saidhecht do neoch .i. dofaircenn imat toicthi, Anecd. v 26 n. 7 . ? tairr .i. arinni taircther ind cach biad all food is proffered (i.e. sent) into it, Corm. Y 1262 (do-airicc ?). targid cach ben díb lōg dam-sa, LL 229a33 . doairg A. lóg don choicait for cét táisech dodénad immthús dō, Alex. 610 ; 319 . uair nād ḟoēt uad a toirgid do because he did not accept his offer, TBC-I¹ 1336 . targaid . . . a thír cona thoirthe | ina coibche d'óen-mnái, Metr. Dinds. iii 300 . dofargaidh coícait torc dia ēisi, Dinds. 112 ( RC xvi 63 ). do tairgeadh bó aile dí da cind, Imr. Brain i 58 . ? dā trian a clain[n]e . . ., dā trian etha ┐ bleachta . . . tarced fri coir [fri] fairche | dhoibh gacha haidche Samna, BB 28b36 = taircced, Leb. Gab.(i) 104 . taircsed sīd ┐ cōrus ┐ comada do A., YBL 208a23 . targcaid Cíarān aentaid do Cholmán, BColm. 86 . targaidh . . . a mancine do B. ┐ ni rogabh inní sin, BNnÉ 41 . fleadh do tairged doibh . . . a tig Dommad, Cóir Anm. 77 = fl. do tairced . . ., SG ii 464 . nīr gapadh comha no cennach dar thairccset, Fl. Earls 64 . fear . . . dia ttarccus comhorbus Iae, AFM iii 18 . tarcas dō fa secht . . . a chert is a dliged his legal rights were offered him sevenfold, Anecd. i 47 . fer doaircend cert ┐ dlige, Laws v 210 (glossed .i. tairges). dia taircetur dlighedh do, i 88 , 86 . nir thairccset dál nā dliged, Leb. Gab.(i) 156 = ni taircsit, Lec. 25b13 . do thairg comhaidh uaidhe, ML 106 . tairgthear leath Eireann uait-si do C. let half Ireland be offered by thee, 62 . tairgthur leth Erend uathaib let them offer to surrender, Ériu viii 26 . tarcatar an ingin do C., Lism. L. 4174 . rothairg a ingen mur mnaī dó, ZCP vi 33 ; CCath. 1141 . targas doibh seoit ┐ maine ┐ nír gabhsat iat, Ériu iii 162 . do thairg sé airgead dóibh, Acts viii 18 . hi prím rucad Crist rontairc who offered himself, LB 247b49 ( KMMisc. 158 ). ben dofairget ar decmuic who offers (herself), Laws v 272 (glossed .i. tairgeas hi fein ar choibci ingnath, 276 ), cf. O'Dav. 655 . dofarcaid M. a réir dó di ṡétaib, Imr. Brain i 46 . d'egnuib (degnuíbh ?) iarthair dūisig domuin, | is dō tārctait to him (Patrick) they offer it (= make their offers) (?), ACL iii 303 . da tairgim uili amus forro if we offer (make) an onset, Aen. 2978 . nach tairgid coimhghleic, Ó Bruad. ii 230 . Folld. by clause, offers (to), proposes (to): tarcid C. dosom comrac do dēnam ris-seom, TBC-LL¹ 4655 . tairgidh A. tiachtain dō a comrac aenfhir frit A. offers to come and fight thee, Aen. 2764 . targadar do M. toidheacht lais do thabairt chatha, Imr. Brain 167 . Mág Suibne . . . dothairg Ó Domnaill do ghairm de O' D. offered him the title of Mac S., O'Gr. Cat. 386 . targid F. dó comad ris nobeith a port, Imr. Brain ii 294 . Perh. also: Iudas rotaircestair, | do Iudib rothrēgestair Judas proposed it (?), Lec. 345a16 . ? conā tucad nech co glē | cid no tharged dia-raile, SR (Greene) 2763 (perh. belongs to do-áirci).

(b) attempts, ventures: tairg ueith ullam 'na oirchill strive to be ready, Ériu v 138 . dia bréige d'adhradh ná tairg, Ó Héodhusa 125 . nā tairgedh aenduine aguibh cosaint do dēnum, ZCP vi 48 . nā tairgi[d]si cur ré tuicsin cumacht an airdrig do not attempt to understand, RC xxiv 384 = Ériu ii 146 . issed do thairgdis, slige nimhe do gabáil, RC xxv 390 . do thairg L. a dhenamh ┐ níor ḟét é, xxix 112 . annsa sligid do thaircc A. do réidhiugud, Maund. 237 . crēd fār thairc sē an fairce do siubal ina commōr-sin do sdoirm ?, BCC 230 . Note also: ro-fedar intí bad maith do do dul diantairgimis if we chose to send him (?), IT ii2 226 . gluaisis an inghen annsin | re hesccara Dē dūiligh, | nir taircc re dāil budh decra she never attempted a harder tryst (?), ZCP xii 382 . ? dothairced cach dib a dáil | do cech leith immon sanctáir, SR 4521 . Cf. do-áirci.

fothla(e)

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fothla(e) or dil.ie/24182

 

(vn. of fo-tlen) withdrawing, deducting, abducting (?). In Laws used of a kind of trespass on property : f.¤ ┐ tothla ┐ an ┐ airgsiu (species of `duinecaithe' or man-trespass) Laws iv 98.18 Comm. Cf. andilsi do flaithib f.¤ tothla an tan (= ān tān) aircsiu, ZCP xii 366.16 ( H 3.18, p. 7b ). smachta f.¤ ┐ tothla, Laws iv 106.20 (defined as trespass of a party who unharnesses on a neighbour's land and refuses to quit on being warned off). i f.¤ t'airgetlaig `for digging thy silvermine' (?) Laws i 166.26 . cuimne cin f.¤, aisnéis cin forrán, H 3.17, c. 442 (one of the five obligations of a ráth-security) (= Bürgschaft 40z : `ohne heimliche Verminderung'; `without slipping' O'Don., Suppl.). ben fothlai no forcuir `heimlich beschlafen' (abducted ?) Caratnia 39 . fer fothlai (a division of the `bó-aire' class), Laws iv 298.18 ; 314.24 ( Críth G. 18 ; 248 ) where it is defined: isé remíbí boairechaib in sin, arinnī fotlen a boairechus do thaurcreicc ceili; `a man of withdrawal ... because he withdraws somewhat from the position of bóaire in order to lend capital to clients' MacNeill, MacNeill, Law of status 293 ; because his rank deducts from the proportionate stock which he gives to his `ceile' ? Plummer. See Binchy, Críth G. p. 89 . bō ōcc ... co laeog a cuirp fo [leg. féin ?] lei ni bi laeg fothla na tothla, H 3.18, 146a ( O'Curry 251 ); cf. oc fennad loíg fothlai (= taken from the stall, or filched ?) LL 260a17 (Lg. IT i 71.15 ).

The follg. ex. is perhaps corrupt, cf. Ériu ii 208 § 28 : fothlai na pian a n-iffirn cin crich cin forcend, LB 203b57 .

gamnach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. gamnach or dil.ie/25345
Last Revised: 2013

 

n ā, f. (gamuin, EIF 60 ) a `stripper,' a cow with a year-old calf : gamnach .i. gamsinech .i. arinnī is mblicht i mmī gaim, Corm. Y 687 . cid oen gamnach nobeith ison taig nocho lemtha a bleghon, Cog. 50.1 . bid g.¤ a mathair fair `its mother is a stripper in its place,' Laws ii 126.26 Comm. an ghamhnach nó in bhó inlaogha, AFM vi 2078.25 . g s. gamain gamnaige `a stripper's calf,' Triads 234 . lacht cael-gamnaighi, BB 233b8 . In n. l. a nGarrdha na Gamnaighe, RC xviii 171.29 (Tig.). pl. tri fichit gamnach, IT i 99.18 . sesca gamnach dia bīathad, ScM. 22.3 . blicht a ngamnachaib (a sign of evil times to come), ZCP ix 170.9 . iar ndīsca inar ngamnachaib, Hib. Min. 66.15 . Fig. of a very productive river: conid hi Slicech gamnach uisci nErend, ar gaibther íasc, indi hi cach ráthi, Trip. 142.6 . Of a tree: gamhnach dharach duilleadhach ar siubhal go gnáth `the leafy stirk of an oak swaying ever more' (Suibne disparages it after praising the oak itself= an oak sapling ?), BS 66.19 ( BS² 1014 ). See also Éigse ix 75-76 . In men's nicknames: Maolbrighde na gamnaidhe, CS 172.12 . g p. mac Diarmada na ngamhnach ui Ruairc, AFM iv 922.2 .

1 imbas, imbus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 imbas, imbus or dil.ie/27294
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: imb-ḟess

n o, m. , n. (imb-ḟiuss or imb-ḟess `das grosse vielumfassende Wissen,' Thurneysen, ZCP xix 164 ; Ériu xxxii 79 ).

great knowledge ; poetic talent, inspiration ; fore-knowledge ; magic lore: imas .i. saidecht, Stowe Gl. 433 , Lec. Gl. 364. iachta[d] sluaigh suide n-imbais .i. estidh in sluagh re saidhecht, nó dobeir subaidhe ar in sluagh in t-imat sofeasa bis acon said sin, O'Dav. 1071. būas .i. soes n-arc[h]etail arinní dothēt imbas īar mbūais, Corm. Y 148. cethri srotha déc éicsi ... immas ┐ dichetal, LL 30d34 . ad-sloinn airdnemhidh iomhais (of the technical accomplishments required of a poet), Ériu xiii 18.20 . sreth immais (a technical term in poetry for connecting all words of a verse line by alliteration), IT iii 30.14 . trí labra ata ferr túa : ochán ríg do chath, sreth immais, molad iar lúag, Triads 112. srotha ionnalta an iomais, Content. xxii 17 n. 4 .

Referring especially to knowledge or fore-knowledge obtained by magic or occult means: failte fri tascor n-imais dofaircet nae cuill cāinmesa for Segais i sīgaib, Anecd. v 25.5 (cf. Ériu xiii 26.17 , ZCP xvii 268.13 ). imbus greine .i. bolg greine imfuilnges in grian for na luibhibh ┐ cipe caithes iat bidh dan aigi ? i.e. poetic knowledge derived from the river Graney, O'Dav. 1569. is suithe iumais Greine na (= no) Boinne uil aici, Laws iii 50.9 Comm. Tipra Connla...fo' tat cuill ┐ imbois (? leg. cuill imbois) na heicsi, RC xv 456 § 59. immas na Segsa so dait, Metr. Dinds. iii 286.21 . luidh Cuchulainn do ririm imhais ar Boinn, O'Curry 1362 ( H 3.18, p. 624a ). buinne na Buaisi ar a mbi bladh iomais nó eladhna, Leb. Gab.(i) 64 n. 5 . dogebthi bheós cna iomhais for Bhóind ┐ Bhuais fria linn, AFM i 90.4 . a c[h]ur ar amus na filed go nderndais faillsiugudh imais cindas ro baí Aengus iarna égaib, Ériu xi 45.28 (= O'D. 950 ). gabais (Finn) a mér ina bēolu. A donic as afrithisi foopairt dicetal. Fortnosmen an imbas con-debert, RC xxv 346.1 . fortnosnae a n-imus .i. do fuarascaib a soes ar is ainm imbas do soes, O'Curry 768 ( H 3.18, p. 361 b ). Hence : imbas forosna(i) (lit. knowledge which illuminates) a special gift of clairvoyance or prophetic knowledge supposed to be possessed by poets in ancient Ireland. The rites through which this knowledge was supposed to be acquired are described in Corm. Y 756 , Laws i 44.6 , O'Curry 767 ( H 3.18, p. 361a ) (see Thurn. ZCP xix p. 163 . SGS iv 97 ff . Scott, R.D., The Thumb of Knowledge, chap. iii ): "can dothéig" or Medb. "a halbain iar foglaim filidechta" or ind ingen "in fil imbass forosna lat" or Médb. "Fil écin" or ind ingen. "Décai damsa didiu, cobbia mo ḟechtas", TBC-I¹ 40. doairchechain Scathach do anni aridmoiad co n-epert fris tria imbas forossndi dia foirciund, Anecd. v 28.12 . asbert Find triasa n-imbas forosnai, `fer ilurg,' ol sé, Fianaig. 38.6 . tredi dlegar dun ollamain filead .i. teinm laeghdha ocus imus forosnadh ocus dicedal do cennaib, Laws v 56.20 Comm. ni conermaitis teinm laodhu no ímbas forosna (of poets who passed false judgments), Laws i 24.33 .

imus forosnudh name of a metre , IT iii 102 § 187.

imbolc, óimelc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. imbolc, óimelc or dil.ie/27312
Last Revised: 2019

 

n o (? <imb-bolg, Ó Máille, Ériu x 110 or < ommolg Stud. Celt. xiv-xv 109 , see ommalg), the name of the pagan festival celebrated on the first day of Spring (see RC xli 241 - 4 ); hence, in Christian times transferred to Candlemas: ōn lūan aidche samnai coricci lūan aidchi imbuilc, TBC-I¹ 2999. on lúan re samain sáinriuth cossin cetáin iar n-imbulc (ier bfel Brigde v.l. Stowe), TBC-LL¹ 2473. o lúan taite ṡamna co tate imbuilg (go taitte n-earraigh v.l. , Stowe), 3186 . fromad cach bíd iar n-urd | issed dlegair i n-Imbulc, Hib. Min. 49.27 . iar n-imbulc, ba garb a ngeilt `after Candlemas (rough was their herding),' Metr. Dinds. iii 370.61 . Fanciful etymological explanation: óimelc .i. ōi-meilg .i. is[ī] aimser andsin tic as cāirach. melg .i. ass arinní mblegar, Corm. Y 1000.

1 is

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 is or dil.ie/29104
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: nídam, nída, atar, atin, ammi, bem, be, combin, is, am, im, isam, isim, sam, isam, am, isam, nidha, nis, indat, n-iat, cenita, coich, citné, cisné, cis, manid, minad, minid, munid, minap, munab, béso, bésu, gon, gion, indid, inid, inad, ina, 'nar, díand, díanid, díanad, dían, díanda, dían(d)at, dána, dán, darab, bad, ba, ba, badat, ba, -bo, -p, -b, cid, -rop, -rup, -rub, ropond, ce, cía, cit, cía, ce, bed, bad, pad, bud, ba-da-, bádam, ma, matis, diambtís, bé, biam, bum, bid, bith, beith, bed, bud, -pa, -ba, nípa-dn-aidrech, -ba, -pa, -bo, -po, -bu, -pu, -b, -bad, -bud, bit, be(i)t, bat, biat, bidat, -rsam, -rbam, -bi, ropsa, rupsa, ropsat, robsat, ropat, robat, ropot, ropdat, -rbsat, -rsat, -rsa, -rbat, nārsat, ba, bu, bo, be, fa, fá, fo, bad, bud, ba-id-n-, fa, fá, -pu, -bu, -po, -bo, -p, nip, nipu, -rbu, -rpu, -rpo, -rbo, rba, -rob, -rb, -ra, -r, -rsa(t), -rso, -rsa, -rsad, rsam, -rsat, -rbtar, -rptar, -rtar, -rbat, -rpsat, -rsat, -psat, -bsat, -psatar, gomsad

v copula (see Strachan, Substantive Verb in O.Ir. Glosses ( Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899 ); Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish; Dillon, Nominal Predicates in Irish ( ZCP xvi , xvii ) ; GOI § 814 ff. ; Ó Nolan Studies in Mod. Ir.).

USAGE.

The copula is alway unstressed and proclitic. The normal order of words is vb.+pred.+subj., e.g. is cele dae in fer hisin, Ml. 30c3 . is bésad inna flatho doem et dofich (i.e. to protect and to avenge is a princely custom), Wb. 9d2 . Prec. by asyntactic nom.: fáilte cáich bad fáilte dúib-si, Wb. 5d24 . mad i n-aeclis tra in choss is hé óis achtáil `if then it be in the church, the foot is the practical folk,' 12a23 . Frequ. in verse: Illand mac Scanlain is marb, Anecd. i 12.24 . andar la fer bis a cein | Inber Cindbera is reid, 15.1 . a comrádh bind nocho brég, 35 § 81. An inversion of the usual order (see Ó Máille, op. cit. p. 74) occurs in: nī bu ṡanctBrigit ṡúanach (v.l. sanctbrigit suanach) `Saint B. was not drowsy,' Hy. v 21 (see GOI p. 476 and n. 168 ). is tria chin mban | bit fernai fer dlochtai, LU 8430 (FB, rhetoric). Common in rel. sentences in Fél.: mórṡlúag A. | dia mbu Demon dubach `from whom the Devil was sorrowful,' Fél. April 2 . súi diand Ériu inmall, Sept. 10. manach | asa díthrub dubach `whose hermitage is gloomy,' Prol. 98 (but: S. | ata soilsi slechtae, Sept. 7. Carissim ... | asa rúamdae relic, Ap. 16 ). Where the predicate is a compound phrase the subject is introduced into the middle of it (Strachan, op. cit. p. 49.30), e.g. is irlam ind anim do thuil Dée, Wb. 5c18 . nirbu samlaid són doibsom, Ml. 90c27 . nibo mór a mbríg linn, Wb. 18d10 .

In O.Ir. when the subject of the copula was a personal pronoun it was, as in other verbs, implicit in the verbal form: am irlam, Wb. 13c8 . at fechem dom, 32a21 . combed adultera `so that she should be a.', 3c9 . nirbu choimdiu `he had not been a lord,' 33a5 . bad carthi `let him be loved,' Sg. 148a2 . nítat ainmnidi `they are not nominatives,' 189a10 . amal bemmis bibdaid, Ml. 114d4 . It was frequently strengthened by a pronominal particle suffixed to the pred. not necessarily to express emphasis, nor to distinguish between persons: niba dimicthe-se libsi `I should not be despised by you,' Wb. 21d3 (but: nida apstal apstil `I am not an apostle's apostle,' 18c1 ). massu rath-som, 5a30 . ciasu i colinn am béo-sa, 19a20 . it firian-su, Ml. 55d11 . ammi cland-ni doib-som, 101d9 . ropsa huallach-sa, 49b12 (cf. GOI § 811 ). nimda scál-sa ┐ nimda aurdrach, ZCP xiii 373.11 .

The logical pred. of the copula may be (a) an adjective ; (b) a prepositional phrase; (c) an adverb; (d) a pronoun ; (e) the substantival demonstrative í; (f) the subject of a relative verb; (g) a clause introduced by as n- `that it is' ; (h) a substantive.

At all periods of the language the predicates (a), (b), (c) and (d) immediately followed the copula.

(a) In O.Ir. the general rule was that the predicative adj. agreed with the subj. of the copula in gender and number (see Dillon, op. cit., for development from O.Ir., of which he cites as type: it moírb in boill sin, Wb. 11d11 , to Mod. Ir.: is mór iatt, is saidhbir na tírtha so, Maund. § 138 , §227 ).

(b) amal as o spirut, Wb. 15b7 . ciaba beo bid do precept anme Crist, 23b29 . is occ maid atáa, 6a18 . condib tria n-uile mbethaid ón, Tur. 71. is fria binn aníar atá t'esérge, Thes. ii 242.3 (Ardm.). is airi asbersom ..., Ml. 126c10 . cid tre étged rop othar, Críth G. 61. nochon ara omun cena, TBC-I¹ 2364. gonadh uime sin adeir I.¤ ..., TSh. 4816.

(c) níp and nob irpaid, Wb. 8b2 . hóre is amne atáa, 12d7 . is samlith is comadas dúun ..., Thes. ii 246.3 (Cam.).

(d) mad hé á luum, Wb. 4a14 . bad hé for n-ere `let Him be your burden,' 9d12 . rupu sí a rreilic, 33a22 . is tú is diliu limsa diib, IT iii 83 § 69. ionnus gomadh é féin bud ughdar réna bheathaidh, TSh. 3406.

When the logical predicate of the copula was either (e) the substantival demonstrative í or (f) the antecedent of a relative verb, or (g) a clause introduced by as n- `that it is' a pronoun was introduced immediately after the copula to act as grammatical predicate while the logical predicate stood in apposition to this pronoun.

(e) matu hé ata horpamin indí rochomalnisset recht, Wb. 2c14 . bit hé magistir dongegat indhí asindisset a tola féisne dóib, 30d8 . it hé in toirthi amal sodin inna hí adfiadatar hi testimnib file isint salm anuas, Ml. 46c14 .

(f) is hé didiu in tecttaire maith condaig indocbáil dia thigerni the good envoy is he who seeks his lord's glory, Wb. 8d20 . it hé inimici lessom qui fraudant et qui iniuriam faciunt , 9c25 . it hé gními epscuip asmbeir sís the works of a bishop are the things he mentions below, 28b20 . is he in firfindbathach no in firion atcobra na huile beatusa the truly blessed ... is he who desires all the blessings, Hib. Min. 429.

(g) is ed asberat ind heretic as laigiu deacht maicc indaas deacht athar, Ml. 17c7 . ni ed a met as n-etarcnad dun `not only that it is known to us,' 138a12 . is ed asberat as ndu deacht ... rogabad in salm so, 24d29 . is ed adfet a legend as ndath glas roboi forsind sléib fo chosmailius saphirr, Ml. 84d4 .

(h) With indef. noun as pred.: condib dídnad domsa foirbthetu hirisse dúibsi, Wb. 1b1 . combad notire rod-scribad cosse, 27d16 . mástat carait ... mastat námait, LU 9090 - 1 . níor ghníomh meirbh, DDána 91 § 24.

With def. noun as pred.: in O.Ir. and early Mid. Ir. a definite substantive can immediately follow the copula. Even in O.Ir. however a pronoun is frequently introduced immediately after the copula as grammatical predicate, the logical predicate standing in apposition (cf. (e), (f) and (g) above). This is the normal construction in the later language: ni a doenacht fesine ru-da-n-ordan `not his own Manhood has dignified Him,' Wb. 33c5 . ni in cholinn donatháira acht is a n-accobor, 3d3 . is athir-som innaní techte foirbthetith `he is the father of them that possess perfection,' 2c11 . mad Ānlūan no-beth is'taig, ScM. § 16.8 . is Duid a oenar rochachain inna psalmu, Hib. Min. 134.

With pronoun: bit hé na precepta cétni no pridchob doib, Wb. 17b20 . is hed a trede sin foloing, 29d17 . is hé in peccad rogéni a n-uile comaccobor, 3c25 .

After the introduction of the pronoun, the normal order of the sentence seems to be that in which the predicate follows the pronoun but this order does not appear to be fixed and the predicate may be put at the end either for emphasis or for the better balance of the sentence, e.g. a predicate which is the antecedent of a relative verb is most usually placed after the subject. Predicate and subject can only be distinguished by means of the context and the distinction, it would seem, is by no means as clear-cut in Irish as in other languages.

Predicate immediately following pronoun: ní ceilsom tra as n-é Crist in lie, Wb. 4d16 . issí ind ainim as airlam do chomalnad recto Dé ní in corpp, 3d11 . measaim gurab é an bás, an marcach úd, TSh. 37.

Subject following pronoun: mate nama anfolaid in cele falla frithgnama `if neglect of service was the only disqualification of the tenant,' Laws ii 324.6 . ar is he besad felsub etarcert di dúlib et saigid forru et nebchretem a n-adiadar di crist, Wb. 27a10 . it he caeli la suide ind apstail soscelae, Ml. 42b7 . is ed mind n-aingel Crist mac Dé, LU 944. measaim ... gurab í an chathair úd Ierusalem an domhan, TSh. 708.

In O.Ir. where the subject of the copula was a pronoun of the 1st or 2nd person, it required no other expression with an indef. pred. than that supplied by the 1st or 2nd person of the copula: at macc ríg, Trip.² 970. itib ingena ríg talman, 1138 . am dún díthogail, IT iii 53.26 .

Cf. Mid. Ir.: is descipul ... tu-su, PH 2768. conid mog De thú, 510 . is gadaige thu, 7781 . is clann én athar ┐ én máthar sind, 7501 .

With def. pred. the usage in O.Ir. is not certain (? at lūam in gaiscid grind (but: v.l. at tualaing gaiscid grind), Bruchst. 12 § 20 ). In the saga literature the normal expression is: Setanta ... atomchomnaicse, LU 4892. Rí Alban atomchomnaicse, RC xiii 446 § 31.

Cf. Mid. Ir.: is me Oengus céle Dé, SR 8009. ni thu Issau semnach na slóg | acht is tú int engach Iacób, 2876 . is mesi Ísu mac Dé, PH 3732. misse Marcellinus, comorba Petair, 612 (but cf. Tuan mac Cairill mesi, LU 1219 ).

At all periods of the language the expression of the copula in the 3rd persons was not obligatory at the head of a principal sentence: alind á óiph in forcitil, nemnech immurgu a inne, Wb. 7c1 . faelid-sem ... | os me chene am faelid, Thes. ii 293 § 6 ( SP II ). cride hē, | ... | ōcān ē, Bruchst. 69 § 160. ili insi Mod | ... | liä dāma Domnaill, 9 § 12 . Aed Ailig, inmain lim hé, ACL iii 304 § 1. Andreas ard a ordan, Fél. Feb. 6. glē la cāch immorro ba for teithed luid C. remiseom, TBC-I¹ 1260. móra a molta, Gorm. March 5. Fer Loga mo lennān-sa, ScM. § 20.12 . gnáth tromthóir dhoirbh 'na dheaghaidh, DDána 85 § 30. ionann sin ré a rádh ..., TSh. 2826.

SPECIAL USES.

In periphrasis (see Strachan, op. cit. p. 49): nitat huili robtar uilcc filii Israhel `all f. I. have not been evil,' Wb. 11a23 . is do immarchor chóre dotíagat ind fir so, 5a5 .

Elliptical: demes .i. mess dēde and, ūair it dá scín lais there are two blades ..., Corm. Y 438. is dos didiu isin blīadain tānaisi in fochlac .i. it ceitheora duillne fair, 423 . nī ba comairle aile acht a c[h]rochad, MacCongl. 19.4 .

Manibad were it not for , etc. with follg. accus.: mainbad éicin, Wb. 4a20 . manipad taschidetaid ind metir, Ml. 136c2 . manibad trocairi ndáe, 111b28 . manipad do chrúass, Trip.² 1370. menbad bíth einig F., TBC-LL¹ 1855. Later replaced by subst. vb.: meni beth in clessín ingantach, 2063 . ropsar marba ... | meni beth Find, RC vii 302.183 .

To express an obligation: praind do tomailt la marb hi tig ... is a hurcul `to eat a meal with a dead man in the house is forbidden,' Mon. Tall. 153.4 . ma dorat(d)a forcraid ngill is lóg a enech ... do aisiuc, Críth G. 288. ma ro-achtaigh comain airithi ina setaib, is a beth do, ┐ masa comain do rer dligid roachtaigh, is a beth air `soll es ihm werden ... soll er es bekommen,' Cóic Con. RE § 13.106 .

On sentences of the type ceso femmuin mbolgaig mbung, see Bergin, Ériu xii 197 ff .

Confusion between copula and subst. vb.: gérbho soicenelach hé iar ccolainn ro bai soichenelcha iar menmain, RC xxv 390 § 3 (? or read ro ba). dogniind ... airchisecht dib, mar no-béind athair doib `as though I had been their father,' PH 6107. Frequ. in ACC: boe (bui, bái, boi, v.ll.) sab suithe cech dind .i. ro bo sab daingen no soad cech ndimus, RC xx 168 § 26. boe saegul sneid .i. suail nó bec nó garit a saegul, § 24. boe seim sáth, § 25. boe dind oc libur leigdocht, § 27.

FORMS

(a) from O. Ir. glosses and texts in Thes. Pal. (for further exx. from O. Ir. glosses see Strachan, loc. cit.). (b) from other texts.

In Mid. Ir. the forms of the copula in the 1st and 2nd sg. and in all persons of the pl. fell to a great extent into disuse, their place being taken by the 3rd sg., of the tense required with a pron., corresponding in form to the O.Ir. infixed pron. or to the poss. pron. of the person and number to be expressed, infixed between it and the following predicate. Occasionally the inf. pron. was added to forms other than sg. 3, e.g. nídam for nída (s. 1), atar, atin (pl. 3+ inf. pron. pl. 1) for ammi, bem for be (fut. s. 1). These forms while at first used impersonally as already occurred in O. Ir., e.g. issum ēcen, Wb. 10d24 , isat dílmain-siu, Ml. 55d21 , diandam thísed mucc ḟonaithe robad-am béo, Stories from Táin 5.16 , later came to be felt as simply the copula, as is shown when plural forms are folld. by pl. adjj., e.g. nibar troig, SR 3641 , gurdar síthaig, Hib. Min. 82.23 , acht co mbadar maithe díblínaib, TBC-LL¹ 35 ; and by such instances as: gidar comaltai, ib. 3680 . ropdhar fir chomdeirgide, ib. 3535 . As it is not always possible to discover whether a particular writer regarded this combination of copula + inf. pron. as such or as copula only, all such examples have been grouped together, so that, for instance, all the forms under subj. past s. 1 below should be taken not necessarily as being, to the mind of the writer, that particular form but rather as being his way of expressing what would in O. Ir. be expressed by combin, etc.

Examples of the 1st and 2nd persons are found both in Classical verse and in Early Mod. Ir. prose but the more commonly occurring forms are those of the 3rd sg., number and person being expressed by independent pronouns: is ort iarraim gidh óg thú, DDána 67 § 3. is fearr mé iná thú, IGT Introd. 22 § 90. t'fhearg, a rí, ... | re searg dí bu fhearr inn-ne, DDána 10 § 22. ag an druing ... rénar milis briathra borba, TSh. 1568. do bhríogh nach cumhachtach sinn féin ris aní se, 30 . is beannuighthe sibhse, 5669 . do bhríogh gurbh fheasach thú gurbh amadán mé, 9638 .

Indic. pres.

A. Absolute

s. 1

(a) am: am tualang dano a hétarcerta, Wb. 12d22 . is airi am cimbid-se, 27c22 .

(b) am, im, isam, isim, sam: am senóir ┐ am lobur, Trip.² 2045. am caemsa ... am maccam, TBC-I¹ 583 - 4 . amm eolach, TBC-LL¹ 1750. uair am aithrech, SR 7824. (cf. isam aithrech, 7789 ). im fáilid, Ériu v 224.73 . as me Ulltán ... im fili, im faidh, BNnÉ 257 § 214. From early in Mid. Ir. period the form isam (<is s. 3+ inf. pron. s. 1) occurs, side by side with am. In follg. exx. it must already have been understood as s. 1: uair isam bensa curad caín, LU 8440 (FB). issam ingen ríg, TBFr. 163 = im, ZCP iv 38.11 . asam senoir, CCath. 5495. issim meabrach, Acall. 3115. orsam (=ór isam) heolach, SR 1786. sam crochta gan cionadh réil, Ó Bruad. ii 132.11 .

s. 2

(a) at, it: at fechem dom, Wb. 32a21 . air it firian-su, Ml. 55d11 .

(b) at, it, ot, isat, asat: at meirb, Fél. July 19 . at ferr do lāech indó-sa, ScM. § 16.8 . fobīth ad ōegi, TBC-I¹ 507 (YBL) = dáig ot áegi, LU 4996. it gilla co ngicil, TBC-I¹ 2667. id file, Content. iv 2. isat lac, Bruchst. 30 § 67. isatt áil-siu dam-sa, SCC 739 . isit aneōlach, MacCongl. 122.9 . isat duni dána, TBC-LL¹ 3057. asat tretholl-sa, TBC-I¹ 3632.

s. 3

(a) is, rel. as`: is samlith is comadas dúun, Thes. ii 246.3 (Camb.). is hé céetne fer ceta-ru-chreti, Wb. 7b11 . is ferr ainm do denom de, Sg. 26b5 . is cele dae in fer hisin, Ml. 30c3 . Freq. written iss before vowels: iss uisse, Wb. 22c21 . iss i rráe choir immumruidbed, 23d30 . iss ed inso nád chumaing, Sg. 209b13 . Freq. written together with a follg. initial s, one s falling out: isuáichnid, Wb. 23d30 . isamlaid, Thes. ii 11.40 (Bcr.). rel. brothchán as chóir duib, Wb. 33c15 . as choimtig, Sg. 54b8 .

(b) is(s), as, us, es, rel. as`, is` (it is not clear when lenition ceased to be used after the cop. used relatively. It is less often marked than not in TBC, see Ériu xiv 90 , 93 , 94 ): is túath oirdnither ríi[g], Críth G. 493. is toirthech int inber, Trip.² 370. is gabtha na eich ┐ iss innilti in carpat, MU² 49. is cosmhail Samson ┐ an bás, TSh. 763. iss a miad neich dogniat mancuine, BCrólige § 50. iss messe rorecsabair, SR 3636. i[s] slān in fear, Laws iii 156.5 . isaer ém domrimgartsa, LU 10307. as iat na fir[a] fola no saraigthe, Cóic Con. H § 59. in ti do beir ... as e do ron, Laws iv 32.19 . as do hIddomdaib do, PH 6946. In TSh. `both abs. and rel. are written as in MSS.,' TSh. Introd. xx n. 3 . es dilmain, Anecd. iii 23.5 . es coitcend, ib. 2 . essed dobeir ..., 26.24 . es bec trá ná comráncatar inn a mméur ocus a coss, CMT² 58 § 132 . es de boí inn nem-sin fuirri(r), CMT² 60 § 133 . ar us aire isperar ..., Laws i 264.7 . ar us merle cach n-indligiudh, ii 70.25 . Somet. the vowel of IS is dropped: ┐ síad bhīos ag coimhēad, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1341. rel. as chóir, Mon. Tall. 146.27 . as chórus, Críth G. 223. a n-us tol lat-su, MacCongl. 33.9 . ? With class C inf. pron.: forband ... as-dom moo airli, Echtrae Chonnlai 121 § 6 . After constructions which take rel. n- the predicate of the copula is eclipsed (where the first word of the predicate is unstressed the usage varies): do thaidbsiu as n-iress nóibas, Wb. 19b14 . as ndia side gl. doceo, 13a18 . as n-é tairrchet, 6d6 . as ndirruidigthe a n-animm-sin, Sg. 56b10 . as ndí Assaraib ... rogabad in salm-sa, Ml. 35a10 . asberat as ndu deacht ... rogabad, 24d29 (but cf. adciam ... as ar chenél cruche adrímther ..., Thes. ii 246.25 (Camb.)). amail is n-adētchide in flesc, Corm. Y 606.8 . In Mid. Ir. rel. n- dropped out: uair ... as inann nadúir don duine ┐ ..., PH 7433. amail as diaisneisi in Coimdi, Ériu ii 144 § 159. in tan is indligthech iat, Cóic Con. H § 14. amail as crom craobh fo chnoibh, BS 54.15 . Very early the non-rel. form IS is used for rel. and vice versa, see above: cía dit maccaib is diliu latt ?, Trip.² 1774. mer is laugu, Corm. Y 809. is ed is chonar fugill ann ..., Cóic Con. RE § 24. intí is cosmail do Dia, PH 6266. ní íar chána is ḟairbrígh d'ḟir, IGT Decl. ex. 980.

pl. 1

(a) ammi, ammin, immi: ammi techtiri árt-phersine, Wb. 24d9 . ammi irlaim ... do dul martre, 4b21 . amminn imdibatai-ni ┐ ammin dilachtai, Ml. 83c3 . airmi (leg. airimmi, Ed.) ardu-ni, 23d23 .

(b) ammin, ar, dar, atar, isar, atin: is olc ar mblāth amin gorti, TBC-I¹ 1614. amin mairb, BDD² 330. ar troig ... dot' impartain we are wretched, SR 1482. ar n-idain fiad testaib Dé, 3583 . fortgellam Dia ... dar slana on chinaid-se, 3612 . cid einech rígh rontidnaic | atar dimdaig ..., Hib. Min. p. 82.x . isar scítha énirti, CCath. 2562. `atin budig de' ar an oicc, Anecd. i 5.18 (cf. batin aithrig, Ériu i 68 § 3 ).

pl. 2

(a) adib, idib, adi: adib cland Abrache, Wb. 19c20 . adib oís muntire, 21c4 . adi mmaicc, 9a13 . hóre adi ellachti, 21c17 . ar idib maithi, 16b9 .

(b) itib, at(a)bar, atfor: ár itib ingena ríg, Trip.² 1138. itib lía andú, BDD² 412 (= dáig abtar (leg. atbar) lia andúsa, LU 6870 ). ┐ itib degdoene, LL 281b28 . atabair ecen, LU 8097 (FB). is dásacht a ndognithi-si ┐ atbar dásachtaig fen, LB 212a10 . atabar glana-si, PH 5262. 5264 . apraid fris at for n-aithrig do debaid fris, Cymmr. xiv 118.11 ( Rawl. 132b29 ).

pl. 3

(a) it, at (once only in non-rel. sense), rel. ata`, at, et: it carit domsa, Wb. 5c7 . it dássactig, 12d36 . it coitchena, Sg. 10a1 . air at cuidi tirmaidi sidi, Ml. 123d3 . rel. in mairb ata thestis, Wb. 30a11 . it sib ata chomarpi, 19c20 . do retaib ata chosmaili fri fír, Ml. 51b8 . it hesidi at inbésa, 45d1 . it hé sidi et inbéso, 27a9 . confitetar són ata ndoini, 91c18 .

(b) it, at, isat, isid, rel. ata`, at: at remra na loeg ┐ it buidig na hoegid, Hy. v 25 Comm. it é inso trá gníma bóairech, Críth G. 183. it móra, Trip.² 1291. isat úathe dó ilib, 3096 . it cadlai dí ingein A., Fél. Dec. 9. at bidbaid, IT iii 502 § 10. isat bána, 514 § 7. hit imṡláin, SR 194. at mora, 3625 . id mesa indád demno, Anecd. iii 27.4 . at aena `these are of one day,' Laws i 156.y . at móra glonna Medbi, TBC-I¹ 1668. it cāema, 583 . cf. is mōra na comada' ... `isad mōra,' 2233 - 4 . i n-ifern isid bronaigh, Anecd. iii 55.29 (Síaburcharpat) = at brónaig, LU 9462. at cotarsnai, PH 711. isat lána, 5870 . rel. it é ata érlama, Trip.² 1539. amuis ata chórai, Críth G. 578. dí gérait at glainiu, Fél. May 7. saire ada lugu, Laws v 102.6 . laích ata dech, BDD² 757. adad dech, 1159 . seoit ... ad adhailge daib, Anecd. ii 53.3 . áos ata etromae cinaith `whose sins are lighter,' Mon. Tall. 158.7 . dāine ata maige imarīadam `on whose plains we would drive about,' Otia i 122 § 4.

B. Conjunct.

I Neg.

s. 1

(a) níta`, nída`: nita chumme-se friu-som, Wb. 20c25 . nida apstal apstil, 18c1 . sech níta aidlicen, Ml. 70b7 .

(b) nída`, nídam, nídom, nímda, ním, níam, níom, níum: nída choimsech mu ṡoíre, Trip.² 2976. nida (nidu, v.l.) dīr dermait it is not fitting for me to forget, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 16 § 1. nidha bheo-sa, TBC-LL¹ 6080 (fut. sense). nīdam macc, TBC-I¹ 645 (= nimda, LU 5129 ). nīdom sāitheach, TBC-I¹ 507 (= nimda, LU 4996 ). nīm láech cen lāmach, TBC-I¹ 2260. nidam dermatach, LU 10286. nidam snímach, SR 2382. nim dana, 2069 . nimda scál-sa ┐ nimda aurdrach, ZCP xiii 373.11 . nidom athair do duiniu, viii 561 § 2 . ni dam ben-sa fós do, Caithr. CC § 93. nida Christadi, Irish Texts i 2 § 4 . nidom chuchtach, BS 30.1 . níom tualaing suan, TSh. 2144. ní um claoidhte re a gcionnluas (ní um chl., v.l.), Ó Bruad. ii 138.6 .

s. 2

(a) No occurrence.

(b) nída, nídad, nídat, nít: nida tūalaing mo ergairi, Ériu i 116 § 6. nidad dichumaing, Anecd. i 11.13 . nít marbdae for tercphit, Fél. Sept. 8. nīt mess methchrainn, Bruchst. 17 § 33. nít firlaech-su, TBC-LL¹ 1343. nidat doss ós duss, 3460 . nidat mac-sa, FDG 718.

s. 3

(a) ní (geminates the follg. consonant, e.g. is rad dáe ... ni mmarilliud `(it is) not my merit,' Wb. 21c20 ): ní cuman lim, Wb. 8a3 . ní cuit broto acht is dugrés, Ml. 32c10 .

(b) ní (a form nís occurs once in ACC and may possibly be archaic: hua Airt nís Neill co nert `not with N.'s strength is he,' RC xx 406 § 128 ): ní rí Caisil co rón-ordnea, Trip.² 2302. ní tiamdae tim-som, Fél. Prol. 259. ni cosmail smachta cacha raithe, Laws iv 78.4 . ní segda, LU 1655. ni fír, PH 2715. ní críonna an tí nach tuigeann, DDána 35 § 2. ní hiongnadh an meas soin do bheith ..., TSh. 243. The follg. exx. from TBC show lenition after ní but they may be scribal errors: ní ḟlaith Ulad nod chosna, 2788 . ní ḟurusa, 3050 . In Mod. Ir. ní prefixes h to a fully-stressed word but not to a proclitic: ní ag cnúasach bó am theagh atá, Éigse iii 168 § 9 (and see note). With inf. pron.: nímdil cid dīthrub Temair (glossed: ní hinmain lem T. cid fas), Hy. ii 44. ním-nert acht mac Dé I have no strength but ..., LL 133b8 . nin-fissid frisbered omnu huain `not to us is the Knower who used to avert fears from us,' RC xx 164 § 16 (ACC). nin forcetlaid, ib. § 18.

pl. 1

(a) nítam`, nítan`, nídan`: nitam toirsich (sic leg., Ed.) gl. non angustiamur, Wb. 15b21 (a prima manu). nidan chumachtig for n-irisse, 14c41 . nidan chosmili, 14d37 . ar nitan reprobi-ni, 18b9 .

(b) nidar: nidar n-idain, SR 3626. nidar glain, 1609 .

pl. 2

(a) nítad, nídad (see OIPG p. 66 n. ): nitad lib fésin `ye are not your own', Wb. 9d11 . nidad óegid, 21b14 . 14a8 . ar nídad ferr-si, 8c7 .

(b) nibar, nifor: nibar troig, SR 3641. ni for gliccu ... inda oen na n-ánmanna, 1235 . is tróg niforn-intliuchtach (? leg. -aig), 1238 .

pl. 3

(a) nítat, nítaat, nídat, nít, nis: nitat cosnama domundi, Wb. 7d12 . ar nitaat cosmuli, 9b17 . nídat chummai, Ml. 115b3 . nit derachti, 128d1 .

(b) nídat calaid, Fél. Jan. 17. nít mórdai fria ngudi, March 1. nītad tabartha, TBC-I¹ 2856. nídat námait, LU 8264. nidat glain, SR 7996. nidad tlaithi, 1571 . nidat carpait, MU² 374. nit righ os ro-chathaib, LL 386a18 . nīdat cuibde, MacCongl. 7.16 . In ZCP xx 371 f. , Thurneysen gives the follg. exx. of a 3 pl. form, nis, occurring in Law texts: acht nis cosmailsi comarba[i] `aber Erben sind nicht von Gleichheit,' Laws iii 42.25 . atait tri comurba la Feine, nis comsaer a cuir, 46.18 . nis dilsi acht a tri, ZCP xiii 21.17 . nis cuir bel dilsi, xii 365.1 . nis maithi dam log n-aisi, logh sinsire, log fognama, ib. 8 .

II With dependent negatives:

(a) nád who (or which) is not, that (it) is not (see s.v. 1 nád, 2 nád, 3 nád and Strachan, loc. cit. l. 1007 ff.).

(b) nant, nan that (it) is not (see s.v. nan and Subst. Vb. l. 1011 ff .).

(c) nách that (it) is not (see s.v. 3 nach, 4 nach and Subst. Vb. l. 1018 ff. ). For nícon, noco, nochon, etc., see s.v. nícon.

III With interrog. particle in-:

s. 1

(a) inda: inda apstal `am I an apostle ?,' Wb. 10c20 .

(b) ? anom (=indom) adbar gascedaig, Ériu xiv 89.2175 (= TBC-LL¹ 1186 ).

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) indat: indat creitmech, Trip.² 917. indat ómnach ?, Lat. Lives 90.0 . indot eolac[h], CCath. 2883. indat sochenel, PH 695.

s. 3 For both (a) and (b) the interrog. particle alone is used, i.e. in (later an) :

(a) in cuntubart lib inso, Wb. 3c3 . in ed fodera báas domsa, 3c33 .

(b) inn a síthib in do déib dúib ?, Trip.² 1114. co fessur ... in he [Is]sau no inne Iacob, SR 2884. an beó do thigerna ?, BDD² 1519.

pl. 3

(a) indat: indat mbriathra ? `is it the words ?,' Ml. 44b9 (cf. sechitat n-é (sic MS.), V below).

(b) indat: nocon fetarsa indat ilgnae do-chuirither in folt fair fo indat trí fuilt failet fair, BDD² 1125 - 6 . indat facsi don purt are they near ...?, LU 1873 (ICM). indat pettai sút no indat éoin chena, TBC-LL¹ 1328. Later the interrog. particle without pl. suffix is used also for pl.: co findara in n-iat tanic, PH 440.

IV With neg. interrog.

s. 2 (a) cenita: cenita chumgabtha-siu `art Thou not exalted ?' Ml. 84c3 .

s. 3

(a) cani, cini: cani doich, Wb. 5b35 . cani messe immoforling cretim dúibsi, 10c18 . cani mebuir lib, 20a5 . cini glé lib ..., 12d4 . cini inonn, 18a16 . caní románda .ó., Sg. 49b23 .

(b) cani: Ōengus do guin ... cani ōin do decraib Dē ?, Bruchst. 50 § 110 .

These forms were early replaced by nách q.v. s.v. 5 nach (nách).

Interrogative sentences containing cía, cid who, what (is). etc.

(i) The copula is not expressed after cía but that it is implied is clear from the follg. rel.: cinuid mic n-altrumu, cia forsa tiagat ?, Laws ii 178.3 . cia roblaiss bethaid ┐ na faicfe éc (qui vivit ┐ non videbit mortem), LL 281a32 . cia tir ass as[s]am lat do thabairt dúinne, ZCP viii 318.33 . gá cara don uile as fhearr, A. Ó Dálaigh xv 5. cia in fear sin ?, Anecd. ii 9.22 . cía can duib ?, Trip.² 1113. In gen.: coich úainn hí ? to which of us will it belong ?, 811 . íarfaigset dó ... cúich he, LU 1838. With verbal ending added: cóichet na heich se ?, 8522 (FB).

(ii) cid (see Thurneysen, GOI § 466 ): cid as dénti frisin, Wb. 12d41 . cid as maith, 12d12 . ní tucthar cid frissa-sennar, 12c46 . cid is conair ... is sed is conair ..., Cóic Con. H § 138. cid ara n- why ? : cid ara ndéntar pecthach díim, Wb. 2a10 . cid ara cuinchi-siu sein ?, Thes. ii 307.12 ( Hy. ii Introd. ). cid ara n-eipenar ?, Laws ii 194.2 . cid ara cuirther do trise ina lesa so ?, i 236.9 . cid how ? cid na déccaid uili how do not ye all see, Fél. Prol. 201. cid ēcōru mo beithse and anās ..., TBC-I¹ 2224.

pl. 3 citné (`gekürzt aus ci ata n-é ,' Thurn., ZCP xx 372 ): assindet sunt tra citné cumacte diandid cóir in fognam `what are the powers unto which the service is proper,' Wb. 6a9 . citné briathra robatar `what were the words ?,' Ml. 61b7 . citné robatar `what were they,' ib. 8 . citne a nanmand na soerbard (caidet, v.l.), IT iii 5.8 . ceitni trī seōit fūair C. ?, ZCP xiii 5 § 19. citni rig ... robatar' sind amsir sin ?, SR 2347. The corresponding form in the Laws is cisné: cisne lesa do na ibh sen tascnat treise `what cases of these extend to three days ?,' Laws i 230.21 . cisne tri biada na tuillead leaptha na hapta, v 438.14 . cisne trí ana soitcedach `what are the three wealths ...,' Triads 239. Sometimes cis immediately precedes the noun : cis formmenn écndaircc doslíat dílsi ?, ZCP xii 366.25 . cis ndíthle do trebaib na tuillet dire ?, 26 . cis forcsen fola la Fēne ?, BCrólige § 65. cis lir how many: cis lir congellait for tresi, Laws i 230.3 . cis lir lanamna docuisin la feine ?, ii 344.1 . cis lir chuir dochuisin ?, iii 4.5 . cis lir fodlai filet forsin mbairdne ?, IT iii 6.13 . cf. cit lir fodlai ..., ib. 20 .

V With various conjunctions.

(i) cía, cé, ci although, that.

s. 1

(a) No instance.

(b) ciam, cidam : ciam toebnocht, SR 1540. cid am laech-sa, TBC-LL¹ 1677. misi gedam foidhidech, ZCP xii 393 § 10. gidh im c[h]rochbán-sa, BS 138.y . giodh am midhiongmhala, Parrth. Anma 333.18 .

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) cíasa, cidat : cíasa lobur, no rega, Trip.² 1282. cidat fír-Dhia ... ro-gabais colaind ndoenda, PH 163.

s. 3

(a) césu, céso, cíasu, cíaso, cíasa : cesu threde in tummud, Wb. 21d13 . ciaso ḟolud ... sluindes, Sg. 211b7 .

(b) césu, céso, cíasa, cid, gid : césu réid ar lebrán, Fél. Ep. 133. ciasa (ceso, v.l.) femmain [m]bolgaigh [m]bung (see Ériu xii 197 ), Corm. Y 1059.64 . ciasa díthrub, Metr. Dinds. iv 42.2 . ciodh olc an bás nádúrtha, TSh. 987. gidh ionann atá ..., 2900 .

pl. 1

(a) No instance.

(b) cíammin, gidar : cíammin bí, BDD² 329. gidar comaltai, TBC-LL¹ 3680

pl. 2

(a) cenuded', cenotad' : cenuded issidi (=ḟissidi) `although ye are knowing,' Thes. i 713.25 (Tur. Cod.). cenotad maic-si raith, Wb. 33b8 . cenutad suíre, 4a10 .

pl. 3

(a) cetu', ceto' : cetu chummascthai, Sg. 62a2 . ceto écintecha, 203b10 .

(b) ciato', cetu', ciat, cidat : ciato chomṡruithi, Críth G. 493. cetu cummai a feba, Bruchst. 39 § 94. cíat ísliu fíad dáinib ... bit áird, Fél. Prol. 153. cidhat (cit, v.l.) ili fuile, Corm. Y 975.39 . srotha in dithruib ... ciat serba slassa, SR 4071. cidat mora, 446 . cidad mōra, TBC-I¹ 2235. ceat olca, ZCP vii 269 § 17. Ériu ii 122 § 63.

cía + neg. s. 3

(a) cinid, cenid : cinidlúith (=cinid dlúith) lib, Wb. 12b9 . cinith mút, Sg. 5b4 . cenid ed, Ml. 85b11 .

(b) cenid, cini : cenid mé in murgelt, LU 3022 (H). cini di sīl Chuind dóu, ZCP xiii 375.10 .

(ii) má (ma) s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) masat (masae, v.l.) : masat mac Dé, PH 4708. masad acuraig, CCellaig 449 . masat eólach, ZCP xiii 3 § 5. másat (masae, v.l.) geilt, BS 100.13 .

s. 3

(a) masu', maso', masa' (see Thurneysen, KZ xlviii 60f .) : masu chundubart, Wb. 4d28 . masa choimdiu, Ml. 108c16 .

(b) masu', masa', mas' : see s.v. 3 má (ma). Add : masu ar oítid, Trip.² 1483. mása thol, 584 . a Ḟir diad masa thú, TBC-LL¹ 3659. massa anfisac, Laws iv 36.25 Comm. mas da fis, 22 Comm. mas é Dubthach, TBC-LL¹ 2780. masad (massa, v.l.) ḟír, Mór M. 266.15 . mása thoil leat, TSh. 8093. más é is críoch, 1366 .

pl. 3

(a) matu : matu hé ata horpamin, Wb. 2c14 .

(b) masat, mástat : masat elti, MU² 399. mástat carait ... mastat námait, LU 9091 (FB).

ma + neg. s. 3

(a) manid : manid fír, Wb. 13b14 . 17b32 . Ml. 21a11 .

(b) manid, minad, minid, munid, minap, munab : manid caindleóracht, LU 9196 (FB). minad hé, BDD² 1287. minid hé, 917 . mani daig, 593 . munab follus, TSh. 5164. See s.v. 3 má (ma) and TSh. Introd. xxi n. 3 . The form béso, bésu is used as a subjunctive (for its origin see Thurn., KZ xlviii 60.f .) : bésu dagduine cini estar túari `he may be a good man,' Wb. 6b23 , 24 . massu ed béso mó a fius dúibsi, 19b11 .

(iii) co n- so that.

s. 1

(a) conda : is rad dée immum-forling conda apstal, Wb. 13b6 . conda marb, 19a17 . 17c10 .

(b) conda, conam, conadam, conidam : domāncatar-sa uile | conda eōlach a n-achne, Otia i 127 § 29. conam torsech co haithbe, 128 § 33. rom ebail Sencha ... conidam trén, LU 10285. 10304 . conad am lista liumm fadén ┐ nach am inmain frisnach āen, MacCongl. 95.4 .

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) condat adbartnaigthi-siu, PH 1795.

s. 3

(a) condid, conid : condid flaith do in coimdiu, Wb. 9d2 . tremiberar ... conid ainm dun chrunn, 8a5 . condid di thetacht in spírto ... profetauit , Thes. i 496.26 (Ardm.). conid e epscop insin cita-ruoirtned, ii 241.15 (ib.). conid femen, Sg. 123b2 . condid étrummu, Ml. 90a11 . connid ed, 91a19 .

(b) condid, conid, conad, cunad, etc.: condid ann, AU i 434.22 (A.D. 916) . Hib. Min. 25. conid eiter a lamaib ..., Mon. Tall. 153.12 . conid edh, AU i 538.6 (A.D. 1015) . conid soillsi, Corm. Y 426. LU 10931. 10306 . PH 2245. 720 . conad dēach ainm gach sillaibe, Corm. Y 500. PH 1371. 6132 . Laws iv 18.2 Comm. cunad fír, MU² 284. cunid soillsithir, 554 . condad leis Aidhne, Ériu i 46.32 . conodh i, Ériu iii 141.206 . conud e, RC vi 184.19 . gonid lór, ACL iii 306 § 1 . gonadh aire sin ..., Ó Héodhusa 51.1. TSh. 1824. 5960 . conid was replaced by gurab (gur), gura originally a subjunctive form : corop Tuigi im Thamon and sain, LL ii 9911 . gorop de atá Cruachna Áe, ii 12397 . innister curab pecthaig ..., RC xxiv 378.17 . gurab droch-duine ..., PH 7682. corub iat, 445 corab í so, 7334 . gurb i luaithreadh ..., TSh. 300. gur bréagach a bhreathnughadh, 395 . gurab é an bás, 37 . gurab tearc, 94 . er co ra mian leisin nádúir maith do dénum, PH 7394. gur tú mo Chruthaightheoir, Donlevy 406.5 . gur ionmholta, 132.10 . do-fedar gura tú C., ZCP viii 546.26 . Cf. also : casmail lem gom (=co mba) e in mac beg, 538.15 .

pl. 1

(a) condan : hóre ronsóirni ... condan fírianichthi, Wb. 2d14 . immunrordad condan maicc togu non naturae , 20d10 .

(b) No instances.

pl. 3

(a) condat : condat anman som, Sg. 188b3 . condat reli inna aicsin hisin, Ml. 51d15 .

(b) condat, condot, cundat : condat e tri decmainge in domain a d[t]indtud, Laws v 426.3 . condat cora, SR 296. SCC 320 . PH 736. cundat marthanaig, MU² 310. gondat Ulaid, TBC-LL¹ 704.

(iv) With cen co (not found in Glosses) :

(b) s. 1 gon com (gen gob, v.l.) maith-se oc immarbáig, TBC-LL¹ 3219.

s. 3 gion go glan mo sgáth, DDána 24 § 30. gion gur caomh a dhreach, 91 § 6.

(v) With no :

s. 1

(a) nonda', nunda' : amal nonda thorisse `as I am trustworthy,' Wb. 10a28 . a nunda thinnachtae-se, Ml. 126d12 .

s. 2

(a) nonda', nunda' : lassaní nonda brithem `when Thou art judge,' Ml. 92a15 . a nnunda chocuibsid-siu, 58b6 . 38c27 .

pl. 1

(a) nundem, nundan : oire nundem membur uili du Dea, Thes. ii 246.5 (Camb.). á nnundan deeth ní, Ml. 120b3 .

pl. 2

(a) nondad : amal nondad maicc cóima, Wb. 27b16 .

(b) These forms did not survive O. Ir.

(vi) After the co-ordinating conjunctions sech and noch the absolute form is used. See under 2 sech and 1 noch. sechi whoever, whatever probably contains cop. s. 3 : sechi é cretes `whosoever believes,' Wb. 15b1 . sechi hed bás són `whatsoever death ...,' 13c1 . sechi dú nu-t-soe-siu, Ml. 112b6 .

pl. 3 sechitat hé ` whoever they are ,' 49a19 . sechitat hé (né, MS.) ` whatsoever ,' Thes. ii 25.38 (Bcr.). (Cf. indat mbriathra, III above).

VI With various prepositions in relative clauses.

(i) i n- (in many exx. has the force of a conjunction, see Ériu i 12 ) :

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) inda : cid at-chí dúnd, inda fisid `since thou art ...,' BDD² 545.

s. 3

(a) indid, innid : cia airm indid immaircide do epert amén, Wb. 12d18 . ind labrada innid eula nech, Ml. 42c4 . indid mailliu a tuile `by which the flood is slower,' Thes. ii 14.35 (Bcr.). 20.41 (ib.).

(b) indid, inid, inad, ina: indid Niall ... ro malart since it is N. ..., AU i 438.26 (A.D. 918). indid Alend is dún fás, Hail Brigit § 14. inid mo athair ... ortabairsi, BDD² 737. Bruchst. 47 § 105.3 . inad gilla óc ... tarfás dúnn, BDD² 161. PH 5029. do Maig Mell inid rí Boadag, LU 10004. aít init sruithiu dliged oldas naidm, ZCP xiii 23.1 . inad ina fairsingi in cathuir, Maund. § 75. eccla ifirn ... 'na minic fóidh guil, ACL iii 216.17 . Forms originally perf. and subj. came to be used as pres. indic. : sé céimeanna 'nar cosmhail ré chéile iad, TSh. 1231. ní fhuil ainm oile ... ionarb (ionab, v.l.) éigean sinne do shlánughadh, 2088 . neg. traigle i nach ūathad uidre, Bruchst. § 88. teagh is nach uathadh urra, DDána 119 § 23.

pl. 3

(a) indat : indat iudei itirroscar[sat] fri hiris n-abarche since they are Jews, Wb. 5b34 . cid ind aimser indat sláin ennaic som, Ml. 76a6 .

(b) in am indat slána, TBC-LL¹ 952. inat ṡlana, 1386 .

(ii) día n- :

s. 1

(a) No instances.

(b) díanda, díanam : Chríst dianda chéle `whose servant I am,' Fél. Ep. 307. an rí díanam gilla, ZCP v 497 § 12.

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) díandat : cia díandat céliusiu ?, TBC-I¹ 1382.

s. 3

(a) díant, díandid, dían : intí diant ainm discessio, Wb. 26a5 . in rét diant torbach ..., Ml. 121d1 . dian-did nomen hiber, Sg. 100b1 . in son diandid tintud ..., Ml. 37a10 . dian duthoig Liphe, Thes. ii 295 § 4 ( SP v ). neg. di nach follus (=dunach, Edd.), Thes. ii 8.35 (Acr.).

(b) díand, díanid, díanad, dían, díanda, dían(d)at, dána, dán, etc.: dianid opair oen laithi, AU i 342.22 (A.D. 839) . Corm. Y 825.2 . fer dianid comainm Labán, SR 2944. diand sanctlethan slondad, Fél. June 12 . April 22 . indī dianda coimmēid, Corm. Y 269. 892 . dianad ainm clí, 275 . PH 5180. 5494 . mí diandat (diando, MS., dianid, v.l.) ainm Marsiius, Corm. Y 892. cid dianat maith ind uair si ?, Hib. Min. p. 50.6 . Cū dīan comainm Culand, TBC-I¹ 2263. dianaid rī, 560 . dian serb cach sruith, ZCP vi 267 § 2. cia dana céile thusa ?, viii 545.2 . Ériu ii 229.19 . drem dīb dan eōl, ZCP viii 216 § 78. Laws iv 60.12 . ACL iii 237 § 15. na nathrach neimhe danadh ainm tyrus , TSh. 8973. Pres. subj. and perf. forms used as pres. indic. : darab ceann sgríbe an chríoch dhéidheanach, TSh. 725. cia d'ar ceart, Donlevy 106.7 . neg. airchindech do nach diur adhultrus, Laws i 58.22 Comm. do neoch do nar bo chotlud, TBC-LL¹ 2962. cia dánach feasach ... ?, TSh. 6401.

pl. 3

(a) neg. : donnatdet adblama inna esiu (leg. inna hísiu, Edd.) `to whom these things are not ready,' Thes. i 713.23 (Tur. Cod.).

(b) díanat, díandat : amail rondeiligthe sinethae dianat anmanna dela, Corm. Y 431. Metr. Dinds. iii 312.116 . bó ... díandat slána a secht mbliadna, LU 8122.

(iii) ara n- :

(a) arndid : cid arndid ísliu aesce quam sol , Thes. ii 22.41 (Bcr.). in di accuis ... arndid coitchen ..., Sg. 200a13 .

(b) ara n- : is ed sin ara n-amra `arcu fuin' `for which a.f. is admirable,' ZCP vii 312 § 26.

(iv) ó n- :

(a) óndid, ónid : in sians ondid accobor limsa ícc cáich, Wb. 12d23 . honid techtae molad Dáe, Ml. 51c2 .

(b) ón, óna, ónab : díles Néill ón cunnail cell, Ériu iv 92 § 1. toirt[h]igi in lā | ōnab lēir feadha, ACL iii 235 § 21. gním óna mó ar dtachrádh, IGT Decl. ex. 412.

(v) frissa n- :

(a) frisin : dochum cétnidetad frisin cosmil `to which it is like,' Sg. 188a13 .

(b) frisnid, ren, rena, renab, renar : inmain samail frisnid cosmail a n-adchīusa, TBC-I¹ 2875. nech risnid [andsa], LU 4004. drem ren dothroide ar ndeabhaidh, IGT Decl. ex. 1167. is dona neithibh renab usa truailled do gabail cuigi, in baindi, Rosa Angl. 112.8 . dream ... réna deacair, TSh. 4665. ag an druing ... rénar milis, 1568 . 711 .

pl. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) frisndat : inna ferta sa ... cía beith nech risndat móra araide isat úathe dó ilib, Trip.² 3096.

(vi) lasa n- :

(a) lasin : intí lasin format, Ml. 129b3 . lasin n-accubur, 53c16 .

(b) lasnad, lenab : intí lasnád ecul `who fears,' PH 2411. lasnad ail, 1421 . cibé lénab mór a n-abraim, Keat. i 76.44 .

(vii) oca n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) ri ind lochta hicnad suithi a n-ord, RC xx 174 § 38 (ACC). co flaith Dúrlais, 'cán mór mé, Hy Fiach. 284.5 . sdéd gan dóigh urraim na n-eillteadh, IGT Decl. ex. 1177 = gán, 662 .

(viii) fa n- (O. Ir. imm) :

(a) No instance.

(b) fán, fána : a cCionn Coradh fan léir magh, ZCP viii 225 § 42. fáth fána doilghe ... an bás, TSh. 1132.

(ix) asa n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) asarb : briathra asarb iontuigthe ..., TSh. 5664.

(x) forsa n-, fora n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) forab : o sheircc in domain-sea forab airchindech diabul, PH 7118.

Cons. Pres.

s. 3

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) bid : bid coitchenn dliges cach ngrád ... i córus othrusa, Críth G. 50. bés bid cethrar nó chóicer bíte hi comarbus bóairech, 146 .

Conj.

(a) -bi, -pi : nipi cían a masse in choirp, Wb. 28c25 . 12c12 . air nibi eulach, Ml. 42c9 . 128d3 . níbí cian, 91d2 . combi remib rethith iarum, Wb. 13b13 . indhí lasmbi accobur, 30c23 . imbí hinun folud whether the substance is the same, Sg. 188a6 .

(b) -bi, -pi : nī bī clōen in t-ere, Corm. Y 447.16 . ni bi briugu nad bi cedach, Laws v 76.10 . i ngait nádbi aí `which is not his,' Críth G. 218. ben las(a)mbi cuma cip cia las fia, BCrólige § 44. is bec a ain iphthi compí sāitheach, ZCP vi 257.y . i tig as mbi eggna suillsi, BDD² 175. dīa mbī dīn Cūan Caill, Four Songs 20 § 4 . pl. 1 (a) ? isin chruth-sin bimmi nóib-ni 'it is thus that we become holy' Wb. 3 d 27 , ZCP xxxii 120 .

pl. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) bit : imscarad dotluigigter flaith fri aigillni na bit anfolaid in ceili gaibter ann `a separation which the chief requests from the tenant not on account of any disqualification of the tenant,' Laws ii 316.z .

Ipv.

s. 2

Abs.

(a) ba' : ba chuimnech dilguda duinni, Ml. 46b29 .

(b) ba, bat : ba faitech ar nā ba fīachach, Anecd. iii 13.10 = bat fattech, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 14 § 3.1 . bát umal ... bat cumnech, LU 3490 - 1 . bat cúimnech, PH 1208.

Conj.

(a) -ba', pa' : naba thoirsech, Wb. 29d19 . napa chondarcell, 31c22 .

(b) -ba, -bad, -b(a)dat, -rbat, -rab, -rsat : nā ba lonn frim, TBC-I¹ 1210. nad bad lond-so, TBC-LL¹ 1045. na badat, 1106 . nabdat dolam, SR 1253. narbat (marab, narab, v.ll.) timtheirc tais, KMMisc. 262 § 9. nárbhat dian, Acall. 587. nárbat bronach-su, FDG 397.

s. 3

Abs.

(a) bad', bed', pad' : bad chore dúib friu `have peace towards them,' Wb. 27d11 . bed chuimnech, 33d5 . pad glicc far n-intliucht, 5c21 .

(b) bad, ba : arān Mochue ... ba hé dobertar dúin, Mon. Tall. 128.25 . bad and sein not adnastar, Trip.² 2991. bat (bá, v.l.) tusu bas ara, 2580 . bad (bud, bidh, bu, v.ll.) sonairt ar n-airle, Fél. Prol. 261. bad uallach, ScM. § 4.11 . ba (bá, LU) maith blāth in claideb, TBC-I¹ 934. bá[d] sí riar Aengusa, Ériu xii 146.2 (Tochm. Ét.). nech atcobra bithbethaid ... bat umhal, ZCP vii 312 § 23. With inf. pron. s. 2 : badat cuman remember, Rawl. 72b39 .

Conj.

(a) -bad' : nábad chotarsne fri bar n-ícc a nno-gessid, Wb. 24b3 . nabad do réir far colno beithe, 6b4 .

(b) -bad, -bud, -pa : ná bad ead do-gneth, BDD² 411. nábad olc do menma, LU 3271. na pa machtad amh libsi, Mon. Tall. 157.20 . nā bud sgēlach, ZCP vii 311 § 9.

pl. 1

(a) ban', baán' : ban chossmaili friar tuissech, Wb. 33b20 . 29b17 . baán tairismich do irnigdi, 5d22 .

(b) No instance.

pl. 2

Abs.

(a) bad', bed' : bad chensi fri cách, Wb. 24b1 . bad treúin i n-iriss, 27a6 . bed adthramli .i. gaibid comarbus for n-athar, 9a14 .

(b) No instance.

Conj.

(a) -bad' : nabad anfoirbthi-si, Wb. 12d26 .

(b) ? nadib leisc, SR 7843. narbar dúrcridig, 4842 .

pl. 3

Abs.

(a) bat' : bat chosmuli frinni `let them be like unto us,' Wb. 17c5 .

(b) bat, bad : bat menci do dalai, Ériu viii 173.8 . bad sgrībt[h]a a sgēla, ZCP viii 110 § 10.

Conj.

(a) -bat : bad armatura dei bess lib nábat nacha arm aili, Wb. 22d14 .

(b) No instance.

Impf.

s. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) bíth : nicon ibdis bandai cormmai i tír Cualand, cia bith ara tecmainged dóib `whoever it used to be that they used to meet,' Mon. Tall. 129.19 (tr. Bergin, Ériu xii 209 , q.v.).

pl. 3 (see Bergin, Ériu xii 225 f. ).

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) batis : a trian rocharsa[t] Coin Culainn batís [d]aill ... batis clóin ... batis guit, RC viii 60.15 ( LL 117a7 - 10 ). ? batis gnatha ar buadhuiph band, Anecd. ii 70.8 .

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -btis : imrethitis a da thraigid ┐ a n-adbrond comtís luathidir ruathar funemda, Ériu iv 30.2 . comtis scítha, Snedg. u. Mac R § 27. dabertis T.D.D. lubi ... for aibnib ... comtís brecca ... na srotha díb, TBC-LL¹ 4213. comdis fliuch iad do deraib, TTebe 3711 . comtis, 2884 . nībtis omain neich `they used not to fear any man,' ZCP iii 38.25 (tr. Ériu xii 225 ).

Subj. Pres.

s. 1

(a) -ba : ciaba deróil la nech, Wb. 18a7 . 23b29 . niba dimicthe-se libsi `I should not be despised by you,' 21d3 . mainba aecne lib, 17c10 .

(b) -ba, -pa, ropom (ropa, v.l.), -rbom, -rbam, -rba, -bam ; with ma, madam : ni reg-sa assin chruachán-sa co mba marb, Trip.² 1294. nipá pene na régi, Mon. Tall. 131.17 . riasiu ba marb-sa, ZCP i 105.25 . acht ropom (ropa, LU) airdricsa, TBC-I¹ 571. im-caemros[s]a do gaethaib corbom gaeth fo-deisin, BDD² 167. díamsa saithech bíd when once I am satisfied, LU 8469 (FB). nírba cintach `may I not be guilty,' Ériu vi 116 § 3. dīa mba bēo-sa, KMMisc. 208.y . corbam cruithnecht it' it[h]lainn, Ériu iii 31 § 24. narbam crimnach, SR 3202. nīrbam utmall anbsaid, a meic mo Dé, ZCP vi 260 § 10. madham buidech-sae, CCath. 4210. madam beō-sa do-gēba luach a taisgedha ... minbam beō imorra ..., ML² 1495.

s. 2

(a) -ba' : armba cháinchomraccach-so, Wb. 30b23 . cia ba loingthech, 6c9 . ciafa firián, Ml. 36a32 . comba soilse-siu, Wb. 22c3 . Ml. 54b19 .

(b) bat, -ba, -pa, -bat, -pat, -rba(t), -rbot, -(b)sa(t) : with cía, cidat ; with ma, madat : ni ba dicheoil, SR 2197. nipa frithenech, LU 3495. ní pa, Ériu i 198 § 16a . nibát athboingid ar narbat aithrech, LU 3502. nibat comromach ar nábat miscnech, 3503 . nirbat díscir ... nibbát ecal ... nipát tairne ..., 3467 - 9 . ba hēmich corbad sercach, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 14 § 3.3 . bat umal corbot ūasal, ib. § 3.7 . nírba chreccach, Ériu i 200 § 22. nirba truag, SR 3295. doroimle corbat cétach, ..., LU 8796 (FB). atraí coropat mor, 3533 . céin bat béo, 3919 . nirbat ancretmech ... acht corbat cretmech, PH 6776. diamba breiteam arafeser ... `if thou be a judge, thou shouldst know,' BCrólige § 66. diambat rolabar, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 18 § 7.16 . ZCP vii 298.17 . diamsa coemainech, IT i 70.2 . diamsat fissid, iii 488.352 . BS 86.25 . nírsat bidbha oirechta, Acall. 597. 598 . toich duit cidat rī, toich duit cidat druī (to a child), PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 3 ( LL 147a ). cidat lond im gním garta, IT iii 508 § 1. madat fīrēn flaith `if you be a just prince,' KMMisc. 262 § 15. madhid trēn, ML² 1437.

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.

(i) Abs. The form ba appears to be used only as jussive subj. :

(a) ? bá tualang cách forcital alaili `let each be fit ...,' Wb. 6d13 ; ba samlid dúib `be ye thus,' 19d29 , but in both instances the editors would read bad for ba.

(b) do Chríst ba mór do gaire, Ériu i 200 § 22. ba i n-ómun ba i n-incridiu | gudem Críst let it be in fear ..., 195 § 10 (but ? cf. 1 fa).

Conj. (ii)

(a)bé (see Bergin, Ériu xii 208 ff .) : cia bé a mmēt adae `however great it may be,' Ml. 61b28 . cip hé ade asberam, 25d11 .

(b) cip hé gellus dít, Trip.² 1626. cibbe noda saraigfed, 789 . cipe a isle, ciape a huaisle, Laws v 386.15 . secht tellaige ... nad erenaiter cidbe indola, 206.2 . cidbe fine dib dibus, Cóic Con. H § 69. cebé baile no beth, LU 365. cipé tí, TBC-LL¹ 1768. cipia frisa ferthar tnú, Ériu v 211.69 . gidh bé haird iona dtuitfidh, TSh. 3985.

(iii) -bo occurs in the Glosses seeming sometimes to be the jussive subj. (neg.) and once after in whether , but these exx. may perhaps be pret. (but see (iv) below) :

(a) ní bo comitesti (rectius chomitesti, Ed.) dó `he should not be indulged,' Wb. 1c12 . nibo intain no mbeid ar súil tantum `it must not be when ye are before (His) eye,' 27c9 . rofitir side imbo ho chridiu fa nacc, 27c11 .

(b) No instance.

(iv)

-p, -b :

(a) níp tarisse lat `trust him not,' Wb. 30d24 . nip sain a n-asberat et immarádat, 28c1 . nip crú cruach, Thes. ii 250.11 (Stowe M.). arnáp hé som ..., Wb. 6c7 . ar nab laigiu, Sg. 179b1 . imb anacol dom fa nac, Wb. 23a6 . immaid (=imb m.) fa olcc, 8d26 . im fochróib bá chían, Sg. 151b2 . sechip hé ... `whosoever it be,' Wb. 3b15 . sechib grád i mbether and, 10a18 . cip cruth bíid páx libsi fri cách `howsoever it be,' 5d33 . cib cenél tra dia ro scribad ind epistil so, 3b20 . mainip in chrud-so, 10a5 . manip hinunn etargnae, Sg. 188a12 . Ml. 14d10 . cenib fír, 24d22 . cenip ho étrummugud inna n-olc, 59a23 . cinip hond sémigdetu, 59a23 .

(b) -p, -b, -pe, -be, later -ba, -bo ; with día, díam : acht nip inbleoguin, Laws ii 98.17 . bés níp aill do dáinib, Fél. Ep. 417. níp anchobrai, LU 9663. bes nipe nessu éc do suidiu oldás daitsiu, 9210 . mad ben urnadma na be cetmunnter, Laws ii 380.25 . ar n[a] himirbera neach na be hai, v 476.z . diam dlaí di chi[u]nn adairt, Críth G. 229. BCrólige § 38. diam chuibse cataid `to whom veneration is due,' Laws i 10.24 . mairg ... diam cara Colco, Anecd. i 7.11 . cach fuil druith dinnap inna ramot techtai torai, BCrólige § 64. cid nabsin (? = nab sí in) Fedelm-sa ... cichsed, LU 8296. nabbsin, 8318 . air nā ba (v.l. arnab) sothuissledhach, Corm. Y 434. arnapa dimicnithi, Trip.² 2048. sechib dán di[i]b, Críth G. 323. sicip hé dígbas ..., Trip.² 751. secip blas bá mellach, LU 1787. PH 1428. mad iar stair cip indus, Trip.² 33. BDD² 655. cip magen inda tecmai `in whatever place,' BCrólige § 40. cidh be manach doda-goad ┐ cib can a cinel whencesoever, Anecd. i 44.8 . cecip ní foillsighfithir daitt ` whatever ,' Aisl. Tond. 96.9 is fīach dia blīadnai dō īar sin d(h)inap (sic leg.) turbuith deithbire dothnairp dia nephthairiuc 'it becomes for him a debt [payable only] in a year’s time unless a legitimate excuse excuses him for his non-appearance' Bürgschaft 17 § 53 , Ériu xx 230 . dinnap ina ramot techtai torai 'unless it has accrued in a lawful way (?) ' Ériu xii 52 § 64 , xx 230 . manip do Chonchobor, ScM. § 3.16 . PH 2080. manib tualaing, Anecd. iii 23.12 . maniba t'ainmnet ..., Trip.² 859. manab ac oen flaith beit, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. munab neasa, 44.4 . DDána 76 § 24. munob cunntabartac[h], BCrólige § 14 n. 1 . munup, Laws iv 26.13 . menip, SR 3597. Cóic Con. RE § 23. minub, BCrólige § 23. FDG 389. minap, TBC-I¹ 795. PH 1542. minab, 6035 . munbo cairnech in craidhe, ZCP vi 268.12 . munba, ib. 11 . IGT Decl. ex. 352. cinip mór do bríg, Trip.² 1888. LU 1435 (MU).

The form arimp in the Glosses always has a final sense except the doubtful ex. in Ml. 130b8 (see below). The ex. from Críth Gabl. is also final, the others all express an indirect command or wish (cf. airndip, see (v) below) :

(a) arimp áigthidiu-de `that it may be the more dreaded,' Wb. 23d23 . 32a2 . 15c4 . arimp díthnad ... dúibsi foditiu fochide dúnni, 14b17 . arim tairismech, 25a9 . ised as maith la dia airimp (? leg. airndip) isin gess ... `this God would have ...,' Ml. 130b8 .

(b) arim túalang gabála[e] ríg, Críth G. 187. cach ōen comaldathar in cāin si ... arim sírsaegul ... ┐ arop airmitnech fēith, Cáin Ad. § 30. abbair fri Feradach, arim remḟissid arad sencharpait `er solle ein vorauswissender Lenker des alten Wagens sein,' ZCP xi 83 § 27. nach oirecht ... árim (corob, v.l.) cáin domnaig cétadéntar ann, Ériu ii 210 § 33. The usual way of expressing a wish or exhortation is rop (see section II below), but cf.: adair ... do Dia ┐ co mbá dó a aenur fhogna, PH 4724. searc Íosa ... go mba hé th'arm DDána 20 § 7. goma, 93 § 37 . in cū ruad ... coma taīseach cāemc[h]uaine, CCellaig 463 . With cen co : cen cop foccus a gcairdiss, Anecd. ii 62.2 . MacCongl. 39.27 . PH 3100. cin cob aire doronsat, 3237 .

(v)

(a) -dip, -dib : condip slán á anim, Wb. 9b9 . condib cumme, 24a22 . is tacair arndip samlid it is meet that it be thus, 22c11 . airndip maith a forcell `that the testimony may be good,' 25d21 . airndib ecmailt, Tur. 71 (airndip may have either final or consecutive sense, see note on arimp in (iv) above). duús indip fochunn ícce do, Wb. 26b27 . dús cia port indib maith, 24 .

(vi) With ma (má),

(a) mad : mad cumme imned á cheli et a imned fessin, Wb. 20c6 . 12a23 . 4a14 . mad cétnide a n-animm, Sg. 197a2 . 3b19 . mad du rúin `according to the mystic meaning,' Tur. 103.

(b) mad, mád : mad a dligiud ḟénechso (Corr., Ed.) is menbu, Críth G. 11. mad nóeb arid-léga, Fél. Ep. 178. Corm. Y 1233. mad na mna `if it belong to the woman,' Laws ii 402.1 . mádh táesca dhuit iná dham, Anecd. i 32 § 54. mád, LU 9216. madh peacthach é, TSh. 4315.

(vii)

With cía although, that ,

(a) cith, cid : deithbeir do ceith aneola, Wb. 33c16 . cith etarṡuidigthe, Sg. 68b4 . Mon. Tall. 159.2 . cid accobrach, Wb. 4c34 . cid doib doarrchet `though they were prophesied unto,' 5a16 (here the sense appears to be indic., see GOI § 793 ). cid comsuidigthe, Sg. 201a10 . Ml. 2d12 .

(b) cid, gid: cid ē marad tarm ēisi, Corm. Y 180. cid diabal fod foirge, Laws iv 18.19 . cid sain na conairi (pl. subject). Cóic Con. H. § 43. gid rogāeth nī rogand, TBC-I¹ 2596.

cid ed nevertheless: (b) cid ed nī rochotail, TBC-I¹ 2512. gidh eadh ní híad as andsa, KMMisc. 352 § 6.

cid ... cid, cid ... nó whether (it be) ... or ...:

(a) ma gorith locc cith ine chuis nú ine láim, Thes. ii 245.36 (Camb.). cid maid cid olcc la nech, Wb. 30d6 . cach réit cid precept cid labrad, 13a29 . Sg. 2a7 . Ml. 26a8 . cid ho deacht maicc nó ho deacht athar arafoima doinacht maicc aní arroet, 17c3 .

(b) cid cóem cid díchóem, Críth G. 225. Corm. Y 1167. SCC 679 .

cid cia whoever it be: am chind cid cia raib, KMMisc. 254 § 4.

cid though it be has also the sense even , in which sense its verbal content must early have been forgotten so that it may be folld. by plural noun or pronoun, and by a dependent vb. in indic. instead of subj.:

(a) cithisse `it is even he,' Wb. 22a7 (a prima manu). corrici cith besti béoa, Thes. i 4.31 . ceith cenmathá in tegdais n-ucut `even besides,' Wb. 33a4 . cid ind fochith follongam `even the suffering which we endure,' 14b15 . ceth Máolruoin, Mon. Tall. 135.24 . co seichetar cid a comroircniu, Sg. 1a2 .

(b) coire ... no suigfedh cid Erind, Corm. Y 323.8 . ní dénaiter cid clocha fotraicthi díb, Trip.² 873. ni cuma dono cid cach mis disuidiu, Laws iv 88.19 . ní thibrind i tindscra cid Meidbi insin, TBFr. 185. cid mecnu, LU 10560.

II Forms with ro-.

(i)

(a) rop, rob, ropo' (the form rob occurs only before b and m): rop corae doib fri dia `peace be with them ...,' Wb. 20d1 . rop scīath dún diar n-imdegail, Hy. i 20. rop fír, ib. 39 . nicon fil bas sciith lim act rop ar crist, Wb. 18a2 . acht robronach (=rob bronach, Ed.), Ml. 86d12 . act ropo cho n-etarceirt, Wb. 13a26 . act ropo cho torbu, 27 .

(b) rop, rob, ropo': rop múr ar cech merblén' Babill, Fél. Jan. 24. rob hí ascaid connaga, Ériu iv 106 § 59. rob dimbríogh gach tonn dá ttuil | gach imshníomh sonn rob soruidh, Studies 1921, 76 § 25 . DDána 122 § 21. acht rop la forcomet, Mon. Tall. 161.27 . Trip.² 2941. acht rob tol dait-so, ZCP viii 312.8 . riasíu ropo chúairddulchach, Críth G. 68.

The form robo, robu and with inf. pron. rodbo, rodbu occurs in the sense either, or (cf. Fr. soit ... soit). The editors of Thes. Pal. (i 433 n. ) say it `seems to be regular in the first of two or more alternatives.' It is so used in the great majority of cases but in Wb. 14c24 and Ml. 58b11 (see below) it precedes the second alternative. Pedersen ( KZ xxxv 404 f . q.v.) suggests an original meaning `was es sei' and the loss of the demonstrative pronoun a n- or aní before robo. Thurneysen ( GOI § 886 ) believes it to have been a potential ro- subj. It is found somet. where in the Lat. uel .. uel .., or Lat. aut .. aut ... occur:

(a) rodbo dia adroni ... ł. is hé-som adroni ... either God has committed ..., Wb. 29d29 . 16d7 . fo chenéle lugi [i]ssiu rodbo chosmi[liu]s `as a kind of oath ... or a similitude,' 14c24 . robo intí forchain gl. siue qui docet, 5d10 . robo folad diles ł. doacaldmach, Sg. 197a1 . 200b6 . robu óenlitrib gl. uel singulis literis, 28a12 . robu cho adersetar gl. uel emendentur ... (uel ...), Ml. 30d11 . robu a caratrad gl. (uel necessitudo) uel (familiaritas), 58b11 (but Eds. suggest on p. 721b : `as robu regularly refers to the former of two alternatives, gloss 11 may gl. uel necessitudo'). robu a nnu mothaigtis gl. aut stupentes, 44c6 . 109c3 . 121b6 .

(b) rodbu forcetail ł. scribend ł. uaimm n-etaig, LB 11b13 . innahí rohaisneid dó N. .. rodbo o littrib no a himaccalmaibh, ZCP ii 321.y .

(ii) -rop, -rup, -rub:

(a) corrup mithich gabáil ferainn do, Wb. 19d3 . corrop hed mo indeb Crist, 24a6 . corop he to menmme, Thes. ii 255.14 (Stowe M.). Wb. 7d10 . Sg. 40b7 . corub mebuil leu, Ml. 138c8 . See also Subst. Vb. l. 1389 ff.

(b) -rup, -rub, -rob, -rop, -rab, -rap, -rip, -rp: corup messu de dún, Trip.² 2592. TBC-I¹ 1577. PH 5319. corob gel in mag, Trip.² 555. TBC-I¹ 2455. corrom mé (=corrob mé) nosn-orr, BDD² 721. corab meisi, Trip.² 1360. Laws iv 62.18 Comm. Anecd. i 17.17 . curub cutruma cuit cach fir dib, Cóic Con. H § 102. co rāssa in cū hīsin ┐ corip ingnīma, TBC-I¹ 539 = corop, LU 5028. acht corp dall, SR 2900. āgusta dō gurab trū, Corm. Y 1238. ní rop áilsed `let there not be neglect,' Fél. Ep. 522. nī rob do soinmige ┐ nī rob do fechtnaidi dō, TBC-I¹ 640 = nipo ... ┐ nirop, LU 5125. arnarap galar doib, Mon. Tall. 147.23 . arnā rob olc, Corm. Y 425. fégad cech aen uaib ... ná rob dáll ... hé, PH 4666. Sometimes the final b or p dropped out, at first before initial b or f: arnara fochand báis dóib, Mon. Tall. 146.29 . 152.11 . curu bēl ainmnech urnaigthech, ACL iii 234 § 9. luiget ... co ro bréc, PH 2685. co ro huain doib, 4997 .

rel.

(a) bes`, bas`: níi bes chotarsne diar n-ícc, Wb. 11a24 . bes chossecarthae, Ml. 63a6 . bes miniu, Thes. ii 254.14 (Stowe M.). céin bas mbéo, Wb. 10b23 . a mbas cete, Thes. ii 17.34 (Bcr.).

(b) bes`, bas`, bus`: nech bes ardu, Críth G. 115. lin bes coir, BCrólige § 48. ni bes epiltiu, Mon. Tall. 152. 31 . dírimm bas choímiu ná bess áiniu, TBFr. 47. ontí bass formbthi, Mon. Tall. 141.19 . dís bas ḟerr, BDD² 1222. ríasiu bus lá, MU² 322. neich bus chomgrād dó, Ériu i 219 § 7. i llaim neich bessa set `of the person whose property it is,' Laws v 376.4 . do cach besa ai whose it is, ii 398.z . iv 28.5 . i 264.18 . A pron. may be infixed between rel., and its pred.: doeim dano in clī innī besidn-īsle, doemar som ōnnī besadn-ūaisliu, Corm. Y 275. set inna muin cachae besid fiu, Laws v 384.z . 382.8 . ech beissid fiu, 406.9 . cenn caich ... i fine besid sruithe, besid n-uaisliu, ZCP xiv 369 § 31. ailid .iii. seotu bes da fiu, Laws v 408.7 .

pl. 1

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) ropond: ropond bēo for deis mic Dē may we be alive, ZCP viii 106 § 9 (ropo-nd = 3 s.+inf. pron. pl. 1).

Conj.

(a) -ban`: co comalnammar a pridchimme et comman (=co m-ban) dessimrecht do chach, Wb. 31c11 . a numman aircheltai, Ml. 27b10 .

(b) -ban, -rdar, -(r)bar; with cía, gidar: is am comman tairisiu `'tis time that we should be ...,' Fianaig. 26.14 . an biucán gurdar síthaig, Hib. Min. 82.23 . gidar comaltai, TBC-LL¹ 3680. co mbar commaithe, 35 . tiagam ass con (f)acamar na milchonu ...┐ corbar (go mbat, v.l.) scithu oco, TBFr. App. § 16.

pl. 2

Abs.

(a) bede: conicfid-si bede preceptori uili `ye will all be able to be teachers,' Wb. 13a10 .

Conj.

(a) -bad: combad accomalti-si limsa, 23a26 . arnábad toirsig dim chuimriug-sa, 27c34 . arna bad huilcc, 5d38 . dia mbad mathi, 16a13 . ma[nba]d irlaithi, 27c11 . ? To this: annambaid (anambaid, MS.) buidig `when ye are not content,' Ml. 115b10 .

(b) nibur n-ecnaigid, SR 4871. nibfor cétludaig, 4872 .

pl. 3

I Forms without ro-.

No absolute forms occur without ro-.

Conj.

(i)

(a) -bet`, -pat`, -bat`: mainbet mathi, Wb. 11c5 . nó innabet o nach ainmm-diu etir `or whether they are not from any nominal form at all,' Sg. 56b1 . arnapat toirsich, Wb. 26d21 . combat irlamu-de ind ancreitmich do chretim, 12d29 . armbat eolig, 31d15 . armbat chosmaili, Ml. 130a12 . a mbat n-erchoissi, 73c9 . cinbat huili, Wb. 4d6 .

(b) -bet, -bat: im damu nad be tairchesa (leg. bet airchesa), Laws i 184.14 . iv 54.10 . mat cuibdi ... manbet cuibdi, i 244.3 . adubairt ... conod brathair iat cen go bed, Celt. Rev. x 36.18 . acht conbat beoda, TBC-LL¹ 39. combat sithamla, PH 4015. 6746 . manibat óga a frithḟolaid, Ériu i 219 § 9. menbat allmaraig, MU² 517. diamat glain, SR 1461. cenibat fiu, Laws ii 316.20 .

(ii) With ma,

(a) mat: mat hé na briathra-sa forcane, Wb. 28c21 . mat anmann adiechta emnatar and, Sg. 189b4 .

(b) mat, madat, mádit: mat comaithi a folaid, no mat comolca, Laws ii 362.25 - 6 . mat e ... anfolaid in cele falla frithgnama, ZCP xiv 387 § 53. madat comlūatha, ZCP viii 217 § 2. mádit (sic leg.) creidmech, KMMisc. 146.4 .

(iii) With ce, cía although ,

(a) cit: cit imdi far forcitlidi, Wb. 9a12 . 4d4 . 12a13 . cit comsuidigthi, Sg. 207b11 . 190b1 . et muscreitfet cit hésidi `even they,' Wb. 5c2 .

(b) cit, cidat, ciambat: cit lir, Mon. Tall. 156.26 . Fél. Prol. 245. cith (leg. cit) lir cétuib, ZCP viii 195 § 7. cidat (cid, v.l.) créchtnaig, BDD² 1347. KMMisc. 268 § 41. ciambat ilardai, SR 4833.

(iv) With cía, ce who, what ,

(a) No instance.

(b) cit: indid damsa cit n-armand | hi fil chend erred Ul[ad] tell me what are the places ..., LU 11056.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) ropat`: ropat choin altai ... adcear, Thes. ii 293.7 ( SP i ). acht ropat ṡaini tertpersin, Sg. 199a1 .

(b) ropat`, robat`, robet, ropsat: ropat lir a tellaig, Trip.² 2571. ropat óin dom ṡnádud `may they be one,' Fél. Jan. 21. robat mo cuirn coidin midc, Otia i 126 § 24. robet ar seilb an ōenfir, BColm. 54.10 . ropsat idain dīan-báis ám, KMMisc. 210.3 .

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -rbat, ? -rsat: ciarbat mara a treba, Hy. ii 60 Comm. curbat úagṡlá[i]n, BColm. 54.11 . nirbat ile a liberna, LU 1035. girbat linmara, TBC-LL¹ 4196. garbat discailtig, 544 . apair ó brethir namá corbat bairgin na clochasa, PH 4918. ciarbot maithi, KMMisc. 266 § 32. ? gorsat lir a mmairb andas a mbí, TBC-LL¹ 6015.

rel.

(a) beta`, bete`, bata`: beta téit `when they are wanton,' Wb. 29a1 . beda fiscina baptizerium, Thes. ii 226.29 (Pcr.). donaib hí beta cheti, Ml. 126c4 . ni cumcat bete gentilia, Sg. 33a16 . a mbata n-aersigthi, Ml. 127a4 .

(b) beta, bete, bida: mad aile da lina beta olca [a] folaid, Laws ii 366.11 . itir na ceithre comaichaib beda neasa do, iv 116.2 . tech sruithi bet (leg. betc) fuirbthium, Mon. Tall. 136.23 . tri haidche bede cora, Laws v 438.24 . cusna belltenaib bida nesom, ii 390.20 . trian de don ḟir bed a (leg. beda a) beich `whose bees they are,' iv 116.1 Comm. Cf. do fir bede heich, 106.1 Comm.

Subj. Past

s. 1

(a) -bin, -benn: commin inricc dó `so that I may be worthy thereunto,' Wb. 24a11 . combin cosmail, Ml. 91b7 . arnamtomnad námmin duine, Wb. 17d23 . nombin dermatach, Ml. 20a4 . toimtin armbenn duine, 130d4 .

(b) -badim, -badam: abraind nā badim (? sic leg.) slānsa ... ropad rēill mo tholcsa and, TBC-I¹ 3532. bad cháined dom ḟir co mbadim ferr-sa, TBC-LL¹ 34. damadam (sic leg.) rig (dia mbam airdrí, v.l.) for Erinn if I were , FDG 519.

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) -badat: da mbad in lāsin, nī epertha co mbadad (leg. mbadat) ferr do lōech annā Cū., TBC-I¹ 2503. is é in claideb dobéraind ... menbadat (sic leg.) aide, RC xiv 426.25 ( LL 111b4 ).

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.

(i) Abs.

(a) bed`, bad`: arna tomnathar bed foammamichthe deacht don dóinacht `that (the) Godhead is subject,' Wb. 13c2 . dommuinfide bed n-ísel intí dia, Ml. 40c17 (in these two exx. we have the type of sentence in which bid occurs in Wb. 25c12 , see (iii) below). din dínit bed ṡástai, Sg. 39b11 . ni arindí bed leth ngotho nobed indib, 5a4 . dóig linn bed n-acuit, 30a8 . bed chuintechti, Ml. 92a17 . ni robe nech bad huaisliu, Wb. 33d10 . aimser ba (leg. bad, Edd.) chomadas dó, 21a1 . cia bed a mmēt inna fochaide `whatever the greatness of the tribulations might be,' Ml. 39a13 (see Bergin, Ériu xii 208 ff .).

(b) bed`, bad`, pad, bud: ba dóig leó bed a sídaib dí, BDD² 42. nech bed chomalaind dó, LU 1667 (ICM). nad baí baili bád cuidbiu dó, Trip.² 429. lāech bad chāime, TBC-I¹ 3242. BDD² 79. mad mē bad chend ..., Ériu iii 140.183 . cīa ragas ...? Cīa pad cīa ... acht Condere `who should it be cut C.', i 114 § 3 . muc bud grátu, Corm. Y 118. ní bud ṡíre, BDD² 138. ciped mac díb no gabad gasced, TBC-LL¹ 1089. With inf. pron. s. 3: tegdais adchondarc indiu | ni fa[il] ba-da-crichidiu (? leg. bad-da-), Thes. ii 292 § 1 (Ml. Poems). marbān badid n-ingnathar, Bruchst. 45 § 102. coich bia beo badid [n-]amradair, RC xx 260 § 65 = badib amradair, LU 873. badid-rédithir ... badid-némithir, RC xxiv 56 § 17. s. 1: nī faigebasu curaid ... bádam fiusa, LU 3913.

(ii) Conj.

(a) -bed`, -bad` (mainbed (minbad, manibad) is regularly folld. by acc.): mainbed maith latsu, Wb. 32a11 . combed chiall ainsedo ildai and, Ml. 67d24 . ni bed uilliu, 54b30 . is cumme nibad móidem `it is the same as though it were not boasting,' Wb. 2b14 . amal nibad fiu, Ml. 63d2 . mainbad éicin, Wb. 4a20 . Hy. v 32. manibbad hinunn, Sg. 17b8 . manibad trocairi ndáe, Ml. 111b28 . manipad taschidetaid, 136c2 . arnábad rómár, Wb. 11c7 . conapad firdía mac, Ml. 21c12 . diambad mathi, Wb. 16a13 . combad choitchen, Sg. 72a1 . Ml. 21d1 . combath chomlan rith lunae , Thes. ii 33.27 (Bv.). na epred a menme armbad ferr són, Wb. 10a16 . arimbad and furruimtis a praintech, Thes. ii 242.4 (Ardm.).

(b) -bed`, -bad`, -pad, -bud, -bod: ised bud cóir laisim combed de laim anmcharat ..., Mon. Tall. 146.25 . Trip.² 2246. ní ... tresambed elned do, Mon. Tall. 164.7 . manipad lor, 128.15 . manipad do chrúass, Trip.² 1370. minbad in mbáin mbic, MacCongl. 107.7 . cid daitsiu nábad lat in curathmír, LU 8112. diambad Chú, 3752 . dámadh linn, TSh. 5962. combad chennach, LU 4296. bá cubaid cíapad tussu bad dall, Trip.² 1516. dūs imbad lór, Mon. Tall. 133.8 . mun budh le druimm cáein Cesrach, Anecd. i 32 § 60. minbud thu, ii 4.11 . ar na bud ed, PH 3074. ? go nach budh rí ar Israel tú `ne sis rex,' TSh. 8330. cid daitsiu ... nád bod latt curadmir Emna, LU 8140. cía lasmboth scīth ┐ lasmboth laind techt int slōgaid, TBC-I¹ 154.

(iii)

(a) bid (this form, which Thurn. ( GOI § 806 ) suggests may be an unstressed form of vn. buith, occurs regularly after amal, oldaas, is cumme, in doich, in comparative and equative clauses and in a few other instances. This would suit an ex. like Thes. ii 294 § 3 below but does not explain phrases where bid follow amal, is cumme, etc. It survives into Mid. Ir. but is somet. replaced by bed or bad, and in a few cases spreads to other types of sentence (amal bid is regularly folld. by acc. cf. mainbad, above): amal bid dia as though he were God, Wb. 26a7 . amal bid claind noclantis, Ml. 63b9 . amail bith ball di crist, Thes. ii 255.14 (Stowe M.). amal fid na derscaigthiu, Ml. 37b22 . amal bid inn accaldim deithidnig (leg. nd.), 35c27 . is cumme doib bid idalte domeltis, Wb. 10c3 . in doich bid saindóire dúnni, 10d1 . is nessa do inni lemm oldaas bid ar n-áinsem, 4b17 . ní lugu ... indáas bid praeceptóir asidindissed, Ml. 42b18 . arna tomnitisom bid do irgairiu cotulta, Wb. 25c12 (see above under (i) where this type of sentence occurs with bed in Wb. 13c2 and Ml. 40c17 ). ni meite bid machdad forgare forru, Sg. 161b12 . ba coru tra bid adnuntiabit nobeth híc , Ml. 45b14 . soilsidir bid hi lugburt, Thes. ii 294 § 3 ( SP iii ).

(b) amal bid oc caíned ... [no beth], Trip.² 87. amal bid do thecht secha, IT i 72.14 . amail bid a haongiun, Corm. Y 1059.37 . amal bid fótrond ..., LU 9099 (FB). ba doich lind bid din lucht forācaibset som, ZCP viii 313.25 . ba hé mo líthsa bid é do-chorad and, BDD² 494. asberat alaili bid di lucht na luinge ..., ZCP viii 313.23 . In a type of sentence where it did not occur in O. Ir.: flaith athuigh na bid flaith a athair whose father was not a chief, Laws ii 200.21 . nā tānic rīam nā īarum bīd (leg. bid) errdarcu, MacCongl. 45.28 . ar cend neich bid (budh, v.l.) éolchu ┐ bid síne andás, Ériu iv 126.15 . ingen bid chaime tochim, RC xxiv 198.24 . In the follg. exx. O. Ir. would show bid: amal bud he Crist, PH 129. mar bud, 4098 . amal bad a domun aile thíssad, TBFr. 278. is cumme lem bed (bid, v.l. App.) i taulchubu fhína no beth mo chend, TBFr. 47. in dōig bad ē Conchobur, TBC-I¹ 2758. (cf. also: ba doig bed n-ingcert, Ml. 61b15 ). dōig leam bad i ndiamraib ... nobeith, TBC-I¹ 884.

(iv) With ma (má),

(a) mad: mad mo ríar-sa dognethe and, Wb. 9d25 . mad forcenn libuir, Ml. 2d1 .

(b) mad, mád: mad meise con-ísed mo chomairle, BDD² 708. mád ina ṡláinti ind fir fil sund robad chomairche ar Ultaib ulib, LU 3303.

(v) With cía, ce although ,

(a) cid: ni pu imdu do in mann cid trén oc tecmallad `though he were,' Wb. 16c25 .

(b) cid: cid fín bárc do-téised treut, BDD² 740.

II Forms with ro-. ro- is rare with past subj. The instances are:

(a) act robad tairismech linni, Wb. 18d11 . ní ar maith friu ... act is corpad mithig lessom inducbál dia nóibaib, 4c37 .

(b) ? ingé (read perhaps itge, Ed.) ropad limsa ol sésim adpand do seinm tr. `I would crave a boon, said he, to play a tune,' Mon. Tall. 131.28 . acht corbad maithi a gnima, Ériu v 124.76 . amal ro bad pheccad leo as though they considered it a sin, PH 3232.

pl. 1

Abs.

(a) bimmis, bemmis : amal bimmis octarche `as if we were dregs,' Wb. 9a7 . amal bemmis bibdaid, Ml. 114d4 .

(b) amal bemís marb, PH 2967.

Conj.

(a) -bimmis : amal ni bimmis cutrummi frib, Wb. 17b16 . Ml. 63b1 . commimmis ecil hi fochidib, Wb. 29b16 . commimis less huili, 6b21 .

(b) -badar : acht co mbadar maithe díblínaib, TBC-LL¹ 35.

pl. 2 No instance.

pl. 3

Abs.

(a) bitis, betis: nírbu mou leu bríg a tobai indate bitis cranna doiscairi dufubaitis `than though they had been cutting down common trees,' Ml. 92d6 . donaib déedib betis chloithib, 131d11 . amal betis degmaini, 90a14 .

(b) bitis, betis, batis : amal bitis chóic ṡutralla, Trip.² 1448. ba bindithir ... ┐ betis téta mennchrot, BDD² 189. TBFr. 27. amal betís margretai, PH 2445. dicunt betis secht maic, ZCP viii 314.34 (Laud Gen.). asberat araile batis trī brāthir, ib. 331.14 (ib.). doruimenatar bádis fir ṡīthe, Trip.² 1112.

Conj.

(a) -btis, -ptis : comtis indbaid i n-iris, Wb. 10d33 . conabdis apstil, 5b15 . comtis ainmmnidi, Sg. 7b2 . coniptis erlama, Ml. 100c24 . maniptis mu charait, Ml. 73d1 . Sg. 120a1 . ni aisndet duaid airmdis hé iusti indí ..., Ml. 54a12 . airmtis ní etir, 79b11 . amtis forbristi ind ríg, 85d9 .

(b) -btis, -ptis : comtis secht maic, Trip.² 901. PH 7013. comdis sidhaighthi, ZCP xiii 254.12 . comtís comarda síat, TBC-LL¹ 5015. ba cóir ceniptis árdda do chongbala-su, Trip.² 1564. naptis messaiti, Ériu iv 24 § 10. diambtís rátha iat, MU² 376. diambtís craind, 434 . ciabtis cosmaile, SR 2892. ciapdis ganna, Anecd. ii 69.8 . ciamdis dimolta, i 21.5 . With amal betis under (a) above, cf. marbtís máirb as though they were dead, LU 9761. immarbdais meic do, 4097 .

With ma

(a) matis : matis huili conabdis apstil tantum `if it were all (the Jews) and not the apostles only,' Wb. 5b15 . matis mu namait, Ml. 73b1 .

(b) matis is replaced in Mid. Ir. by diambtís q.v., supra.

Fut.

s. 1

Abs.

(a) be : be sóir mo brethre `I shall be free as regards my word,' Wb. 4c18 . bé (biam, bum, v.ll.) sóir cech inbaid, Hy. iv 8.

(b) bea, bem, bam, bíam, bidam : bem (bea, v.l.) torbach[u]-sa duit-si oldās ..., Corm. Y 1059.30 = bam tarbach sa deit, Anecd. iv p. xiv.y . in hed bam beo, SR 3187. Ériu iv 142.z . bam tarb tnúith isna tressaib, IT iii 510 § 4. Anecd. i 12.7 . bam anoraigti-sea oc Dia, PH 2428. biam tigerna os cech drung, SR 855. bíam cúsa ... dot imdegail, LU 5027. bidam chusa, TBC-LL¹ 1049 (v.l., Eg.). bidam bithchuimnech, RC xvi 46 ( Dinds. 95 ). CCath. 3348. bídham tigerna fer an domain, 4046 .

Conj. (a) No instance.

(b) -pam : ni pam slán-sa ... conid n-accur, IT i 72.1 . nípam comchirtisea do neoch, LU 4248.

s. 2

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) ba, basa, bat, biat, bidat : ba baeth, SR 5955. ba bruiden ban ndérach, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.19 . bása bec bíaid úair | basa már iar tain, LU 9854. bat neirt ar do lochnamtib, LU 10423. bat (ba, v.l.) fornocht, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.4 . bat (ba, bad, v.ll.) dín ar gád, ib. 9 . bát nimidech, LU 9633. biat rīsiu co derb, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 8 . § 15 . biat forscailtech, ib. § 17 ( LL 147a ). bidat úallach, ZCP vii 298.17 . LB 151a48 . bidhit neimedach, BNnÉ 93 § 204. toīsechu bia marb oldās bia meirb, PRIA iii 546 § 8 ( LL 147a9 ) (this is really the form of the subst. vb. but seems to be intended as copula, cf. biat, above).

Conj.

(a) Strachan ( Subst. Vb. l. 1316 ) gives : co mba soilse-siu, Wb. 22c3 (gl. inluminabit tibi Christus) but translates `so that thou mayest be,' Thes. i p. 639 which is probably correct.

(b) -ba, -bat : adbert fria drai ... ni bam rai (? leg. niba-m-drai) badechtsa mene dingba ..., BB 407a1 . da lecea tú Ísu ass, ni bat cara do Cessair, PH 2815.

s. 3

Abs.

(a) bid, bith : bid héet lib-si geinti do bith in hiris, Wb. 5a13 . bid cumma et riam, 18a13 . bith sechmadachte, Sg. 147b3 . bith flaithem intí Solam for saint, Ml. 90a9 .

(b) bid, bith, beith, bed, bud : bid nath n-airec fordarc, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 16.6 . bidsom fria toil `it (heaven) will be at their pleasure,' Mon. Tall. 141.17 . bid misi, Trip.² 1963. Laws i 6.z . bid calma, TBC-I¹ 2469. bid hē lā a phennati, MacCongl. 29.6 . PH 4032. ata lasna tuati beith lór dóib do ascnam nime acht doratat ní dona hanmchairtib, Mon. Tall. 141.15 . rochrúfemne ... ind pennit bes chóir fortsu. Bed cet ol D., 130.23 . With inf. pron. s. 2 : bidat eigen dola, Aisl. Tond. 101.x . ammarach bud maith do threóir, Anecd. i 39 § 114. ib. 17.18 . RC xxiv 194.7 . budh hē bērus an bāiri, ZCP xiii 17.27 . budh iomdha ann fós arracht ag eagcaoine, TSh. 4068.

Conj.

(a) -pa, -ba : nípa cosmuil frisin titacht tóisig, Wb. 25d13 . níba cuit adíll, 14a8 . níbbá i n-anus regaid int diruidigud, Sg. 36b1 . in corp i mba flaith in coimdiu, Wb. 9d3 . With inf. pron. s. 3 : nípa-dn-aidrech, 5c9 .

(b) -ba, -pa, -bo, -po, -bu, -pu, -b, -bad, -bud : níba ed bias de, Trip.² 453. BDD² 58. niba fír, ScM. § 11.2 . nipa mor do brig lais, Mon. Tall. 142.4 . admat na ba tíamdae, Fél. Prol. 294. nīpa mise, TBC-I¹ 2141. níbá fír sin, LU 8199. ár | día[m]bá lán Mag F., 3368 . With inf. pron. s. 2 : níbat écen nach n-aill, MU² 1037 (LU). ? nib amles, LU 3325 (tr. `it will be no harm,' SCC 117 ). toingimsa ... corob misi cētfer roficfa (b inserted later, Ed.), TBC-I¹ 2243. mani thuaslaicea isind chaisc nipo assa doib iarum, Mon. Tall. 132.17 . nipo fócrach, Ériu vii 219 § 2. nībo dirsan dait, TBC-I¹ 1048. nipu sén maith itir ... ni fu líth don fleid, FDG 121. nī bu inmuin, Bruchst. 60 § 134. níbu shirsan, TBFr. 370 (= nipi siursan, App. § 26 ). nī bad (ba, v.l.) fāilid, Bruchst. 40 § 95. bat righ uili iat gin co budh comṡaeglach, Anecd. ii 1.15 .

rel.

(a) bes`, bas` : in hed bes chobuir dó, Wb. 20c10 . bes lintae, Ml. 44d7 . hore bas fír quod dicam, Wb. 17d20 .

(b) bas`, bus` : Marcán ... bas dech do Uíb Garrchon, Trip.² 2191. félire bas (bus, v.l.) certu, Fél. Ep. 148. ro-fessar ... bas n-olc, LU 7566 (BDD). ni-sn-idnus sund nī bus siriu, TBC-I¹ 3104. inní bus comairle [lat-sa is sí bas chomairle] linne, Anecd. i 41.3 - 4 . cīan bus chumain, ZCP viii 119 § 4. an feadh bhus cumhain leó iad, TSh. 1256.

pl. 1

(a) bimmi ?, bemmi, bammi : isin chruth-sin bimmi nóib-ni, Wb. 3d27 (but see ZCP xxxii 120-21 ). 12c9 . bemmi caelestis, 13d15 . isamlid bami coeheredes , 4a17 .

(b) batin: batin aithrig is tír thall `we shall rue it,' Ériu i 68 § 3 (this is from a poem, occurring in H 3. 18 and LL, which Meyer ascribes to 9th cent. Perhaps one should take it as : ba don-aithrig it will be a matter of regret to us, but cf. atin budig de we are content, Anecd. i 5.18 = YBL 129b23 ).

pl. 2 ? folaich in mac, bar bibdaith bāis ind dia fessara Mac Con, ZCP viii 311.5 , CMMucr. 69 .

pl. 3

Abs.

(a) bit : bit hé na precepta cétni no pridchob doib, Wb. 17b20 . bit comṡuidichthi, Sg. 4b1 . bit comlin fri fér, Ml. 90b8 .

(b) bit, be(i)t, bat, biat, bidat : bit coirmmgnáithi do chomarpai, Trip.² 1565. bit fūaitne fīanna lib Luigne, Corm. Y 1018.46 . bit lia mairb ... andate a mbí, LU 7187 (BDD). bit lir bomand ega ... for lethchind, 7233 (ib.). beit fir móra ar macáin bic | ...bid daim ríata laíg ar mbó, LU 9587 - 9 . bed glana chenai, Mon. Tall. 130.1 . bet imnaraig, Anecd. ii 55.4 . bat mairb fir, IT iii 470.105 . bat lana, TBC-LL¹ 1055. ? in dóig bát dom éligudsa ón ? that they will be a cause of accusation to me (?), LU 3277 (obscure, perhaps bat is s. 2). biat mathi do chland, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 9 ( LL 147a10 ). bidat gai géra, ib. 550 § 31. bidat marthanaig, LU 1998. bidat mo na huilc innas ..., CCath. 988.

Conj.

(a) -pat, -bat, -bet : nipat ferr, Wb. 12d28 . nibat litre, Sg. 6b23 . níbat briathra, Ml. 68c10 . a mbat n-airbirthi buith, 94d1 . anambet ecailsi, 15d7 .

(b) -pat, -bat, -pdat, -bad : nipat ili anmand eissi, Trip.² 934. ní bat buana, TBC-LL¹ 1692. nipdat duthaine, SR 8355. airm inbat budig do bēoil, MacCongl. 77.4 . im bad tíre ┐ feranna, Anecd. i 42.1 . ní bad sgíotha dot sgéulaibh | na Burcaigh, Studies 1919, 439 § 10 .

rel.

(a) beta` : beta hícthi, Wb. 3d29 . beta messi, Ml. 70a9 .

Sec. Fut.

s. 1

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) badam : cid andib badam slansa mad ail duitsiu, Ériu xii 166.13 (Tochm. Ét.).

Conj. -badam : [ba] meti nibadam beo d' ingnais rig M. `I were not likely to live,' Ériu x 190.16 ( LL 276a41 ).

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) ropadat, badat : díambad curadmir do chosnam i nEmain duit, ropadatren (for ropadat trén, Edd.) for ōcaib Emna, LU 6720. ar badat slanchommairgi-siu bar Ultaib, TBC-LL¹ 1165.

s. 3

I Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) ropad`, robad` ; ar ropad maith limsa labrad ilbelre dúibsi, Wb. 12c29 . Sg. 90b2 . robad bethu dom dían chomalninn, Wb. 3c28 . roppad diil tanaisi, Sg. 111b2 . dorairngred dano rombad oirdnide a chland, Wb. 2c12 .

(b) robad`, ropad`, rubad`; robud` : robad chongbail ... dó, Trip.² 1731. robad chomairche ar Ultaib ulib, LU 3303. asbert fria rubad torrach húad, 10601 . robud sía, ACL iii 304.16 . ropad chora, PH 2593. robad was later replaced by dobad : dobadh cōir, Feis Tighe Chonáin 130. dobudh aisg ar m'fhine tar m'ēisi sin, ML² 1413. dobudh mór an éagcóir, TSh. 4845. 2718 , which in turn gave way to the modal pret.

Conj. No conjunct ro- forms occur.

II Forms without ro-.

Abs. These are rare in the Glosses and do not occur in independent sentences, but become more usual later.

(a) bed` : conidfessed cia bed flaith inna diad, Ml. 89b7 . bed messe gl. ratum fore, 105b14 .

(b) bed`, bad`, bud` (bud seems not always to have been folld. by lenition, see ex. below from TSh.) : asbert fri Cassan bed n-ann a eiseirgi, Trip.² 828. ní bad toisigiu dún something that would be ..., Trip.² 117. Corm. Y 473. cia bad chōir do thabairt, TBC-I¹ 2203. BDD² 126. cia de bud ferr la hUltu ..., TBC-I¹ 692. ní bud fiú sain, Anecd. i 28 § 28. budh urlamh, Studies 1921, 75 § 15 . an bél dúnta as eadh budh ḟearr, IGT Decl. ex. 1285. budh dual, TSh. 1584. In independent sentences, where O. Ir. would show robad : bád maith limsa, LU 3354. faicthear 'n-a dhorus a dheilbh | 's badh solus aitreabh Ifeirn Hell would be radiant, DDána 60 § 37.

Conj.

(a) The forms without ro- supply the conjunct of both bed and robad. -bad`, -pad` : na bad eola inar cintaib, Wb. 33b21 . asbertis cipad a déne ind hesséirgi, 25b27 . níbad ṡamlaid, Sg. 4b4 .

(b) -bad`, -bud` (in the latest exx. there seems not to have been lenition) : imrāidset ... nīpad andsu, TBC-I¹ 1330. ni bad chained, TBC-LL¹ 34. na bud chalmu, 2063 . adubart-sa ... comadh fearr, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1132. ní bud liacha, BDD² 493. fá bud chasmail, PH 7544. nī bud cobair, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919, 93 § 36 . do bhríogh gomadh cosmhail, TSh. 4766.

pl. 1 and 2 No instances.

pl. 3

I Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robtis, roptis : epert ... robtis maithi for mbésa-si, Wb. 16b19 . roptis imdai piana donaib anmanaib, Ml. 15c8 .

(b) robtis, roptis : roptis fola ocus cro | mo der do marb Imblecho, AU i 138.15 . asbert roptis gallraig, Trip.² 2786. roptis ferra, Anecd. ii 53.14 . robtis (roptís, LU) do renga, TBC-I¹ 1182.

Conj. No instance.

II Forms without ro- :

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) be(i)tis, beidis : robad do chland-su betis comarpai ind, Trip.² 1710. beitis lir leamsa cendae fer ..., TBC-I¹ 3543. bad dōig lim beidis hē fir Themra, 3371 .

Conj. -btis, -ptis, -bdís : asbert P. nabtis toirthig, Trip.² 2455. connaptís bí, LU 9519. nibdís aingil diada, PH 1787.

Pret.

s. 1

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) basa : basa iudide ó écosc `I was a Jew in appearance,' Wb. 10d34 .

(b) ba(sa), bam(sa), basam : ba-sa cāem, Corm. Y 883.53 . ba-sa cu-sa tairdbi buiden, Anecd. iii 53.13 and 15 (Sia- burcharpat) = basa chausa ..., LU 9328. ba-sa cathach, Tec. Corm. § 8.8 . basa chúsa, LU 9326 , 9328 . bása chomrar, 9335 . bassa collid giallasa, 9318 . bam-sa cu-sa, Anecd. iii 53.10 . fam rí (bainrith, v.l.) ar énlaith Érenn, i 36 § 87 . ba-sa maoth fri maithi, ba-sam imnedach frimm tair, iii 53.20 . basam (bam-sa, bam-siu, v.ll.) dalta tair[i]si, ii 71.7 .

Conj.

(a) -psa : nipsa iudide ó béssaib, Wb. 10d35 . 17c2 . hore am apstal ... cainipsa sóir ce dognén cach ngním, 10c16 .

(b) -psa, -bsa, -ba, ? -bam, -msa, -sam : nipsa chúsa gabála lis, LU 9325 = nipsa cu-sa ..., Anecd. iii 53.10 . nipsa cell cin chlocc, ii 60.4 . nipsa (nirsam, nipsam, v.ll.) condirclech, Ériu ix 45 § 2. ciapsa reithenech, ib. (geinsam, ciamsam, robsam, rosam, gersam, gerbam, gerbhum, v.ll.) ciapsa duine ciapsa bled, LU 3003 = ciarsam ... ciarsam ..., Fél. 52.37 . domgní mūichnech ingnais Ērenn | diamsa cuimsech for which I (myself) was accountable (?), ZCP vii 309.24 . i mbsa dechenborach ... i mbsa fichtech, Tec. Corm. § 8.6 - 7 . imsa nāidi robsa nā[i]r, Ériu ii 16 § 5. nimsa cu-sa imlo[m]tha fuidhel, Anecd. iii 53.13 and 15 = nipsa cháusa ..., LU 9327. ? cach crích ar bam cend `where I was head,' PRIA III (3rd ser.) 550 § 35 ( LL 147a ). pecdach mé ósam macám, IGT Decl. ex. 376.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) rupsa, ropsa, robsa, rob : rupsa frithortae-se, Wb. 33a12 . doménarsa ropsa beo, 3c27 . Ml. 49b12 . durumenar romsa dia ┐ rom bith-béu, 49b13 .

(b) ropsa, robsa, ropsam, robsam, robsum, robam, ropom : an airet ropsa béo, Trip.² 1434. ropsa altra dia aithair, Anecd. ii 71.4 . imsa nāidi robsa nā[i]r, Ériu ii 16 § 5. robsa ceile si do Ch., ZCP viii 545.7 . ropsam aithrech isin ngním-sin, PH 701. robsam fíadnaisech fodeirc, Ériu iv 153.4 . robsum flaith, BS 126.6 . Metr. Dinds. iii 310.85 . robam céle comadas, LU 3972. ropom tuire tend, PRIA III (3rd ser.) 550 § 35 ( LL 147a ). robam rí ar ó ngelChuind, IGT Decl. ex. 537.

Conj.

(a) -rbsa, -robsa, -rupsa, -rubsa : nirbsa dagduine i tossuch, Wb. 18c14 . anarbsa fuillectae-se, Ml. 127c17 . corupsa lán diib, 104d3 . annarobsa bithe, 45d6 . arromsa cumscaigthe, 46b9 . arrumsa immainse-se, 62c9 .

(b) -rsam (-rbsam) (the sense is very frequently pres. indic. a survival of the original perfect sense), -rbam : is mise Fintan fili, | nirsam écne óen-lindi, Metr. Dinds. i 4.42 . níorsum duine do éra, ML² 1959. nirsum drochlaech, ZCP viii 548.18 . níor sum (níor soim, níor shámh, ní rabhus, v.ll.) taithleach na n-each riamh, Ériu i 100.23 . gērsam snímhach Fiadat find, Ériu ii 95 § 4. gearsom glic nīr chrainn um ní, KMMisc. 350 § 7. corbam tualaingse, Anecd. i 10.17 . ciarbam treórach, nírbam timm, Metr. Dinds. iii 312.131 . Aisl. Tond. 96.4 . gerbham sáeirfher séimh, BS 28.10 . Brethnaigh níor bham caroid-si, Duan. F. i 87.y . or bham nóidiu since I was, LL 282a12 .

s. 2

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) ba, bat, basat : cia bátar do gníma intan basat (v.l.) gilla, Tec. Corm. § 8.2 . bat dín ar gád 's ar guba | bat fál is bat fidruba, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.9 - 10 (bad, ba, v.ll.). a chlaidib Cherbaill ... bát menic ac cur chatha, RC xx 9 §1 ( LL 47a50 ).

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -bi: cot-ráncamar ó bim (órbat v.l.), BDD² 1173 (Ed's. note : `read ó bi mac (D), where bi seems pret. s. 2').

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robsa, rubsa : huare romsa ugaire doib `because Thou wast a shepherd unto them,' Ml. 96d1 . arrumsa dite-siu, 103a4 .

(b) ropsa, rupsa, ropsat, robsat, ropat, robat, ropot: an tan rupsa Etain Echraidhe ... ba misi do cetmui[n]ter, Ériu xii 170.6 (Tochm. Ét.) (= ropsa, LU 10771 ). intan ropsa (ropsat, basat, v.ll.) gilla, Tec. Corm. § 8.2 . ropsat slan o chianaib dia fesmais `thou shouldst have been healed,' Ériu xii 166.12 (Tochm. Ét.) (= ropdat slán, LU 10746 (sec. fut.)). uair ropsat cara, PH 3099. LL 343d53 . intan robsat Cernach-sa, ZCP i 104.36 . ropsat fraechda, RC xx 12 § 16. ropot álaind ó chíanaib, IT iii 514 § 6. is derb ropat degairle, 482.280 . robat cara do cech cléir, 482.277 .

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -rbsat, -rsat, -rsa, -rbat : ro-t-rathaig narbsat fírgaeth that you were not, SR 1318. nirbsat meirb, RC xx 12 § 16. nirsat neóit, TBC-LL¹ 43. lēir dam ... | nārsat cara do Chellach, CCellaig 447 (where the sense is pres. indic.). gérsa maeth-macámh ... i tús lai o chianaib thu, ZCP viii 529.12 . cot-ráncamar órbat (v.l., see n.) mac, BDD² 1173.

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) ba, bu (once in Tur.) (gemination occurs after ba, see below) : ba frithorgon dó frithorgon cháich, Thes. ii 246.18 (Camb.). ba calar do galar caich, ib. 16 (do.). ba uissiu són quam inflatio , Wb. 9b1 (modal). 29d8 . ba hed ón ba chóir, Wb. 10b9 . aní ba choitchen, 50a3 . a mba cloithe `when he was overcome,' Ml. 32b2 . a mba ndiuscartae, 19c15 . ar ba P. dubert baithis du Chrimthunn, Thes. ii 242.9 (Ardm.). ba em carat `it were, indeed, the part of a friend,' Thes. i 3.4 . ar ba mmadach, Ml. 135a9 . ba mmo, 86d6 . (cf. ba mmebul lee, TBFr. 136 ). air bu ainm leusom maledictus do c[ec]h óin ..., Tur. 136.

(b) ba, bu, bo, be (once), pa, fa, fá, fo, bad, bud : ba slán iarom, Trip.² 1517. bá cubaid, 1516 (modal). ba lith mor la Colum cille, Mon. Tall. 156.7 . ba di Bretnaib di, Trip.² 707. rofitir in ben ba o Lomnae rofes, Corm. Y 1018.26 . Fél. Nov. 5. ba ferr a comaitecht ... oldaas a tuitim, IT i 75.6 (modal). ba mese ba sacart oc baistiud ind anma-sin fora athair, ScM. § 12.9 . nip sī sin adaig ba sāmam (rectius sh-) dōib, TBC-I¹ 211. BDD² 423. co torchratar bond fri bond ... ba sí tiget ind áirbaig such was the denseness of, TBC-I¹ 1996. cach nech ba siniu ┐ ba so, PH 104. in ti ba (?=ba a) tir `the person whose land it was,' Laws iv 4.29 Comm. With inf. pron. s. 3 : ba-id-n-imomain-side he was greatly afraid, TBC-I¹ 786. With suffixed -ch (= Lat. -que) (see Thurn., ZCP xiii 299f .) : do-luid tar feart a cedteallaig bach for fine forcomal `und es war eine gewaltsame Besitzergreifung gegen die Sippe,' Laws iv 16.22 (tr. Thurn., loc. cit.). bach ri Temrach, 178.13 . 16.22 . nī ticc dīa ēissi bu duilgi āer, MacCongl. 9.5 . ar bo fortachtaid dó día mboí i moxaini, Trip.² 254. bo ferr, BDD² 1320. a mbo ṡeiscc dind ḟolud, TBC-I¹ 1127. is aice bo doigh a mbith, no is e bo doich da fagbail, Laws iv 36.8 Comm. be sé sin trian macraidi Ulad, LU 5907. ol pa immaircede leis Loch nEchach, Trip.² 1956. pa menci, K. and H. § 1. pa hamru delp Fothith, ZCP xx 401.3 . The earlier instances of fa are mostly rel., but later it becomes freq. in non-rel. use. fá is the regular form in TSh. : is mé fa hairdbrethim binn, Anecd. i 28 § 30. 36 § 91 . curob é fa ri Connacht, v 21.25 . im orgain fa togaidhi do Ingcél i nHérinn, BDD² 423. as í fa banchele dó .i. Eithne ... fa díl ... leis hí, Ériu iii 150 § 1. beathadhach fá cosmhail ré mathghamhain, TSh. 1025. 3264 . (Cf. fa gairit limm beth ar Bóinn, Anecd. i 26.15 . Ériu iv 116 § 24. fa hadhbail re innisin an toran[n], Feis Tighe Chonáin 1841. IGT Decl. ex. 861. fá héigean, TSh. 2489. 5559 . 3715 ). ised sin fo lucht dō, Ériu ii 20 § 1. ri fo ferr sith, Ann. Conn. 1224 § 2. issed bad doig la C., Mon. Tall. 161.22 . ? bat (? bad) ead indas ind troiscti sin, 155.35 . bád chumma rom altsat Ulaid uli, LU 10305. do bríogh gurab é Eóin budh teó grádh, TSh. 10328. do bhríogh gurab é Ádhamh budh ceann fine, 9 .

Conj.

(a) -pu`, -bu`, -po`, -bo`, ? -p` (elision of vowel before initial vowel) : nípu accobor leiss, Wb. 14a22 . nípu séit samil, Thes. i 495.26 (Ardm.). Hy. v 7. nipu nach dernainn-se áem, Wb. 8a5 . Thes. i 495.4 (Ardm.). cepu ed adroilliset, Wb. 4c35 . ar nibu thacair, 33b13 . nibu techtae (`rectius: thechtae, but cf. 34c17 , 53d6 ,' Ed.), 100b22 . níbu machdath, Sg. 65a1 . conepertis ón nadmbu choir, Ml. 136b4 . in loc diambu thabarthi ermitiu feid, 22a4 . nipo chóim, Wb. 4b12 . nípo úaib act ba o apsatalib, 13a20 . napo chenéel, 5a14 . nibo cen fochidi, 24c19 . ? nip (`leg. nipu ? or is it subjunctive ?,' Ed.) ar irlami far cúrsagtha, 26b23 . 5b3 .

(b) -pu`, -bu`, -po`, -bo`, -p`, -b`, -ba`, -fa`, -bad (as lenition was somet. marked we may assume it was regular) : rofitir P. nípu chian, Trip.² 2866. LU 4974. Fél. Sept. 27. nīpu samlaid, TBC-I¹ 1280. napu díb lamaib, LL 123b2 . asrubart M. nibu moo, Mon. Tall. 133.10 . ni bu cād, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 40 § 17. ni bu chul serci, IT i 77.2 . nī bu ṡanct-Brigit ṡúanach, Hy. v 21 ō bu becān, Ériu viii 164.7 . cíid iarom P. combu [ḟ]liuch a agad, Trip.² 1305. nabu cert, SR 3673. nīpo rom, TBC-I¹ 1728. dalēici sōn C., cobo (LU combo) thairis docher, 1737 . ni bo chomailt, AU i 110.8 . Fél. Prol. 114. BDD² 549. abaind letain nádbo domain, LU 1747 (ICM). combo chomsolus lá ┐ adaig, 8056 . iarfaigis dó cia diambo cheli, 8535 (FB). nī fo cīan, TBC-I¹ 485. nipsī sin adaig ba sāmam dōib, TBC-I¹ 211. nip seoit fo-fhiallach, Anecd. ii 57.z . ba fae leo nip n-ēn comadus ina n-ēill, Corm. Y 1059.18 . nīb sī t'opar comadhas, TBC-I¹ 785. nib sam, Anecd. i 13.14 . roluited ind scīn co nāb ālaind īarnamarach, Corm. Y 883.32 . níba s[h]uthain, TBFr. 5. comba samalta ┐ snāth ōir, TBC-I¹ 2027. comba comsolus lá ┐ adaig, LU 10125. co mba fliuch, BDD² 885. FDG 615. comba taí tastadach for Ultaib, MU² 119. PH 1082 (there is no instance here of lenition marked after comba). taitned fria in grían co bba forderg, BDD² 12. diamba Cholum coemdalta, LU 752. ni fa si do conair, YBL 174b14 . co nebairt co mbad mac don rig he, FDG 724.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) rupu`, rubu`, ropu`, robu`, ropo`, robo` : rupu sí a rroilic, Wb. 33a22 . aní rupu thascide, Thes. ii 225.17 (Pcr.). rubu fer-som muintere, Wb. 33a5 . Essu rubu thoisech hi suidiu, Ml. 63b5 . ropu thol les a dénom, Ml. 71b2 . hore rombu thoissech, Wb. 33a20 . ar robbu digaim, Sg. 17a5 . robu foirbthe, Tur. 33. ropo thróg laiss, Wb. 21b5 . ropo thol, 14b3 . ropo chobair dond Érinn | tíchtu Patraicc, Hy. ii 15. amal rombo chuimse, Wb. 22a2 .

(b) ropu`, robu`, ropo`, robo`, rupa`, ropa`, roba`, rop`, rob`, rap`, ro bud ; do replacing ro : do bo`, do ba`, do bu`, dob`, do bud ; dorob (where the final vowel has dropped out the copula is nearly always folld. by a vowel or ḟ) : rob e a n-immed conna ... `such was their multitude that' ..., Thes. ii 298.9 ( Hy. i Introd. ). sádid echlaisc and ropu dos iarom, Trip.² 1851. TBFr. 11. ind ingen robu ṡiniu, Trip.² 1116. ropo cridiscél, Mon. Tall. 136.23 . ropo thír cāich, Hail Brigit § 2. ropo suthain, LU 1077. PH 1673. robo maith, Corm. Y 31. nirbo chucumsa ... robo chóir dál, LU 8750. ar rup[a] la Coirpre Crích Conaill, Trip.² 1724. ropa anaichnid, PH 5287. Mon. Tall. 136.20 . (asbert) ... romba si sainserc samdine hé, Mon. Tall. 150.14 . an romba (arrombúi, v.l.) dech do thimthagail, Corm. Y 1059.12 . is ar a deirc ... ro-ba buidech Dia do Abél, PH 5882. rop nem thened tír Hua Néill, BDD² 240 (= ropo, LU 6743 ). rop é fochond ná dilend, LU 129. rofidir ... rop si Etain, Ériu xii 154.2 . rob aille leo, Corm. Y 503. ScM. § 240. PH 1590. túaith rob ferr icht, Metr. Dinds. iii 310.88 . PH 68. uar rombi (ro-m-bī) ind fit cetne, Mon. Tall. 147.14 . rap aithrech, Ériu vii 229 § 75. dobo mana crimb chnáma, Anecd. i 31 § 50. dobo cléguin, Ériu iv 112 § 2. doba díchur flaithesa dō, ML² 1422. doba ferr linn, KMMisc. 320.4 . doba dhainmidh dhó a ndermad, IGT Decl. ex. 1180. dob áil, PH 7584. dob fhíor, Feis Tighe Chonáin 72. fa chloinn Uisnigh dob ḟearr clú, KMMisc. 356 § 4. dob fhearr liom go n-eagnuighidís (utinam saperent), TSh. 6857. 4957 (both modal). do búdh tusa cnoc na cclíar, KMMisc. 346 I § 2 . do budh [de] chloind Cuillinn ..., Feis Tighe Chonáin 1161. adharc ... dobudh faide ionā an adharc oile, TSh. 22. dorob ingnad in cuairt crecht, Ériu v 246.228 .

Conj.

(a) -r(o)bu`, -r(u)bu`, -rbo` (the exx. in which the vowel of ro is not syncopated are all from Ml.) : nírbu faás foruigéni, Wb. 13b7 . nírbu chuman leu, Ml. 124b5 . hóre nárbu bae, Wb. 5b12 . Ml. 60a12 . donarobu gnath techt for culu, 129d3 . corbu écen, Wb. 32c17 . Ml. 31b16 . corrobu bec, 131b12 . conrubu chrín, 99a2 . indí ... lasinrubu chumtabart, 102d4 . 131d11. nírbo sar leu ar cocéilsine, Wb. 19a1 . nirbo chuit eperte, 24c5 .

(b) -rbu`, -rpu`, -rpo`, -rbo`, rba`, -rob`, -rb`, -ra, -r`, -rsa(t), -rso : nírpu sía léu oldaas oenuair, Trip.² 2054. nirbu chían, LU 1756 (ICM). corbu réill, Trip.² 2136. ciarbu tholgdae, Fél. 125. fer fial ... diarmbu (sic) lan Temair, AU i 394. 13 (A.D. 878) . nírpo o chridiu, Trip.² 1562. nír bo thoirneach ..., BDD² 191. LU 915. corbo chonair letartha, TBC-I¹ 1887. gérbo tri haicmedha íatt, Anecd. v 20.25 . nírba maith, LU 315. nirba choir, Anecd. i 20.14 . PH 3078. adeirdis corba mac, Corm. Y 896.8 . gurbha (gur fa, v.l.) héigean dó, TSh. 2484. órba cindti forba a bethad dó, BColm. 96.4 . nī rob urāil, Bruchst. 37 § 87. nirb oróil, MacCongl. 111.7 . nírbh é, IGT Decl. ex. 1274. níorbh fheasach, TSh. 2973. nocorb áil, Trip.² 397. aided narb inmain, ScM. § 24d . ainm ... ionarb éigean sinne do shlánughadh, TSh. 2088. níra míad leo dul assin chrích co mbetís aidchi longphuirt inti, MU² 843. nīr mīad ... leis ind ūaburdelb ... tārfas dōib, TBC-I¹ 2020. nīr cōir, ACL iii 221.24 (modal). nir thim a ḟer, Ériu v 244.211 . Feis Tighe Chonáin 1203. níor ghrása na bronntanas na grása ... dá mbeith ..., Donlevy 214.y (modal). níor chían, TSh. 2479. cinnas nachar chomtig, LU 10316 (modal). créad is iontuigthe as sin, acht gur dhearbh leó ..., TSh. 653. cíar adbol a ndrong, LU 9395. ger mhór in ail, Anecd. i 29 § 36. teagh ar ar lia fear faire, PBocht 12 § 26. drong ... rér mhaith deighmheas do bheith ag an bpobal orra, TSh. 8926 (? modal). ón tráth fár dhearbh leis é féin d'éag, TSh. 2800. draig ... ór doilghe dul, Ériu ix 6.51 (modal). ónar thana lucht loingsi `by whom sea-roving crews are thinned,' Duan. F. i 81.9 . The ending -rsa, -rsad may have arisen on the analogy of the 1st and 2nd sg. -rsam, -rsat (qq.v. above) : derb leo nírsa meath don mac, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 44 § 2. nirsa monar maca[i]n maith | dingbail in laich, 44 § 1. ailtir in mac ... gursa hoglach mor, 43.13 . carsa dúal don aithech-mhadudh ... tocht ... d'imrisin risin árchoin ?, ZCP viii 553.29 . ciarso thucait ro-dos-foglúais, LL 133b16 . TBC-LL¹ 1935. ciarsa dam `though it were a bull,' CRR § 5. brugaid ... darsat (? leg. darsa) comainm C., ZCP vii 307.17 , but cf. oglach darsad comainm E., viii 549.10 . Cf. pl. : carsad comhadha sin ?, 544.22 .

pl. 1

I No forms without ro- occur.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robummar : robumar cuindrichthi gl. erecti sumus, Ml. 43d6 . huare robummar bibdid-ni dait-siu, 62b5 .

(b) ropsar, ropar, robdar, robatar: ropsar marba meni beth Find, RC vii 302.183 . ropar cocle cridi. ropar caemthe caille. ropar fir chomdeirgide, LL 10510 (MS ropdar with d expunged) = TBC-LL² 3071-73 ; robdar TBC(C) 2127-29 , RC xi 29 § 54 ; robatar, TBC St. 2903 ; robadar, RC xi 29 § 54 .

Conj.

(a) -rbommar : nírbommar utmuill ... nírbommar tromdi gl. non inquieti fuimus, Wb. 26b14 .

(b) -rsar : cid sinni nirsar malla, RC vii 294.81 .

pl. 2 No instances.

pl. 3

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) batir, batar : iarsindí batir inricci du báas huili, Wb. 5c14 . batir athissi ... dait-siu, Ml. 90d17 . air batar carait, 31a3 . 23c16 . Hy. ii 6.

(b) batir, batar, bat : batir banbrugaid sōn ┐ batar maithi, Corm. Y 1018.14 . batir faelti, LU 10585. batir hé iarom bátár im Ch., 8161 . BDD² 398. bátir (batar, batir, v.ll.) Érenn ardae, Fél. June 25 . LU 1699 (ICM). bátir īalla bātar inde, MacCongl. 89.26 . forsin fer batair bech whose bees they were, Laws iv 178.15 . batar sinde rīadatar it was we, Corm. Y 698.37 . SR 4072. BDD² 19. batar imtholtanaig, LU 3244. bátár hé sin a imtechtai, 11030 . bāttar dóini carsam-ne, Otia i 122 § 3. § 4 . bat comluatha dana fri conaib, IT i 72.11 . bat failid uili de sin, RC xliii 24 § 22.

Conj.

(a) -btar, -ptar : nitat pecthi ... indechtso cebtar hé riam, Wb. 4a8 . ciaptar mora a pecthai-som, Ml. 98c5 . a namtar tuidchissi, Sg. 6a13 . amtar mbati `when they were drowned,' Ml. 84d5 .

(b) -btar, -ptar, -btor, -tar, -but : céptar bailci bressa, Fél. Prol. 74. ciabtar glain, SR 2421. cíaptar áilli, Fél. Prol. 133. níptar ecnaig, ib. Nov. 9. níbtar dermaill, Corm. Y 398 . nibdar dimdaig, SR 3550. BCC 66.8 . imtar láin ..., | imtar ilerda, SR (Greene) 4659 . amdar suidigthi ... forsin teinith, Trip.² 131. comtar mairb, SR 5111. LU 8373. PH 5479. comdar slána, Trip.² 157. immuscomarcair cibtar hē asked who they were, Corm. Y 1059.58 . gu mbut ōga a n-ocobair till their desires were fulfilled, ACL iii 3.12 .

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robtar, roptar, robatar (Ml. only), robdar : nitat huili robtar tuicsi, Wb. 11a21 . hore romtar óis teglig, 7b13 . robtar beca, Ml. 90c25 . déde hí roptar bibdaid som, 124c2 . inna hí ruptar ardda, Thes. ii 11.42 (Bcr.). is follus romatar bibdaid som, Ml. 125b9 . 78b12 . rocretset ... romdar tosge maith doib nanní ..., 96b5 .

(b) robtar, roptar, raptar, robdar, robdur, ? ropat : ar robtar cosmaili, Trip.² 1297. Corm. Y 690.4 . robtar auctair in dana sin, Trip.² 328. LU 9602. SR 3449. robdar druid co mōreōlus, TBC-I¹ 835. Anecd. i 46.12 . ar ropdar mebhra laiss iat, ii 43.3 . arinni robdur ceithri uidhi, Laws i 262.4 . ropat móra do berta (? or leg. ropsat), IT iii 484.281 . ropsat comchuibde ar ceta, Ériu i 72 § 4. RC vii 294.82 . MR 214.16 . FDG 557. rapsat irlama, MU² 149. TBC-LL¹ 3243. Ériu i 72 § 4. robsat athlumha, BS 18.26 . robsad buana, ML² 2084. ZCP viii 539.17 . ? To this : na sluaig remi rosatr[i]uin (? leg. ropsat triuin), SR 3983.

Conj.

(a) -rubtar, -ruptar, -roptar : isuaignid ni rubtar gáitha for comairli, Wb. 18c6 . conruptar fadirci ind usci, Ml. 40d16 (MS. ɔ possibly for co L in which case ruptar could be abs., Ériu lvi 40 n. 56 ). ceruptar enartu, 49a17 . arrumtar doirthi, 34d10 . déde hí roptar bibdaid som, 124c2 .

(b) -rbtar, -rptar, -rtar, -rbat, -rpsat, -rsat, -psat, -bsat, -psatar : nírbtar humail fris, Trip.² 1976. Corm. Y 179. nírptar fáilti, BDD² 337. nirdar subaig, TBC-LL¹ 3242. ciarbat ile, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 548 § 23 ( LL 147a ). garbat discailtig, TBC-LL¹ 544. gurbat daitinigh, RC xliii 75 § 75. Leb. Gab.(i) 118.1 . corbhat foithe, RC xliii 84 § 85. nirbat sathig (nirbot, nirbad, nirbo, v.ll.), Metr. Dinds. iii 78.24 . nirpsat [m'] airm[-si] can ulaig, Ériu i 72 § 2. nirsat tualaing a dhinghmhail, v 158.210 . nirsat methol a n-athól they were not a band in the second drinking ?, BCC 290.28 . a mbrughaidh nírsat bronuigh, Ériu iv 116 § 24. gursad luatha, RC xiv 28.12 . cersat mor, PH 250. da ghadaige ... darsat comanmann Dismus ┐ Iesmus, 2852 . cārsat comadha sin, ML² 1387. carsad, ZCP viii 544.22 . ciapsat guir fri crabud nglé, SR 8007. nibsad adbul a ḟir bain, Anecd. i 13.15 . batar gnima erred lat-sa, nipsatar gnima con, Anecd. iii 53.8 . In : gomsad daerbhesacha macneda Uladh. ZCP viii 546.7 . the form is pres. pl. 3 but the sense calls for sec. fut. pl. 3. Cf. 545.21 .

On buith as vn. of copula see GOI § 817. Cf. mo bith lomnocht, SR 1336. maso ḟír ... | for mbith iarmui do Abram, 3498 .

1 melg

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 melg or dil.ie/31889
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: mlig-, melg, melgg, mealg

n o, n.? cf. mealg n-etha, quoted below. Milk (a deriv. from root mlig- `to milk'?): melgg .i. as, arinni mblegar, Corm. Y 861. melg .i. as, O'Dav. 1228. melg [melgg, mealg MSS.] .i. sugh [suth F.] ut est: tóla mesa melgaib scoth .i. sugh [suth F.] ina sgothaib ` juice ', 1271 . m.¤ .i. as ┐ m.¤ .i. súgh fobith isberar cid fri cuirm mealg n-etha ale is called milk of corn (a kenning?), H 3.18 p. 72 ( O'Curry 114 ). meilg .i. bainne, O'Cl. milc .i. bainne, ut est etlo senmilc (sic leg.; sinmilc, v.l.) .i. a milc a luim doetlo as a sinibh, O'Dav. § 1215 = etlod senmilg, CIH i 144.30 ( Mar. Dis. 28 § 5 ). Cf. Philarg. 20b : sinum lactis .i. genus uasis .i. bomilge ( Thes. ii 48 , cf. 363 and Ascoli ccclxxvii ). Apparently some kind of vessel for milk. See also oimelc.

mligid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. mligid or dil.ie/32398

 

Forms: bligid, de-od-, mbligtis, ommalg, mblegar, blegar, melgair, nodombligthe, mmeltar, do-omlacht, blightí, tomhlacht, tomhlachtais, bligtís, mlegon

v (O.Ir.) milks = Mid. Ir. bligid. The pret. is formed with de-od-, see Thurn. Hdb. 322. impf. 3 pl. cech bó ┐ cech míl . . . no mbligtis da trian blechta d'immarcraid uadib, IT i 72.5 = LL 260a27 (transitional spelling). pret. 1. s. do ommalg , gl. mulxi (= mulsi), Sg. 23b2 . Pass. pres. melg .i. ass, arinni mblegar , Corm. Y 1000 = blegar LB, melgair Bodl. impf. amail bid blegun nodombligthe , Dinds. 46 ( RC xv 439 ). subj. pres. s. dí laulgaich deec ó mmeltar ól n-aiss, TBFr. 179 ( Med. and Mod. Ir. Ser. v ). pret. s. do-omlacht, AU 732 = no blightí , AFM 727. co tomhlacht an aicmidh until the herd was milked, Todd Nenn. 136 = BB 204b23 . ro tomlacht cen lúag a llacht, Metr. Dinds. iii 166.31 . in bo ro thomlacht, BB 397a17 . Cf. also: coro tomhlachtais , 374b43 (spurious impf. subj.) = coro bligtís , LL 169a34 . vn. mlegon.

2 sinech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 sinech or dil.ie/37581

 

adj o, ā (3 sine) having (large) teats or paps: sruaimnech .i. s.¤ no sombleoghain, O'Dav. 1438 . gamnach .i. gam-sinech .i. arinnī is mblicht i mmī gaim, Corm. Y 687 .

As subst. se delechaib treibe . . . .i. se sinechaib `six milch cows', Laws i 66.9 Comm .

As npr. f. and as the name of a monster: dochúatar . . . co sith Sínighe Crúachan, IT i 129.5 . for Sinig Locha Rudraide, Laws i 68.22 Comm . (called Finech, 64.12 ), cf. SG 250.11 . s.¤ shármór shogherrtha, SG 251.23 . S.¤ Cró rodn-alt, ZCP iii 204 § 1 . Cumne ┐ Mincloth ┐ S.¤ a tri der[b]sethracha, Irish Texts iii 99 § 266 .

tarr, tairr

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tarr, tairr or dil.ie/40128
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: tairr, tarra, tairr, —e, t.

n [u ?, i ?], m. n s. tairr, Sc.M² 17.32 (Eg.). Laws iv 306.4 . g s. in tarra , Sc.M² 17.3 . Laws ii 240.3 Comm. a d s. usually tairr. Later apparently o, m. IGT Decl. § 39 , §45 (g s. —e, m. and f.), 96 (o, m.).

Stomach, belly (somet. translated back, etc., but this does not seem justified by the exx. Cf. however fora thairr, TBC-I¹ 891 = for druim, TBC-LL¹ 1571 , and the phrase for t.¤ under II): tairr .i. arinní taircther ind cach biad, Corm. Y 1262 . torrach quasi tairr-recht .i. roracht a brū immon gein, 1264 . t.¤ ` breast ,' Eg. Gl. 165.

I

(a) Of animals (most frequ. pigs) belly; side of bacon with hindquarters; carcass : dartaid inite cona thimthuch bés a thige; tarr muicce [.i.] les is tinne ícas la boin, nó thinne ordlaig ina chumbu choir ┐ trí méich mracha ┐ leth méich thara 'a shrovetide yearling bullock with his subsidiary payment is his customay house render: he pays the tarr of a pig ([that is] hind-quarter and side) with the animal or a side of cured bacon with an inch of fat, properly butchered, and three bushels of malted barley and half a bushel of kiln-dried wheat' Críth G. 108 , Peritia xv 320 . t.¤ loigi meich `a [pig's] belly worth a sack,' Laws ii 238.13 . t.¤ tuirc, H 3.18, 394b ( O'Curry 880 - 1 ). ro-sūig in tairr ... cona-farcaib bannai de (tarr, v.l.), Sc.M² 17.4 . a droim ┐ a t.¤ ┐ a huruscall, Feis Tighe Chonáin 559 . co tanic Sithgal ... in degaid a bó. co fuair Líath L. for a tairr ic a coscrad, LL 160a45 . a fheōil tarra togāin, Bruchst. i 28 § 63 . tlam do th.¤ ag muilt fhidnaigi, IT iii 104.19 (= tárag, LU 7014 ). t.¤ círdub ┐ erboll úainecda (of a dog), Mer. Uil. 284 . an leoghan ... ┐ a t.¤ a n-airrdi re grein, ZCP vi 61.30 .

(b) Of persons : dochorastair in glais for cūlu ossē cona lic fora thairr, TBC-I¹ 891 . fosnopair in slōg iarum ┐ a chreit a charpait inn-imnaidm fria thairr, 2880 . tuitid ... cona bhoin for a th.¤ risin n-abhuinn, Lism. L. 1593 . With faen : co tarla a t.¤ faen fuirri so that she lay on her back (supine), RC xv 456.y . ? Niuba tairr faén ri fer | rapí in chaém a chetmunter, LL 143b7 . ? is beart don taoighe dá fíghe aige faena th.¤ , TD 35.10 . Geogr. óthá tairr mara Point atuáid `from the bight of the Pontic Sea,' TTr.² 1047.

II In adverbial and prepositional expressions. (téit) for t.¤ attacks : cēin file in slōg fora tairr while the army is attacking them, TBC-I¹ 777 (pursuing them ? Cf. tiagair for tairr A. (of a murderer who had fled), RC xiii 395.10 ). co rolínsad ind fir a teach fair ┐ co ndeachadar fora thairr `had fallen on him,' Ériu ii 24.10 . for tairr aroile for lar ind taigi sprawling over each other, Ériu v 32.x . fo th.¤ at the base of, under : fo th.¤ coire sin coclaid, LL 145a36 . fo tarrib taebleirg tuignech, Auraic. 5147 . in tegsin fó t.¤ Ceise (a mountain), Duan. F. i 92 § 124 . codlais fá th.¤ chroinn, TSh. 9000 . téit di thairr dies in childbirth : ba ben atiden do thairr .i. ben tēit di thairr, ZCP xv 355.15 . beann teite di t.¤ .i. eiples iar mbreith lelaip, Laws v 486.9 , 488.1 . do theilg druim Temhra fá tairr who turned T. upside down (?), IGT Decl. ex. 1248.

Note also : ni taigi tarr-fine toranna mbruige .i. ... in fine donither re t.¤, i taitius, Laws v 452.15, y . See Stud. in E. Ir. Law 111 (tarr-fine=bronn-fine children of the `baitsech'). cosmhail barr a ghlaice gile | ré t.¤ slaite ige úaid `as though thou beheldest the thick part of the hoop of a torque (?),' KMMisc. 168.27 . tachráin bhíos ar baois as éisg 'na dtairr, TD 35.9 .

Compds. ¤derg red-bottomed (of sods) : na foít tarrruada tairrdergga, LL 189b33 . ¤fine, see Laws v 452 supra. ¤gel bright-bellied : cech bradan taebalaind tairrgel baethlemnech, RC xxvi 136.26 . ¤ísel : low-bellied, fat : gabáil brocc taebtrom tarrisel, Acall. 7392 . ¤lethan broad-bellied : in t-athach t. tromnertmur, ZCP vi 288.23 . tar taebhuib ... tarrletna aroile, Stair Erc. 2395 . ¤lethar some leathern part of a shield ; a kind of leather used in making a shield (?) : fa thairrlethar in scēith, TBC-I¹ 2340 . scíath ... forsna talla ceartchosair ... for a tharsciu tharlethair, BDD² 812 , see Gloss. ¤lomnocht naked (cf. tarnocht) : lobhrán truagh tarr-lomnocht, BNnÉ 179.1 . ¤ruad see ¤derg supra.