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1 ar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ar or


Forms: ar, air, er, eir, air, er, ar, arin,, airind, air, airnaib, armo, aire, aratobarr, arandéntar, arambiat, ara, armbad, ara, arindepur, aridlabrathar, arna, áirium, erum, erumm, erom, erut, ærut, airiut, airut, airiut, aurut, airiu, airi, airi, erre, airri, airre, airthe, erunn, erund, erond, airiund, airriun, airund, airib, airibsi, airiubsi, airiuibsi, eruibsi, erru, erriu, erro, airriu, airiu, erthu, airthiu, airtho, airib, airaib, or(u)m, or(u)t, air, uirre, orainn, oirinn, oraib, orru, orrtha

prep., leniting, with accus. and dat. See GOI § 823 , Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 150 , Frazer, ZCP viii 5 , Williams, Celtica ii 305 ; IGT Introd. § 130 .

Usually spelt ar. air, Ml. 51c2 , 2d2 ; er, 122a16 , BB 449a10 ; eir, Ériu iv 180 § 39 . The spellings air, er, etc. (more freq. in later lang.) and the modern pronunciation show that O. Ir. ar as simple prep.was replaced by a conflation of airi and fo(i)r (3 s. n. of 1 ar and 1 for).

In Mid. Ir. 1 for and 1 íar are frequently spelt ar. See III, IV below and the articles on these words.

With article arin, -int, -a, etc. Note also airind, Ml. 31b17 , air ind, 53a15 . arndi (= arindí), Ériu vii 138.4 . airnaib, Ml. 110d9 .

With poss. armo (m'), -do (t'), -a, -ar, -far (-bar) etc. Note also ar mh'éigse, Content. ix 26 . aire slicht, L. Chl. S. 2 .

With rel. part. ara: aratobarr, Wb. 12d29 . arandéntar, 2a10 . cid arambiat , Ml. 56b9 . ara n-eperr, Críth G. 1 . With copula: cid armbad , Wb. 11a19 . cidar impotabis, Ml. 56a13 . cid arnabu son, ib. ardott áigthe, LU 5656 = arṅdotāigi, TBC-I¹ 1178 (taking áigthi as vbl. of necess.). ara trēn, ACL iii 239 § 32 . ara n-amra, ZCP vii 312 § 26 . Before inf. pron. arindepur, Wb. 5a31 . aridlabrathar, 7d2 . With neg. arna airecht, Sg. 198b3 . arnach faca, ZCP xiii 169.13 .

With pron. suff. Early forms. 1 s. áirium, Wb. 7a12 . erum, LL 286a25 . erumm, PH 1397 . erom, 1503 . 2 s. erut, Wb. 27d19 , 29d7 , YBL 326b42 , PH 6565 . ærut, Ml. 2d8 . airiut, Blathm. 569 , LL 289b30 . airut, LU 8086 . GOI § 437 also gives airiut, aurut without reff. as `old forms which occur only in later sources' ( p. 272 ). 3 s. m. and n. GOI § 437 gives airiu as the dat. form (cf. airiu, O'Dav. 22 ?), airi as the accus. airi is the usual form passim in the early language. Cf. áiri, Wb. 11b21 . f. (accus. and dat. not distinguished) erre, Irish Texts i 3 § 8 (sic MS. See Ir. Hist. Stud. i 347 ). airri, SR 405 (emended to airre, GOI § 437 ). airthe, LL 286a7 . 1 pl. erunn, Wb. 15d13 , Ériu ii 124 § 65 . erund, LU 597 . erond, 588 . airiund, TBC-I¹ 170 . airriun, ZCP xi 110 § 26 . airund, LU 593 . 2 pl. airib, Wb. 20a3 , 22d25 , 27c19 , Metr. Dinds. iv 232.33 . airibsi, Wb. 14d25 , a33 , 16a26 . airiubsi, 15c1 , 17a5 . airiuibsi, 16c23 . eruibsi, 27d7 . Ml. 2a11 . 3 pl. acc. erru, Wb. 4d20 , 11a29 ; ZCP ii 315.26 . erriu, Wb. 9c8 , 11a20 . erro, LL 289b30 . airriu, Wb. 15a23 , 21d11 , O'Dav. 985 . airiu, Wb. 11d11 , Laws iv 176.7 . erthu, LL 280a1 . RC viii 154 § 5 . airthiu, LU 4915 . ZCP viii 310.22 . airtho, TBC-I¹ 409 . dat. airib, Laws iv 162.2 . airaib, 114.21 Comm.

In later lang. all pronominal forms influenced by those of for, giving or(u)m, or(u)t, air, uirre (uirthe), orainn (oirn. oirinn, O'Gr. Cat. 556.25 ), oraib ( oirb, BColm. 100.3 ), orru (orra, orrtha), etc.

The presumed distinction between ar with accus. when motion is implied and with dat. when no motion is implied ( Zeuss 622 ; with reservations Vendryes Gramm. § 283 ; see also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 73 - 74 , Williams loc. cit.) appears most clearly in the stereotyped phrases ar chenn towards, ar chiunn ahead of, before (see 1 cenn): ar beolu towards, ar bélaib before, in front of (see bél). The dat. is usual in ar cach láu daily (see ) and in ar thosuch ( Sg. 203a7 , see tosach). Usage is less clear outside fixed phrases, and that of the various collections of O. Ir. glosses differs (the available material is also much reduced by the frequent identity of form of a s. and d s. of nouns). The accus. is regular in Wb. in senses of taking away from and counting as , and also in glosses on Lat. ob, the dat. where the meaning is with regard to, instead of and in glosses on Lat. super. Both cases are found where the meaning is for the sake of, because of . In Ml. accus. is constant only in set phrases. The dat. is usual in meaning counts as , do-beir ar (for?) calls and in glosses on Lat. dat. without preposition (ar gentib gl. gentibus, 78a12 , 89c2 ) and where a Lat. compd. noun is treated as two words (arintinmlegun gl. promulgatione, 71c18 ). In general use the meanings saving from, instead of, in meaning of, in return for, on account of, because of, for the sake of, for the purpose of are all found both with accus. and dat. In Sg. the meanings instead of and on account of are found with both cases. See also IGT Introd. § 130 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 2 - 4 , 17 , 20 (where detailed rules are given for accus. and dat. both with simple ar and for compd. preps. such as ar aghaidh, etc.).


(a) Much less freq. in concrete or physical meanings than in more abstract ones. Perh. before, in front of in (case of follg. noun not certain): dá [n]dorus [n-]and, comla[e] ar ala n-aí, clíath ar alailiu (-e, MS.) `in front of' (Gloss.), Críth G. 100 . ar Tuatha Dé Danann `before the T.D.D.', Ériu xii 152 § 15 (TE). cethridoruis airri (recte airre) im-mach, SR 405 . ó beit fíanna fer nÉrenn ┐ Alban do Chonaire ar thig, BDD² 1416 . Cf. 1081 , 1400 , 1492 . ? airiu . . . iarmo in front of it . . . behind it(?), O'Dav. 22 . Cf. airber .i. frit anair bere .i. eter do dī lāim, ar is fort muin bere ere [n-]aile, Corm. Y 58 . Acc. to Binchy, SCano p. 33 , frequent in meaning east of, the only example cited being: acon loch ar Mag Aí `by the lake east of Mag Aí', Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 32 § 2 (`on'). Cf. Airbri .i. fri Bri Eli anair, O'Mulc. 70 = Dinds. 16 ( RC xv 308 ). ? a nAicill ar Temair, Anecd. i 17.1 . Cf. perh. Síd ar Femin, LU 7846 ( BDD 140 ), etc. (or for al?). Perh. orig. with concrete force also in: do té(i)t aitire ar ḟer feras in fuil, Críth G. 52 `goes surety for', Gloss. Concrete meaning is perh. also to be assumed in the phrases agaid ar (late, orig. for?), ar agaid, ar amus, ar beolu, ar bélaib, bél ar bél, ar chenn, ar chiunn, ar dorus, ar dreich, ar fed, ar gnúis, ar leth, ar medón, ar ṡúil, ar thosuch, ar thús, ar úairib. See under the nouns concerned. With more abstract force in ar aí, ar apu (see 3 aí, 1 apa). Here may also be included: doire acummisc arúir `of their being mixed with mould', Wb. 13d3 . úachtar ar lemlacht dó mixed with, Críth G. 63 . loim midc do chumasc ar usciu `to mix a sip of whey with water', Mon. Tall. 143.25 . ba fial ṅdō buith arnaib ōcaib, cēin dogēni calma among, TBC-I¹ 1266 = LU 5739 . ? tiucfa in mac cētna ar bar cloind, ZCP viii 563 § 27 (for?). Perh. for for in: ó fó-certa a ṡrúb ar géscoe against a branch, BDD² 349 (= ar gésce, 355 ). conadh ar x. míli cathrach do shiublaighdis techta Magnuis Cam . . . ō maduin co fescor `to ten thousand cities', Marco P. 96 .

Rarely of time. See ariu before .

(b) In the follg. exx. the meaning is also more or less concr., though the precise meaning of the obscure, and it would be possible to consider them as early exx. of the replacing of for by ar (see III, and fo-ceird III): arnarala for cubus áiri, Wb. 11b21 (see note). Cf. focheird mo menma airi `my mind is set on him', Ériu ii 92 § 2 . ón lá tarrla ar n-airi air, iv 220.27 . torala dia archeill do degnimu su `let God bring to mind thy good deeds', Ml. 43b15 . iscor lame ardodced buith ocairbiathad sainte gl. nam qui volunt divites f[i]eri, incidunt in temptationem, Wb. 29b18 . ? Cf. ni comarleiced (.i. nir cetaig) dó cor lamha aire (.i. dul do sacarbhaic) cin foghlaim, Trip.² 243 . mabeidní dirúnaib dothéi armenmuin indfir, Wb. 13a12 . Note also: arnaib réib ilib gl. et qui ascendit super omnes caelos, 22a8 .

(c) In compd. numerals (with dat., see Celtica ii 312 ): a n-óen ar fichit (fichet, MS) the twenty-one, Ml. 2d2 . cóic míli ochtmugat ar chét one hundred and eighty five thousand, 34b17 . a ocht deac ar chét, BCr. 32d2 . deichinbair ar dib fichtib ar trib cétaib, Trip.² 3104 . secht cathae ar chetharchait / ar secht cétaib is huilliu, ZCP viii 313.34 . cōicer ar ceithri fichtib, 219.29 . fer ar sheisir seven men, Celt. Rev. x 348.23 . fri re tri n-aidhche ar mís, RC xviii 162.32 . Note also: tāinic buiden mōr . . . dōig lim is ar trichaid cēt inti approximately(?), TBC-I¹ 3142 (text perh. faulty).

II In a wide variety of abstract meanings for the most part deriving independently from those given under I.

(a) for, for the sake of, on behalf of, etc. (often gl. Lat. pro) (with accus. and dat. See Celtica ii 309 ): cia dudrigni dia mór di maith erriu, Wb. 11a20 . innahí dorigeni Día ar maccu Israhel, 30 . mirabilia dorígeni Dia ar maccaib Israhel, 28 . massu arinbethid . . . dagníu, 13c11 . mor ní as dénti ní airriu, 15a23 (in sense of mod. déanaim rud ar I obey, see Thes. Suppl. 51 ). niarséuti . . . robcarsi tíamthe, 23d4 . ar erchru gl. pro defectu, Ml. 31a4 . dusrigeni dia erru amal robu thol doib, 54a34 . fri assaru ar maccu israhel gl. rerum gestarum (testimonio), 94d2 . ara bǽsaib som .i. ar denum a thule gl. pro suis ritibus laborantes, 87b20 . a ndorigēnai in rí / do ḟertaib ar ṡanct Brigti, Thes. ii 332.4 (Hy. v). or ar Bran nailither, 286.34 (inscr.). lānamain . . . nī fil etarscarad dōib acht ar Dia, Corm. Y 824 . léicfider cach bean do mnáib airiut thou wilt be preferred to all other women, BDD² 59 . ar ghaol for the sake of relationship, Studies 1918, 99 § 15 . dorindedh mainistreacha ┐ sepeil le ar anmain Gyi `for the soul of G.' ZCP vi 90.11 . See also under meince, 1 pairt. Freq. in sense of (praying) for, see airnigde, guide, guidid, oráit.

(b) for the sake of, by in adjurations and invocations: dilig dam . . . / ar Maire n-amra n-Ingin, SR 7820 . ar do chumachtae . . . tesaircc dam-sa mo chūrcha, BColm. 54.3 . ar do thrīnōiteacht, a Thrīnōit, ACL iii 241 § 2 . ar t'fhírinni riutsa, na furáil etc. by thy honour, CCath. 1659 . ar na deib rib, TTebe 4025 . síol Ádhaimh . . . / ar do thocht díobh slánaigh sinn, Dán Dé ix 22 .

(c) on account of, because of (with accus. and dat. Glossing Latin ob, pro, propter): ar ar comoicsi do bás on account of, Wb. 14b25 . aracethardese gl. quam ob causam, 31b24 . ob mirationem .i. airinn adamrugud, Ml. 61a15 . ar chosmaili ind fochuinn diaragbtha gl. causae uicinitate, 35b24 . ar ét im chrabud gl. pro zelo religionis, 36d24 . arna lithu gl. propter cultús diuini festa, 47b2 . arna pecthu immefolngat guasacht do anmin gl. propter animae pericula, 7 . cid arnaibhisiu .i. arnaib hi forodamarsa gl. ob ista, 58d13 . ní ar pianaib do thabairt forru `not on account of the infliction of punishments upon them', 114b7 . ara foirbthetu fadesin, Wb. 6c19 . tocombaig a ṡlán ara ḟornert because of, Críth G. 415 . ar ṡóethaib because of grievances, 581 . ar ilar a imarbus, ZCP viii 104.7 . Corco Bāiscind ar a nert / nī damaid cert d'Eoganacht, v 500.16 .

With a variety of nouns in more or less stereotyped phrases: ar na h-ádhbharaibh sin for those reasons, ML 58.11 . ar[a] airmitin som through respect for him, Ériu iv 30.23 . ar t'ḟuath, i 97.32 . ni diles ni doberar ar uathbas `nothing is lawful which is given out of terror', Laws iv 286.25 . See also under áis, cairde, 1 cúis, 1 écndairc, éicen, ecla, 1 gart, midlachas, miscais, omun, sant, serc, úacht, etc.

Common with abstr. nouns from adjj. in the construction: nīr fētatar a tōcbāil ar a truma because of her weight = because she was so heavy, Anecd. iii 9.8 . ar dúire a drochdelba, Ériu iv 102.16 . ar ḟebus na cuidechtae because the company was so excellent, BColm. 78.18 . ar a laechdacht, ZCP viii 318.12 . ar cumga in puill nír féd dul amach, Ériu v 49.7 . in senadh ic á adhradh ar a uaisle, CCath. 334 . ar ghoire do ghaoil, Dán Dé xi 11 . Without poss. or gen.: cona tisa . . . in dam tarais ar airdi (a fence), Laws iv 76.19 Comm.

Freq. in advv.and conjj. in O. Ir. glosses. 3 s. n. as adv. on account of it, therefore: fristemlighter cid ind aier airi, Ml. 73c2 . ni bad pronomen airi, Sg. 203b2 . isairi doroigu dia geinti hore . . . this is why . . . because, Wb. 5b12 . is airi inso rogabad som hi rige, Ml. 14a4 . cinid airi doberr desimrecht acht ar atrebthach nand, Sg. 35b13 . With article and i: arindi gl. eo, Sg. 190a4 . ni arindí . . . sed quia not because . . . but because, 5a4 . arindisin gl. ei, Ml. 54c6 . arndi furumai sár for cach toil, Ériu vii 138.3 . With se: ní nád ṁbed arse di chorp gl. ideo, Wb. 12a22 . arse gl. ob hoc, Ml. 18d15 , gl. qua re, 29d1 . isarse gl. quo circa, Enchir. Aug. 70b , 81b ( ZCP vii 480 , 484 ). airechas ceneóil airsiu (leg. airsin? edd. airriu, Ped. MS Index to Wb. glosses) ní airechas fidei, Wb. 1b12 . Later: air sin on account of that, CCath. 2350 . Note also: ar a smuaintighib do beith . . . a mbeat[h]aidh an tigerna so that his thoughts might be in, etc., BCC § 5 (cf. ara).

(d) instead of, in place of, as substitute for, in meaning of (meaning confined to O. Ir. glosses. With dat., occas. with accus.): arnab geintib huilib taken as referring to all the Gentiles gl. Iudeos et Grecos omnes, Wb. 2a15 . foirbthe ar anfoirbthu gl. decem milia, a perfect (number) for an imperfect, 9a10 . corda .i. arin duiniu huli lesom gl. a parte totum, Ml. 53a2 . todochide ar sechmadachtae n-anfoirbthe gl. commotatio . . . temporum `future for imperfect', 62a16 . arnaib bolcaib gl. pro uesicis, 99a4 . fogur cechtar de ar alaliu ┐ fogur na liter naile airriusom, Sg. 4a8 . ni roscríbad ar naill (leg. ar na aill, edd.), 6b3 . a ṡuidigud ar anmmaimm dílius, 27a1 .

Often with as-beir, do-beir etc.: dobeir inso arnab uilib cumactib gl. supra omnem principatum et potestatem et uirtutem et dominationem, Wb. 21a13 . epert innan (MS. inna) aisndisen arnaib gnimaib gl. dicit autem non quia talia locuti sunt Scribae . . . sed quia talia fecerint, Ml. 16d3 . a ndurigni duaid in gnim sin in tengad do airbirt ar gnimaib in choirp, 31b24 . intan asmbersom pes ┐ manus nochis arnaib gnimaib són dungniat som honaib ballaib hisin atbeirsom, 56b3 . tri suidigud dosom inna cluas arin chorp huiliu, 60b16 . arnaib fedaib sonartaib ardaib gl. pro terribilibus arbustís cedros possuit, 146a6 .

The idiom ad-rími ar counts as (with accus. and dat.) is prob. to be assigned to this section: ní ármisom ar chumactte, Wb. 6a1 . cenid ar chomsuidigthib adrímther inna fortórmach so, Sg. 202a5 . See ad-rími. With LA: petra les arin trediusa sís he takes petra as standing for, Ml. 60a7 . in loc lesom híc arnaib aitrebthidib gl. a loco habitatores intellegite, 144c3 .

(e) in return for, in exchange for, as price of, in payment for, as equivalent of (with accus.): airitiu lóge ar mo precept in return for, Wb. 10d31 . rotbīa a lōg airi you shall have a reward for it, TBC-I¹ 585 . is lá cach(a) tíre do-tét dlega(i)r aire `is due for it', Ériu xvii 70.4 . Freq. do-beir lóg etc. ar: ainm indlóge doberr domiledaib armílte, Wb. 3c1 . intan dobera Dia fochraicci ar degnimu, Ml. 90c14 . screpul doberar do gilli . . . ar comaitecht do neuch o pecad `a groat that is given to a lad for accompanying someone in a sin', Mon. Tall. 143.9 . nī tibur-so in tinnscra sin(ee) cid ar Meidb C. feissin I wouldn't give a brideprice like that for M. herself, ZCP iv 39.7 (cf. TBFr. 185 ). ní conrogab terochraic . . . ar forbrissiud fir truaig `reward for oppressing a wretched man', Ml. 36a32 . ni riat na dánu diadi ara n-indeb domunde sell for, Wb. 28c2 . ríthæ . . . ar ech ndonn, Thes. ii 240.1 (Ardm.). tale damsa a log ar epert do firinne lat, Ml. 36a32 . síodh Dhé 'gá ceannach ar chrodh being bought for herds, Dán Dé xxvii 33 . With vbs. of leaving, abandoning: ni dérsid for sóiri ar fognam, Wb. 20b10 . roleicc creitim ar in paganacht he left the faith for paganism, Anecd. iii 72.28 . as uime do trēig Temraigh / ar Chend Maghair, ZCP viii 108.19 . Denoting preference: ragaid duit aire . . . rígi hÉrend in preference to him, BColm. 68.18 . do mholfuinn fear an leithléighinn 'gá mbíadh beatha ghlan . . . arfhear láinléighinn 'gá mbíadh beatha némhthromdha, Mac Aingil 4782 .

(f) for the purpose of, in order to obtain (as far as the exx. serve with accus. in Wb. and dat. in Ml. The exx. from Wb. given here, however, could equally be referred to the preceding section): precept arbiad in order to obtain food, Wb. 10d13 . madarlóg pridchasa, 23 . is arnach nindocbáil móir fodaimim se inso, 23b12 . asberat isar indeb isdénti tol dǽ, 29b12 . arind etarimdibiu (arindetar imdibiu, MS.) gl. pro interfectione aduersariorum, Ml. 36b23 . ar chuindriug pectho gl. instrumentum est divinae iustitiae `for the correction of sin', 49b7 . gabthe dunad les fris arinoillus for protection, 55c1 . asberar ar thormuch pectha for the purpose of increasing sin(?), 76a5 . bliadain lán dano do M. [┐] a muindtir uli for usciu ┐ bargin ar tuaslucud anmae B. `to obtain the release of the soul of B.,' Mon. Tall. 133.29 . serc fochraici ara n-as[c]nam, piana do imchaisiu ara n-imgabail in order to avoid them, Ériu vii 138.28 . is rimsa . . . rohérbad ar eisnéis it is to me it was entrusted for relating, iv 144.21 . annsa lebur tuc sé dóib ar choimét a ndligid feín `for keeping', Maund. 61 . Also perh. in phrase ar olc fri, see olc (because of?).

(g) by virtue of, by means of, through (dat.): condenad fingail ar chuinged soinmige do gl. mercari peccato securitatem, Ml. 39a6 . ? ar gressaib gal / glenaid luch inna línsam `by feats of valour', Thes. ii 293.20 . ni ar lín óc brister cath, Ériu ix 47 § 18 . ar neart a n-engnama by dint of their prowess, ML² 286 . gaibsit tír and ar chlaideb by the sword, ZCP viii 313.21 .

(h) In general sense of in respect of, with regard to, in the matter of, relating to, etc. (appar. with dat.) (the ascription of some exx. to this section is tentative): desmrecht insin ar aimsir deirb that is an example of, Sg. 66b17 , cf. exemplum ara airiuc far diull tanaisiu, 106b20 , exemplum inso ara rangabalda asrubart, 39a5 . annsom hi taurgillib tairgille ar bechaib, Laws iv 162.1 . rucus tairgilli ar bechaib `für Bienen ist ein `tairgille' . . . zu stellen', ZCP xv 319 § 12 . ? isam ómun ar a aisnéis I am afraid to relate it, LU 5349 . is fon samla-sin . . /gníth . . . a cét-chumma / Temrach . . . / ar áibnius in beauty, Metr. Dinds. i 10.64 . fear feadhma deas ar gach ndān in every art, ZCP viii 562 § 16 . bean as ghloine ar ghníomharthaibh `purest in deeds', A. Ó Dálaigh xv 15 . issí eisimplair Crist . . . do lenfadís ar míne ┐ ar buaine, ar deirc ┐ ar trocaire, Maund. 123 . ro derscnaigh d'ógaibh a chomaoisi ar goil ┐ gaisccedh, Leb. Gab.(i) 200.7 . Also in phr. ar chuit, see cuit. For do-beir teist ar see teist. See airbág.

Common in phr. of type: teine . . . ar thes crabaidh (of a person) a fire . . . in heat of piety = a paragon of piety, Anecd. iii 5.19 . Muridach, ba muir ar crūa[i]s, ZCP viii 299.34 . deochain ar grādaib ┐ sacart ar ūaisle a deacon in rank and a priest in reputation, BColm. 82. 15 - 16 . ba laech ar gaisced, RC xxiv 184.4 . a éan choluim ar cheannsa, Dán Dé i 19 . mar lile ar lí, Dánta Gr. 30.14 .

(i) about (of stories, books, reading, etc. In late exx. only. Perh. orig. for in this meaning): iomda ar Lasair ferta amhra many wonderful miracles (are said to have been performed) by L., Ériu v 90.4 . is mebair linn . . . / in seanchus fil ar Mag Ráin the lore about M., iv 156.18 . Leabhar Oiris ┐ An[n]ála ar Cogthaibh . . . Éireann, i 78 . craoibsgaoileadh ar chath Cluana Tairbh description of the battle of C., 16 n. léighmid ar Alexander n-uaibhrech, etc., Mac Aingil 872 . léan ba sgéal ar fianaibh Fáil, Magauran 2790 . Cf. sgriobhthar ortha go . . ., Ó Héodhusa 68.16 .

(j) With verbs of depriving, stealing, hiding, lacking, etc. from (accus. and dat.): tri airchellad donaib sommaib a n-anae airnaib bochtaib, Ml. 90a11 . is amne asruluús airi, Wb. 17d16 . a manaig do béim ar Lommān, BColm. 84.16 . ní bēram-ne t'áthius ort we shall not take thy victory from thee, 74.22 . ni cumscaichthi cumachtae nairi gl. hoc potestatem literae motare non debuit, Sg. 6a5 . ni fil nach díchlith airi, Wb. 1a4 . tesbanat boíll aíriu, 11d11 . in dá ṡét tesbanat airi, Críth G. 130 . ní gette na brithemnachta becca erriu you would not snatch the petty judgements from them, Wb. 9c8 . nī gatar a forgall ar domun degmnā, Cáin Ad. 4 . a tellad errusom, Wb. 11a29 . dives cui (.i. isar) clam tollitur , Enchir. Aug. 76b ( ZCP vii 482.27 .)

(k) With verbs of protecting, saving from , defending against (accus. and dat.): ainsium Crīst ar cech nernbās, Thes. ii 352.4 (Hy. vi). Dīa dom chobair . . . / ar cech ṅgúasacht, 350.16 (ibid.). dia dítin ar in pecthach, Ml. 57c4 . dia diden . . . ar náimdib, Thes. ii 354.2 . airnaib imnedaib doneimni a dǽ, Ml. 110d9 . fri himdegail cuirp . . . ar demnaib, Thes. ii 354.4 . diar snádud . . . / ar gábud, 359.6 . for soirad ar senachrib, Ml. 33b21 . air ni bói numsoiradsa ar chumachtae ṅduini, 74b13 . Continuing a Latin construction: ar thes inna gréne són ┐ ara naimtib gl. quae etiam inumbraret eos et regeret, 97c4 . arnaib cumachtgaib gl. difensionem, 103c7 . arnaib hi sin gl. ut illis eripiat, 117b4 . defensionis . . . ar maccaib israhel, 124b10 . Note also: comad chādus ar cach ngúasacht that it might be a halidom against every danger, BColm. 96.10 . tucc dam a Dē mōir / . . . / ar pīanu na plāg / tonna dīana dēr, ACL iii 232 § 1 .

III In later lang. ar and for become a single preposition (often with surviving difference in follg. mutation, see the examples in Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 2 ff. ). The follg. are exx. of ar for earlier for. Of local relations (for I): imda gol gargc ar a brú many a fierce wail in its lap, BColm. 100.6 . ar saebchoire in a maelstrom, 94.12 . tarrúd úire ar airib / for leccaib ar láech-maigib, Metr. Dinds. iv 232.34 . seóit Cluana maic Nóis do foillsechadh ar Gallaib Luimnigh `were discovered with', RC xviii 53.12 . Of quasi-local relations, etc. (II). Of point of time (c): ar na tri soldomnaib `on the three chief feasts', Mon. Tall. 129.27 . ar notlaice ┐ caiscc ┐ cengciges, Ériu vii 150.30 . Of rule, sway, over (f): ba rī tenn ar Tūathmumain, ZCP viii 119.28 . flaithius ┐ forlamhus ar crichaib . . . na cruinne, CCath. 1 . In addition to (g): cotardda trá ar se mo chendsa ardo chend my head in addition to thine, RC iii 185.8 . credo ┐ pater . . . ar cech m-biait, xv 490 § 26 ( for cach mbiait, § 32 ). Affecting, afflicting, etc. (h): bíd oirb oman Dé do neim, BColm. 100.3 . trom orm a innisi, ZCP viii 200.25 . duaithnid ar dainib in domain incomprehensible to, Fen. 38. 16 . Subsisting on (j): ar geilt féoir feeding on grass, Ériu iv 156.12 . ar usci ┐ bairgin, RC xv 491 § 30 , cf. for usci ┐ bairgin, 490 § 26 . In a state or condition (k): na biad ar in mbreith sin `that she would not abide by that judgement', RC xxiv 196.1 . nírbo borg báeth ar bruidin it was not a foolish castle engaged in brawling, Metr. Dinds. i 32.46 . With vb. of motion: ge deach rī Conaill a ccēin / ar slūaiged rí Temhra tréin, ZCP viii 116.21 . To express the dativus incommodi (m): adbathadar uile thorad parrthais ar Adam `were forfeited by Adam', Laws iv 266.14 . adbathadar ar Aongus a thire, 15 . rogabsat tech air they stormed the house in which he was, BColm. 72.4 . ni cloifithir oirb bar cath, YBL 314b55 . Perh. also: ben clucc ar Cellach against, Cáin Ad. 18 . cogadh mór le Domnall . . . ar Brian, Ériu i 78.5 . In phrases (p): ar bith c[h]é on this earth, BColm. 100.3 . ar comairci C. under the protection of C., 86.28 . ar debaid in haste, LL 7493 . ar lár cháich in the midst of everybody, Ériu iv 222.28 . ar neam in heaven, Anecd. i 39.114 . ar ṡeilbh (sic leg.) éicsi, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919, v 92 § 9 . With verbs (III): dorad min aire `put meal over it', Mon. Tall. 147.11 . dobert trian forcridi . . . ar chuid cach lae `added one third of water to the daily allowance', 7 . do thabairt geinti ar ireis, ZCP iii 22.6 .

Note also: rostatlaig ar thenn-medón he clasped her by the sturdy waist, Ériu iv 104.8 . roghabh nathraigh mbí ar bolgán `by the belly', CCath. 4194 .

IV Replacing ÍAR. Of time (I): ar cath Ch. after the battle of C., ZCP viii 314.18 . arsin, Ériu iv 132.1 . is ar sein anid sí co arnabárach thereupon she remains till the morrow, ZCP viii 309.20 . ar n-ēirghi grēine at the rising of the sun, ML² 1333 . sóaidh co brónach dia taigh ar marbadh a maic, RC xviii 45.31 . ar tteacht ór tticch, ZCP viii 219 § 13 . do bātar ar n-a crēchtnugad, ML² 386 . ar ngabāil gīall for Mumain, ZCP viii 119.31 . Of place (II): arsin t[s]eit along the way, Mon. Tall. 153.20 . ar slige Póil is Petair in the track of Paul and Peter, Ériu v 24.24 . According to (III): suidfither gach aon duine . . . ar miadh ┐ ar dligedh ┐ ar a sognim[r]adh, RC xxviii 22 § 49 . ar a fidhair fen do cruthaigh Día é in His own image, BCC § 408 .

For use as conjunction see 2 ar, 1 ara.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. cumachtae or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: cumactte, cumachta, cumacht, cumachta, cumacht

n io, n. (cf. con-icc, GOI 128 ). Also cumacht, see Bechbretha 157 . Freq. with -ct- in O. Ir. glosses, and in later lang. with com-. On cumactte, Wb. 6a1 see GOI 86 . Later cumachta [] and n, f. and cumacht m. and f. cumachta f., IGT Decl. § 8 . cumacht m., § 25 .

Power, strength, might : co cumachtu apstil, Wb. 29c6 . tre essamni cumachti `through confidence of power', 17a7 . arnab uilib cumactib dichoissin inim ettalam gl. supra omnem principatum et potestatem, 21a13 . is hóathir arroét macc c.¤ , Ml. 17c7 . hi c.¤ gl. non tradetur . . . in manu, 34c19 . is ed ac.¤ cétnæ gl. simili potentia, 48a21 . cenduch.¤ siu, 50a6 . a c.¤ gl. manus Dei, 51a7 . ní comtacht c.¤ ṅ diglae foranáimtea, 59c3 . mét inchumachtai ón, 64d7 . innac.¤ nemdi, 108c8 . huanchumachtu gl. nutu, 108d10 . in chumachtai `of the power', Sg. 3b17 . ni cumscaichthi c.¤ nairi, 6a5 . cumachtai (rectius -ae) gl. ylementa, 3b21 . saini archuit cumachti, 7a5 . c.¤ ṅDé dom chumgabāil, Thes. ii 356.7 . do ratadh cumhachta nglan, Blathm. 186 . arindí riges cumachtu(i) chun[d]rig fora thuatha(i), Críth G. 444 `coercive power', notes. cumachta díasnéte in Chomded, LU 2046 ( FA 12 ). gora lásetar in n-abaind assa curp ┐ assa cumac[h]ta `from its usual course and extent', TBC-LL² 3330 . riasin cumachta moir sin, Bodl. Dinds. 14 . dotchumachtaib nemtruailnide gl. potentia, Gild. Lor. 69 . ru-s-gab . . . in plag . . . cumachta fors-in Róim, PH 340 . tred chumachtain fen, YBL 150b27 . cérd a chomhachta `his best skill', Rel. Celt. ii 262.8 . tria cumachtaib chinid a mathar with the aid of, Ann. Conn. 1290.7 = AFM iii 450.8 . cóir creideamh do chumhacht (to the Host), DDána 14.2 . do reir gníma no cumachtan `actually or potentially', Rosa Angl. 50.5 . do réir ar ccomhachd, Mac Aingil 2545 . le cumachtaibh-sin (of precious stone), ZCP vi 325.9 . ar son a beth gabháltach ┐ a comachtain cum na foirme (of materia prima) in potency, O'Gr. Cat. 243.7 . cumhachd, deaghbheatha, ┐ léighionn jurisdiction (required in confessor), Mac Aingil 4465 . trí chumhachda, .i. meabhair, toil, ┐ tuigsi, 583 .

Of preternatural or magical powers: ba mor a cumachta si ┐ a huaman for cach, RC xxiv 190.16 . int aes cumachta ┐ anai ( andéi, LU 6251 ), TBC-I¹ 1751 . itá nách cumachta fora cul na n-én sa, LU 3276 ( SCC 7 ). do immirt mela ┐ cumachta forni, 8554 ( FB 41 ). dar mo chumachtasa, Anecd. i 11.21 ( SCano 354 ). a máthair tuc in cumhachta tṡidhamail sin dó, Cóir Anm. 26 . is imda lucht na cumachta, Mer. Uil.² 278 .

Gramm. of `powers' of consonants (in assimilation): éol ar uile chumhachtuibh connsuineadh, IGT Introd. § 2 (2.14) . an tan bhogthar connsuine crúaidh do chumhacht connsuine ghairbh when a voiced consonant is devoiced by assimilation to a voiceless fricative, § 29 . gé do-rinne an tshoil cumhachda gáoidhilgi ortha though the s has altered their pronounciation (so that they rhyme), § 31 .

Transfd. uses: na rig ┐ na cumachta (of persons), PH 1216 (cf. Wb. 21a13 cited above). ro teichset . . . riasin cumacht moir, BB 409a43 . o cuadar mo cumachta .i. mo ridiri uaim, Fier. 181 . screapall gacha tighe . . . fana chumachtuibh throughout his dominions, BNnÉ 202.10 .

In phrase fo chumachtu, -e under the power of: do buid fom chumachtu gl. quos mihi dedit Deus, Wb. 32d7 . fo chumachtu na doinechte, 32c14 . fochumachte dáei, 22c10 . nícon béosa fot chumachtasu, Fraech 281 . fom' smacht sa ┐ fom' chumhachta, MacCarthy 48.w . fo chomachtoip rīg na Spāinne, Fl. Earls 24.23 . dosṁbéra fochumachte in maicc, Wb. 13b30 . nim tharberar fochumactu nach sásta diib gl. sub nullius redigar potestatem, 9c31 . dotairbertsat in Asia fo chumachtaib ┐ fo mham, BB 417b20 . iar ttairbert chaich . . . fo a mamus, ┐ fo a chumachtaibh, Leb. Gab.(i) 236.23 . tuccastair an baile . . . fora cumus ┐ fora cumhachtuibh, BNnÉ 264.36 .

With follg. Vn. phrase: cumachtu m'anama do chur uam power to lay aside, PH 2370 . cumachtu laburtha, 2654 . With copula: masa chumachtae n dom gl. si fieri potest, Ml. 118a5 . di neoch bad chumacht, LU 10916 . connaba cumhachta do nach doen a tairchella rosc 'so that no mortal will be able to see them all', TBith.² 213 § 92 . With attá: nímtha cumachtæ ṅdo, Ml. 140b7 .

Cf. cáemachtu.

danó, dano

Cite this: eDIL s.v. danó, dano or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: dā, dano, dana, daniu, daneu, dano, dono, dana, danau, dā, dā, dō, dano, dono, dona, dana, dāa, dōo, denu, doná, nú, dno, dna, d, do, no, dono, dano, dana, denu, dā, dno, no, dno, no, dā, No

sō: da-nō, Ir. Gosp. Thom. § 22 . shō: 'nō, DDána 175 § 29 . 'nó, LL ii 11121 (TBC) . See Ériu liii 139: of unknown origin in spite of Zeuss 1005, n. 3 . Perhaps da-no, da-nu, cf. co-nu, ACC 66 , nu, ib. 11 , and BB 318 a 33 : dā .i. da nui insein; daniu, Cambr. (modelled on didiu? daniu: danu = didiu: didu); niu the dative of ní in Mil seems a late form and should not be compared. It is worth noticing that in the Enchir. Aug. 85 a ( ZCP vii 485. 6 ) Lat. denuo is glossed by nuu. The oldest meaning of dano is that of denuo ` anew, again ' (e.g. Mon. Tall. 149. 26 ). All other meanings arose from this.

A OLD-IR. Usually written dā = dano or dana.

daniu, Cambr. 37 d .

daneu, Cambr. 38 a , 38 b .

dano in full, Wb. 5 c 12 , 5 d 23 , 9 c 10 , 32 c 2 ; Ml. 43 a 22 .

dono in full, Wb. 2 d 10 , 8 d 5 , 7 d 16 .

dana in full, Wb. 5 c 18 . Elsewhere always dā in Wb.

danau, Ml. 37 a 8 .

The 8th century MS Cín Dromma Snechta had dā.

B MID.-IR. Usually written dā, as in Old-Ir., and dō.

dano in full, Laws i 26. 22 ; 28. 17 , 25 ; 242. 18 .

dono is the usual form in the Laws; always nó dono; (nó dō); in full RC xi 446, l. 55 ; Laws i 236. 20 (cid dono); Death-tales of the Ulster heroes § 4 ; Lib. Flav. 16 a 1 . 2 .

dona in full RC xi 444. 1 .

dana in full, ScM. 17 ( IT i 105. 5 ), H 3. 18 ; TE 13 ( IT i 127. 4 ), Eg. dana supported by the rhyme Acall. 3852 .

dāa, RC xi 444. 1 f.b.

dōo, Laws i 8. 1 .

denu in full RC xii 72 § 44 , Harl.; dē, ib. 86 § 93 .

doná, AFM iii 34. 3 ; 34. 14 ; 38. 10 ; 40. 6 ; 48. 11 ; TFrag. 8. 15 .

nú (: Lúachrú; no, v.l.), Three Historical Poems, 112 q.23Aa .

Syncopated forms:

dno in full, Thes. ii 308. 5 (Preface to Fiacc's Hymn; but dā, 307. 4 , 9 .); ib. 325. 7 (Preface to Ultan's Hymn, Franc.). Laws i 112. 1 ; 220. 8 - 16 ; v 368. 9 . CCC § 2 LU (v.l. dā). TBC-LL¹ 3756 ( LL 86 a 37 ). LL 34 b 31 (: rempo). BB 109 a 20 ; 353 a 31 ; 296 b 51 ; 322 a 14 , 19 , 21 , 22 (most frequent in this MS). Hib. Min. 15 (l. 51 , 58 ); 18 (458) ; 40 st 3 (Rawl.). RC xii 100. 1 ; 108. 1 (Harl.); ib. 108. 11 ; 92 § 122 ; 82. 1 f.b. ; 58 § 12 ; 72 § 43 . ZCP iii 227. 21 (Harl.); 249. 10 ; 228 § 3 ; 237 § 27 . ACL iii 2. 5 . Anecd. iii 25. 16 . dā = dno supported by the rhyme, LL 8 a 39 , 144 a 9 . dō = dno supported by the metre, ACL iii 297 st 60 , H. 3. 18.

dna in full: Laws i 20. 7 . RC xiii 377. 8 (H. 3. 18), v.l. dā. ScM. § 19 Harl., v.l. dā. Cog. 160. 25 . TFrag. 148. 11 . AFM i 470. 10 f.b. ; iii 110. 17 ; 118. 1 .

d, TBC-LL¹ (LL) 2298 ; ib. p. 179 n. 3 (Stowe-MS). ZCP iii 249. 25 ; 251. 4 . Lib. Flav. 26 b 1 . 43 . RC xii 66 § 33 (Harl.); ib. 72 § 44 ; 74 § 53 ; 98 § 131 . Hib. Min. 15 (l. 53) , 18 (l. 449) .

do, RC xii 104 § 149 .

no (short `o,' cf. below; nó, LL 90 a 3 = TBC-LL¹ 4318 ; cf. no rhyming with dó, BB 297 b 42 ; written l-, LL 55 b 27 = TBC-LL¹ 200 ): TBC-LL¹ (LL) 437 , 2826 , 2835 , 2839 , 2911 , 2914 , 2948 , 3167 (?), 3239 , 3647 , 3745 , 3753 , 3756 , 3885 , 4241 , 4261 , 4305 , 4322 , 4332 , 4343 , 4355 , 4365 , 4392 , 5018 , 6023 . CRR § 7 l. 9 ( LL 172 a 1 ), § 9 l. 8 ( 172 b 2 ), § 14 l. 5 , § 25 l. 6 , § 34 l. 2 , § 41 l. 4 , § 46 l. 7 , § 51 l. 11 . LL 57 a 33 , 91 a 54 , 101 a 2 , 172 b 48 , 175 a 42 . BB 46 a 19 , 269 b 51 , 297 b 42 (= IT iii 12 § 21 ). Laws v 368. 17 (? ar is ón no darcid inn[d]omon do duiniu).

for `dni' AFM v 1552 read didiu ( dī, Aut. MS fo 87 a ).

Of the Old-Ir. forms dono arose from dano, as ocus from acus, under the influence of the u-shaded `n.' At the time of the Würzburg Glosses dano was still kept distinct from dono, the latter being used after interrogatives apparently as an enclitic, without accent: ar cia dono, Wb. 2 d 10 . cepu dono, 7 d 16 . ce dono, 8 d 15 (cf. cid dono, Laws i 48. 24 ; 54. 3 f.b. ).

The syncopated Mid.-Ir. forms dno, no retaining `o' show that also in Old-Ir. the stress fell on the ultimate, as dano stressed on the penultimate would have given Mid.- Ir. dana. The Mid.-Ir. writing denu ( RC xii 72 § 44 , cf. dechum, debert) points in the same direction. Compare also the writing doná in the FM. In poetry the accent falls on the ultimate:

Acall. 3852 : mairg dadhair don luing dana. nachasainic Tonn Chlidna.

The syncopated form is often used in poetry for the convenience of the metre. It appears in several poems ascribed to poets of the 11th and 12th centuries, e.g.

LL 144 a 9 : Almon rathuit artús dā (dno leg.) i nEtail ra Troiano.

(a poem by Giolla an Choimdhedh Ua Cormaic of the early 12th century).

LL 8 a 39 : anmand tri mac Nemid dā (dno leg.) Luach Cessarni ┐ Luachro.

(poem by Tanaidhe Ua Maoilchonaire †1136; v.l. no, BB 46 a 19 ).

LL 34 b 31 : i ndáil fer talman sund dno [labrad] (cf. l. 43 ) lá is aidchi rempo.

(poem by Cúán O'Lothcháin †1024).

Further in a 10th-century poem from Rawl. 1 a 1 , Hib. Min. 40 st 3 :

fuilriud már guin dóine dno ocus plág for pecthacho.

in Fingen mac Flainn's poem on the Fir Arddae from the middle of the 9th century, ACL iii 297 st 60 :

ní mandingentar dno dóibsium dál ndrong ndelech.

and ICM st 188 :

atchitis dno (sic leg.) triasan tor sin forsin dorus atreab nálaind &c.

This brings us back to the time of the Codex Sangallensis; whence it follows that dno, though not occurring in any MS older than the LU, belongs to the Old-Ir. period.— No was developed from dno in Mid.-Ir. time. It seems impossible to fix the date of this development accurately. The appearance of `no' in old poetry, as BB 46 a 19 , 297 b 42 , is no test, as no might be a late substitute for dno. The fact that the earliest instances occur in the LL points to the 12th century. In Mid.-Ir. MSS dā, dno, and no go hand in hand. The spoken form was dno, later no; but the traditional writing dā lingered on for centuries in the MSS. No is found in MSS from the early 13th to the 15th century, when it became obsolete. The FM write doná, dana, dna, purely literary forms. In the Annals of Ulster the particle does not in any form occur after the year 1204 ( AU ii 242. 2 ).

In Mid.-Ir. no syntactical distinction is made between dā, dno, dna, and no. The particle is never placed at the head of the sentence, but can, apart from this, occupy almost any position within it. It follows stressed and unstressed words, and appears particularly often after emphasising particles, a circumstance which contributed to the syncope of the first syllable. It gives a certain emphasis to the accented word immediately preceding. The following is a synopsis of the most common positions of the particle:

(1) asbeir daniu ind apstol, Cambr. 37 d. torchratar no muinter Fintain, LL 91 a 54 . bemmini dano, Wb. 9 c 10 . mathidsom dano, Mon. Tall. 138. 26 . dogénsa no, CRR § 9 .

(2) abi mogasi dano, Wb. 27 c 17 . (is) maith dano, ib. 33 a 5 . bat roumal dano in fer sin, Mon. Tall. 159. 2 . is ferr dano lais, ní haurcuil dano lais MT.

(3) issí dano, Wb. 19 b 12 . issed dano, Mon. Tall. 136. 13 et pass. cipé no, TBC-LL¹ 200 .

(4) (a) uait no, CRR § 7 . dóib no, TBC-LL¹ 3239 . (b) is samlid dano, Wb. 21 b 2 . etrunni dano, ib. 12 b 12 . forthusom no LL 172 b 48 . uaimse no, TBC-LL¹ 4305 .

(5) is annsin dano tanccatar, BDD 151. 7 . intan dano, ib. § 162 . on uair dano ronuc, Laws i 18. 11 .

(6) a forbi tra dano, Mon. Tall. 128. 7 .

(7) after a noun in all cases except the vocative: nom. in hilur dano asberr a rind hi roṡoithe, Sg. 73 a 11 . gabtha díberg dano la suide, BDD § 41 . Diarmait dano abb ĺa lais, Mon. Tall. 153. 17 . acc. nicodoes mír feolai dano, Mon. Tall. 129. 22 . gen. cend Ferchon Longsig no, LL 80 a 44 . bóisom ic fechadh a bhráthar no, TBC-LL¹ 3885 . dat. do díb lethaib no, LL 175 a 42 . da saigid no, TBC-LL¹ 4261 .

Dā, no (&c.) is a particle mainly employed in principal clauses, though both in Old- and Mid.-Ir. it also appears in secondary ones. Already in Old-Ir. often = didiu, trá. In Mid.-Ir. MSS the interchange between dā, dī, tra, and imorro is quite common; cf. Windisch's note IT Glossary 467 . dā, LL 316 b 28 = dī, BB 133 b 9 . Particularly common issed dī = issed dā, nó dī = nó dō.

I adv Also, further, in addition, besides, as well, too , as a further point or circumstance tending in the same direction. Often with 1 ocus, acus, íarum, íarom, íaram, iar tain, beus, olchena, opp. cétamus Mon. Tall. 136. 23 .

A In the apodosis or main clause, preceded by a subordinate clause expressing:

(a) comparison : amal gnís tra Críst in samlid dā gniith demun in filiís defidentiae thus, too, worketh the Devil in f.d. Wb. 21 b 2 . amal as hiress ronóib Abracham nitat gnīma rechto issí dā robnóibsi it also has sanctified you ib. 19 b 12 . amal bete som i nimpudiu inna brithemnacte bemmini dano, ib. 9 c 10 . amal durígni inna gnímu sechmadachtai dugéna dā innahí tairngir hisa todochide, Ml. 50 d 10 . amal it dá lebur fichet it dí litir fichet dā, ib. 2 d 2 . Cf. ib. 69 b 3 . amal as messe dudaforsat inna dúli is me dā bæras mes firian foraib, ib. 94 b 7 . amal nách forcenn libuir...ní forcenn libuir dā, Hib. Min. 22. 6 . Cf. also: amal file oentid eter baullu coirp duini conroib óintu etrunni dā hore ammi corp Críst, Wb. 12 b 12 .

(b) condition : acht robæ quies et tranquilitas regibus bieid dā dúnni a ndede sin, Wb. 28 a 23 . dóecastar i mbí hinun folud bís indib ┐ a cétnide. mad inun is óinrann dā if it be the same it is also one part (of speech), Sg. 188 a 6 . madh tochus cin innrucus nama ┐ maith do dénum de as letheineclund dono beos, Laws i 54. 3 f.b. Cf. also Wb. 14 d 24 : intí dia ndílgidsi dalugubsa dā, where a relative clause takes the place of a conditional one.

(c) time : o adcuaid...a ndorigeni Dia airriu de maid asbeir iarum dā arandathidisom di maith, Wb. 21 d 11 . ho imrordai nech didiu isind [ḟ] tairsitiu adchí dolbthai dā iarum he also afterwards feigns it PCr. 64 a 1 .

(d) cause or reason : hore...adib cretmich infectsa cretmech dā for cland, Wb. 10 a 6 . huare techtas nerta is cóir dā iarum cobsaide oc díten a muntairai, Ml. 85 a 4 .

(e) concession : v. V (a).

B In principal clauses repeating the verb of the preceding clause, with or without `ocus'; also, again . Type: dorochair Laimidon...dorochratar dā forgla ríg ┐ taísech na Troiana, Aen. 18 .

(a) cop.: ishé som doradchiúir ┐ ishé dā as taidcricc it is he also that is the ransom Wb. 2 b 9 . ished ón immurgu as fír et is fír dā esséirge omnium post sé , ib. 13 b 23 . is oc frecur céill dæ atáa (sc. mo chland) is occa dā attósa, ib. 29 d 6 . ropo do Dáil Chonchobair dosom ┐ rop ed dā do máthair Brigte, Thes. ii 325. 4 . is misiu ém me dō rothairmisc, TE § 13 Eg. ropa cridiscél dam cédamus ...ropo cridiscél dam dā...┐..., Mon. Tall. 136. 23 . ba hamnus muirn na curud...amnus d an tarneuch ruboi and, RC xii 98. 17 ; cf. Ériu v 238. 5 . conid de dno hence also RC xii 106 § 162 . indligid don fechemain apad... indligid dō don bidbaid a élod sum im dliged, Laws i 114. 20 . isé rothomais ótha esca co gréin...isé dō rothomais, &c. , ib. 28. 11 , 14 .

(b) subst. verb: cach genitiu dichoisin ataat indib in dí chéill se sís. atá dā hi `sui,', Sg. 209 b 29 . bátar Ulaid oc ól i taig F....bái dā ben ind F. oc airiuc don tṡluag, IT i 67. l. 3 . atá...atá dā, RC xiii 458 § 56 . ar atát foruis...atá dō forus, Laws ii 128. 19 . dáig atát na .uii. Mani...┐ atúsa com thegluch no, TBC-LL¹ 437 . atá limsa for M. buaid cluaisse. ata limsa dā for M. A. buaid rodeirc, BDD § 48 .

(c) other verbs: ut Paulus ait...ocus asbeir daniu ind apostol, Cambr. 37d . rohucad airechas inna Rómæ co Constantinopoil. rucad dā a ainmm, Sg. 174 a 1 . Cf. ib. 73 a 12 (in hilur dā = is in h.d). rodelb iartin dluma in talman...rodelb dō na hocht ngaetha...rodelb dona datha na ngaeth, Laws i 26. 27 , 30 ; 28. 5 . dorimchell (v.l. rothairmcheall) rígusciu Hérend ria matain...toróchell (v.l. dorarmchell) dā prímlocha Hérend r.m. before morning he had also travelled to the chief lakes of Erin BDD § 155 ; ib. § 95 . tarlaic...dosléicimse dā, IT i 101. 16 . sadais ind snáthaid fo thrí inda dernaind co toltnadar na trí srotha folæ asind láim...saididsiom dā ind sná tultatar dā, &c. , he thrusts again the needle into her hand Mon. Tall. 149. 26 . dorad M. ocht fichtiu bo don Choimdhigh. dorat dā baile ic Drochat Átha, AU ii 130. 8 ; cf. also 130. 6 . asbert... asbert dā, RC xi 450. 130 . dogníth side na harma...dogníth dō L. soer na crondo...dugníth dno C. cerd na semonn, RC xii 92. 1 f.b. , 94. 4 . ícais an gilde den indel cétnæ...ícais d an gille d.i.c., ib. 68. 7 . focres forrai dno dus &c....focres forra d dus..., ib. 72 § 44 . dorochratar a trí comlín leo ┐ torchratar no muinter F., LL 91 a 54 . issed atberat som ...asberat dā, ib. 125 b = Ériu v 212. 2 . is amlaid tánic amlaid tánic in Mane Andoe no, TBC-LL¹ 2826 . atbert cend cach ḟir díb bara lííc ┐ atbert cend Ferchon Longsig no bar lííc, ib. 2914 . táncatar tánic no Fiacho, ib. 2948 . rachúaid dóib...dachuaid dóib no, &c. , ib. 3239 . Cf. also ib. 4299 - 4322 ; 2911 . atraacht C....atraacht trian slóig Ulad laisium no, CRR § 34 1. 2 ; ib. § 9 (rogniad... daronait dā). adorcradar som ┐ torcramar dō and we too are fallen Acall. 3174 . Cf. ib. 3399 (dō). roíarfacht didiu di araile cidh dorala dó...roḟiarfacht dā dḟir aile in cétna, Cóir Anm. p. 320. 6 f.b. genfidh ón ḟir sin ┐ ót ingin siu rígradh na hEtaile ┐ genfidh dō uaidib airdrigh na huili domun, Aen. 1519 . dochoncadar arna rindad fuath na Trai. rorindad and dō dealb in chatha...┐ rorindad ind dō amal rochathaig P., ib. 312 ; further exx. 256 . 326 . 477 . 568 . 1780 . gaeth mór...rothrasccair railghi. rothrasccair doná sé fichit crann i nDoire C. C., AFM iii 38. 10 . AU ii 192. 8 (dō).

C In principal clauses introducing a new predicate with or without `ocus.'

(a) the sentence introduces an additional action or condition of the subject of the preceding clause, the subjects being the same: robtar erdarcu de dind ulc doratad forro leusom ┐ roptar inducbaidiu de dā apud Deum, Ml. 47 a 17 . dobir cros dit sailiu for óchtar do chinn ┐ dogní a tóirand sa dā .U. fort chiunn, Thes. ii 249. 4 . rochúm [Día] in firmaimint imacuairt uime (sc. in talam)...rodelb dō iartin dluma in talman, Laws i 26. 25 . in mét dona fuil ó thalmain coruice suide (sc. in firmamint) issed dono fuil ó thalmain sís co fudomain ifirn, ib. i 28. 18 . rofiarfaig iarum don corrguinech dús cia cumang gonanacair... imcomaircidh dno den deogbori..., RC xii 82. 1 . Amenicán imráidim ┐ dno cóin innláidim, ACL iii 2. 3 .

(b) dā introducing a new subject and a new verb. The sense of dā becomes more emphatic, the statement being strongly marked as additional to what has been said before: further, besides, moreover . cum manu sapere plena fuerit .i. no rapere fit in aliis libris ┐ is manus dā bís indib, Ml. 36 b 2 . inna aithissi dombeirtis som fornni batir athissi dā daitsiu a Dæ, ib. 90 d 17 ; ib. 40 a 15 . dagnítis dā int Ṡabindai aní sin, Sg. 28 a 10 . sed etiam in accentibus, gl. biid dā comaitecht ceneuil do chenéul i naiccendaib, ib. 75 a 7 . is and ba hadaig for feraib Uloth. feraid snechtae már foroib dā (dno LU) CCC § 2 , ib. § 31. 4 . ní déntar ceth crosfigill...etar dí nodlaic. mathid som (i.e. Maelruain) dā and salmu aurnaigthe do chetal, Mon. Tall. 138. 26 . canir dā biad fri aitherruch aidchi lúoin. cantir dā salm aurnaigthi aidchi ndomnaich...fogní dā ailli mési laissom (i.e. Maelrúain) aidchi lúoin, ib. 131. 6 - 9 . is ferr laisiom dā he thinks it better, moreover ib. 161. 29 . is ferr dā lais, ib. 147. 27 ; similarly: is aurchail lais dā, 164. 14 . ni haurch. d.l. 143. 18 ; 161. 26 ; cf. also the common phrases issed dā is chóir (is maith, is dóig) la (or issed i. c. lais dā), ib. 134. 11 , 16 ; 148. 8 ; 161. 21 . Other exx. 136. 13 ; 143. 2 , 3 ; 161. 13 .— fochairt iarom for tech nand ... imarnic dō fri oclaig naile, RC xi 4461. 50 . birt roth leis ond óclaich... dobert dono uball dó, ib. 4461. 55 . ar ba fáith si dā she was also a prophetess ib. 4481. 81 . inor aodhar imbe ised dē uchtlebar, ib. xii 86 § 93 ; cf. 72. 19 . ronaisceatar fomoraig a cíos for Érinn...dobretha d na trénfiræ a foghnam dou, ib. 64. 1 . ┐ atrubairt dā in fer cétna riss and moreover the same man said BDD p. 152 . dorónsat baindea muiridhi dia longaib ┐ roiadh dō mórṡluagh na R. do leith tíri, Aen. 2348 . dorala dō olc ele and moreover, another evil happened, ib. 484 . loisccthear Slicceach leo. romarbad dana mac Corbmaic, AFM iii 362. 9 . tucsat ár for gallaibh...domilltea dō Laigin leo, AU ii 164. 7 ; 130. 8 .

D Often in the sense of `too' (`also') immediately after nouns and pronouns (or emphasising particles): domini, quod iustum est seruis praestá uos dominum habetis in caelo .i. abi moga si dā atá for coimdiu i nnim ye, too, are servants Wb. 27 c 17 . cid sisi dā ronfitid ni, 15 c 28 . si totum corpus oculus, ubi auditus, gl. bid corp són dā that, too, will be body, 12 a 27 , cf. són dā, 18 d 2 , 25 c 11 . duber som ainm fíno dun pláig duber[r] for nech ( 77 d 3 )... duber ainm fína dusuidiu dā he gives the name of wine to that too Ml. 77 d 4 . uetustissimi...`plerus plera plerum' (solebant proferre), gl. robói són dā leo this, too, they had Sg. 75 b 4 . ruc som fuil ṁbic uaimse no from me, too TBC-LL¹ 4305 , 4318 (nó). corocherddainse no mo búraig ferge that I too may LL 176 b 26 ( CRR § 41. 4 ). dober comermitin féid fris fessin ┐ fri deacht maic dā do dóinacht mac, Ml. 127 d 10 - 11 . cum Clemente .i. dalte Petir. rachomalnastar sede dā he, too, had fulfilled it Wb. 24 a 37 . Conchobar dā (v.l. dō) hissuidiu inna charput...eirrid Uloth olchenae inna carptib...Bricriu dā (v.l. dō) leo, CCC § 1 . birt macc. laír dā (v.l. dō) bói i ndorus in tige trogais dá lurchuire, ib. § 3 . in pendit...a dénam doa macc accus a sétig dā do pennait that his wife also should do penance Mon. Tall. 163. 18 . Diarmait dā lais, ib. 153. 17 . atá i rriagailib ailibh dā cosmailius fitta in other rules also, 156. 17 ; 138. 36 ; 151. 6 . gid iat Greic nomtairsidh romuirfidis me. Troianaig dō ad buidin bidbudh dam the Trojans, too, are a multitude hostile to me Aen. 458 . —In phrases like the following: isin chath sin dno robenad a láṁ de Nuadaid, RC xii 58 § 11 , the particle goes with the preceding noun (pronoun) and may be rendered by same. bói cath for Scathaig isind aimsir sin dō fri tuathu eile at that time also, at that same time ib. xi 448. 4 f.b. is inntisin dō táinic hEoan in that same year AU ii 192. 10 . sluaghadh la M...┐ is foran sluaghadh sin dā romarbadh hua hInneirghi, ib. 128. 9 . isin bliadain sin dō táinic mórgaith adhbuil, ib. 192. 5 . is annsin dā tánccatar dá prímmucaid Eterxel fón doiri at the same time BDD p. 151. 7 . —Compare also Wb. 6 b 25 : omnes enim stabimus ante tribunal Dei, gl. aratá brithem and cenutsu .i. deus. ishé side dā as éola and, where dā seems to emphasise the reference to Deus.

E Often in enumerations without a verb; espec. in the Laws and in the Annals (to introduce a new entry). cethruimi fair ar sellcecht...cethruime dona...cethruimi dono, Laws i 242. 12 . lethchumul dno ó fethemuin... lethchumul dno ó bidbuid...cumul dno...┐ cumul dno..., ib. i 220. 8 - 16 . impudh Uladh dā for Ua L....crech dō leo for Uib Bresail, AU ii 146. 17 . crech la Nial...crech eile dō, ib. i 582. 13 . maidm for Connachta ria feraibh Breifne. maidm dana re Connachta for f. B., ib. i 520. 14 . sloghadh la M...sloghad dā la D., ii 82. 4 ; 88. 18 ; 128. 12 ; 186. 21 . ithé mo thrí indroscc. giallnai do Scathaig...muinterus dā frimsa dadaich, &c. , RC xi 450 l. 127 . FB § 28 . Cf. the 12 times repeated `cia cléirech dā' BColm. 102. 15 - 103. 11 .

F ní (ná, nách)...dano nor...either, like Germ. `auch nicht.' ní lour in bendachad...ní lour dano in nebmaldachad auch geniigt nicht nicht zu fluchen Wb. 5 d 23 . ar ní cumuing side dā imfogbaidetid ná lánamnas manip tol apud mulierem, 9 d 18 . nihil enim intulimus in hunc mundum, haud dubium quod nec auferre quid possimus .i. ní béram ass dā, 29 b 15 . et uos, domini, eadem facite illís .i. nachiberpid si dā ibar cumachtu, 22 d 6 ; cf. 3 a 14 , 9 d 5 . amal nad frescat bás inna cethrai ní bí dā cida fresciso in báis etir lasna dóini so, Ml. 69 b 3 . ní díltai dā (sc. Priscianus) in cétbuid nísin leugnet auch nicht Sg. 201 b 10 . Compare RC xii 68 § 36 . Mon. Tall. 129. 22 ; 131. 22 ; 143. 15 ; 145. 19 ; 160. 4 .

G nó dano, nó dono, nó dno ( BB 323 b 7 . Laws i 112. 1 ), nó no ( BB 35 b 7 ) = emphasised nó, often interchanging with simple `nó.' or, or else . Synon. nó didiu, Fél. 2. 13 . PH 7082 . nach dú immurgu inimfogni fri foxlid nó fritobarthid dā wherever it is construed with the ablative or dative Ml. 27 c 10 . nó dō (v.l. nó itá i.e. ita), ACL iii 293. 16 . Very common in the Laws to introduce a new and different opinion. dogabar eneclann do neoch a dualgus a dhána...┐ nocha faghbar a dualgus a chinn...nó dō go fathar eneclann dó a dualgus a dhána ┐ in chinn aga nderna uirrned, Laws i 62. 2 f.b. senchus dō a `sen' fil ann is ónní as senex atá...nó dō a `sen' fil ann is ónní is sensus, ib. 34. 28 ; ib. 36. 2 ; 40. 7 ; 68. 5 f.b. ; 96. 17 : 106. 35 ; 108. 5 ; 112. 1 ; 128. 17 ; 130. 7 f.b. ; 188. 7 ; 228. 9 ; 250. 4 (no dō cena); 274. 1 ; 296. 1 ; ii 22. 18 ; iv 8. 10 ; 12. 20 ; 256. 8 f.b. — Aedh Uaridnach .i. uara idna tigdís dó...nó A. Fúaridhnach...nó dā uara tigdís dó, Cóir Anm. § 121 ; ib. § 142 et pass. PH 5719. 5720 . 5654 (dō).

H ocus dano and moreover: rupu accubur leu etergne mu chumachti ┐ rusmbói dā, Wb. 33 a 11 . ocus dō fon cóir cétna cidh adultrus dogneth, Laws i 56. 8 f.b. ┐ dano or si, LU 9052 . aile dano: ainm naild dō din tibroid sin Loch Luibe, RC xii 96 § 126 . Imroll aile B. E. ainm aile do no, TBC-LL¹ 2835 .

I amlaid dano thus, thus also : is samlid dā, Wb. 12 c 46 . pronomen hi foirciunn indib. robu samlid dā robói `modi huius ' hi tosuch, Sg. 203 b 5 . is amlaid dō doroimsi in ferta, ACL iii 30 § 83 . sic dō, Laws i 114. 28 ; ii 244. 14 .

Jin secondary clauses: is torbach du popul flaith firian leu .i. amal as ṁmaith dund flaith fessin dā, Ml. 90 b 11 . adcondairc...nombíth forcleith leo dā for tabairt a coibsen, Mon. Tall. 135. 19 . curo ícuit in cin dō, Laws i 60. 11 , &c. madeadh asbersa...madead asber dono , ib. i 8. 1 .

II Therefore, then, accordingly, itaque, et ita, igitur — both in principal and secondary clauses, drawing a conclusion from what has been said before. By the Irish themselves translated by ergo, igitur, ita (locus ergo, locus igitur, sic igitur, no ita ( ACL iii 293. 16 ) = loc dā, amlaid dā, nó dā). Common in the Glosses, esp. with imperative and in prohibitions, but rare in all Mid.-Ir. MSS.—

(a) si autem spiritu facta carnis mortificaueritis uiuetis, gl. ní bo líach dā a marbad killing them therefore were not regrettable Wb. 4 a 12 . is irlam ind anim do thuil Dée. todiusgadar dana ind anim do dénum maith let the soul, then, be roused to do good ib. 5 c 18 . similiter et uir sui corporis non habet potestatem sed mulier, gl. nách móided dā in fer infechtso hi cumachtu, 9 d 18 . do óis anfoirbthiu tra asrobrad insin. ná bad anfoirbthi si dā arnáp, &c., be ye not imperfect, then, lest, 12 d 26 . ní derlaichta a pecdæ doib acht duratad dígal forru. cenotad maic si raith dā ma imroimsid ní dílgibther duib, 33 b 8 . Further exx. from Wb.: 9 b 10 . 11 b 4 . 13 a 4 . 15 a 5 . 19 d 21 . 28 b 17 . —interrogemus igitur: imchomarcam dā, Ml. 18 a 1 .— vetustissimi tamen et `altera utra' et alterum utrum' solebant proferre, gl. daeltais dā foa dá nóg inna genitin they used to decline it then according to its two integrals in its genitive Sg. 75 b 3 . Setum pro Zethum, gl. biid dā sethvs pro z. Sethus then is for Z. ib. 184 a 1 . derbaid cenél dā i suidib aní remitatét what precedes them, then, certifies the gender in them, 197 b 5 . Cf. further 38 b 8 .— ní diṅgne su mo lessa afechtsa. is ferr let in fer ucut toenur. biat marb so dā (v.l. dna) limsa, RC xiii 377. 8 .

(b) in a weakened sense utpote, nempe, nimirum; videlicet; namely, to wit, that is to say, introducing an explanation or conclusion, like German `nämlich.' non enim per legem promisio facta est Abrachae aut semeni eius ut heres esset mundi sed per iustitiam fidei, gl. .i. dorairngred dā rombad oirdnide a chland ut `in semine tuo rl.' ( Gen. xxii 18 ) it had been foretold, then, that his children would be distinguished Wb. 2 c 12 . ut et ipsi misericordiam consequantur, gl. bid misericordia dano dodaessarsom nípa meritum intan creitfite it will be misericordia then that will save them when they shall believe: it will not be m. ib. 5 c 12 . Dei aedificatio estis secundum gratiam Dei quae data est mihi, gl. Pelagius: non secundum meam uirtutem .i. is per gratiam cotofutaincsi dā it is p. g. that he upbuilds you then, 8 c 16 . Dei et adorent eum omnes angili .i. it les dano indaingil, 32 c 2 . dico...quod idolum sit aliquid? .i. ní ní dā in tídol the idol, then, is not anything, 11 b 11 . Further instances: 10 b 19 . 12 d 12 . 12 d 21 (in secondary clause: arna tomontis dā). 13 a 30 . 16 d 3 (?). 25 a 29 . 27 c 34 . 29 a 28 . 29 d 1 .

Here also Laws i 74. 9 f.b. : in uime rocuiris tech andso ara tabhairt uait fecht naill? in uainn tucadh dō ar sé was it from us, then, it was taken? and Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 26. 3 : ticed Celtchar da tír ar Ulaid. ticed dā ar Conchobar let him come then.

III Very common in progressive description or narrative, indicating temporal and logical sequence: then, accordingly, so, upon which, thereupon, now . This usage arose from I, the original sense ` further, again ' being still perceptible.

(a) type: perge ad Columbam. dochóid ón dā `go to Columba' (said Satan). So he went Mon. Tall. 154. 17 . ercc co Comgald co ruccæ breith fort. dochóid som ón dā, ib. 154. 9 . fó duit cia nocotailtea. lasodain dona luig Fergus ina charpat ┐ contuil `it would be well for you to take a sleep.' So Fergus went into his chariot and slept, Laws i 72. 22 . telcar (sic leg.) issin tech hí. tánicc si dā issin tech, BDD p. 155. 9 . rotficbam co port i mbia innocht...dotaet dā reompa (v.l. téit iarom), ib. § 40 Eg. raráidsetar fir Hērend ri Tamun étgud Ailella do gabáil immi...ragabastarsom no étgud nAilella immi, TBC-LL¹ 2839 ( LL 79 b 30 ). raráidset...ri Mac Roth techta go Slíab Ḟúait...táinic Mac Roth reme no go S.F., ib. 4241 . asmbert Domnall nadmbai fóisitiu forcoitil Conculaind conrissed Scathaig bói fri hAlpai anair. nalotar dā...tar Alpai RC xi 444 l. 34 . asbert fris búi glend már ara chind. oentsét coel tairis...luid dō in sét sin nísin, ib. 446 l. 60 . Cf. also: rofaoidh días do thaisccéladh forna slóghaibh... dochódar sidhe dni (sic) go mbattar i ttréchumaiscc na slógh, AFM v 1552. 1 f.b.

(b) indicating progression in general. dothaet Conaire do saigid a harm...┐ gabaid glés nimberta a arm forsna díberga...tofuitet dā sé chét lais, BDD § 143 . bátar trí ríg ...oca urnaide seom...conacces som dō rout forsa mbátar then he was seen ib. § 14 . dolluid (sc. Derbforgaill) anair irricht dá géise ┐ a hinailt co mbátar for Loch Cuan. amail robói dā Cuchulainn ┐ Lugaid laa and conaccatar na heonu, Ériu v 208. 3 . dosrat a sním mór slóig na nG. umman ní sin ┐ rotimairgit dā maithi na nG. cusan rí imon caingin sin, ib. 146. 6 . dorragab som iarum ind praind iterum. robói si dā for suidiu co cend mbliadna Mon. Tall. 149. 24 , 29 . rucad iarum do muliund Ratha Cathair fa dí ┐ foremthes a bleith and...dochuaid dā timthirid Brigdi in tres fecht then B.'s servant went a third time Thes. ii 335. 33 . scaraid dā Bricriu friu iar sodain FB § 11 . ó dochóid tar Alpi ba brónach do díth a choiceli anais dana desuidiu ó roairigestar, RC xi 444. 1 f.b. ib. 444. 1 . TBC-LL¹ 2298 . dochótar immurro uile iarsin co Telaig hUa nD. co ndernsatar ossad mbliadna ┐ fir Muman. dodeochaid dō Domnall ar fut Connacht dia thig whereupon D. went home AU ii 90.23 . táinic Murchad cu nUlltaib cucu ┐ tucsat taelcad doib. romebaid dō for Gallaib, AU i 192. 15 ; 138. 18 , 19 .

(c) introducing a new event or indicating transition to an entirely new subject: now, now as to, as for . as ar chenél cruche adrímther in coicsath. filus trechenélae martre daneu adrímiter ar chruich now there are, &c., Cambr. 38a . ib. 38b . ba cara do Patraic hé (sc. Dubthach) ...luid dā Patraic fecht co tech in Dubthaig sin now P. once went to that D.'s house Thes. ii 307. 9 . nó is Brenainn dorigne in nimmun ergo mare tempus uero Diarmata. tánic dā B. co Brigit now B. came to Brigit ib. 324. 21 . ib. 324. 1 . intan dā robói Macc Cecht fora áltaib isind ármaig conaccai in mnái sechae now when M. C. was lying wounded on the battlefield BDD § 162 (the preceding four paragraphs do not deal with M. C.). ib. § 163 , §165 . RC xii 108. 1 . cid Tuath Dei Dononn d derochratar go már isin chath now as for the T. D. D. they lost many men in the battle ib. 58 § 12 ; ib. 66 § 3 ; 74 § 53 ; 108. 1 ; 82. 1 f.b. ; 92 § 123 ; 72 § 44 ; 100. 1 ; 104 § 149 ; 102. 11 . isé dō cétní rotheip Dia asin maisi .i. in talam now the first thing which God separated from the mass was the earth Laws i 26. 22 (at the head of a new paragraph). dia té dō bidbuid i ndeaguid a athgabála tar crích now if the defendant, &c., ib. i 220. 19 . ib. 18. 11 ; 28. 23 . In the following exx. from the MT dā stands at the beginning of an entirely new passage: mad doairle sale dā ind láim oc praind imberar usci leosom iarum now if spittle falls on a man's hand, 142. 14 . intí dā arbir bith oss nallaid...non manducat, &c. , as to him that eats the flesh of a wild deer, he must not eat (any other flesh until the Easter following), 146. 8 ; ib. 128. 1 , 7 ; 156. 23 ; 160. 15 ; 162. 8 . Very common is the following type: teclaim ubald dā dia domnaich...ní fogni leusom now as to gathering of apples on a Sunday, it is not allowed amongst them ib. 145. 17 . gille dā nó timtirid ní hécen aithrigi di suidiu as for a servant, 142. 1 . aos tróg dā nád ebat amail cách now as to invalids, 147. 19 ; so also 153. 3 ; 161. 1 ; 162. 1 . Mane Mathramail dā .iv. fichit déc fo churp a ndíbergae as for M. M. BDD § 42 . filedha dana robátar isin indsi si...nicon bíth lóg enech la cach fer díb noberedh gubreth now as to the poets, not a man of them had honourprice who passed false judgment Laws i 24. 28 . in file dō cunnuid forcruid a letheineclunn dígbus uime, ib. 58. 17 ; cf. ib. 62. 11 f.b. ; 30. 14 ; 22. 11 ; iv 50. 1 ; v 368. 9 .—Cf. also: araile ancarae robui hi Cluaoin maic Naois...hé dā hi luibri galar now he was infirm with disease Mon. Tall. 155. 5 . slógad la Domnall i nUlltaib. Ulaid dō i Craib telcha i llongport, AU ii 62. 8 . Here also the common phrase loc dā as to the place (of the hymn), it was: loc dno Duma ṅGobla, Thes. ii 308. 5 , by the Irish themselves rendered by `locus ergo (igitur),' ib. 324. 20 .

IV In commentaries, glosses, or explanatory notes repeating the word or phrase which is to be commented on. Syn. tra, didiu ( Cóir Anm. § 225 , 226 ; RC xi 442. 18 ; BColm. § 6 ). ┐ Raith Guthaird a loc, comm.: Raith Guthaird dō is airi atberur as to R. G. it is so called &c., Laws i 2. 8 . senchus dō a `sen' fil ann is ónní as senex atá...nó dō is óní is sensus ciall, ib. 34. 26 . Colmán macc Daráne. Colmán mac Daríne dō .i. siur máthar do Cholmán Dairíne, Fél. p. 172. 31 . Mo Senoc Mughna dā .i. M. darbile mór, &c. , ib. 258. 15 . Luighith dna .i. Hith robo lughu na athair, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 2. 1 . Daire Fine dā .i. duar ḟine, Cóir Anm. § 68 . Also in parenthetic remarks: Fiacc Sleibte dorónai in nimun sa do Patraic. in Fiac sin dā mac eside meic Ercha now that F. was son of Mac E. Thes. ii 307. 2 . Cf. BDD p. 153. 16 . RC xii 108 § 163 . BB 318 b 34 .

V However ,

(a) in concluding sentences after a preceding concessive secondary clause. Syn. camaiph. cia fudama in firián ní du imnedaib hisin biuth frecndairc sóirfithir dā in céin naili dā (one dā is superfluous, but both positions are allowed) he shall, however, be delivered the other time Ml. 68 d 14 . ciasu du Duaid adfiadar isin titul immeairc són dā Ezechiæ though it is to D. that it is ascribed in the title, it is suitable, however, to E. ib. 72 d 9 . With camaiph: ciasidruburt frit tuas `alter utra'...robói camaiph la arsaidi `altera utra,' Sg. 75 b 2 .

(b) however, but ; the addition introduced by dā is opposed to what precedes: intan conucbad in nél nobíth immun aírc migrabant filii Israhel hisuidiu. intan dā nunanad in nél hísin nogaibtis som dúnad hisuidiu when, however, that cloud used to rest Ml. 83 a 4 . aimrit imorro Dairíne clannmar dō Sanct a siur but her sister S. was prolific Fél. p. 172 § 31 . co fil in firmamint na trénbrat gemnaide im talmain co trí nimib ┐ co trí nime impi. in .vii.mad imorro rocertad i trí nimib. ní hé dō sin sosad aingel this last, however, is not the habitation of the angels Laws i 30. 2 . benaid M. C. a chend dond ala fir ...robói dā infer aile oc élúd ass the other man, however, was fleeing forth, BDD § 157 . issed as cóir...arnáchad-fercaigthersu (sc. frit gilla). manatfercaichther frit gilla dā if, however, you are angry with your servant Mon. Tall. 142. 9 . mani chaithea dā feoil if, however, he does not eat flesh ib. 146. 14 ; ib. 159. 38 . bói N. oga uothras ┐ dobreth láim nargait foair lioa D.; nír uo maith d liaa mac sium this, however, did not please his son RC xii 66. 4 f.b. táinic hEoan cona ritirib co Machaire Conaille co ndernsat airgthi ann. táinic dō Murchadh hua C. cucu but M. came up with them AU ii 192. 12 (v.l. táinic imurro); similarly ib. 192. 17 . Same usage AFM iii 40. 6 ; táinic orccain Dál A. tucc doná C. deabhaidh dosoṁ but C. gave battle to him; 34. 3 (doná); 34. 14 (doná); 110. 3 f.b. (dna); 118. 1 (dna).

VI In a weakened sense with interrogatives. ut quid impis mortus est, gl. ar cia dono, Wb. 2 d 10 . aut in nomine Pauli babtizati estis? gl. cepu dono adrad dæ do thabirt do Pool in chruth sin, ib. 7 d 16 . omnia enim uestra sunt, gl. ce dono rigne occo. it lib huili, ib. 8 d 15 . cid dā dotbératsu chucci, ScM. § 16 . ní fritsa oI sí rodálusa itir. cid tu dana icim dáil why then TE § 13 Eg. ut est `ar is fo gnímaib midither Dia for duine' cid dono arnáb fo gnímaib no mesemnaighther duine for araile for innus sin, Laws i 48. 24 , cf. ib. 54. 3 f.b. —After concessive cia, cid (like Ger. `auch' in `wer auch komme, was auch erfolge'): cia focherta dā a srúb ar gesce folilsad, BDD § 38 . cipé no ná tic ticfasu fessin, TBC-LL¹ 200 . acht ciat-beram ni andso no tæit nech dḟarcsin maigi Mide, ib. 5018 . gid ed dō but nevertheless Aen. 413 .

VII Various usages.

(a) rofetarsa is foirbthe do hires so. ba toich deit dā ar ba foirbthe hires do máthar, Wb. 29 d 3 . ní fil amain tra Bresi ol sé. ba fír ón dno ní bói acht meth foairi sim ond uair sin, RC xii 70. 14 .

(b) even ? tamquam famulus, gl. rubu fer som muintire maith dā dul humal he had been a man of the household. Good is even (also) a humble position, Wb. 33 a 5 .

(c) aṅgo dā is deithbir daitsiu a Ingceoil, BDD § 80 ; ib. § 90 (twice), § 102 h ; angó dā, § 105 .

(d) intan imorro rofuidi Feinius a dá deiscipul sechtmoget do foglum na nilbérla fon doman Cae dna isé rosiacht co Eigipt, Laws i 20. 7 . I have no further examples of this usage.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-coissin or
Last Revised: 2013


Forms: di-coissin, dochuisneat

also di-coissin. See GOI § 782 . Impers. vb. used in rel. construction as vb. of existence there is, there are . In Laws glossed by dígsigidir and tairissidir: as la dia cech rann neirt duchoissin that there is, Ml. 108c14 . arnab uilib cumactib dichoissin i nim et talam, Wb. 21a13 . cach genitiu dochoisin every genitive that there is, Sg. 209b29 . is forcitul donaibh uiliph duiniph in domain dochoisin ann, Hib. Min. 95 . cis lir baird docuissin how many bards are there?, IT iii 5 . cis lir innsci dochuisin la Feni? how many genders are there in Irish?, Auraic. 520 . in t-uili gne feminda dachuisin dar beolo duini, 1910 . it cetheora eirca docuisin di seota there are four `eric' fines, Laws i 258.25 . cis lir lanamna docuisin la feine?, ii 344.1 .i. discnaithir no tairister, 356.13 Comm. cis lir chuir dochuisin? how many kinds of contract are there?, iii 4.5 . do thustin nime ┐ talman cosnaib hī docuissin indib, Ériu ii 102 § 11 . gach míl dochuisin fó greín, iv 236 § 11 . rom-shoérae, a Íssu . . . ar cech ulc dochuissin, Fél. Ep. 443 . gach diamair dhana . . . ┐ gach leire leighis docuisin as ó Th. De D. atá a bunadh, Leb. Gab.(i) 172.11 .

With inf. pron. expressing virtual subj.: amal doncoisin as we are, Wb. 17b10 . at úara dotachuisin | ar bru tobair ghlais it is cold they are, BS 88.1 . pass. feb do-da-cuisnither as they happen to be, O'Curry 2006 ( H 4.22 32 ).

In non-rel. construction: dichussin cetheorai deisi do flaithib there are four `deis' rights of chiefs, Laws iv 320.14 ( Críth G. 321 ). With 3 pl. ending: secht n-eatargaire dochuisneat there are seven inflexions, Auraic. 639 . ite teora fuirbhthe dochuisnet .i. arnin ┐ dinin disail ┐ forsail there are three accents, 1545 .

See díchsnigidir.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. fomus or


n u, m. (mess) (vn. of fo-midethar) the act of calculating or estimating; an estimate, an approximate judgment: ma cuaird focheird a toimsi ... is annsu in f.¤ moa mbeir, | ni triit tarsnu toimsideir (i.e. it is harder to calculate the circumference than the diameter of the firmament) SR 171 . a mess ┐ a tomus ... ┐ a imradud riā ndenum, arnab f.¤ iar ng...aim [? nḡaim MS; i. leg. ngnim? greimm ?] ZCP xii 362.9 ( H 3.18, 8b ). roláosa ... f.¤ forsaní sin (of estimating number of the enemy's forces) LU 4792 = TBC-I¹ 300 . dlúthud cen f.¤ `joining together without calculating (?)' (sign of a skilled workman) Triads 118 . béim co f.¤ (a feat of Cú Chulainn's) LU 9293 , 10343 = beim co commus nō co fomus, 5973 = co commus, TBC-I¹ 1505 . co fommus, TBC-LL¹ 2114 . nosberr in gilla mail fair cosin claideb .i. bem co f.¤ `a properly measured stroke' Ériu i 118.28 . Cf. foimse, foimsiu, fomais.

1 fortach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 fortach or


n o (s), n. (vn. of for-toing) over-swearing ; making an over-riding oath ; assigning liability ( Críth G. p. 99 ) : cid f.¤ cid dithech confirming or disproving oath Cóic Con. § 62 . imusfrecrat ... a f.¤ ┐ a ndithech proof and denial (of kings and poets) confirming or disproving Laws iv 354.19 . dég ḟortaig nó díthig for the sake of, etc. Críth G. 8 ( Laws iv 298.9 ). do fortuch [leg. fortacht ?] do duinib, Laws i 268.1 . ni tualaing [ben] luighe na fortuigh for nech, H 3.17, 431.10 ( O'D. 531 ). it grada eclasa dogniat imdenam na ngrad n-ecalsa eile dia saraigther ┐ is leo dano f.¤ inna ndiaid, H 3.18, 438a ( O'Curry 1056 ). fer fortaig snāthaiti the man who attests [up to the value of] a needle Cóic Con. § 61 .

Cf. do fedhar fir a fortaib flatha .i. do fairgiter conadh lais na firflathaib fortach for a memradh, H 3.18, 243b16 ( O'Curry 458 ).

Also a person (category) qualified to give over-riding testimony: f.¤ dona hocht fortaigib coitcinna .i. eclais for tuaith, no cenn for memur, no innraic for eisinnraic ..., H 3.18, 294 ( O'Curry 598 ). doberait fír folad [folta ?] hi fortachaib flatha, H 3.18 247 ( O'Curry 473 ). ní ba ráith friot fer fola ... na sinserais. arnab f.¤ for chró duit re n-aimsir tobhaigh for bíu, Ériu xiii 29.8 = xi 73 § 6 (fortaidh).

1 in

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 in or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: int, -nt, -(s)int, int, na, inna, inna, in, -n, ind, in, ind, int, ind, int, int, ind, s-, -ss-, ocin(d), immin, immun, indá, dundaib, -b, -b, inna, na, na, in, in, na, ind, in, int, inna, na, a n-, a, a, -(s)naib, -(s)na, -d, na, inna, in, ind, an, an t-, in, int, ind, ind, a n-, in, mbúaid, a, in, ind, in, in, na, inna, inda, ind, indá, inna, na, inna, na, na, inna, na, ina, inna, na, in, -n, in, in, in, in, in, in, in, isin, isin, ind, na, in, in, na, na, na, in, in, na, na, na, an, na, ind

def. art. the. See GOI § 467 ff . Zeuss pp. 210 - 217 . Paradigm in O.Ir. Masc. Fem. Neut. Sing. N. in, int ind', in', int a n- A. in n-, -(s)in n- in n-, -(s)in n- a n-, -(s)a n- G. ind', in', int inna, na ind', in', int D. in' -(s)ind', ind', -(s)ind', in', ind', int, -(s)in', -(s)int, -(s)in', -nd', -n' -(s)ind', -(s)in', -nd', -n', -nt -(s)int, -nd', -n', -nt Plur. N. ind', in', int inna, na inna, na A. inna, na, -(s)na G. inna n-, na n- for all genders D. -(s)naib

The forms int, -nt, -(s)int are used before ṡ, except int of n s. masc. which occurs before vowels.

The forms na, inna g s. fem., n p. fem. and neut., and a p. of all genders, geminate follg. consonants and prefix h to vowels (but this h is very rarely written in O.Ir. Cf., however, inna hirise, Sg. 209b24 ).

Before the dual the art. always has the form in, -n except ind da la, Thes. ii 33.21 (Bv.).

The dat. forms without preposition, in, ind, int, occur in the formation of advv., see II (a) below.

Irregularities are not uncommon, e.g. ind for int, int for ind, etc. See Strachan, ZCP iv 62 - 3 and Zeuss, loc. cit.

The original initial s- appears only in the dat. and acc. after prepositions which originally ended in a consonant, with which it unites to produce -ss-, e.g. cossin n-óin, Wb. 2a21 . isin anmim, 9c30 . The s- does not remain after OC though this does not lenite a follg. subst. TRE lenites a subst. but the s- of the art. remains, perhaps through analogy. After FOR, which did not originally lenite, occur forms both with and without -s-, those with -s- being the more usual: forsin dígail, Wb. 1d2 . fornaib gnímaib, 5a5 . After prepositions originally and in O.Ir. ending in vowels both the initial s- and the vowel of the article are lost: ón bunud, Sg. 33b2 . dind insci, Wb. 5c16 . dont lathur, ib. With OC occur ocin(d) (so always in Wb.) and ocon(d); with IMM, immin and immun.

In medial position -nd- had become -nn- by the O.Ir. period but in a few archaic examples, -nd- is written: indá érrend gl. stigmata, Wb. 20d5 (a prima manu). inda fodb gl. exuias, Thes. ii 47.24 (see Thurneysen, ZCP iii 53 ). dundaib abstolaib, Thes. ii 247.12 (Camb.). dendibh Airgiallaib, AU i 178.8 (A.D. 726) . After prepositions the -n- is single even between vowels: cosnaib, frisna, donaib.

Occasionally even in the O.Ir. glosses the first syllable of the dissyllabic form is dropped, and this becomes the rule later: na teora persana, Wb. 9c30 . na cétne tuisten, 21b4 . na cetnae rainne, Sg. 18b1 . For other exx. see below. In the follg. instances from Sg., in (acc.) seems to have dropped out after -r and before a numeral, leaving an eclipsing n. etar ṅdi rainn `between the two parts,' Sg. 2b2 . etar ṅdá n-ulla , 45b19 . far n-óeṅdeilb `according to the same paradigm,' 90b2 . for n-óin ṅdeilb, 201b6 .

The forms in -d (ind, -sind, -nd) remain only before vowels and before lenited f, r, l, n and, in Wb., sometimes also before lenited m and b.

In forms such as dinab fochidib, Wb. 11b4 , dinab gabalib, 13d33 , arnab uilib cumactib, 21a13 , the quality of the final -b of the article is assimilated to that of the following initial. d p. forms without the final -b developed from such examples as donaballaib, Wb. 12b2 , huana fochaidib, Ml. 54a18 , hona mainénaib, 69c5 , where the final of the article became assimilated to a following initial labial. These forms, however, are still infrequent in the O.Ir. period. Three times in the glosses the n p. fem. and neut. form occurs as masc.: inna leomain, Ml. 80a10 . na tri recte, Wb. 29a16 . na sothe, Sg. 64a14 (see GOI § 309 ).

The art. is regularly sg. before collectives and personal numerals.

When an ordinal numeral adj. follows the art., in the older texts the inflection is regular: na dechmaide bliadna, IT iii 54 § 99. inna treisi dūalchae, ZCP iii 25.35 (but see 2 tress). inna cōicthe dūalche, 26.26 ; but later it varied, the masc. form of the art. being somet. used before a fem. noun: n s f. in ochtmad taidbsi, PH 6716 ; but cf. in cethramad taidbsi, 6702 . is í so in t-ochtmad plāg, 7653 . g s f. na hochtmadi oesi, 3582 . i gcionn an treas bliadhna, Keat. iii 1919.

The chief changes occurring in the form of the article in Mid.Ir. are

(i) The n p. masc. forms ind, in, int gradually disappear and are replaced by the forms common to the fem. and neut., inna, na.

(ii) By 1000 A.D., a n- in the n s. and a s. neut. has virtually disappeared, the only certain examples in SR being: a lleth n-aill, SR 5152 , a mbé, 5974 (see Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. p. 7 ).

(iii) -(s)naib in the d p. gives way to -(s)na.

(iv) the -d forms are less common.

(v) the monosyllabic na tends to displace inna.

In Mod. Ir. in, ind > an, an t-.

I Forms (divided into (a) forms from O.Ir. glosses, (b) forms from other texts).




(a) in fer, Wb. 22c9 . in corp, Ml. 22d9 . in ball, Wb. 12b11 . in senduine, 27b8 . int athir, 4b13 .

(b) int othrus, Críth G. 47. in sluag, LU 4563. in t-ara, 4507 . in cing, 347 . in fer, PH 92. in t-espuc, 25 . in slog, 7237 . an samhradh, TSh. 6345. an t-adhaltrach, 6482 . an ciste, 2951 .


(a) ind leire, Wb. 13d15 . ind nóibe, 9c30 . ind rún, Ml. 45a3 . ind fáilte, Wb. 16b2 . in fírinne, 9c30 . ind almsan, 17a3 . in ben, 22c9 . ind bendacht, 19b15 . in tol, Ml. 18c9 . in chiall, Sg. 27a8 . int ṡillab, 25a1 . cf. ind sillab, 26a4 .

(b) ind ḟlaith, Críth G. 573. ind ingen, LU 4525. ind rígan, 5205 . ind lánamain, 5403 . in tslige, 5077 . inn orcuin, BDD² 493. ind aimser, PH 5032. in eclais, 86 . in tslanti, 275 . in rīghan, ML² 45. an aislinge, 69 . an chiall, TSh. 985.


(a) a n-accobor, Wb. 3d3 . a mbás, 15b28 . a teg n-oiged, 4a7 . a ndede n-isiu, Ml. 62c3 . a laithe, 21c3 . a folad, Sg. 3a2 . a rrind, 70b7 . a nnu-iedniss, Wb. 15b2 .

(b) a n-ag, LL 112b31 (Sc.MMD). a n-ude, LU 4866. a llá-sa, 5039 . in laa, 5057 . a llathe, 9743 . a n-ainm, 6182 . in n-écosc, PH 6442. a sessed ngrad, 6246 . (Cf. in t-ochtmad grad, 6251 ). in ainm, 672 . in iach-lind, 381 . in ní, 897 . ind ni, 5251 . an ni, 6194 .


masc. and fem.

(a) frissin popul, Ml. 46b26 . trisin recht, 46c20 . in digail, 40c3 . in soscéle, Wb. 18c10 . frisin n-iarfaigid, Ml. 20c9 . in n-almsin, Wb. 16d7 . tresin n-aimsir, Sg. 188a26 .

(b) fón slóg, LU 4654. lasin n-íngin, 4522 . in domon ndron, 3566 . in mbelra, PH 2619. frisin ṅdeilb, 125 . in anmain, 2068 . romolsadar in t-ardrīg, ZCP v 25 § 10. ro gab naire in t-airdrigh, Stair Erc. 1135. gurab é Dia ... do-rinne an bás, TSh. 1052. an cheist, 2855 .


(a) a mbúaid , Wb. 11a6 . tresa n-acomol, Sg. 32a8 . trissa ndede-se, Ml. 123c5 . cossa laa-sa, Wb. 23a17 .

(b) isa tír, Imr. Brain § 62. a fér, LU 4733. lasa comérge, 4880 . isin n-ármag, 4943 . issa sudiu, 9080 . isi[n] sudi, 9082 . in n-aicned doennai, PH 179. in mboimm, 2373 .


masc. and neut.

(a) in betho, Wb. 1a3 . in cháich, 2b11 . ind lóge, 3c1 . ind rechto, 15a34 . ind fir, 13a12 . ind ḟolaid, Sg. 28b19 . ind apstail, Ml. 26a2 . int soirtha, 46b26 . (cf. ind senduini, Wb. 27b8 . ind ṡrotho, Sg. 35b7 ). int srotho, Ml. 93b11 . in tairmchrutto, Wb. 15b6 .

(b) in muilt, Críth G. 73. in tairb, LU 4610. in chon, 5013 . in pheta eóin, 5289 . ind ríg, 4757 . in rothclessa, 8844 . ind laí, 4858 . in locha, 9098 . ind athig, 4684 . ind fir, 4765 . in tṡeuin, 4508 . ind rig, PH 4365. an fhir, 1177 . in apstail, 1991 . ind ecraibthig, 6062 . ind imdibe, 5652 . in t-sacairt, 2508 . in slaníceda, 5146 . an fhedhma, ML² 20 . ind fhir, TTebe 1544 . and fhir, 2433 . inn eich, 2278 . en foulachtae, CMT² 60 § 133 . an bhrátha, TSh. 1014. an tsein-reachta, 404 .


(a) inna deacte, Wb. 5c16 . inna flaithemnachtae, Sg. 2a1 . inna aidche, Ml. 21c3 . na aimsire, Sg. 188a28 . inna hirise, 209b24 .

(b) na llongsi, IT i 77.3 . na mmucci, LL 112b43 ( ScM. § 8 ). inna conaire, LU 4710. na glassi, 4797 . na haidche, 9058 . ina óidche, PH 1490. na hindsci, 6213 . na colna, TSh. 947. na haithne, 1009 .

Dat. m., f. and n.

(a) isin chétne tuiste, Wb. 1a1 . forsind immarmus, 1d2 . dind fiur, 22c9 . dind failti, Ml. 21c3 . isin anmim, Wb. 9c30 . huant firinni, Ml. 57d8 . isind laithiu, 21c3 . dont lathur, Wb. 5c16 . isint saltair, Ml. 23c19 . isind salm, 50d4 . isin biuth, Wb. 12c16 . dind béstatu, 5c16 . don duini, 4b3 . dond macc, 7c13 .

(b) don chath, LU 4557. isin phupull, 4620 . iarsind frecra, 4772 . don tslúag, 4570 . don ṡlúag, 4748 . dond ríg, BDD² 99. don ríg, 85 . asind aimsir, PH 4928. isin eclais, 3181 . don tsacart, 3140 . assin sinagoig, 110 . asind lucc, 4099 . donn ītadhach, ZCP viii 215 § 75. don fhíréan, TSh. 1146. don pheacthach, 1137 . don tsaidhbhir, 954 . san bhioth, 832 . (cf. san mbioth, 837 . san Sabboit, 4114 ).




(a) in phreceptori, Wb. 5a2 . in chnamai, Ml. 22d7 . in pecthaig, 55d11 . ind rig, 85d10 . ind apstail, 42b7 . ind fir, Wb. 5a5 . ind ḟilid, Sg. 162a3 . int soirthi, Ml. 19b11 . inna leomain, 80a10 . na tri recte, Wb. 29a16 .

(b) na trí maccáin, Fél. Aug. 2. inna druing-sea, Fél. Ep. 285. (All other examples in Fél. follow strict O. Ir. paradigm, Stokes). inda sacairt, Mon. Tall. 134.11 . in doíni, TBFr. 55. na doíni, 306 . in maic, LU 4900. ind eich, 4733 . na heich, 5070 . in tṡlóig, 4609 . inn óicc, BDD² 896. na heóin, 142 . ind eolaig, PH 7313. in augtair, 6944 . na noim, 3649 . na hapstail, 1826 . inda hapstail, 5371 . ind apstail, 6720 . ind ēcis uile, Anecd. iv 93.10 (Corm.). na tri coicait, LL 114a29 ( ScM. § 21b ). na trenmilid, TTebe 4478 . na cinn, TSh. 73. na haidhmillte, 6088 .

fem. and neut.

(a) indá érrend (gl. stigmata), Wb. 20d5 (a prima manu). inna briathra, Ml. 22c5 . inna ancride, 27b15 . inna anmmann, Sg. 28b18 .

(b) na tigi, IT i 74.7 . inna buidne, LU 4685. na bai, 5398 . na cenna, 4806 . na mna, PH 4997. na créachta, TSh. 1013.

Acc. m. f. and n.

(a) inna fíraingliu, Wb. 9c10 . frisna preceptori, 14d37 . lasna fileda, Sg. 63b4 . na rúna, Wb. 12c11 . lasna anmmann, Sg. 51b10 .

(b) na firu, LU 4626. inna heonu, 5159 . inna echraidí, 4712 . na pecdachdu, PH 3619. na briathra, 3660 . na cóic ṡéotu, Críth G. 162. inna .vii. sa, 307 . na teasta, TSh. 6771.

Gen. m. f. and n.

(a) inna ndóine, Wb. 5c16 . inna fer, 7c8 . inna mban, 22c10 . na n-abstal, 18d14 . na sacardd, Sg. 54a11 . na conson, 9a19 . na forcetal, Wb. 16a12 . inna rrath, 15c3 .

(b) ina ndescipul, Hib. Min. 54. inna muccaide, LU 4670. na nGalión, 4648 . na fíren, PH 437. na ḟer (sic leg.), 1017 . na mbeo, 3648 . na n-ilberla, 5484 . airdena ana cóic la ndéc ria mBrath, RC xxviii 310 § 1. inna fer, TTebe 1845 . na n-ánrad, 951 . na bpeacthach, TSh. 991. na sácramainteadh, 1561 .

Dat. m. f. and n.

(a) donaib ballaib, Wb. 7d14 . donaballaib ailib, 12b2 . arnab uilib cumactib, 21a13 . dinaib fochaidib, Ml. 19b11 . isnaib consonaib, Sg. 9a22 . donab huilib doinib, 189b9 . forsna huilib remṡuidigthib, 212a13 . ocnafothaircthib palnacdib, 217a4 . honai gabalaib, Ml. 54b25 . donab nemindithib, Thes. ii 33.28 (Bv.).

(b) oconaibh insibh, AU 851. donaib Galionaib, LU 4659. dinib collaib, 4937 . dona druídib, 5061 . dina lecaib, 5889 (H). forna bochtaib, PH 3603. dona noemaib, 3620 . donaib maithib ┐ dona holcaib, Ériu iii 2.13 . fornaib coic cathrachuib, ii 140.5 . dona hōgaib, ML² 173. dona daoinibh, TSh. 968. arna heasbadhaibh, 973 .


(a) In the O.Ir. glosses, before the dual, the art. always has the form in, -n: Nom. m. in da fersin, Ml. 58a11 . f. in di bai, 2b11 . n. in da n-ainm, 34d6 . Acc. m. in da airdigtha, Sg. 77a8 . f. etir in dí ṡillaib, 59a17 . Gen. m. cechtar in da popul, Ml. 46b30 . n. cechtar in da leithe, Sg. 25b6 . Dat. f. isin dib bliadnib, Thes. ii 30.35 (Bcr.). n. isin dib desmrechtaib-so, Ml. 114b1 . ( ind da la occurs in the Vienna Beda, Thes. ii 33.21 .).

(b) Later the art. preceding the dual is sometimes na, but in remains more common: in dá erred (g.), LU 8057. na dá ech (a.), 8590 . na da ban (g.), 8375 . na dá Maine (n.), BDD² 106. in da gilla chétna (a.), TBC-LL¹ 677. túath in dá Maine (g.), BDD² 210. na da ánrath ┐ na da rind n-agha (n.), TTr.² 583. na dá n-ug n-urchoidech (g.), MR 110.4 . na dá neirrech (g.), Laws iv 336.16 . an dā rīg (na, v.l.) (n.), ML² 776. asna dib berlaib, Lec. 167d31 . don da thóisech, Ériu v 152.126 .

II Article used in formation of adverbs ( GOI § 251.3 and § 379 , § 382 . Zeuss 608 - 9 ).

(a) When nouns of time and manner are used adverbially in the dat. sg., they may be preceded by the article, e.g. in chruth as coir, Wb. 7b1 . in chruth sin, 7d16 . ind echt sa, 3a7 ; but cf. cruth ro pridchissem, 24c17 . inni rombatar riam hí tempul, Ml. 62b2 .

(b) In O. and Mid. Ir. the article (but see alternative explanation, GOI § 379 ) was used with an adj. in the dat. sing. neut. and with some participles in -de to form an adverb. The follg. list is illustrative only: in biucc gl. paulatim, Sg. 12b1 . in mór, Wb. 14b21 . in már gl. adeo, Sg. 8a2 . in deurb ` certainly ,' Ml. 70b2 . ind fír ` truly ,' Wb. 14c32 . ind ḟír, Sg. 106a5 . in demin gl. quidem, Ml. 37a13 . int soer gl. libere, 31b18 . int sainriud, 54a22 . in chomocus ` nearby ,' Sg. 188a19 . ind imdu gl. passim, Ml. 35b5 . in fortgidiu ` covertly ,' 30a3 . in chlidiu, 50c13 . in chotarsnu gl. e contrario, Sg. 17b9 . ind ulcc male, Hib. Min. 432. ind infholach secretly , PH 6085. in infholuch, 7998 . In a few exx. the form of the adj. is that of the nom.: ind utmall, Wb. 26b10 (but this form may also have been used for dat.). in madae, 19d16 . ind immdae, Sg. 26a5 . Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii § 419 explains this as being due to the similarity of nom. and dat. masc. and neut. forms in some adjj. Cf. also: in tsainrethaig, LU 5514.

With compar. and superl. of adjj. to form comparative advv.: ind ichtarchu gl. inferius, Ml. 24d30 . int serbu gl. amarius, 24c10 . in máam gl. primum, Wb. 1c20 . ind luindiu gl. commotius, Ml. 32d1 . ind feliu gl. uericondius, 58b1 . ind lugu gl. minus, 123c12 . in mó ┐ in mó, Trip.² 2108 , 2628 . in mor-mo, PH 3369 , 3605 . See GOI § 382.

(c) In the case of adjj. in -d(a)e (except imdae) and participles in -th(a)e (but see in fortgidiu, in chlidiu, above), instead of the dative a form in -id, -ith combines with the art. to form the adv. A few instances also occur of advv. formed in this way from substantives. From adjj.: in doracdid `in the Doric fashion,' Sg. 204b9 . in chorpdid gl. corporaliter, Wb. 27a12 . ind óindid once , Ml. 29a3 . int slanidid ` salutarily ,' 71a1 . in tuailngigthid ` deigningly ,' 78c1 . ind inchlidid gl. latenter, 100c7 . in tuasailcthid ` absolutely ,' 32d5 . From substt.: in mesid (<mess) gl. iudicialiter, Ml. 51c21 . ind frithoircnid (<frithorcun) ` offensively ,' 127c23 . in diglaid (<dígal) gl. ulciscenter, 62d3 . ind áirmith (<árim) ` numerically ,' Sg. 27a17 .

III Usage.

The article is always proclitic and is used before a substantive to express the definite character of that substantive unless this is already apparent either from the nature of the substantive itself, as in the case of proper names, or from some accompanying defining word or phrase, e.g. when the substantive is followed by a definite genitive, or preceded by a possessive adjective.

A Exx. of the ordinary use of def. art.: accaldam auctor ind recto `an address to the teachers of the Law,' Wb. 3c4 . risiu rocloammar in fogur `before we hear the sound,' Ml. 112b12 . intan labratar ind ḟilid `when the poets speak,' Sg. 162a3 . oc déscin na macraide, LU 4859. in trénfir ┐ ind láith gaile, 8104 . an cúigeadh cinéal, na mairtírigh, TSh. 4842. In: amal in scrissid .i. amal in n-altain n-áith `as a scraper i.e., as a sharp razor,' Ml. 72b8 , translate: as the scraper etc., regarding it as a type of instrument rather than a single instrument of its kind?

The article is used

(a) in the sense of each, every, also a single in such phrases as: ced fan fer, Stair Erc. 1471. 1532 . berad-sa anam a flaithess duit a n-agaidh an ruainde da fuil ad brat `for every thread in thy cloak,' BCC 358.14 . is assu duinni in fer cech laí andás a cét cach n-aidchi one man every day, LU 5622.

(b) sometimes with cách, when this is followed by a relative clause: ní lat in cách forsa mmitter `not thine is everyone on whom thou passest judgment,' Wb. 6b22 . úar in cách dodechaid úad, Trip.² 1198. congnamh lásan ccách nó chathaighfeadh dar cenn an chreidimh, AFM vi 2290.22 .

(c) with oen-, intensifying the idea of singleness: nabīd D. fut ind ṡamlāi oc breith na hēnbrethi `giving a single judgment,' ZCP xiii 179.1 . con-accai ni ... .i. in n-aenmnái for fertais in charpait, TBC-LL¹ 202. hespach do neoch a thríall acht dond oen ḟialluch, 415 .

(d) in speaking of two things (cf. Fr. l'un, Germ. der eine): focherded a líathróit ┐ focherded a loirg ... Níbo moo in band oldas a chéle one stroke was not greater than the other, LU 5006. timchillid a teach ón dorus colaile, RC xxiv 145.14 . dā ṡenrand ... dun rand díb ... don rund aile, Fianaig. 48 § 14 , § 15 .

(e) frequently, and particularly after verbs of seeing, before a noun which is logically indefinite to draw attention to it and to render the narrative more vivid (for an alternative explanation see GOI § 470 ): co facatar in tsentuinne they saw an old woman, Corm. Y 1059.43 . co n-acca ara chind in fer ┐ leth a chind fair, LU 4933. co n-aca Cú in n-ócben cuchi, 6082 . co n-acca in tech find, MacCongl. 67.12 . co n-accas na trí coícait ban co n-inaraib corcraib, TBFr. 258. rataiges in triar marcach dochom in tige, LU 6779. is and dosnarraid in fer máeldub, 6820 . doringni in mac bec in tres gním `eine dritte That,' TBC-LL¹ 1068. duscōtar īarum condusrulai isin mag n-ālaind co n-acatar an rīghrāith isin [maig], ZCP iii 459.18 . is iarum bert in Liath Macha na tri dergruathra, RC iii 181.36 .

(f) before nouns followed by the demonstratives so, sin, tall, ucut: in chrud sin, Wb. 13a6 . tarsin corp sin 15c16 . in teintide tall, ZCP v 25 § 7. isin tsalm tall, Ml. 58a11 . don mac so, BDD² 107. in tan sin, 130 . in triar ucut, 295 .

B The article is not usually used before

(a) personal names. In O. Ir. names of individuals take the article only when they are qualified by an adj. or a demonstrative, or when used as common nouns (e.g. á ṅIacob the name Jacob, Ml. 34d6 ): ol Duaid, Ml. 95d7 . mad la Cirine `according to Jerome,' 74d13 . ho Isaác, Wb. 4c7 . for érlam Patraic, Thes. ii 305.5 ; but: in Scip Emelendae gl. Emilianus Scipio Sg. 31a2 . in Caesar Octauienda gl. Octauianus Caesar, 31a3 . in Fiac sin, Thes. ii 307.3 . co tech in Dubthaig sin, ib. 9 . Exceptionally: Nabál sin slebi Carmil, SR 6307. In Mid. Ir. it is somet. used with anaphoric force: a n-Inis meic Uchen robai in Gartnan, Anecd. i 1.3 . in Cathal, MacCongl. 41.28 . iman Mormael, Ériu xii 190 § 23. do marbsad in tEochaid andsin, ZCP viii 274.13 . ba rí hi Temair in Fīachu Sraptine amal adrubrumar, 317.16 .

(b) place-names: i Corint, Wb. 14b5 . i nEgipt, Ml. 88a12 . téicht do Róim, Thes. ii 296.3 . co nōgaib Hérenn, 306.1 ; but: ind Róm fil hí Constantinopoil ... inna Rómae, Sg. 174a1 . In Mid. Ir. the article became more common particularly before a noun in the genitive, but the omission of the article was still much more frequent than its use: ind Eriu, LU 4042. íar sligi na Temrach, BDD² 131. do Themraig, 149 . fonaidm ṅgíall Temrach, 164 . sethnu na Hérind, 608 . i tír Hérend, 690 . i nOenuch na Crúachna, LU 2888. hi cathair Cruachna, 2886 . isin Taltin, 2894 . hi Taltin, 2896 . In Mod. Ir. some geographical names regularly take the article, e.g. an Fhrainnc, an Spáinn. Others sometimes take the article, but in the gen. only: Éire, i nÉirinn, tír na hÉireann. Alba, muinntear na hAlban; but cf. lucht cuarta Éireann, Dáil Éireann (Dinneen, s.v. Éire).

(c) names of peoples and patronymics: arindí atrebat Romáin and, Sg. 33a11 . atrebat Laitnóri and, 14 . di Romanaib, 33a10 . Romoldai, 31b4 . la Ebreu, Ml. 26c1 . di Iudéib, Wb. 27d4 . fri Saxanu, Críth G. 523. la hUltu, BDD² 977. do ríg Rómán, LU 6389 ; but: ind Romain, Sg. 31b5 . int Ṡabindai, 28a10 . forsna Egiptacdu, Ml. 96c11 . do choscc inna nIsrahélde, Wb. 5a16 . na nDéisi, Thes. ii 297.5 . in Galióin, LU 4656. co tríchait chét na nGalión, 4648 . The absence of the article would seem to be the earlier usage, cf. la Féniu (a phrase common throughout the law-tracts), Críth G. 125. chórus Féne, 588 .

(d) nouns that refer to things of which there is one only, or one outstanding example (these nouns approach in meaning to proper names): is samlid dano gniith demun, Wb. 21b2 . amal indocbáil dáe, 21a10 . as tualang deacht todiusgud Crist `the Godhead,' 13c15 . i tempul, 26a8 . hi fudumnaib talman, Ml. 40d16 . di chosecrad tabernacuil, 48b11 . gein maicc hua athair `the birth of the Son from the Father,' 85b11 . conapad firdía mac `that the Son should not be true God,' 21c12 . amal as toisegiu grián indáas laithe, 85b11 . o hescgu co grein, SR 113. o thosuch domuin, 517 . dochuaid diliu don domon, 2592 . co lluid trít co talmain, LU 5767. do diabul, PH 4889. nī dlig sāire ... i tūaith nā i n-eclais amongst the laity or in the church, Ériu i 218 § 2. roaithbeōaig Cairbri ō marbaib from the dead, ACL iii 225.v . Siuir agus Máigh ag gréin dá ngeimhliughadh, DDána 109 § 11. for fairgi, Corm. Y 1059.14 . fri tīr, ib. 15 . slánaigh le hóigh t'oileamhain `make good to the Virgin her nursing of Thee,' Aithd. D. 67 § 26.

Here belong the names of parts of the body: ho giun et ... hi cridiu, Wb. 5d14 . ind foisitiu i ngiun `the confession in the mouth,' 4d33 . a n-asberid hó bélib, 7d10 . a lleth o laim deiss `the half from the right hand,' Sg. 17b2 . risiu rocloammar in fogur hua chluasaib with the ears, Ml. 112b12 . anuas co imlind, LU 5780 ; but cf. intan citambí ind lám in terochraic, Ml. 36b1 . in geno gl. oris, 82c5 .

(e) a noun occurring in apposition to a proper name as a sobriquet: for Lomnae Drúth, BDD² 705. Suibne Geilt, Thes. ii 294.10 . for Tamun drúth, LU 6670. Cauland cerdd, 4975 . aided Redg cáinte, 5803 .

(f) the names of abstract ideas, virtues, vices, etc.; nachin rogba úall `that pride may not seize us,' Wb. 15d40 . is asse dúib maid do denum, 4a4 . inne maith ł uilcc, Sg. 39a32 . nephdenum neich di ulc fri nech dogní olc frit, Ml. 23c20 . dechair eter olcc is maith, SR 1255. erig, ... córu achāch duit mormenma, TBC-LL¹ 3978. ni rabi a samail ... ar maisse ┐ míne ┐ mórdacht, TTr. 621. ní fhuil nert agud gun techt lium, ZCP vi 48.12 . na ndenad (leg. denad) uaill na diumus, PH 4255. Exx. with the article are: ind huall gl. arrogantia, Ml. 51a11 . gl. elatio, 28a1 . frisin noibi ┐ in glaini, 98d2 . ised a nnert foirbthe imgabail cech huilc this is perfect virtue, 35d14 . immeradi a n-olc, 33d2 . a mundit[i]a .i. ōn gloine, Corm. Y 900. attach inísel ... tairnid in díumus `superbiam excludit,' PH 8035. sanntaiged in rig ... in fírinde, 4254 . ro coimnertaigiss an coir `thou hast strengthened justice,' Stair Erc. 429.

(g) a subst. followed by a definite genitive. (The article is used when the gen. is attributive rather than defining, e.g. á cenele ndoine, Wb. 5c16 . a llaa mbrithemnacte sin, 6b26 . forsa cenélae metir sin, Sg. 8a13 . in Briccriu Conaill Chernaig (name of a shield), BDD² 977. in Brug mna Elcmair, Ériu viii 175.9 . an Iodh Morainn, Keat. ii 3659. as an gCraoibh Dheirg Chonchubhair, ib. 3086 ).

The gen. is a proper name: ar iriss Crist, Wb. 25a10 . di doiri Babelon, Ml. 46b26 . ó Thuind Clidnai, BDD² 1087. la firu Hérenn, 123 ; or approaches in meaning to a proper name: precept soscéli, Wb. 1b10 . Exceptions are rare: in tṡlóig Herend, LU 4609. gol mo matharsa so ┐ na mban mBoine, TBFr. App. § 20 (= ... ┐ bantrochta Boínni, text).

The gen. is preceded by the def. art.: ar meinci inna indithme, Ml. 85d1 . ardlathi in betho, Wb. 1a3 . dar cenn ind Iudidi, 2a4 . tri hiris in cháich, 2b11 . fri bás inna clóen, Thes. ii 320.1 . for lorg in tslóig, LU 4782. lucht in baile, PH 49. In O. Ir. there are a great many exceptions to this rule but in Mid. Ir., comparatively few, and fewer still in Early Mod. Ir.: inna ndánae in spirito, Wb. 21c2 . in pian inna diglae, Ml. 28c19 . din chamull in diumsa, Tur. 60. in dluthe ind flechuid, Ml. 81c8 . in dán inna litredachte, Sg. 33a28 . an fír-thsochraidecht an bethadh suthain, Ir. Lit. 26.18 . leth in orba in athar, Laws iv 46.24 Comm. in prīm-cathraig mōrglain ... in dúnaid, MacCongl. 87.27 . an dara cuing an catha, Irish Texts ii 9 § 24. issind aurlaind in dúine, TBFr. 60. isin sinagoig moir na nEbraide, PH 48. na cuic cuicidh na hEirenn, ZCP xi 43 § 31. oc saigid na cána in domnaig, Ériu ii 208.15 . in mér medhon na láime clí, O'Gr. Cat. 270.29. in fer na tocla, TTebe 1601 . ingen in rig na nEberda, 4645 . In PH there are two cases where this rule does not apply (a) when the governing noun has a demonstrative suffix ¤sa or ¤sin, (b) when it is defined by an ordinal. Exx. (a) na scéla-sin in aingil, PH 2975. in rath-sa na n-ilberla, 5484 . cf. O. Ir.: don dlúim máir sin inna pecthach, Wb. 9d5 . in gnim sin in tengad, Ml. 31b24 . (b) in cetna mís na bliadna, PH 3516. isin tress uair ina óidche, 1490 . In TTebe, s.v. in , Calder notes that while a few instances of the double use of the article occur this is especially the case when the governed noun is followed by sin. The use of the double article when the governing noun is defined by an ordinal though very common is not invariable: cosin tres mac imlesan na hoensúla, BDD² 641. in treas rann sesgat ind uile, Laws ii 370.21 - 22 Comm. an tres gaisgedach na Tiabanda, TTebe 4879 ; but cf.: dorumalt Moisi ... | ann tresraind a aimsire, SR 3784. tres ṅdírime na tána, TBC-LL¹ 2656. i tres boin in brugad, Laws v 402.7 Comm.

The gen. is preceded by a possessive adj.: di foirbthetu for nirisse, Wb. 1a9 . lóg a pecthe, 1c3 . do thudidin do menman, 1c15 . do ind a oenláime, TBC-LL¹ 676. lín a teglaich, TBFr. 8. Exception: lasin flaith far mbretha ifos, SR 1215.

The gen. is defined by cech (Mid. Ir. cach), nach: du thuistin cech dulo, Ml. 85b16 . imfolang nach gnima, 80d2 . tri thesbaid naich baill, Sg. 5a5 . fo cosmailis nacha cat[h]rach, Hib. Min. 219. céol cach ḟir, LL 207a18 . cend cech ḟir díb, TBC-LL¹ 682. i tossuch cach dúnaid, 571 .

The gen. is defined by a further definite genitive: ó soilsi deachte Crist, Wb. 26a17 . irchre fla[tho] Román, 26a5 . co maithib fer nÉrenn, BDD² 1441. An exception is: dar fíartharsna in dunaid fer nÉrend, LU 6291.

C The article is optional before an ordinal adjective: isin chétne tuiste, Wb. 1a1 . cetnae accuis inso `this is the first cause,' Ml. 118d12 . co nómád n-aó `to the ninth generation,' Críth G. 327. cetna gnim gnisset, SR 4197. cethramad gnim, 4209 . (The omissions in SR are necessitated by the metre). Cf. in chethramad accuis, Ml. 118d18 . ón chétna duini, SR 7889. in tres gnim, 4205 . Cf. ll. 83 ff. col. 183 above.

D As a rule substantives defined by a relative sentence take the art. unless they are preceded by is é, conid é, is inunn, etc. (However, before words like airm, baile used adverbially the article is omitted: ría ríg Hérenn airm hi foí, BDD² 488. co ránic na díberga baili i rabatar, 647 . tancattar na hingena airm a mbói Hiruath, PH 905. bail hita a athair, 1380 ): dund óis nad chaithi cach tuari, Wb. 6c11 . a forcell doberam, 25d21 . isind huiliu labramar-ni, Ml. 31b23 (exceptionally: ra mbía ... carpat bas dech bess i n-Aii, LU 5587 ); but: is hé cruth inso áem no-s-messammar, Wb. 9c10 . is inunn chiall isindi as scit ┐ as nōuit , Ml. 114b1 . issí inne fil hi cechtar de, 114b1 . is he titul fil i ndreich ..., Hib. Min. 1. is é óencharpat insin nad foglentais dirmand na hecrada, LU 10177 - 8 . is tú láech as dech fil i nHerind, 5768 . is ed gen n-imarbága fil la firu Hérind, BDD² 1135. is é céadchrann tarla dhó, soileach, Keat. ii 2687. is é áit ar ghabhadar tír, i gCúan an Bhainbh, iii 5055 . is e recht ro buí isin Libia in n-inbuidh sin, Stair Erc. 1101. When the antecedent of the relative sentence is qualified by an ordinal the article sometimes occurs: fá hé Colum ... an céadduine do thógaibh mainistear i n-oiléan Í, Keat. iii 1344. ionnus gurab é an treas fear do chreid ..., ii 5372 . conidh e sin an cedcath do cuir Ercuil, Stair Erc. 966 ; but: gurab é C.C. céaddoctúir do chuaidh, Keat. iii 1347. is si sin cedmainistir caillech ndub ro buí isin Teib, Stair Erc. 890.

1 is

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 is or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: nídam, nída, atar, atin, ammi, bem, be, combin, is, am, im, isam, isim, sam, isam, am, isam, nidha, nis, indat, n-iat, cenita, coich, citné, cisné, cis, manid, minad, minid, munid, minap, munab, béso, bésu, gon, gion, indid, inid, inad, ina, 'nar, díand, díanid, díanad, dían, díanda, dían(d)at, dána, dán, darab, bad, ba, ba, badat, ba, -bo, -p, -b, cid, -rop, -rup, -rub, ropond, ce, cía, cit, cía, ce, bed, bad, pad, bud, ba-da-, bádam, ma, matis, diambtís, bé, biam, bum, bid, bith, beith, bed, bud, -pa, -ba, nípa-dn-aidrech, -ba, -pa, -bo, -po, -bu, -pu, -b, -bad, -bud, bit, be(i)t, bat, biat, bidat, -rsam, -rbam, -bi, ropsa, rupsa, ropsat, robsat, ropat, robat, ropot, ropdat, -rbsat, -rsat, -rsa, -rbat, nārsat, ba, bu, bo, be, fa, fá, fo, bad, bud, ba-id-n-, fa, fá, -pu, -bu, -po, -bo, -p, nip, nipu, -rbu, -rpu, -rpo, -rbo, rba, -rob, -rb, -ra, -r, -rsa(t), -rso, -rsa, -rsad, rsam, -rsat, -rbtar, -rptar, -rtar, -rbat, -rpsat, -rsat, -psat, -bsat, -psatar, gomsad

v copula (see Strachan, Substantive Verb in O.Ir. Glosses ( Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899 ); Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish; Dillon, Nominal Predicates in Irish ( ZCP xvi , xvii ) ; GOI § 814 ff. ; Ó Nolan Studies in Mod. Ir.).


The copula is alway unstressed and proclitic. The normal order of words is vb.+pred.+subj., e.g. is cele dae in fer hisin, Ml. 30c3 . is bésad inna flatho doem et dofich (i.e. to protect and to avenge is a princely custom), Wb. 9d2 . Prec. by asyntactic nom.: fáilte cáich bad fáilte dúib-si, Wb. 5d24 . mad i n-aeclis tra in choss is hé óis achtáil `if then it be in the church, the foot is the practical folk,' 12a23 . Frequ. in verse: Illand mac Scanlain is marb, Anecd. i 12.24 . andar la fer bis a cein | Inber Cindbera is reid, 15.1 . a comrádh bind nocho brég, 35 § 81. An inversion of the usual order (see Ó Máille, op. cit. p. 74) occurs in: nī bu ṡanctBrigit ṡúanach (v.l. sanctbrigit suanach) `Saint B. was not drowsy,' Hy. v 21 (see GOI p. 476 and n. 168 ). is tria chin mban | bit fernai fer dlochtai, LU 8430 (FB, rhetoric). Common in rel. sentences in Fél.: mórṡlúag A. | dia mbu Demon dubach `from whom the Devil was sorrowful,' Fél. April 2 . súi diand Ériu inmall, Sept. 10. manach | asa díthrub dubach `whose hermitage is gloomy,' Prol. 98 (but: S. | ata soilsi slechtae, Sept. 7. Carissim ... | asa rúamdae relic, Ap. 16 ). Where the predicate is a compound phrase the subject is introduced into the middle of it (Strachan, op. cit. p. 49.30), e.g. is irlam ind anim do thuil Dée, Wb. 5c18 . nirbu samlaid són doibsom, Ml. 90c27 . nibo mór a mbríg linn, Wb. 18d10 .

In O.Ir. when the subject of the copula was a personal pronoun it was, as in other verbs, implicit in the verbal form: am irlam, Wb. 13c8 . at fechem dom, 32a21 . combed adultera `so that she should be a.', 3c9 . nirbu choimdiu `he had not been a lord,' 33a5 . bad carthi `let him be loved,' Sg. 148a2 . nítat ainmnidi `they are not nominatives,' 189a10 . amal bemmis bibdaid, Ml. 114d4 . It was frequently strengthened by a pronominal particle suffixed to the pred. not necessarily to express emphasis, nor to distinguish between persons: niba dimicthe-se libsi `I should not be despised by you,' Wb. 21d3 (but: nida apstal apstil `I am not an apostle's apostle,' 18c1 ). massu rath-som, 5a30 . ciasu i colinn am béo-sa, 19a20 . it firian-su, Ml. 55d11 . ammi cland-ni doib-som, 101d9 . ropsa huallach-sa, 49b12 (cf. GOI § 811 ). nimda scál-sa ┐ nimda aurdrach, ZCP xiii 373.11 .

The logical pred. of the copula may be (a) an adjective ; (b) a prepositional phrase; (c) an adverb; (d) a pronoun ; (e) the substantival demonstrative í; (f) the subject of a relative verb; (g) a clause introduced by as n- `that it is' ; (h) a substantive.

At all periods of the language the predicates (a), (b), (c) and (d) immediately followed the copula.

(a) In O.Ir. the general rule was that the predicative adj. agreed with the subj. of the copula in gender and number (see Dillon, op. cit., for development from O.Ir., of which he cites as type: it moírb in boill sin, Wb. 11d11 , to Mod. Ir.: is mór iatt, is saidhbir na tírtha so, Maund. § 138 , §227 ).

(b) amal as o spirut, Wb. 15b7 . ciaba beo bid do precept anme Crist, 23b29 . is occ maid atáa, 6a18 . condib tria n-uile mbethaid ón, Tur. 71. is fria binn aníar atá t'esérge, Thes. ii 242.3 (Ardm.). is airi asbersom ..., Ml. 126c10 . cid tre étged rop othar, Críth G. 61. nochon ara omun cena, TBC-I¹ 2364. gonadh uime sin adeir I.¤ ..., TSh. 4816.

(c) níp and nob irpaid, Wb. 8b2 . hóre is amne atáa, 12d7 . is samlith is comadas dúun ..., Thes. ii 246.3 (Cam.).

(d) mad hé á luum, Wb. 4a14 . bad hé for n-ere `let Him be your burden,' 9d12 . rupu sí a rreilic, 33a22 . is tú is diliu limsa diib, IT iii 83 § 69. ionnus gomadh é féin bud ughdar réna bheathaidh, TSh. 3406.

When the logical predicate of the copula was either (e) the substantival demonstrative í or (f) the antecedent of a relative verb, or (g) a clause introduced by as n- `that it is' a pronoun was introduced immediately after the copula to act as grammatical predicate while the logical predicate stood in apposition to this pronoun.

(e) matu hé ata horpamin indí rochomalnisset recht, Wb. 2c14 . bit hé magistir dongegat indhí asindisset a tola féisne dóib, 30d8 . it hé in toirthi amal sodin inna hí adfiadatar hi testimnib file isint salm anuas, Ml. 46c14 .

(f) is hé didiu in tecttaire maith condaig indocbáil dia thigerni the good envoy is he who seeks his lord's glory, Wb. 8d20 . it hé inimici lessom qui fraudant et qui iniuriam faciunt , 9c25 . it hé gními epscuip asmbeir sís the works of a bishop are the things he mentions below, 28b20 . is he in firfindbathach no in firion atcobra na huile beatusa the truly blessed ... is he who desires all the blessings, Hib. Min. 429.

(g) is ed asberat ind heretic as laigiu deacht maicc indaas deacht athar, Ml. 17c7 . ni ed a met as n-etarcnad dun `not only that it is known to us,' 138a12 . is ed asberat as ndu deacht ... rogabad in salm so, 24d29 . is ed adfet a legend as ndath glas roboi forsind sléib fo chosmailius saphirr, Ml. 84d4 .

(h) With indef. noun as pred.: condib dídnad domsa foirbthetu hirisse dúibsi, Wb. 1b1 . combad notire rod-scribad cosse, 27d16 . mástat carait ... mastat námait, LU 9090 - 1 . níor ghníomh meirbh, DDána 91 § 24.

With def. noun as pred.: in O.Ir. and early Mid. Ir. a definite substantive can immediately follow the copula. Even in O.Ir. however a pronoun is frequently introduced immediately after the copula as grammatical predicate, the logical predicate standing in apposition (cf. (e), (f) and (g) above). This is the normal construction in the later language: ni a doenacht fesine ru-da-n-ordan `not his own Manhood has dignified Him,' Wb. 33c5 . ni in cholinn donatháira acht is a n-accobor, 3d3 . is athir-som innaní techte foirbthetith `he is the father of them that possess perfection,' 2c11 . mad Ānlūan no-beth is'taig, ScM. § 16.8 . is Duid a oenar rochachain inna psalmu, Hib. Min. 134.

With pronoun: bit hé na precepta cétni no pridchob doib, Wb. 17b20 . is hed a trede sin foloing, 29d17 . is hé in peccad rogéni a n-uile comaccobor, 3c25 .

After the introduction of the pronoun, the normal order of the sentence seems to be that in which the predicate follows the pronoun but this order does not appear to be fixed and the predicate may be put at the end either for emphasis or for the better balance of the sentence, e.g. a predicate which is the antecedent of a relative verb is most usually placed after the subject. Predicate and subject can only be distinguished by means of the context and the distinction, it would seem, is by no means as clear-cut in Irish as in other languages.

Predicate immediately following pronoun: ní ceilsom tra as n-é Crist in lie, Wb. 4d16 . issí ind ainim as airlam do chomalnad recto Dé ní in corpp, 3d11 . measaim gurab é an bás, an marcach úd, TSh. 37.

Subject following pronoun: mate nama anfolaid in cele falla frithgnama `if neglect of service was the only disqualification of the tenant,' Laws ii 324.6 . ar is he besad felsub etarcert di dúlib et saigid forru et nebchretem a n-adiadar di crist, Wb. 27a10 . it he caeli la suide ind apstail soscelae, Ml. 42b7 . is ed mind n-aingel Crist mac Dé, LU 944. measaim ... gurab í an chathair úd Ierusalem an domhan, TSh. 708.

In O.Ir. where the subject of the copula was a pronoun of the 1st or 2nd person, it required no other expression with an indef. pred. than that supplied by the 1st or 2nd person of the copula: at macc ríg, Trip.² 970. itib ingena ríg talman, 1138 . am dún díthogail, IT iii 53.26 .

Cf. Mid. Ir.: is descipul ... tu-su, PH 2768. conid mog De thú, 510 . is gadaige thu, 7781 . is clann én athar ┐ én máthar sind, 7501 .

With def. pred. the usage in O.Ir. is not certain (? at lūam in gaiscid grind (but: v.l. at tualaing gaiscid grind), Bruchst. 12 § 20 ). In the saga literature the normal expression is: Setanta ... atomchomnaicse, LU 4892. Rí Alban atomchomnaicse, RC xiii 446 § 31.

Cf. Mid. Ir.: is me Oengus céle Dé, SR 8009. ni thu Issau semnach na slóg | acht is tú int engach Iacób, 2876 . is mesi Ísu mac Dé, PH 3732. misse Marcellinus, comorba Petair, 612 (but cf. Tuan mac Cairill mesi, LU 1219 ).

At all periods of the language the expression of the copula in the 3rd persons was not obligatory at the head of a principal sentence: alind á óiph in forcitil, nemnech immurgu a inne, Wb. 7c1 . faelid-sem ... | os me chene am faelid, Thes. ii 293 § 6 ( SP II ). cride hē, | ... | ōcān ē, Bruchst. 69 § 160. ili insi Mod | ... | liä dāma Domnaill, 9 § 12 . Aed Ailig, inmain lim hé, ACL iii 304 § 1. Andreas ard a ordan, Fél. Feb. 6. glē la cāch immorro ba for teithed luid C. remiseom, TBC-I¹ 1260. móra a molta, Gorm. March 5. Fer Loga mo lennān-sa, ScM. § 20.12 . gnáth tromthóir dhoirbh 'na dheaghaidh, DDána 85 § 30. ionann sin ré a rádh ..., TSh. 2826.


In periphrasis (see Strachan, op. cit. p. 49): nitat huili robtar uilcc filii Israhel `all f. I. have not been evil,' Wb. 11a23 . is do immarchor chóre dotíagat ind fir so, 5a5 .

Elliptical: demes .i. mess dēde and, ūair it dá scín lais there are two blades ..., Corm. Y 438. is dos didiu isin blīadain tānaisi in fochlac .i. it ceitheora duillne fair, 423 . nī ba comairle aile acht a c[h]rochad, MacCongl. 19.4 .

Manibad were it not for , etc. with follg. accus.: mainbad éicin, Wb. 4a20 . manipad taschidetaid ind metir, Ml. 136c2 . manibad trocairi ndáe, 111b28 . manipad do chrúass, Trip.² 1370. menbad bíth einig F., TBC-LL¹ 1855. Later replaced by subst. vb.: meni beth in clessín ingantach, 2063 . ropsar marba ... | meni beth Find, RC vii 302.183 .

To express an obligation: praind do tomailt la marb hi tig ... is a hurcul `to eat a meal with a dead man in the house is forbidden,' Mon. Tall. 153.4 . ma dorat(d)a forcraid ngill is lóg a enech ... do aisiuc, Críth G. 288. ma ro-achtaigh comain airithi ina setaib, is a beth do, ┐ masa comain do rer dligid roachtaigh, is a beth air `soll es ihm werden ... soll er es bekommen,' Cóic Con. RE § 13.106 .

On sentences of the type ceso femmuin mbolgaig mbung, see Bergin, Ériu xii 197 ff .

Confusion between copula and subst. vb.: gérbho soicenelach hé iar ccolainn ro bai soichenelcha iar menmain, RC xxv 390 § 3 (? or read ro ba). dogniind ... airchisecht dib, mar no-béind athair doib `as though I had been their father,' PH 6107. Frequ. in ACC: boe (bui, bái, boi, v.ll.) sab suithe cech dind .i. ro bo sab daingen no soad cech ndimus, RC xx 168 § 26. boe saegul sneid .i. suail nó bec nó garit a saegul, § 24. boe seim sáth, § 25. boe dind oc libur leigdocht, § 27.


(a) from O. Ir. glosses and texts in Thes. Pal. (for further exx. from O. Ir. glosses see Strachan, loc. cit.). (b) from other texts.

In Mid. Ir. the forms of the copula in the 1st and 2nd sg. and in all persons of the pl. fell to a great extent into disuse, their place being taken by the 3rd sg., of the tense required with a pron., corresponding in form to the O.Ir. infixed pron. or to the poss. pron. of the person and number to be expressed, infixed between it and the following predicate. Occasionally the inf. pron. was added to forms other than sg. 3, e.g. nídam for nída (s. 1), atar, atin (pl. 3+ inf. pron. pl. 1) for ammi, bem for be (fut. s. 1). These forms while at first used impersonally as already occurred in O. Ir., e.g. issum ēcen, Wb. 10d24 , isat dílmain-siu, Ml. 55d21 , diandam thísed mucc ḟonaithe robad-am béo, Stories from Táin 5.16 , later came to be felt as simply the copula, as is shown when plural forms are folld. by pl. adjj., e.g. nibar troig, SR 3641 , gurdar síthaig, Hib. Min. 82.23 , acht co mbadar maithe díblínaib, TBC-LL¹ 35 ; and by such instances as: gidar comaltai, ib. 3680 . ropdhar fir chomdeirgide, ib. 3535 . As it is not always possible to discover whether a particular writer regarded this combination of copula + inf. pron. as such or as copula only, all such examples have been grouped together, so that, for instance, all the forms under subj. past s. 1 below should be taken not necessarily as being, to the mind of the writer, that particular form but rather as being his way of expressing what would in O. Ir. be expressed by combin, etc.

Examples of the 1st and 2nd persons are found both in Classical verse and in Early Mod. Ir. prose but the more commonly occurring forms are those of the 3rd sg., number and person being expressed by independent pronouns: is ort iarraim gidh óg thú, DDána 67 § 3. is fearr mé iná thú, IGT Introd. 22 § 90. t'fhearg, a rí, ... | re searg dí bu fhearr inn-ne, DDána 10 § 22. ag an druing ... rénar milis briathra borba, TSh. 1568. do bhríogh nach cumhachtach sinn féin ris aní se, 30 . is beannuighthe sibhse, 5669 . do bhríogh gurbh fheasach thú gurbh amadán mé, 9638 .

Indic. pres.

A. Absolute

s. 1

(a) am: am tualang dano a hétarcerta, Wb. 12d22 . is airi am cimbid-se, 27c22 .

(b) am, im, isam, isim, sam: am senóir ┐ am lobur, Trip.² 2045. am caemsa ... am maccam, TBC-I¹ 583 - 4 . amm eolach, TBC-LL¹ 1750. uair am aithrech, SR 7824. (cf. isam aithrech, 7789 ). im fáilid, Ériu v 224.73 . as me Ulltán ... im fili, im faidh, BNnÉ 257 § 214. From early in Mid. Ir. period the form isam (<is s. 3+ inf. pron. s. 1) occurs, side by side with am. In follg. exx. it must already have been understood as s. 1: uair isam bensa curad caín, LU 8440 (FB). issam ingen ríg, TBFr. 163 = im, ZCP iv 38.11 . asam senoir, CCath. 5495. issim meabrach, Acall. 3115. orsam (=ór isam) heolach, SR 1786. sam crochta gan cionadh réil, Ó Bruad. ii 132.11 .

s. 2

(a) at, it: at fechem dom, Wb. 32a21 . air it firian-su, Ml. 55d11 .

(b) at, it, ot, isat, asat: at meirb, Fél. July 19 . at ferr do lāech indó-sa, ScM. § 16.8 . fobīth ad ōegi, TBC-I¹ 507 (YBL) = dáig ot áegi, LU 4996. it gilla co ngicil, TBC-I¹ 2667. id file, Content. iv 2. isat lac, Bruchst. 30 § 67. isatt áil-siu dam-sa, SCC 739 . isit aneōlach, MacCongl. 122.9 . isat duni dána, TBC-LL¹ 3057. asat tretholl-sa, TBC-I¹ 3632.

s. 3

(a) is, rel. as`: is samlith is comadas dúun, Thes. ii 246.3 (Camb.). is hé céetne fer ceta-ru-chreti, Wb. 7b11 . is ferr ainm do denom de, Sg. 26b5 . is cele dae in fer hisin, Ml. 30c3 . Freq. written iss before vowels: iss uisse, Wb. 22c21 . iss i rráe choir immumruidbed, 23d30 . iss ed inso nád chumaing, Sg. 209b13 . Freq. written together with a follg. initial s, one s falling out: isuáichnid, Wb. 23d30 . isamlaid, Thes. ii 11.40 (Bcr.). rel. brothchán as chóir duib, Wb. 33c15 . as choimtig, Sg. 54b8 .

(b) is(s), as, us, es, rel. as`, is` (it is not clear when lenition ceased to be used after the cop. used relatively. It is less often marked than not in TBC, see Ériu xiv 90 , 93 , 94 ): is túath oirdnither ríi[g], Críth G. 493. is toirthech int inber, Trip.² 370. is gabtha na eich ┐ iss innilti in carpat, MU² 49. is cosmhail Samson ┐ an bás, TSh. 763. iss a miad neich dogniat mancuine, BCrólige § 50. iss messe rorecsabair, SR 3636. i[s] slān in fear, Laws iii 156.5 . isaer ém domrimgartsa, LU 10307. as iat na fir[a] fola no saraigthe, Cóic Con. H § 59. in ti do beir ... as e do ron, Laws iv 32.19 . as do hIddomdaib do, PH 6946. In TSh. `both abs. and rel. are written as in MSS.,' TSh. Introd. xx n. 3 . es dilmain, Anecd. iii 23.5 . es coitcend, ib. 2 . essed dobeir ..., 26.24 . es bec trá ná comráncatar inn a mméur ocus a coss, CMT² 58 § 132 . es de boí inn nem-sin fuirri(r), CMT² 60 § 133 . ar us aire isperar ..., Laws i 264.7 . ar us merle cach n-indligiudh, ii 70.25 . Somet. the vowel of IS is dropped: ┐ síad bhīos ag coimhēad, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1341. rel. as chóir, Mon. Tall. 146.27 . as chórus, Críth G. 223. a n-us tol lat-su, MacCongl. 33.9 . ? With class C inf. pron.: forband ... as-dom moo airli, Echtrae Chonnlai 121 § 6 . After constructions which take rel. n- the predicate of the copula is eclipsed (where the first word of the predicate is unstressed the usage varies): do thaidbsiu as n-iress nóibas, Wb. 19b14 . as ndia side gl. doceo, 13a18 . as n-é tairrchet, 6d6 . as ndirruidigthe a n-animm-sin, Sg. 56b10 . as ndí Assaraib ... rogabad in salm-sa, Ml. 35a10 . asberat as ndu deacht ... rogabad, 24d29 (but cf. adciam ... as ar chenél cruche adrímther ..., Thes. ii 246.25 (Camb.)). amail is n-adētchide in flesc, Corm. Y 606.8 . In Mid. Ir. rel. n- dropped out: uair ... as inann nadúir don duine ┐ ..., PH 7433. amail as diaisneisi in Coimdi, Ériu ii 144 § 159. in tan is indligthech iat, Cóic Con. H § 14. amail as crom craobh fo chnoibh, BS 54.15 . Very early the non-rel. form IS is used for rel. and vice versa, see above: cía dit maccaib is diliu latt ?, Trip.² 1774. mer is laugu, Corm. Y 809. is ed is chonar fugill ann ..., Cóic Con. RE § 24. intí is cosmail do Dia, PH 6266. ní íar chána is ḟairbrígh d'ḟir, IGT Decl. ex. 980.

pl. 1

(a) ammi, ammin, immi: ammi techtiri árt-phersine, Wb. 24d9 . ammi irlaim ... do dul martre, 4b21 . amminn imdibatai-ni ┐ ammin dilachtai, Ml. 83c3 . airmi (leg. airimmi, Ed.) ardu-ni, 23d23 .

(b) ammin, ar, dar, atar, isar, atin: is olc ar mblāth amin gorti, TBC-I¹ 1614. amin mairb, BDD² 330. ar troig ... dot' impartain we are wretched, SR 1482. ar n-idain fiad testaib Dé, 3583 . fortgellam Dia ... dar slana on chinaid-se, 3612 . cid einech rígh rontidnaic | atar dimdaig ..., Hib. Min. p. 82.x . isar scítha énirti, CCath. 2562. `atin budig de' ar an oicc, Anecd. i 5.18 (cf. batin aithrig, Ériu i 68 § 3 ).

pl. 2

(a) adib, idib, adi: adib cland Abrache, Wb. 19c20 . adib oís muntire, 21c4 . adi mmaicc, 9a13 . hóre adi ellachti, 21c17 . ar idib maithi, 16b9 .

(b) itib, at(a)bar, atfor: ár itib ingena ríg, Trip.² 1138. itib lía andú, BDD² 412 (= dáig abtar (leg. atbar) lia andúsa, LU 6870 ). ┐ itib degdoene, LL 281b28 . atabair ecen, LU 8097 (FB). is dásacht a ndognithi-si ┐ atbar dásachtaig fen, LB 212a10 . atabar glana-si, PH 5262. 5264 . apraid fris at for n-aithrig do debaid fris, Cymmr. xiv 118.11 ( Rawl. 132b29 ).

pl. 3

(a) it, at (once only in non-rel. sense), rel. ata`, at, et: it carit domsa, Wb. 5c7 . it dássactig, 12d36 . it coitchena, Sg. 10a1 . air at cuidi tirmaidi sidi, Ml. 123d3 . rel. in mairb ata thestis, Wb. 30a11 . it sib ata chomarpi, 19c20 . do retaib ata chosmaili fri fír, Ml. 51b8 . it hesidi at inbésa, 45d1 . it hé sidi et inbéso, 27a9 . confitetar són ata ndoini, 91c18 .

(b) it, at, isat, isid, rel. ata`, at: at remra na loeg ┐ it buidig na hoegid, Hy. v 25 Comm. it é inso trá gníma bóairech, Críth G. 183. it móra, Trip.² 1291. isat úathe dó ilib, 3096 . it cadlai dí ingein A., Fél. Dec. 9. at bidbaid, IT iii 502 § 10. isat bána, 514 § 7. hit imṡláin, SR 194. at mora, 3625 . id mesa indád demno, Anecd. iii 27.4 . at aena `these are of one day,' Laws i 156.y . at móra glonna Medbi, TBC-I¹ 1668. it cāema, 583 . cf. is mōra na comada' ... `isad mōra,' 2233 - 4 . i n-ifern isid bronaigh, Anecd. iii 55.29 (Síaburcharpat) = at brónaig, LU 9462. at cotarsnai, PH 711. isat lána, 5870 . rel. it é ata érlama, Trip.² 1539. amuis ata chórai, Críth G. 578. dí gérait at glainiu, Fél. May 7. saire ada lugu, Laws v 102.6 . laích ata dech, BDD² 757. adad dech, 1159 . seoit ... ad adhailge daib, Anecd. ii 53.3 . áos ata etromae cinaith `whose sins are lighter,' Mon. Tall. 158.7 . dāine ata maige imarīadam `on whose plains we would drive about,' Otia i 122 § 4.

B. Conjunct.

I Neg.

s. 1

(a) níta`, nída`: nita chumme-se friu-som, Wb. 20c25 . nida apstal apstil, 18c1 . sech níta aidlicen, Ml. 70b7 .

(b) nída`, nídam, nídom, nímda, ním, níam, níom, níum: nída choimsech mu ṡoíre, Trip.² 2976. nida (nidu, v.l.) dīr dermait it is not fitting for me to forget, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 16 § 1. nidha bheo-sa, TBC-LL¹ 6080 (fut. sense). nīdam macc, TBC-I¹ 645 (= nimda, LU 5129 ). nīdom sāitheach, TBC-I¹ 507 (= nimda, LU 4996 ). nīm láech cen lāmach, TBC-I¹ 2260. nidam dermatach, LU 10286. nidam snímach, SR 2382. nim dana, 2069 . nimda scál-sa ┐ nimda aurdrach, ZCP xiii 373.11 . nidom athair do duiniu, viii 561 § 2 . ni dam ben-sa fós do, Caithr. CC § 93. nida Christadi, Irish Texts i 2 § 4 . nidom chuchtach, BS 30.1 . níom tualaing suan, TSh. 2144. ní um claoidhte re a gcionnluas (ní um chl., v.l.), Ó Bruad. ii 138.6 .

s. 2

(a) No occurrence.

(b) nída, nídad, nídat, nít: nida tūalaing mo ergairi, Ériu i 116 § 6. nidad dichumaing, Anecd. i 11.13 . nít marbdae for tercphit, Fél. Sept. 8. nīt mess methchrainn, Bruchst. 17 § 33. nít firlaech-su, TBC-LL¹ 1343. nidat doss ós duss, 3460 . nidat mac-sa, FDG 718.

s. 3

(a) ní (geminates the follg. consonant, e.g. is rad dáe ... ni mmarilliud `(it is) not my merit,' Wb. 21c20 ): ní cuman lim, Wb. 8a3 . ní cuit broto acht is dugrés, Ml. 32c10 .

(b) ní (a form nís occurs once in ACC and may possibly be archaic: hua Airt nís Neill co nert `not with N.'s strength is he,' RC xx 406 § 128 ): ní rí Caisil co rón-ordnea, Trip.² 2302. ní tiamdae tim-som, Fél. Prol. 259. ni cosmail smachta cacha raithe, Laws iv 78.4 . ní segda, LU 1655. ni fír, PH 2715. ní críonna an tí nach tuigeann, DDána 35 § 2. ní hiongnadh an meas soin do bheith ..., TSh. 243. The follg. exx. from TBC show lenition after ní but they may be scribal errors: ní ḟlaith Ulad nod chosna, 2788 . ní ḟurusa, 3050 . In Mod. Ir. ní prefixes h to a fully-stressed word but not to a proclitic: ní ag cnúasach bó am theagh atá, Éigse iii 168 § 9 (and see note). With inf. pron.: nímdil cid dīthrub Temair (glossed: ní hinmain lem T. cid fas), Hy. ii 44. ním-nert acht mac Dé I have no strength but ..., LL 133b8 . nin-fissid frisbered omnu huain `not to us is the Knower who used to avert fears from us,' RC xx 164 § 16 (ACC). nin forcetlaid, ib. § 18.

pl. 1

(a) nítam`, nítan`, nídan`: nitam toirsich (sic leg., Ed.) gl. non angustiamur, Wb. 15b21 (a prima manu). nidan chumachtig for n-irisse, 14c41 . nidan chosmili, 14d37 . ar nitan reprobi-ni, 18b9 .

(b) nidar: nidar n-idain, SR 3626. nidar glain, 1609 .

pl. 2

(a) nítad, nídad (see OIPG p. 66 n. ): nitad lib fésin `ye are not your own', Wb. 9d11 . nidad óegid, 21b14 . 14a8 . ar nídad ferr-si, 8c7 .

(b) nibar, nifor: nibar troig, SR 3641. ni for gliccu ... inda oen na n-ánmanna, 1235 . is tróg niforn-intliuchtach (? leg. -aig), 1238 .

pl. 3

(a) nítat, nítaat, nídat, nít, nis: nitat cosnama domundi, Wb. 7d12 . ar nitaat cosmuli, 9b17 . nídat chummai, Ml. 115b3 . nit derachti, 128d1 .

(b) nídat calaid, Fél. Jan. 17. nít mórdai fria ngudi, March 1. nītad tabartha, TBC-I¹ 2856. nídat námait, LU 8264. nidat glain, SR 7996. nidad tlaithi, 1571 . nidat carpait, MU² 374. nit righ os ro-chathaib, LL 386a18 . nīdat cuibde, MacCongl. 7.16 . In ZCP xx 371 f. , Thurneysen gives the follg. exx. of a 3 pl. form, nis, occurring in Law texts: acht nis cosmailsi comarba[i] `aber Erben sind nicht von Gleichheit,' Laws iii 42.25 . atait tri comurba la Feine, nis comsaer a cuir, 46.18 . nis dilsi acht a tri, ZCP xiii 21.17 . nis cuir bel dilsi, xii 365.1 . nis maithi dam log n-aisi, logh sinsire, log fognama, ib. 8 .

II With dependent negatives:

(a) nád who (or which) is not, that (it) is not (see s.v. 1 nád, 2 nád, 3 nád and Strachan, loc. cit. l. 1007 ff.).

(b) nant, nan that (it) is not (see s.v. nan and Subst. Vb. l. 1011 ff .).

(c) nách that (it) is not (see s.v. 3 nach, 4 nach and Subst. Vb. l. 1018 ff. ). For nícon, noco, nochon, etc., see s.v. nícon.

III With interrog. particle in-:

s. 1

(a) inda: inda apstal `am I an apostle ?,' Wb. 10c20 .

(b) ? anom (=indom) adbar gascedaig, Ériu xiv 89.2175 (= TBC-LL¹ 1186 ).

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) indat: indat creitmech, Trip.² 917. indat ómnach ?, Lat. Lives 90.0 . indot eolac[h], CCath. 2883. indat sochenel, PH 695.

s. 3 For both (a) and (b) the interrog. particle alone is used, i.e. in (later an) :

(a) in cuntubart lib inso, Wb. 3c3 . in ed fodera báas domsa, 3c33 .

(b) inn a síthib in do déib dúib ?, Trip.² 1114. co fessur ... in he [Is]sau no inne Iacob, SR 2884. an beó do thigerna ?, BDD² 1519.

pl. 3

(a) indat: indat mbriathra ? `is it the words ?,' Ml. 44b9 (cf. sechitat n-é (sic MS.), V below).

(b) indat: nocon fetarsa indat ilgnae do-chuirither in folt fair fo indat trí fuilt failet fair, BDD² 1125 - 6 . indat facsi don purt are they near ...?, LU 1873 (ICM). indat pettai sút no indat éoin chena, TBC-LL¹ 1328. Later the interrog. particle without pl. suffix is used also for pl.: co findara in n-iat tanic, PH 440.

IV With neg. interrog.

s. 2 (a) cenita: cenita chumgabtha-siu `art Thou not exalted ?' Ml. 84c3 .

s. 3

(a) cani, cini: cani doich, Wb. 5b35 . cani messe immoforling cretim dúibsi, 10c18 . cani mebuir lib, 20a5 . cini glé lib ..., 12d4 . cini inonn, 18a16 . caní románda .ó., Sg. 49b23 .

(b) cani: Ōengus do guin ... cani ōin do decraib Dē ?, Bruchst. 50 § 110 .

These forms were early replaced by nách q.v. s.v. 5 nach (nách).

Interrogative sentences containing cía, cid who, what (is). etc.

(i) The copula is not expressed after cía but that it is implied is clear from the follg. rel.: cinuid mic n-altrumu, cia forsa tiagat ?, Laws ii 178.3 . cia roblaiss bethaid ┐ na faicfe éc (qui vivit ┐ non videbit mortem), LL 281a32 . cia tir ass as[s]am lat do thabairt dúinne, ZCP viii 318.33 . gá cara don uile as fhearr, A. Ó Dálaigh xv 5. cia in fear sin ?, Anecd. ii 9.22 . cía can duib ?, Trip.² 1113. In gen.: coich úainn hí ? to which of us will it belong ?, 811 . íarfaigset dó ... cúich he, LU 1838. With verbal ending added: cóichet na heich se ?, 8522 (FB).

(ii) cid (see Thurneysen, GOI § 466 ): cid as dénti frisin, Wb. 12d41 . cid as maith, 12d12 . ní tucthar cid frissa-sennar, 12c46 . cid is conair ... is sed is conair ..., Cóic Con. H § 138. cid ara n- why ? : cid ara ndéntar pecthach díim, Wb. 2a10 . cid ara cuinchi-siu sein ?, Thes. ii 307.12 ( Hy. ii Introd. ). cid ara n-eipenar ?, Laws ii 194.2 . cid ara cuirther do trise ina lesa so ?, i 236.9 . cid how ? cid na déccaid uili how do not ye all see, Fél. Prol. 201. cid ēcōru mo beithse and anās ..., TBC-I¹ 2224.

pl. 3 citné (`gekürzt aus ci ata n-é ,' Thurn., ZCP xx 372 ): assindet sunt tra citné cumacte diandid cóir in fognam `what are the powers unto which the service is proper,' Wb. 6a9 . citné briathra robatar `what were the words ?,' Ml. 61b7 . citné robatar `what were they,' ib. 8 . citne a nanmand na soerbard (caidet, v.l.), IT iii 5.8 . ceitni trī seōit fūair C. ?, ZCP xiii 5 § 19. citni rig ... robatar' sind amsir sin ?, SR 2347. The corresponding form in the Laws is cisné: cisne lesa do na ibh sen tascnat treise `what cases of these extend to three days ?,' Laws i 230.21 . cisne tri biada na tuillead leaptha na hapta, v 438.14 . cisne trí ana soitcedach `what are the three wealths ...,' Triads 239. Sometimes cis immediately precedes the noun : cis formmenn écndaircc doslíat dílsi ?, ZCP xii 366.25 . cis ndíthle do trebaib na tuillet dire ?, 26 . cis forcsen fola la Fēne ?, BCrólige § 65. cis lir how many: cis lir congellait for tresi, Laws i 230.3 . cis lir lanamna docuisin la feine ?, ii 344.1 . cis lir chuir dochuisin ?, iii 4.5 . cis lir fodlai filet forsin mbairdne ?, IT iii 6.13 . cf. cit lir fodlai ..., ib. 20 .

V With various conjunctions.

(i) cía, cé, ci although, that.

s. 1

(a) No instance.

(b) ciam, cidam : ciam toebnocht, SR 1540. cid am laech-sa, TBC-LL¹ 1677. misi gedam foidhidech, ZCP xii 393 § 10. gidh im c[h]rochbán-sa, BS 138.y . giodh am midhiongmhala, Parrth. Anma 333.18 .

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) cíasa, cidat : cíasa lobur, no rega, Trip.² 1282. cidat fír-Dhia ... ro-gabais colaind ndoenda, PH 163.

s. 3

(a) césu, céso, cíasu, cíaso, cíasa : cesu threde in tummud, Wb. 21d13 . ciaso ḟolud ... sluindes, Sg. 211b7 .

(b) césu, céso, cíasa, cid, gid : césu réid ar lebrán, Fél. Ep. 133. ciasa (ceso, v.l.) femmain [m]bolgaigh [m]bung (see Ériu xii 197 ), Corm. Y 1059.64 . ciasa díthrub, Metr. Dinds. iv 42.2 . ciodh olc an bás nádúrtha, TSh. 987. gidh ionann atá ..., 2900 .

pl. 1

(a) No instance.

(b) cíammin, gidar : cíammin bí, BDD² 329. gidar comaltai, TBC-LL¹ 3680

pl. 2

(a) cenuded', cenotad' : cenuded issidi (=ḟissidi) `although ye are knowing,' Thes. i 713.25 (Tur. Cod.). cenotad maic-si raith, Wb. 33b8 . cenutad suíre, 4a10 .

pl. 3

(a) cetu', ceto' : cetu chummascthai, Sg. 62a2 . ceto écintecha, 203b10 .

(b) ciato', cetu', ciat, cidat : ciato chomṡruithi, Críth G. 493. cetu cummai a feba, Bruchst. 39 § 94. cíat ísliu fíad dáinib ... bit áird, Fél. Prol. 153. cidhat (cit, v.l.) ili fuile, Corm. Y 975.39 . srotha in dithruib ... ciat serba slassa, SR 4071. cidat mora, 446 . cidad mōra, TBC-I¹ 2235. ceat olca, ZCP vii 269 § 17. Ériu ii 122 § 63.

cía + neg. s. 3

(a) cinid, cenid : cinidlúith (=cinid dlúith) lib, Wb. 12b9 . cinith mút, Sg. 5b4 . cenid ed, Ml. 85b11 .

(b) cenid, cini : cenid mé in murgelt, LU 3022 (H). cini di sīl Chuind dóu, ZCP xiii 375.10 .

(ii) má (ma) s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) masat (masae, v.l.) : masat mac Dé, PH 4708. masad acuraig, CCellaig 449 . masat eólach, ZCP xiii 3 § 5. másat (masae, v.l.) geilt, BS 100.13 .

s. 3

(a) masu', maso', masa' (see Thurneysen, KZ xlviii 60f .) : masu chundubart, Wb. 4d28 . masa choimdiu, Ml. 108c16 .

(b) masu', masa', mas' : see s.v. 3 má (ma). Add : masu ar oítid, Trip.² 1483. mása thol, 584 . a Ḟir diad masa thú, TBC-LL¹ 3659. massa anfisac, Laws iv 36.25 Comm. mas da fis, 22 Comm. mas é Dubthach, TBC-LL¹ 2780. masad (massa, v.l.) ḟír, Mór M. 266.15 . mása thoil leat, TSh. 8093. más é is críoch, 1366 .

pl. 3

(a) matu : matu hé ata horpamin, Wb. 2c14 .

(b) masat, mástat : masat elti, MU² 399. mástat carait ... mastat námait, LU 9091 (FB).

ma + neg. s. 3

(a) manid : manid fír, Wb. 13b14 . 17b32 . Ml. 21a11 .

(b) manid, minad, minid, munid, minap, munab : manid caindleóracht, LU 9196 (FB). minad hé, BDD² 1287. minid hé, 917 . mani daig, 593 . munab follus, TSh. 5164. See s.v. 3 má (ma) and TSh. Introd. xxi n. 3 . The form béso, bésu is used as a subjunctive (for its origin see Thurn., KZ xlviii 60.f .) : bésu dagduine cini estar túari `he may be a good man,' Wb. 6b23 , 24 . massu ed béso mó a fius dúibsi, 19b11 .

(iii) co n- so that.

s. 1

(a) conda : is rad dée immum-forling conda apstal, Wb. 13b6 . conda marb, 19a17 . 17c10 .

(b) conda, conam, conadam, conidam : domāncatar-sa uile | conda eōlach a n-achne, Otia i 127 § 29. conam torsech co haithbe, 128 § 33. rom ebail Sencha ... conidam trén, LU 10285. 10304 . conad am lista liumm fadén ┐ nach am inmain frisnach āen, MacCongl. 95.4 .

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) condat adbartnaigthi-siu, PH 1795.

s. 3

(a) condid, conid : condid flaith do in coimdiu, Wb. 9d2 . tremiberar ... conid ainm dun chrunn, 8a5 . condid di thetacht in spírto ... profetauit , Thes. i 496.26 (Ardm.). conid e epscop insin cita-ruoirtned, ii 241.15 (ib.). conid femen, Sg. 123b2 . condid étrummu, Ml. 90a11 . connid ed, 91a19 .

(b) condid, conid, conad, cunad, etc.: condid ann, AU i 434.22 (A.D. 916) . Hib. Min. 25. conid eiter a lamaib ..., Mon. Tall. 153.12 . conid edh, AU i 538.6 (A.D. 1015) . conid soillsi, Corm. Y 426. LU 10931. 10306 . PH 2245. 720 . conad dēach ainm gach sillaibe, Corm. Y 500. PH 1371. 6132 . Laws iv 18.2 Comm. cunad fír, MU² 284. cunid soillsithir, 554 . condad leis Aidhne, Ériu i 46.32 . conodh i, Ériu iii 141.206 . conud e, RC vi 184.19 . gonid lór, ACL iii 306 § 1 . gonadh aire sin ..., Ó Héodhusa 51.1. TSh. 1824. 5960 . conid was replaced by gurab (gur), gura originally a subjunctive form : corop Tuigi im Thamon and sain, LL ii 9911 . gorop de atá Cruachna Áe, ii 12397 . innister curab pecthaig ..., RC xxiv 378.17 . gurab droch-duine ..., PH 7682. corub iat, 445 corab í so, 7334 . gurb i luaithreadh ..., TSh. 300. gur bréagach a bhreathnughadh, 395 . gurab é an bás, 37 . gurab tearc, 94 . er co ra mian leisin nádúir maith do dénum, PH 7394. gur tú mo Chruthaightheoir, Donlevy 406.5 . gur ionmholta, 132.10 . do-fedar gura tú C., ZCP viii 546.26 . Cf. also : casmail lem gom (=co mba) e in mac beg, 538.15 .

pl. 1

(a) condan : hóre ronsóirni ... condan fírianichthi, Wb. 2d14 . immunrordad condan maicc togu non naturae , 20d10 .

(b) No instances.

pl. 3

(a) condat : condat anman som, Sg. 188b3 . condat reli inna aicsin hisin, Ml. 51d15 .

(b) condat, condot, cundat : condat e tri decmainge in domain a d[t]indtud, Laws v 426.3 . condat cora, SR 296. SCC 320 . PH 736. cundat marthanaig, MU² 310. gondat Ulaid, TBC-LL¹ 704.

(iv) With cen co (not found in Glosses) :

(b) s. 1 gon com (gen gob, v.l.) maith-se oc immarbáig, TBC-LL¹ 3219.

s. 3 gion go glan mo sgáth, DDána 24 § 30. gion gur caomh a dhreach, 91 § 6.

(v) With no :

s. 1

(a) nonda', nunda' : amal nonda thorisse `as I am trustworthy,' Wb. 10a28 . a nunda thinnachtae-se, Ml. 126d12 .

s. 2

(a) nonda', nunda' : lassaní nonda brithem `when Thou art judge,' Ml. 92a15 . a nnunda chocuibsid-siu, 58b6 . 38c27 .

pl. 1

(a) nundem, nundan : oire nundem membur uili du Dea, Thes. ii 246.5 (Camb.). á nnundan deeth ní, Ml. 120b3 .

pl. 2

(a) nondad : amal nondad maicc cóima, Wb. 27b16 .

(b) These forms did not survive O. Ir.

(vi) After the co-ordinating conjunctions sech and noch the absolute form is used. See under 2 sech and 1 noch. sechi whoever, whatever probably contains cop. s. 3 : sechi é cretes `whosoever believes,' Wb. 15b1 . sechi hed bás són `whatsoever death ...,' 13c1 . sechi dú nu-t-soe-siu, Ml. 112b6 .

pl. 3 sechitat hé ` whoever they are ,' 49a19 . sechitat hé (né, MS.) ` whatsoever ,' Thes. ii 25.38 (Bcr.). (Cf. indat mbriathra, III above).

VI With various prepositions in relative clauses.

(i) i n- (in many exx. has the force of a conjunction, see Ériu i 12 ) :

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) inda : cid at-chí dúnd, inda fisid `since thou art ...,' BDD² 545.

s. 3

(a) indid, innid : cia airm indid immaircide do epert amén, Wb. 12d18 . ind labrada innid eula nech, Ml. 42c4 . indid mailliu a tuile `by which the flood is slower,' Thes. ii 14.35 (Bcr.). 20.41 (ib.).

(b) indid, inid, inad, ina: indid Niall ... ro malart since it is N. ..., AU i 438.26 (A.D. 918). indid Alend is dún fás, Hail Brigit § 14. inid mo athair ... ortabairsi, BDD² 737. Bruchst. 47 § 105.3 . inad gilla óc ... tarfás dúnn, BDD² 161. PH 5029. do Maig Mell inid rí Boadag, LU 10004. aít init sruithiu dliged oldas naidm, ZCP xiii 23.1 . inad ina fairsingi in cathuir, Maund. § 75. eccla ifirn ... 'na minic fóidh guil, ACL iii 216.17 . Forms originally perf. and subj. came to be used as pres. indic. : sé céimeanna 'nar cosmhail ré chéile iad, TSh. 1231. ní fhuil ainm oile ... ionarb (ionab, v.l.) éigean sinne do shlánughadh, 2088 . neg. traigle i nach ūathad uidre, Bruchst. § 88. teagh is nach uathadh urra, DDána 119 § 23.

pl. 3

(a) indat : indat iudei itirroscar[sat] fri hiris n-abarche since they are Jews, Wb. 5b34 . cid ind aimser indat sláin ennaic som, Ml. 76a6 .

(b) in am indat slána, TBC-LL¹ 952. inat ṡlana, 1386 .

(ii) día n- :

s. 1

(a) No instances.

(b) díanda, díanam : Chríst dianda chéle `whose servant I am,' Fél. Ep. 307. an rí díanam gilla, ZCP v 497 § 12.

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) díandat : cia díandat céliusiu ?, TBC-I¹ 1382.

s. 3

(a) díant, díandid, dían : intí diant ainm discessio, Wb. 26a5 . in rét diant torbach ..., Ml. 121d1 . dian-did nomen hiber, Sg. 100b1 . in son diandid tintud ..., Ml. 37a10 . dian duthoig Liphe, Thes. ii 295 § 4 ( SP v ). neg. di nach follus (=dunach, Edd.), Thes. ii 8.35 (Acr.).

(b) díand, díanid, díanad, dían, díanda, dían(d)at, dána, dán, etc.: dianid opair oen laithi, AU i 342.22 (A.D. 839) . Corm. Y 825.2 . fer dianid comainm Labán, SR 2944. diand sanctlethan slondad, Fél. June 12 . April 22 . indī dianda coimmēid, Corm. Y 269. 892 . dianad ainm clí, 275 . PH 5180. 5494 . mí diandat (diando, MS., dianid, v.l.) ainm Marsiius, Corm. Y 892. cid dianat maith ind uair si ?, Hib. Min. p. 50.6 . Cū dīan comainm Culand, TBC-I¹ 2263. dianaid rī, 560 . dian serb cach sruith, ZCP vi 267 § 2. cia dana céile thusa ?, viii 545.2 . Ériu ii 229.19 . drem dīb dan eōl, ZCP viii 216 § 78. Laws iv 60.12 . ACL iii 237 § 15. na nathrach neimhe danadh ainm tyrus , TSh. 8973. Pres. subj. and perf. forms used as pres. indic. : darab ceann sgríbe an chríoch dhéidheanach, TSh. 725. cia d'ar ceart, Donlevy 106.7 . neg. airchindech do nach diur adhultrus, Laws i 58.22 Comm. do neoch do nar bo chotlud, TBC-LL¹ 2962. cia dánach feasach ... ?, TSh. 6401.

pl. 3

(a) neg. : donnatdet adblama inna esiu (leg. inna hísiu, Edd.) `to whom these things are not ready,' Thes. i 713.23 (Tur. Cod.).

(b) díanat, díandat : amail rondeiligthe sinethae dianat anmanna dela, Corm. Y 431. Metr. Dinds. iii 312.116 . bó ... díandat slána a secht mbliadna, LU 8122.

(iii) ara n- :

(a) arndid : cid arndid ísliu aesce quam sol , Thes. ii 22.41 (Bcr.). in di accuis ... arndid coitchen ..., Sg. 200a13 .

(b) ara n- : is ed sin ara n-amra `arcu fuin' `for which a.f. is admirable,' ZCP vii 312 § 26.

(iv) ó n- :

(a) óndid, ónid : in sians ondid accobor limsa ícc cáich, Wb. 12d23 . honid techtae molad Dáe, Ml. 51c2 .

(b) ón, óna, ónab : díles Néill ón cunnail cell, Ériu iv 92 § 1. toirt[h]igi in lā | ōnab lēir feadha, ACL iii 235 § 21. gním óna mó ar dtachrádh, IGT Decl. ex. 412.

(v) frissa n- :

(a) frisin : dochum cétnidetad frisin cosmil `to which it is like,' Sg. 188a13 .

(b) frisnid, ren, rena, renab, renar : inmain samail frisnid cosmail a n-adchīusa, TBC-I¹ 2875. nech risnid [andsa], LU 4004. drem ren dothroide ar ndeabhaidh, IGT Decl. ex. 1167. is dona neithibh renab usa truailled do gabail cuigi, in baindi, Rosa Angl. 112.8 . dream ... réna deacair, TSh. 4665. ag an druing ... rénar milis, 1568 . 711 .

pl. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) frisndat : inna ferta sa ... cía beith nech risndat móra araide isat úathe dó ilib, Trip.² 3096.

(vi) lasa n- :

(a) lasin : intí lasin format, Ml. 129b3 . lasin n-accubur, 53c16 .

(b) lasnad, lenab : intí lasnád ecul `who fears,' PH 2411. lasnad ail, 1421 . cibé lénab mór a n-abraim, Keat. i 76.44 .

(vii) oca n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) ri ind lochta hicnad suithi a n-ord, RC xx 174 § 38 (ACC). co flaith Dúrlais, 'cán mór mé, Hy Fiach. 284.5 . sdéd gan dóigh urraim na n-eillteadh, IGT Decl. ex. 1177 = gán, 662 .

(viii) fa n- (O. Ir. imm) :

(a) No instance.

(b) fán, fána : a cCionn Coradh fan léir magh, ZCP viii 225 § 42. fáth fána doilghe ... an bás, TSh. 1132.

(ix) asa n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) asarb : briathra asarb iontuigthe ..., TSh. 5664.

(x) forsa n-, fora n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) forab : o sheircc in domain-sea forab airchindech diabul, PH 7118.

Cons. Pres.

s. 3


(a) No instance.

(b) bid : bid coitchenn dliges cach ngrád ... i córus othrusa, Críth G. 50. bés bid cethrar nó chóicer bíte hi comarbus bóairech, 146 .


(a) -bi, -pi : nipi cían a masse in choirp, Wb. 28c25 . 12c12 . air nibi eulach, Ml. 42c9 . 128d3 . níbí cian, 91d2 . combi remib rethith iarum, Wb. 13b13 . indhí lasmbi accobur, 30c23 . imbí hinun folud whether the substance is the same, Sg. 188a6 .

(b) -bi, -pi : nī bī clōen in t-ere, Corm. Y 447.16 . ni bi briugu nad bi cedach, Laws v 76.10 . i ngait nádbi aí `which is not his,' Críth G. 218. ben las(a)mbi cuma cip cia las fia, BCrólige § 44. is bec a ain iphthi compí sāitheach, ZCP vi 257.y . i tig as mbi eggna suillsi, BDD² 175. dīa mbī dīn Cūan Caill, Four Songs 20 § 4 . pl. 1 (a) ? isin chruth-sin bimmi nóib-ni 'it is thus that we become holy' Wb. 3 d 27 , ZCP xxxii 120 .

pl. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) bit : imscarad dotluigigter flaith fri aigillni na bit anfolaid in ceili gaibter ann `a separation which the chief requests from the tenant not on account of any disqualification of the tenant,' Laws ii 316.z .


s. 2


(a) ba' : ba chuimnech dilguda duinni, Ml. 46b29 .

(b) ba, bat : ba faitech ar nā ba fīachach, Anecd. iii 13.10 = bat fattech, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 14 § 3.1 . bát umal ... bat cumnech, LU 3490 - 1 . bat cúimnech, PH 1208.


(a) -ba', pa' : naba thoirsech, Wb. 29d19 . napa chondarcell, 31c22 .

(b) -ba, -bad, -b(a)dat, -rbat, -rab, -rsat : nā ba lonn frim, TBC-I¹ 1210. nad bad lond-so, TBC-LL¹ 1045. na badat, 1106 . nabdat dolam, SR 1253. narbat (marab, narab, v.ll.) timtheirc tais, KMMisc. 262 § 9. nárbhat dian, Acall. 587. nárbat bronach-su, FDG 397.

s. 3


(a) bad', bed', pad' : bad chore dúib friu `have peace towards them,' Wb. 27d11 . bed chuimnech, 33d5 . pad glicc far n-intliucht, 5c21 .

(b) bad, ba : arān Mochue ... ba hé dobertar dúin, Mon. Tall. 128.25 . bad and sein not adnastar, Trip.² 2991. bat (bá, v.l.) tusu bas ara, 2580 . bad (bud, bidh, bu, v.ll.) sonairt ar n-airle, Fél. Prol. 261. bad uallach, ScM. § 4.11 . ba (bá, LU) maith blāth in claideb, TBC-I¹ 934. bá[d] sí riar Aengusa, Ériu xii 146.2 (Tochm. Ét.). nech atcobra bithbethaid ... bat umhal, ZCP vii 312 § 23. With inf. pron. s. 2 : badat cuman remember, Rawl. 72b39 .


(a) -bad' : nábad chotarsne fri bar n-ícc a nno-gessid, Wb. 24b3 . nabad do réir far colno beithe, 6b4 .

(b) -bad, -bud, -pa : ná bad ead do-gneth, BDD² 411. nábad olc do menma, LU 3271. na pa machtad amh libsi, Mon. Tall. 157.20 . nā bud sgēlach, ZCP vii 311 § 9.

pl. 1

(a) ban', baán' : ban chossmaili friar tuissech, Wb. 33b20 . 29b17 . baán tairismich do irnigdi, 5d22 .

(b) No instance.

pl. 2


(a) bad', bed' : bad chensi fri cách, Wb. 24b1 . bad treúin i n-iriss, 27a6 . bed adthramli .i. gaibid comarbus for n-athar, 9a14 .

(b) No instance.


(a) -bad' : nabad anfoirbthi-si, Wb. 12d26 .

(b) ? nadib leisc, SR 7843. narbar dúrcridig, 4842 .

pl. 3


(a) bat' : bat chosmuli frinni `let them be like unto us,' Wb. 17c5 .

(b) bat, bad : bat menci do dalai, Ériu viii 173.8 . bad sgrībt[h]a a sgēla, ZCP viii 110 § 10.


(a) -bat : bad armatura dei bess lib nábat nacha arm aili, Wb. 22d14 .

(b) No instance.


s. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) bíth : nicon ibdis bandai cormmai i tír Cualand, cia bith ara tecmainged dóib `whoever it used to be that they used to meet,' Mon. Tall. 129.19 (tr. Bergin, Ériu xii 209 , q.v.).

pl. 3 (see Bergin, Ériu xii 225 f. ).


(a) No instance.

(b) batis : a trian rocharsa[t] Coin Culainn batís [d]aill ... batis clóin ... batis guit, RC viii 60.15 ( LL 117a7 - 10 ). ? batis gnatha ar buadhuiph band, Anecd. ii 70.8 .


(a) No instance.

(b) -btis : imrethitis a da thraigid ┐ a n-adbrond comtís luathidir ruathar funemda, Ériu iv 30.2 . comtis scítha, Snedg. u. Mac R § 27. dabertis T.D.D. lubi ... for aibnib ... comtís brecca ... na srotha díb, TBC-LL¹ 4213. comdis fliuch iad do deraib, TTebe 3711 . comtis, 2884 . nībtis omain neich `they used not to fear any man,' ZCP iii 38.25 (tr. Ériu xii 225 ).

Subj. Pres.

s. 1

(a) -ba : ciaba deróil la nech, Wb. 18a7 . 23b29 . niba dimicthe-se libsi `I should not be despised by you,' 21d3 . mainba aecne lib, 17c10 .

(b) -ba, -pa, ropom (ropa, v.l.), -rbom, -rbam, -rba, -bam ; with ma, madam : ni reg-sa assin chruachán-sa co mba marb, Trip.² 1294. nipá pene na régi, Mon. Tall. 131.17 . riasiu ba marb-sa, ZCP i 105.25 . acht ropom (ropa, LU) airdricsa, TBC-I¹ 571. im-caemros[s]a do gaethaib corbom gaeth fo-deisin, BDD² 167. díamsa saithech bíd when once I am satisfied, LU 8469 (FB). nírba cintach `may I not be guilty,' Ériu vi 116 § 3. dīa mba bēo-sa, KMMisc. 208.y . corbam cruithnecht it' it[h]lainn, Ériu iii 31 § 24. narbam crimnach, SR 3202. nīrbam utmall anbsaid, a meic mo Dé, ZCP vi 260 § 10. madham buidech-sae, CCath. 4210. madam beō-sa do-gēba luach a taisgedha ... minbam beō imorra ..., ML² 1495.

s. 2

(a) -ba' : armba cháinchomraccach-so, Wb. 30b23 . cia ba loingthech, 6c9 . ciafa firián, Ml. 36a32 . comba soilse-siu, Wb. 22c3 . Ml. 54b19 .

(b) bat, -ba, -pa, -bat, -pat, -rba(t), -rbot, -(b)sa(t) : with cía, cidat ; with ma, madat : ni ba dicheoil, SR 2197. nipa frithenech, LU 3495. ní pa, Ériu i 198 § 16a . nibát athboingid ar narbat aithrech, LU 3502. nibat comromach ar nábat miscnech, 3503 . nirbat díscir ... nibbát ecal ... nipát tairne ..., 3467 - 9 . ba hēmich corbad sercach, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 14 § 3.3 . bat umal corbot ūasal, ib. § 3.7 . nírba chreccach, Ériu i 200 § 22. nirba truag, SR 3295. doroimle corbat cétach, ..., LU 8796 (FB). atraí coropat mor, 3533 . céin bat béo, 3919 . nirbat ancretmech ... acht corbat cretmech, PH 6776. diamba breiteam arafeser ... `if thou be a judge, thou shouldst know,' BCrólige § 66. diambat rolabar, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 18 § 7.16 . ZCP vii 298.17 . diamsa coemainech, IT i 70.2 . diamsat fissid, iii 488.352 . BS 86.25 . nírsat bidbha oirechta, Acall. 597. 598 . toich duit cidat rī, toich duit cidat druī (to a child), PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 3 ( LL 147a ). cidat lond im gním garta, IT iii 508 § 1. madat fīrēn flaith `if you be a just prince,' KMMisc. 262 § 15. madhid trēn, ML² 1437.

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.

(i) Abs. The form ba appears to be used only as jussive subj. :

(a) ? bá tualang cách forcital alaili `let each be fit ...,' Wb. 6d13 ; ba samlid dúib `be ye thus,' 19d29 , but in both instances the editors would read bad for ba.

(b) do Chríst ba mór do gaire, Ériu i 200 § 22. ba i n-ómun ba i n-incridiu | gudem Críst let it be in fear ..., 195 § 10 (but ? cf. 1 fa).

Conj. (ii)

(a)bé (see Bergin, Ériu xii 208 ff .) : cia bé a mmēt adae `however great it may be,' Ml. 61b28 . cip hé ade asberam, 25d11 .

(b) cip hé gellus dít, Trip.² 1626. cibbe noda saraigfed, 789 . cipe a isle, ciape a huaisle, Laws v 386.15 . secht tellaige ... nad erenaiter cidbe indola, 206.2 . cidbe fine dib dibus, Cóic Con. H § 69. cebé baile no beth, LU 365. cipé tí, TBC-LL¹ 1768. cipia frisa ferthar tnú, Ériu v 211.69 . gidh bé haird iona dtuitfidh, TSh. 3985.

(iii) -bo occurs in the Glosses seeming sometimes to be the jussive subj. (neg.) and once after in whether , but these exx. may perhaps be pret. (but see (iv) below) :

(a) ní bo comitesti (rectius chomitesti, Ed.) dó `he should not be indulged,' Wb. 1c12 . nibo intain no mbeid ar súil tantum `it must not be when ye are before (His) eye,' 27c9 . rofitir side imbo ho chridiu fa nacc, 27c11 .

(b) No instance.


-p, -b :

(a) níp tarisse lat `trust him not,' Wb. 30d24 . nip sain a n-asberat et immarádat, 28c1 . nip crú cruach, Thes. ii 250.11 (Stowe M.). arnáp hé som ..., Wb. 6c7 . ar nab laigiu, Sg. 179b1 . imb anacol dom fa nac, Wb. 23a6 . immaid (=imb m.) fa olcc, 8d26 . im fochróib bá chían, Sg. 151b2 . sechip hé ... `whosoever it be,' Wb. 3b15 . sechib grád i mbether and, 10a18 . cip cruth bíid páx libsi fri cách `howsoever it be,' 5d33 . cib cenél tra dia ro scribad ind epistil so, 3b20 . mainip in chrud-so, 10a5 . manip hinunn etargnae, Sg. 188a12 . Ml. 14d10 . cenib fír, 24d22 . cenip ho étrummugud inna n-olc, 59a23 . cinip hond sémigdetu, 59a23 .

(b) -p, -b, -pe, -be, later -ba, -bo ; with día, díam : acht nip inbleoguin, Laws ii 98.17 . bés níp aill do dáinib, Fél. Ep. 417. níp anchobrai, LU 9663. bes nipe nessu éc do suidiu oldás daitsiu, 9210 . mad ben urnadma na be cetmunnter, Laws ii 380.25 . ar n[a] himirbera neach na be hai, v 476.z . diam dlaí di chi[u]nn adairt, Críth G. 229. BCrólige § 38. diam chuibse cataid `to whom veneration is due,' Laws i 10.24 . mairg ... diam cara Colco, Anecd. i 7.11 . cach fuil druith dinnap inna ramot techtai torai, BCrólige § 64. cid nabsin (? = nab sí in) Fedelm-sa ... cichsed, LU 8296. nabbsin, 8318 . air nā ba (v.l. arnab) sothuissledhach, Corm. Y 434. arnapa dimicnithi, Trip.² 2048. sechib dán di[i]b, Críth G. 323. sicip hé dígbas ..., Trip.² 751. secip blas bá mellach, LU 1787. PH 1428. mad iar stair cip indus, Trip.² 33. BDD² 655. cip magen inda tecmai `in whatever place,' BCrólige § 40. cidh be manach doda-goad ┐ cib can a cinel whencesoever, Anecd. i 44.8 . cecip ní foillsighfithir daitt ` whatever ,' Aisl. Tond. 96.9 is fīach dia blīadnai dō īar sin d(h)inap (sic leg.) turbuith deithbire dothnairp dia nephthairiuc 'it becomes for him a debt [payable only] in a year’s time unless a legitimate excuse excuses him for his non-appearance' Bürgschaft 17 § 53 , Ériu xx 230 . dinnap ina ramot techtai torai 'unless it has accrued in a lawful way (?) ' Ériu xii 52 § 64 , xx 230 . manip do Chonchobor, ScM. § 3.16 . PH 2080. manib tualaing, Anecd. iii 23.12 . maniba t'ainmnet ..., Trip.² 859. manab ac oen flaith beit, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. munab neasa, 44.4 . DDána 76 § 24. munob cunntabartac[h], BCrólige § 14 n. 1 . munup, Laws iv 26.13 . menip, SR 3597. Cóic Con. RE § 23. minub, BCrólige § 23. FDG 389. minap, TBC-I¹ 795. PH 1542. minab, 6035 . munbo cairnech in craidhe, ZCP vi 268.12 . munba, ib. 11 . IGT Decl. ex. 352. cinip mór do bríg, Trip.² 1888. LU 1435 (MU).

The form arimp in the Glosses always has a final sense except the doubtful ex. in Ml. 130b8 (see below). The ex. from Críth Gabl. is also final, the others all express an indirect command or wish (cf. airndip, see (v) below) :

(a) arimp áigthidiu-de `that it may be the more dreaded,' Wb. 23d23 . 32a2 . 15c4 . arimp díthnad ... dúibsi foditiu fochide dúnni, 14b17 . arim tairismech, 25a9 . ised as maith la dia airimp (? leg. airndip) isin gess ... `this God would have ...,' Ml. 130b8 .

(b) arim túalang gabála[e] ríg, Críth G. 187. cach ōen comaldathar in cāin si ... arim sírsaegul ... ┐ arop airmitnech fēith, Cáin Ad. § 30. abbair fri Feradach, arim remḟissid arad sencharpait `er solle ein vorauswissender Lenker des alten Wagens sein,' ZCP xi 83 § 27. nach oirecht ... árim (corob, v.l.) cáin domnaig cétadéntar ann, Ériu ii 210 § 33. The usual way of expressing a wish or exhortation is rop (see section II below), but cf.: adair ... do Dia ┐ co mbá dó a aenur fhogna, PH 4724. searc Íosa ... go mba hé th'arm DDána 20 § 7. goma, 93 § 37 . in cū ruad ... coma taīseach cāemc[h]uaine, CCellaig 463 . With cen co : cen cop foccus a gcairdiss, Anecd. ii 62.2 . MacCongl. 39.27 . PH 3100. cin cob aire doronsat, 3237 .


(a) -dip, -dib : condip slán á anim, Wb. 9b9 . condib cumme, 24a22 . is tacair arndip samlid it is meet that it be thus, 22c11 . airndip maith a forcell `that the testimony may be good,' 25d21 . airndib ecmailt, Tur. 71 (airndip may have either final or consecutive sense, see note on arimp in (iv) above). duús indip fochunn ícce do, Wb. 26b27 . dús cia port indib maith, 24 .

(vi) With ma (má),

(a) mad : mad cumme imned á cheli et a imned fessin, Wb. 20c6 . 12a23 . 4a14 . mad cétnide a n-animm, Sg. 197a2 . 3b19 . mad du rúin `according to the mystic meaning,' Tur. 103.

(b) mad, mád : mad a dligiud ḟénechso (Corr., Ed.) is menbu, Críth G. 11. mad nóeb arid-léga, Fél. Ep. 178. Corm. Y 1233. mad na mna `if it belong to the woman,' Laws ii 402.1 . mádh táesca dhuit iná dham, Anecd. i 32 § 54. mád, LU 9216. madh peacthach é, TSh. 4315.


With cía although, that ,

(a) cith, cid : deithbeir do ceith aneola, Wb. 33c16 . cith etarṡuidigthe, Sg. 68b4 . Mon. Tall. 159.2 . cid accobrach, Wb. 4c34 . cid doib doarrchet `though they were prophesied unto,' 5a16 (here the sense appears to be indic., see GOI § 793 ). cid comsuidigthe, Sg. 201a10 . Ml. 2d12 .

(b) cid, gid: cid ē marad tarm ēisi, Corm. Y 180. cid diabal fod foirge, Laws iv 18.19 . cid sain na conairi (pl. subject). Cóic Con. H. § 43. gid rogāeth nī rogand, TBC-I¹ 2596.

cid ed nevertheless: (b) cid ed nī rochotail, TBC-I¹ 2512. gidh eadh ní híad as andsa, KMMisc. 352 § 6.

cid ... cid, cid ... nó whether (it be) ... or ...:

(a) ma gorith locc cith ine chuis nú ine láim, Thes. ii 245.36 (Camb.). cid maid cid olcc la nech, Wb. 30d6 . cach réit cid precept cid labrad, 13a29 . Sg. 2a7 . Ml. 26a8 . cid ho deacht maicc nó ho deacht athar arafoima doinacht maicc aní arroet, 17c3 .

(b) cid cóem cid díchóem, Críth G. 225. Corm. Y 1167. SCC 679 .

cid cia whoever it be: am chind cid cia raib, KMMisc. 254 § 4.

cid though it be has also the sense even , in which sense its verbal content must early have been forgotten so that it may be folld. by plural noun or pronoun, and by a dependent vb. in indic. instead of subj.:

(a) cithisse `it is even he,' Wb. 22a7 (a prima manu). corrici cith besti béoa, Thes. i 4.31 . ceith cenmathá in tegdais n-ucut `even besides,' Wb. 33a4 . cid ind fochith follongam `even the suffering which we endure,' 14b15 . ceth Máolruoin, Mon. Tall. 135.24 . co seichetar cid a comroircniu, Sg. 1a2 .

(b) coire ... no suigfedh cid Erind, Corm. Y 323.8 . ní dénaiter cid clocha fotraicthi díb, Trip.² 873. ni cuma dono cid cach mis disuidiu, Laws iv 88.19 . ní thibrind i tindscra cid Meidbi insin, TBFr. 185. cid mecnu, LU 10560.

II Forms with ro-.


(a) rop, rob, ropo' (the form rob occurs only before b and m): rop corae doib fri dia `peace be with them ...,' Wb. 20d1 . rop scīath dún diar n-imdegail, Hy. i 20. rop fír, ib. 39 . nicon fil bas sciith lim act rop ar crist, Wb. 18a2 . acht robronach (=rob bronach, Ed.), Ml. 86d12 . act ropo cho n-etarceirt, Wb. 13a26 . act ropo cho torbu, 27 .

(b) rop, rob, ropo': rop múr ar cech merblén' Babill, Fél. Jan. 24. rob hí ascaid connaga, Ériu iv 106 § 59. rob dimbríogh gach tonn dá ttuil | gach imshníomh sonn rob soruidh, Studies 1921, 76 § 25 . DDána 122 § 21. acht rop la forcomet, Mon. Tall. 161.27 . Trip.² 2941. acht rob tol dait-so, ZCP viii 312.8 . riasíu ropo chúairddulchach, Críth G. 68.

The form robo, robu and with inf. pron. rodbo, rodbu occurs in the sense either, or (cf. Fr. soit ... soit). The editors of Thes. Pal. (i 433 n. ) say it `seems to be regular in the first of two or more alternatives.' It is so used in the great majority of cases but in Wb. 14c24 and Ml. 58b11 (see below) it precedes the second alternative. Pedersen ( KZ xxxv 404 f . q.v.) suggests an original meaning `was es sei' and the loss of the demonstrative pronoun a n- or aní before robo. Thurneysen ( GOI § 886 ) believes it to have been a potential ro- subj. It is found somet. where in the Lat. uel .. uel .., or Lat. aut .. aut ... occur:

(a) rodbo dia adroni ... ł. is hé-som adroni ... either God has committed ..., Wb. 29d29 . 16d7 . fo chenéle lugi [i]ssiu rodbo chosmi[liu]s `as a kind of oath ... or a similitude,' 14c24 . robo intí forchain gl. siue qui docet, 5d10 . robo folad diles ł. doacaldmach, Sg. 197a1 . 200b6 . robu óenlitrib gl. uel singulis literis, 28a12 . robu cho adersetar gl. uel emendentur ... (uel ...), Ml. 30d11 . robu a caratrad gl. (uel necessitudo) uel (familiaritas), 58b11 (but Eds. suggest on p. 721b : `as robu regularly refers to the former of two alternatives, gloss 11 may gl. uel necessitudo'). robu a nnu mothaigtis gl. aut stupentes, 44c6 . 109c3 . 121b6 .

(b) rodbu forcetail ł. scribend ł. uaimm n-etaig, LB 11b13 . innahí rohaisneid dó N. .. rodbo o littrib no a himaccalmaibh, ZCP ii 321.y .

(ii) -rop, -rup, -rub:

(a) corrup mithich gabáil ferainn do, Wb. 19d3 . corrop hed mo indeb Crist, 24a6 . corop he to menmme, Thes. ii 255.14 (Stowe M.). Wb. 7d10 . Sg. 40b7 . corub mebuil leu, Ml. 138c8 . See also Subst. Vb. l. 1389 ff.

(b) -rup, -rub, -rob, -rop, -rab, -rap, -rip, -rp: corup messu de dún, Trip.² 2592. TBC-I¹ 1577. PH 5319. corob gel in mag, Trip.² 555. TBC-I¹ 2455. corrom mé (=corrob mé) nosn-orr, BDD² 721. corab meisi, Trip.² 1360. Laws iv 62.18 Comm. Anecd. i 17.17 . curub cutruma cuit cach fir dib, Cóic Con. H § 102. co rāssa in cū hīsin ┐ corip ingnīma, TBC-I¹ 539 = corop, LU 5028. acht corp dall, SR 2900. āgusta dō gurab trū, Corm. Y 1238. ní rop áilsed `let there not be neglect,' Fél. Ep. 522. nī rob do soinmige ┐ nī rob do fechtnaidi dō, TBC-I¹ 640 = nipo ... ┐ nirop, LU 5125. arnarap galar doib, Mon. Tall. 147.23 . arnā rob olc, Corm. Y 425. fégad cech aen uaib ... ná rob dáll ... hé, PH 4666. Sometimes the final b or p dropped out, at first before initial b or f: arnara fochand báis dóib, Mon. Tall. 146.29 . 152.11 . curu bēl ainmnech urnaigthech, ACL iii 234 § 9. luiget ... co ro bréc, PH 2685. co ro huain doib, 4997 .


(a) bes`, bas`: níi bes chotarsne diar n-ícc, Wb. 11a24 . bes chossecarthae, Ml. 63a6 . bes miniu, Thes. ii 254.14 (Stowe M.). céin bas mbéo, Wb. 10b23 . a mbas cete, Thes. ii 17.34 (Bcr.).

(b) bes`, bas`, bus`: nech bes ardu, Críth G. 115. lin bes coir, BCrólige § 48. ni bes epiltiu, Mon. Tall. 152. 31 . dírimm bas choímiu ná bess áiniu, TBFr. 47. ontí bass formbthi, Mon. Tall. 141.19 . dís bas ḟerr, BDD² 1222. ríasiu bus lá, MU² 322. neich bus chomgrād dó, Ériu i 219 § 7. i llaim neich bessa set `of the person whose property it is,' Laws v 376.4 . do cach besa ai whose it is, ii 398.z . iv 28.5 . i 264.18 . A pron. may be infixed between rel., and its pred.: doeim dano in clī innī besidn-īsle, doemar som ōnnī besadn-ūaisliu, Corm. Y 275. set inna muin cachae besid fiu, Laws v 384.z . 382.8 . ech beissid fiu, 406.9 . cenn caich ... i fine besid sruithe, besid n-uaisliu, ZCP xiv 369 § 31. ailid .iii. seotu bes da fiu, Laws v 408.7 .

pl. 1


(a) No instance.

(b) ropond: ropond bēo for deis mic Dē may we be alive, ZCP viii 106 § 9 (ropo-nd = 3 s.+inf. pron. pl. 1).


(a) -ban`: co comalnammar a pridchimme et comman (=co m-ban) dessimrecht do chach, Wb. 31c11 . a numman aircheltai, Ml. 27b10 .

(b) -ban, -rdar, -(r)bar; with cía, gidar: is am comman tairisiu `'tis time that we should be ...,' Fianaig. 26.14 . an biucán gurdar síthaig, Hib. Min. 82.23 . gidar comaltai, TBC-LL¹ 3680. co mbar commaithe, 35 . tiagam ass con (f)acamar na milchonu ...┐ corbar (go mbat, v.l.) scithu oco, TBFr. App. § 16.

pl. 2


(a) bede: conicfid-si bede preceptori uili `ye will all be able to be teachers,' Wb. 13a10 .


(a) -bad: combad accomalti-si limsa, 23a26 . arnábad toirsig dim chuimriug-sa, 27c34 . arna bad huilcc, 5d38 . dia mbad mathi, 16a13 . ma[nba]d irlaithi, 27c11 . ? To this: annambaid (anambaid, MS.) buidig `when ye are not content,' Ml. 115b10 .

(b) nibur n-ecnaigid, SR 4871. nibfor cétludaig, 4872 .

pl. 3

I Forms without ro-.

No absolute forms occur without ro-.



(a) -bet`, -pat`, -bat`: mainbet mathi, Wb. 11c5 . nó innabet o nach ainmm-diu etir `or whether they are not from any nominal form at all,' Sg. 56b1 . arnapat toirsich, Wb. 26d21 . combat irlamu-de ind ancreitmich do chretim, 12d29 . armbat eolig, 31d15 . armbat chosmaili, Ml. 130a12 . a mbat n-erchoissi, 73c9 . cinbat huili, Wb. 4d6 .

(b) -bet, -bat: im damu nad be tairchesa (leg. bet airchesa), Laws i 184.14 . iv 54.10 . mat cuibdi ... manbet cuibdi, i 244.3 . adubairt ... conod brathair iat cen go bed, Celt. Rev. x 36.18 . acht conbat beoda, TBC-LL¹ 39. combat sithamla, PH 4015. 6746 . manibat óga a frithḟolaid, Ériu i 219 § 9. menbat allmaraig, MU² 517. diamat glain, SR 1461. cenibat fiu, Laws ii 316.20 .

(ii) With ma,

(a) mat: mat hé na briathra-sa forcane, Wb. 28c21 . mat anmann adiechta emnatar and, Sg. 189b4 .

(b) mat, madat, mádit: mat comaithi a folaid, no mat comolca, Laws ii 362.25 - 6 . mat e ... anfolaid in cele falla frithgnama, ZCP xiv 387 § 53. madat comlūatha, ZCP viii 217 § 2. mádit (sic leg.) creidmech, KMMisc. 146.4 .

(iii) With ce, cía although ,

(a) cit: cit imdi far forcitlidi, Wb. 9a12 . 4d4 . 12a13 . cit comsuidigthi, Sg. 207b11 . 190b1 . et muscreitfet cit hésidi `even they,' Wb. 5c2 .

(b) cit, cidat, ciambat: cit lir, Mon. Tall. 156.26 . Fél. Prol. 245. cith (leg. cit) lir cétuib, ZCP viii 195 § 7. cidat (cid, v.l.) créchtnaig, BDD² 1347. KMMisc. 268 § 41. ciambat ilardai, SR 4833.

(iv) With cía, ce who, what ,

(a) No instance.

(b) cit: indid damsa cit n-armand | hi fil chend erred Ul[ad] tell me what are the places ..., LU 11056.

II Forms with ro-.


(a) ropat`: ropat choin altai ... adcear, Thes. ii 293.7 ( SP i ). acht ropat ṡaini tertpersin, Sg. 199a1 .

(b) ropat`, robat`, robet, ropsat: ropat lir a tellaig, Trip.² 2571. ropat óin dom ṡnádud `may they be one,' Fél. Jan. 21. robat mo cuirn coidin midc, Otia i 126 § 24. robet ar seilb an ōenfir, BColm. 54.10 . ropsat idain dīan-báis ám, KMMisc. 210.3 .


(a) No instance.

(b) -rbat, ? -rsat: ciarbat mara a treba, Hy. ii 60 Comm. curbat úagṡlá[i]n, BColm. 54.11 . nirbat ile a liberna, LU 1035. girbat linmara, TBC-LL¹ 4196. garbat discailtig, 544 . apair ó brethir namá corbat bairgin na clochasa, PH 4918. ciarbot maithi, KMMisc. 266 § 32. ? gorsat lir a mmairb andas a mbí, TBC-LL¹ 6015.


(a) beta`, bete`, bata`: beta téit `when they are wanton,' Wb. 29a1 . beda fiscina baptizerium, Thes. ii 226.29 (Pcr.). donaib hí beta cheti, Ml. 126c4 . ni cumcat bete gentilia, Sg. 33a16 . a mbata n-aersigthi, Ml. 127a4 .

(b) beta, bete, bida: mad aile da lina beta olca [a] folaid, Laws ii 366.11 . itir na ceithre comaichaib beda neasa do, iv 116.2 . tech sruithi bet (leg. betc) fuirbthium, Mon. Tall. 136.23 . tri haidche bede cora, Laws v 438.24 . cusna belltenaib bida nesom, ii 390.20 . trian de don ḟir bed a (leg. beda a) beich `whose bees they are,' iv 116.1 Comm. Cf. do fir bede heich, 106.1 Comm.

Subj. Past

s. 1

(a) -bin, -benn: commin inricc dó `so that I may be worthy thereunto,' Wb. 24a11 . combin cosmail, Ml. 91b7 . arnamtomnad námmin duine, Wb. 17d23 . nombin dermatach, Ml. 20a4 . toimtin armbenn duine, 130d4 .

(b) -badim, -badam: abraind nā badim (? sic leg.) slānsa ... ropad rēill mo tholcsa and, TBC-I¹ 3532. bad cháined dom ḟir co mbadim ferr-sa, TBC-LL¹ 34. damadam (sic leg.) rig (dia mbam airdrí, v.l.) for Erinn if I were , FDG 519.

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) -badat: da mbad in lāsin, nī epertha co mbadad (leg. mbadat) ferr do lōech annā Cū., TBC-I¹ 2503. is é in claideb dobéraind ... menbadat (sic leg.) aide, RC xiv 426.25 ( LL 111b4 ).

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.

(i) Abs.

(a) bed`, bad`: arna tomnathar bed foammamichthe deacht don dóinacht `that (the) Godhead is subject,' Wb. 13c2 . dommuinfide bed n-ísel intí dia, Ml. 40c17 (in these two exx. we have the type of sentence in which bid occurs in Wb. 25c12 , see (iii) below). din dínit bed ṡástai, Sg. 39b11 . ni arindí bed leth ngotho nobed indib, 5a4 . dóig linn bed n-acuit, 30a8 . bed chuintechti, Ml. 92a17 . ni robe nech bad huaisliu, Wb. 33d10 . aimser ba (leg. bad, Edd.) chomadas dó, 21a1 . cia bed a mmēt inna fochaide `whatever the greatness of the tribulations might be,' Ml. 39a13 (see Bergin, Ériu xii 208 ff .).

(b) bed`, bad`, pad, bud: ba dóig leó bed a sídaib dí, BDD² 42. nech bed chomalaind dó, LU 1667 (ICM). nad baí baili bád cuidbiu dó, Trip.² 429. lāech bad chāime, TBC-I¹ 3242. BDD² 79. mad mē bad chend ..., Ériu iii 140.183 . cīa ragas ...? Cīa pad cīa ... acht Condere `who should it be cut C.', i 114 § 3 . muc bud grátu, Corm. Y 118. ní bud ṡíre, BDD² 138. ciped mac díb no gabad gasced, TBC-LL¹ 1089. With inf. pron. s. 3: tegdais adchondarc indiu | ni fa[il] ba-da-crichidiu (? leg. bad-da-), Thes. ii 292 § 1 (Ml. Poems). marbān badid n-ingnathar, Bruchst. 45 § 102. coich bia beo badid [n-]amradair, RC xx 260 § 65 = badib amradair, LU 873. badid-rédithir ... badid-némithir, RC xxiv 56 § 17. s. 1: nī faigebasu curaid ... bádam fiusa, LU 3913.

(ii) Conj.

(a) -bed`, -bad` (mainbed (minbad, manibad) is regularly folld. by acc.): mainbed maith latsu, Wb. 32a11 . combed chiall ainsedo ildai and, Ml. 67d24 . ni bed uilliu, 54b30 . is cumme nibad móidem `it is the same as though it were not boasting,' Wb. 2b14 . amal nibad fiu, Ml. 63d2 . mainbad éicin, Wb. 4a20 . Hy. v 32. manibbad hinunn, Sg. 17b8 . manibad trocairi ndáe, Ml. 111b28 . manipad taschidetaid, 136c2 . arnábad rómár, Wb. 11c7 . conapad firdía mac, Ml. 21c12 . diambad mathi, Wb. 16a13 . combad choitchen, Sg. 72a1 . Ml. 21d1 . combath chomlan rith lunae , Thes. ii 33.27 (Bv.). na epred a menme armbad ferr són, Wb. 10a16 . arimbad and furruimtis a praintech, Thes. ii 242.4 (Ardm.).

(b) -bed`, -bad`, -pad, -bud, -bod: ised bud cóir laisim combed de laim anmcharat ..., Mon. Tall. 146.25 . Trip.² 2246. ní ... tresambed elned do, Mon. Tall. 164.7 . manipad lor, 128.15 . manipad do chrúass, Trip.² 1370. minbad in mbáin mbic, MacCongl. 107.7 . cid daitsiu nábad lat in curathmír, LU 8112. diambad Chú, 3752 . dámadh linn, TSh. 5962. combad chennach, LU 4296. bá cubaid cíapad tussu bad dall, Trip.² 1516. dūs imbad lór, Mon. Tall. 133.8 . mun budh le druimm cáein Cesrach, Anecd. i 32 § 60. minbud thu, ii 4.11 . ar na bud ed, PH 3074. ? go nach budh rí ar Israel tú `ne sis rex,' TSh. 8330. cid daitsiu ... nád bod latt curadmir Emna, LU 8140. cía lasmboth scīth ┐ lasmboth laind techt int slōgaid, TBC-I¹ 154.


(a) bid (this form, which Thurn. ( GOI § 806 ) suggests may be an unstressed form of vn. buith, occurs regularly after amal, oldaas, is cumme, in doich, in comparative and equative clauses and in a few other instances. This would suit an ex. like Thes. ii 294 § 3 below but does not explain phrases where bid follow amal, is cumme, etc. It survives into Mid. Ir. but is somet. replaced by bed or bad, and in a few cases spreads to other types of sentence (amal bid is regularly folld. by acc. cf. mainbad, above): amal bid dia as though he were God, Wb. 26a7 . amal bid claind noclantis, Ml. 63b9 . amail bith ball di crist, Thes. ii 255.14 (Stowe M.). amal fid na derscaigthiu, Ml. 37b22 . amal bid inn accaldim deithidnig (leg. nd.), 35c27 . is cumme doib bid idalte domeltis, Wb. 10c3 . in doich bid saindóire dúnni, 10d1 . is nessa do inni lemm oldaas bid ar n-áinsem, 4b17 . ní lugu ... indáas bid praeceptóir asidindissed, Ml. 42b18 . arna tomnitisom bid do irgairiu cotulta, Wb. 25c12 (see above under (i) where this type of sentence occurs with bed in Wb. 13c2 and Ml. 40c17 ). ni meite bid machdad forgare forru, Sg. 161b12 . ba coru tra bid adnuntiabit nobeth híc , Ml. 45b14 . soilsidir bid hi lugburt, Thes. ii 294 § 3 ( SP iii ).

(b) amal bid oc caíned ... [no beth], Trip.² 87. amal bid do thecht secha, IT i 72.14 . amail bid a haongiun, Corm. Y 1059.37 . amal bid fótrond ..., LU 9099 (FB). ba doich lind bid din lucht forācaibset som, ZCP viii 313.25 . ba hé mo líthsa bid é do-chorad and, BDD² 494. asberat alaili bid di lucht na luinge ..., ZCP viii 313.23 . In a type of sentence where it did not occur in O. Ir.: flaith athuigh na bid flaith a athair whose father was not a chief, Laws ii 200.21 . nā tānic rīam nā īarum bīd (leg. bid) errdarcu, MacCongl. 45.28 . ar cend neich bid (budh, v.l.) éolchu ┐ bid síne andás, Ériu iv 126.15 . ingen bid chaime tochim, RC xxiv 198.24 . In the follg. exx. O. Ir. would show bid: amal bud he Crist, PH 129. mar bud, 4098 . amal bad a domun aile thíssad, TBFr. 278. is cumme lem bed (bid, v.l. App.) i taulchubu fhína no beth mo chend, TBFr. 47. in dōig bad ē Conchobur, TBC-I¹ 2758. (cf. also: ba doig bed n-ingcert, Ml. 61b15 ). dōig leam bad i ndiamraib ... nobeith, TBC-I¹ 884.

(iv) With ma (má),

(a) mad: mad mo ríar-sa dognethe and, Wb. 9d25 . mad forcenn libuir, Ml. 2d1 .

(b) mad, mád: mad meise con-ísed mo chomairle, BDD² 708. mád ina ṡláinti ind fir fil sund robad chomairche ar Ultaib ulib, LU 3303.

(v) With cía, ce although ,

(a) cid: ni pu imdu do in mann cid trén oc tecmallad `though he were,' Wb. 16c25 .

(b) cid: cid fín bárc do-téised treut, BDD² 740.

II Forms with ro-. ro- is rare with past subj. The instances are:

(a) act robad tairismech linni, Wb. 18d11 . ní ar maith friu ... act is corpad mithig lessom inducbál dia nóibaib, 4c37 .

(b) ? ingé (read perhaps itge, Ed.) ropad limsa ol sésim adpand do seinm tr. `I would crave a boon, said he, to play a tune,' Mon. Tall. 131.28 . acht corbad maithi a gnima, Ériu v 124.76 . amal ro bad pheccad leo as though they considered it a sin, PH 3232.

pl. 1


(a) bimmis, bemmis : amal bimmis octarche `as if we were dregs,' Wb. 9a7 . amal bemmis bibdaid, Ml. 114d4 .

(b) amal bemís marb, PH 2967.


(a) -bimmis : amal ni bimmis cutrummi frib, Wb. 17b16 . Ml. 63b1 . commimmis ecil hi fochidib, Wb. 29b16 . commimis less huili, 6b21 .

(b) -badar : acht co mbadar maithe díblínaib, TBC-LL¹ 35.

pl. 2 No instance.

pl. 3


(a) bitis, betis: nírbu mou leu bríg a tobai indate bitis cranna doiscairi dufubaitis `than though they had been cutting down common trees,' Ml. 92d6 . donaib déedib betis chloithib, 131d11 . amal betis degmaini, 90a14 .

(b) bitis, betis, batis : amal bitis chóic ṡutralla, Trip.² 1448. ba bindithir ... ┐ betis téta mennchrot, BDD² 189. TBFr. 27. amal betís margretai, PH 2445. dicunt betis secht maic, ZCP viii 314.34 (Laud Gen.). asberat araile batis trī brāthir, ib. 331.14 (ib.). doruimenatar bádis fir ṡīthe, Trip.² 1112.


(a) -btis, -ptis : comtis indbaid i n-iris, Wb. 10d33 . conabdis apstil, 5b15 . comtis ainmmnidi, Sg. 7b2 . coniptis erlama, Ml. 100c24 . maniptis mu charait, Ml. 73d1 . Sg. 120a1 . ni aisndet duaid airmdis hé iusti indí ..., Ml. 54a12 . airmtis ní etir, 79b11 . amtis forbristi ind ríg, 85d9 .

(b) -btis, -ptis : comtis secht maic, Trip.² 901. PH 7013. comdis sidhaighthi, ZCP xiii 254.12 . comtís comarda síat, TBC-LL¹ 5015. ba cóir ceniptis árdda do chongbala-su, Trip.² 1564. naptis messaiti, Ériu iv 24 § 10. diambtís rátha iat, MU² 376. diambtís craind, 434 . ciabtis cosmaile, SR 2892. ciapdis ganna, Anecd. ii 69.8 . ciamdis dimolta, i 21.5 . With amal betis under (a) above, cf. marbtís máirb as though they were dead, LU 9761. immarbdais meic do, 4097 .

With ma

(a) matis : matis huili conabdis apstil tantum `if it were all (the Jews) and not the apostles only,' Wb. 5b15 . matis mu namait, Ml. 73b1 .

(b) matis is replaced in Mid. Ir. by diambtís q.v., supra.


s. 1


(a) be : be sóir mo brethre `I shall be free as regards my word,' Wb. 4c18 . bé (biam, bum, v.ll.) sóir cech inbaid, Hy. iv 8.

(b) bea, bem, bam, bíam, bidam : bem (bea, v.l.) torbach[u]-sa duit-si oldās ..., Corm. Y 1059.30 = bam tarbach sa deit, Anecd. iv p. xiv.y . in hed bam beo, SR 3187. Ériu iv 142.z . bam tarb tnúith isna tressaib, IT iii 510 § 4. Anecd. i 12.7 . bam anoraigti-sea oc Dia, PH 2428. biam tigerna os cech drung, SR 855. bíam cúsa ... dot imdegail, LU 5027. bidam chusa, TBC-LL¹ 1049 (v.l., Eg.). bidam bithchuimnech, RC xvi 46 ( Dinds. 95 ). CCath. 3348. bídham tigerna fer an domain, 4046 .

Conj. (a) No instance.

(b) -pam : ni pam slán-sa ... conid n-accur, IT i 72.1 . nípam comchirtisea do neoch, LU 4248.

s. 2


(a) No instance.

(b) ba, basa, bat, biat, bidat : ba baeth, SR 5955. ba bruiden ban ndérach, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.19 . bása bec bíaid úair | basa már iar tain, LU 9854. bat neirt ar do lochnamtib, LU 10423. bat (ba, v.l.) fornocht, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.4 . bat (ba, bad, v.ll.) dín ar gád, ib. 9 . bát nimidech, LU 9633. biat rīsiu co derb, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 8 . § 15 . biat forscailtech, ib. § 17 ( LL 147a ). bidat úallach, ZCP vii 298.17 . LB 151a48 . bidhit neimedach, BNnÉ 93 § 204. toīsechu bia marb oldās bia meirb, PRIA iii 546 § 8 ( LL 147a9 ) (this is really the form of the subst. vb. but seems to be intended as copula, cf. biat, above).


(a) Strachan ( Subst. Vb. l. 1316 ) gives : co mba soilse-siu, Wb. 22c3 (gl. inluminabit tibi Christus) but translates `so that thou mayest be,' Thes. i p. 639 which is probably correct.

(b) -ba, -bat : adbert fria drai ... ni bam rai (? leg. niba-m-drai) badechtsa mene dingba ..., BB 407a1 . da lecea tú Ísu ass, ni bat cara do Cessair, PH 2815.

s. 3


(a) bid, bith : bid héet lib-si geinti do bith in hiris, Wb. 5a13 . bid cumma et riam, 18a13 . bith sechmadachte, Sg. 147b3 . bith flaithem intí Solam for saint, Ml. 90a9 .

(b) bid, bith, beith, bed, bud : bid nath n-airec fordarc, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 16.6 . bidsom fria toil `it (heaven) will be at their pleasure,' Mon. Tall. 141.17 . bid misi, Trip.² 1963. Laws i 6.z . bid calma, TBC-I¹ 2469. bid hē lā a phennati, MacCongl. 29.6 . PH 4032. ata lasna tuati beith lór dóib do ascnam nime acht doratat ní dona hanmchairtib, Mon. Tall. 141.15 . rochrúfemne ... ind pennit bes chóir fortsu. Bed cet ol D., 130.23 . With inf. pron. s. 2 : bidat eigen dola, Aisl. Tond. 101.x . ammarach bud maith do threóir, Anecd. i 39 § 114. ib. 17.18 . RC xxiv 194.7 . budh hē bērus an bāiri, ZCP xiii 17.27 . budh iomdha ann fós arracht ag eagcaoine, TSh. 4068.


(a) -pa, -ba : nípa cosmuil frisin titacht tóisig, Wb. 25d13 . níba cuit adíll, 14a8 . níbbá i n-anus regaid int diruidigud, Sg. 36b1 . in corp i mba flaith in coimdiu, Wb. 9d3 . With inf. pron. s. 3 : nípa-dn-aidrech, 5c9 .

(b) -ba, -pa, -bo, -po, -bu, -pu, -b, -bad, -bud : níba ed bias de, Trip.² 453. BDD² 58. niba fír, ScM. § 11.2 . nipa mor do brig lais, Mon. Tall. 142.4 . admat na ba tíamdae, Fél. Prol. 294. nīpa mise, TBC-I¹ 2141. níbá fír sin, LU 8199. ár | día[m]bá lán Mag F., 3368 . With inf. pron. s. 2 : níbat écen nach n-aill, MU² 1037 (LU). ? nib amles, LU 3325 (tr. `it will be no harm,' SCC 117 ). toingimsa ... corob misi cētfer roficfa (b inserted later, Ed.), TBC-I¹ 2243. mani thuaslaicea isind chaisc nipo assa doib iarum, Mon. Tall. 132.17 . nipo fócrach, Ériu vii 219 § 2. nībo dirsan dait, TBC-I¹ 1048. nipu sén maith itir ... ni fu líth don fleid, FDG 121. nī bu inmuin, Bruchst. 60 § 134. níbu shirsan, TBFr. 370 (= nipi siursan, App. § 26 ). nī bad (ba, v.l.) fāilid, Bruchst. 40 § 95. bat righ uili iat gin co budh comṡaeglach, Anecd. ii 1.15 .


(a) bes`, bas` : in hed bes chobuir dó, Wb. 20c10 . bes lintae, Ml. 44d7 . hore bas fír quod dicam, Wb. 17d20 .

(b) bas`, bus` : Marcán ... bas dech do Uíb Garrchon, Trip.² 2191. félire bas (bus, v.l.) certu, Fél. Ep. 148. ro-fessar ... bas n-olc, LU 7566 (BDD). ni-sn-idnus sund nī bus siriu, TBC-I¹ 3104. inní bus comairle [lat-sa is sí bas chomairle] linne, Anecd. i 41.3 - 4 . cīan bus chumain, ZCP viii 119 § 4. an feadh bhus cumhain leó iad, TSh. 1256.

pl. 1

(a) bimmi ?, bemmi, bammi : isin chruth-sin bimmi nóib-ni, Wb. 3d27 (but see ZCP xxxii 120-21 ). 12c9 . bemmi caelestis, 13d15 . isamlid bami coeheredes , 4a17 .

(b) batin: batin aithrig is tír thall `we shall rue it,' Ériu i 68 § 3 (this is from a poem, occurring in H 3. 18 and LL, which Meyer ascribes to 9th cent. Perhaps one should take it as : ba don-aithrig it will be a matter of regret to us, but cf. atin budig de we are content, Anecd. i 5.18 = YBL 129b23 ).

pl. 2 ? folaich in mac, bar bibdaith bāis ind dia fessara Mac Con, ZCP viii 311.5 , CMMucr. 69 .

pl. 3


(a) bit : bit hé na precepta cétni no pridchob doib, Wb. 17b20 . bit comṡuidichthi, Sg. 4b1 . bit comlin fri fér, Ml. 90b8 .

(b) bit, be(i)t, bat, biat, bidat : bit coirmmgnáithi do chomarpai, Trip.² 1565. bit fūaitne fīanna lib Luigne, Corm. Y 1018.46 . bit lia mairb ... andate a mbí, LU 7187 (BDD). bit lir bomand ega ... for lethchind, 7233 (ib.). beit fir móra ar macáin bic | daim ríata laíg ar mbó, LU 9587 - 9 . bed glana chenai, Mon. Tall. 130.1 . bet imnaraig, Anecd. ii 55.4 . bat mairb fir, IT iii 470.105 . bat lana, TBC-LL¹ 1055. ? in dóig bát dom éligudsa ón ? that they will be a cause of accusation to me (?), LU 3277 (obscure, perhaps bat is s. 2). biat mathi do chland, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 9 ( LL 147a10 ). bidat gai géra, ib. 550 § 31. bidat marthanaig, LU 1998. bidat mo na huilc innas ..., CCath. 988.


(a) -pat, -bat, -bet : nipat ferr, Wb. 12d28 . nibat litre, Sg. 6b23 . níbat briathra, Ml. 68c10 . a mbat n-airbirthi buith, 94d1 . anambet ecailsi, 15d7 .

(b) -pat, -bat, -pdat, -bad : nipat ili anmand eissi, Trip.² 934. ní bat buana, TBC-LL¹ 1692. nipdat duthaine, SR 8355. airm inbat budig do bēoil, MacCongl. 77.4 . im bad tíre ┐ feranna, Anecd. i 42.1 . ní bad sgíotha dot sgéulaibh | na Burcaigh, Studies 1919, 439 § 10 .


(a) beta` : beta hícthi, Wb. 3d29 . beta messi, Ml. 70a9 .

Sec. Fut.

s. 1


(a) No instance.

(b) badam : cid andib badam slansa mad ail duitsiu, Ériu xii 166.13 (Tochm. Ét.).

Conj. -badam : [ba] meti nibadam beo d' ingnais rig M. `I were not likely to live,' Ériu x 190.16 ( LL 276a41 ).

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) ropadat, badat : díambad curadmir do chosnam i nEmain duit, ropadatren (for ropadat trén, Edd.) for ōcaib Emna, LU 6720. ar badat slanchommairgi-siu bar Ultaib, TBC-LL¹ 1165.

s. 3

I Forms with ro-.


(a) ropad`, robad` ; ar ropad maith limsa labrad ilbelre dúibsi, Wb. 12c29 . Sg. 90b2 . robad bethu dom dían chomalninn, Wb. 3c28 . roppad diil tanaisi, Sg. 111b2 . dorairngred dano rombad oirdnide a chland, Wb. 2c12 .

(b) robad`, ropad`, rubad`; robud` : robad chongbail ... dó, Trip.² 1731. robad chomairche ar Ultaib ulib, LU 3303. asbert fria rubad torrach húad, 10601 . robud sía, ACL iii 304.16 . ropad chora, PH 2593. robad was later replaced by dobad : dobadh cōir, Feis Tighe Chonáin 130. dobudh aisg ar m'fhine tar m'ēisi sin, ML² 1413. dobudh mór an éagcóir, TSh. 4845. 2718 , which in turn gave way to the modal pret.

Conj. No conjunct ro- forms occur.

II Forms without ro-.

Abs. These are rare in the Glosses and do not occur in independent sentences, but become more usual later.

(a) bed` : conidfessed cia bed flaith inna diad, Ml. 89b7 . bed messe gl. ratum fore, 105b14 .

(b) bed`, bad`, bud` (bud seems not always to have been folld. by lenition, see ex. below from TSh.) : asbert fri Cassan bed n-ann a eiseirgi, Trip.² 828. ní bad toisigiu dún something that would be ..., Trip.² 117. Corm. Y 473. cia bad chōir do thabairt, TBC-I¹ 2203. BDD² 126. cia de bud ferr la hUltu ..., TBC-I¹ 692. ní bud fiú sain, Anecd. i 28 § 28. budh urlamh, Studies 1921, 75 § 15 . an bél dúnta as eadh budh ḟearr, IGT Decl. ex. 1285. budh dual, TSh. 1584. In independent sentences, where O. Ir. would show robad : bád maith limsa, LU 3354. faicthear 'n-a dhorus a dheilbh | 's badh solus aitreabh Ifeirn Hell would be radiant, DDána 60 § 37.


(a) The forms without ro- supply the conjunct of both bed and robad. -bad`, -pad` : na bad eola inar cintaib, Wb. 33b21 . asbertis cipad a déne ind hesséirgi, 25b27 . níbad ṡamlaid, Sg. 4b4 .

(b) -bad`, -bud` (in the latest exx. there seems not to have been lenition) : imrāidset ... nīpad andsu, TBC-I¹ 1330. ni bad chained, TBC-LL¹ 34. na bud chalmu, 2063 . adubart-sa ... comadh fearr, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1132. ní bud liacha, BDD² 493. fá bud chasmail, PH 7544. nī bud cobair, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919, 93 § 36 . do bhríogh gomadh cosmhail, TSh. 4766.

pl. 1 and 2 No instances.

pl. 3

I Forms with ro-.


(a) robtis, roptis : epert ... robtis maithi for mbésa-si, Wb. 16b19 . roptis imdai piana donaib anmanaib, Ml. 15c8 .

(b) robtis, roptis : roptis fola ocus cro | mo der do marb Imblecho, AU i 138.15 . asbert roptis gallraig, Trip.² 2786. roptis ferra, Anecd. ii 53.14 . robtis (roptís, LU) do renga, TBC-I¹ 1182.

Conj. No instance.

II Forms without ro- :


(a) No instance.

(b) be(i)tis, beidis : robad do chland-su betis comarpai ind, Trip.² 1710. beitis lir leamsa cendae fer ..., TBC-I¹ 3543. bad dōig lim beidis hē fir Themra, 3371 .

Conj. -btis, -ptis, -bdís : asbert P. nabtis toirthig, Trip.² 2455. connaptís bí, LU 9519. nibdís aingil diada, PH 1787.


s. 1

I Forms without ro-.


(a) basa : basa iudide ó écosc `I was a Jew in appearance,' Wb. 10d34 .

(b) ba(sa), bam(sa), basam : ba-sa cāem, Corm. Y 883.53 . ba-sa cu-sa tairdbi buiden, Anecd. iii 53.13 and 15 (Sia- burcharpat) = basa chausa ..., LU 9328. ba-sa cathach, Tec. Corm. § 8.8 . basa chúsa, LU 9326 , 9328 . bása chomrar, 9335 . bassa collid giallasa, 9318 . bam-sa cu-sa, Anecd. iii 53.10 . fam rí (bainrith, v.l.) ar énlaith Érenn, i 36 § 87 . ba-sa maoth fri maithi, ba-sam imnedach frimm tair, iii 53.20 . basam (bam-sa, bam-siu, v.ll.) dalta tair[i]si, ii 71.7 .


(a) -psa : nipsa iudide ó béssaib, Wb. 10d35 . 17c2 . hore am apstal ... cainipsa sóir ce dognén cach ngním, 10c16 .

(b) -psa, -bsa, -ba, ? -bam, -msa, -sam : nipsa chúsa gabála lis, LU 9325 = nipsa cu-sa ..., Anecd. iii 53.10 . nipsa cell cin chlocc, ii 60.4 . nipsa (nirsam, nipsam, v.ll.) condirclech, Ériu ix 45 § 2. ciapsa reithenech, ib. (geinsam, ciamsam, robsam, rosam, gersam, gerbam, gerbhum, v.ll.) ciapsa duine ciapsa bled, LU 3003 = ciarsam ... ciarsam ..., Fél. 52.37 . domgní mūichnech ingnais Ērenn | diamsa cuimsech for which I (myself) was accountable (?), ZCP vii 309.24 . i mbsa dechenborach ... i mbsa fichtech, Tec. Corm. § 8.6 - 7 . imsa nāidi robsa nā[i]r, Ériu ii 16 § 5. nimsa cu-sa imlo[m]tha fuidhel, Anecd. iii 53.13 and 15 = nipsa cháusa ..., LU 9327. ? cach crích ar bam cend `where I was head,' PRIA III (3rd ser.) 550 § 35 ( LL 147a ). pecdach mé ósam macám, IGT Decl. ex. 376.

II Forms with ro-.


(a) rupsa, ropsa, robsa, rob : rupsa frithortae-se, Wb. 33a12 . doménarsa ropsa beo, 3c27 . Ml. 49b12 . durumenar romsa dia ┐ rom bith-béu, 49b13 .

(b) ropsa, robsa, ropsam, robsam, robsum, robam, ropom : an airet ropsa béo, Trip.² 1434. ropsa altra dia aithair, Anecd. ii 71.4 . imsa nāidi robsa nā[i]r, Ériu ii 16 § 5. robsa ceile si do Ch., ZCP viii 545.7 . ropsam aithrech isin ngním-sin, PH 701. robsam fíadnaisech fodeirc, Ériu iv 153.4 . robsum flaith, BS 126.6 . Metr. Dinds. iii 310.85 . robam céle comadas, LU 3972. ropom tuire tend, PRIA III (3rd ser.) 550 § 35 ( LL 147a ). robam rí ar ó ngelChuind, IGT Decl. ex. 537.


(a) -rbsa, -robsa, -rupsa, -rubsa : nirbsa dagduine i tossuch, Wb. 18c14 . anarbsa fuillectae-se, Ml. 127c17 . corupsa lán diib, 104d3 . annarobsa bithe, 45d6 . arromsa cumscaigthe, 46b9 . arrumsa immainse-se, 62c9 .

(b) -rsam (-rbsam) (the sense is very frequently pres. indic. a survival of the original perfect sense), -rbam : is mise Fintan fili, | nirsam écne óen-lindi, Metr. Dinds. i 4.42 . níorsum duine do éra, ML² 1959. nirsum drochlaech, ZCP viii 548.18 . níor sum (níor soim, níor shámh, ní rabhus, v.ll.) taithleach na n-each riamh, Ériu i 100.23 . gērsam snímhach Fiadat find, Ériu ii 95 § 4. gearsom glic nīr chrainn um ní, KMMisc. 350 § 7. corbam tualaingse, Anecd. i 10.17 . ciarbam treórach, nírbam timm, Metr. Dinds. iii 312.131 . Aisl. Tond. 96.4 . gerbham sáeirfher séimh, BS 28.10 . Brethnaigh níor bham caroid-si, Duan. F. i 87.y . or bham nóidiu since I was, LL 282a12 .

s. 2

I Forms without ro-.


(a) No instance.

(b) ba, bat, basat : cia bátar do gníma intan basat (v.l.) gilla, Tec. Corm. § 8.2 . bat dín ar gád 's ar guba | bat fál is bat fidruba, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.9 - 10 (bad, ba, v.ll.). a chlaidib Cherbaill ... bát menic ac cur chatha, RC xx 9 §1 ( LL 47a50 ).


(a) No instance.

(b) -bi: cot-ráncamar ó bim (órbat v.l.), BDD² 1173 (Ed's. note : `read ó bi mac (D), where bi seems pret. s. 2').

II Forms with ro-.


(a) robsa, rubsa : huare romsa ugaire doib `because Thou wast a shepherd unto them,' Ml. 96d1 . arrumsa dite-siu, 103a4 .

(b) ropsa, rupsa, ropsat, robsat, ropat, robat, ropot: an tan rupsa Etain Echraidhe ... ba misi do cetmui[n]ter, Ériu xii 170.6 (Tochm. Ét.) (= ropsa, LU 10771 ). intan ropsa (ropsat, basat, v.ll.) gilla, Tec. Corm. § 8.2 . ropsat slan o chianaib dia fesmais `thou shouldst have been healed,' Ériu xii 166.12 (Tochm. Ét.) (= ropdat slán, LU 10746 (sec. fut.)). uair ropsat cara, PH 3099. LL 343d53 . intan robsat Cernach-sa, ZCP i 104.36 . ropsat fraechda, RC xx 12 § 16. ropot álaind ó chíanaib, IT iii 514 § 6. is derb ropat degairle, 482.280 . robat cara do cech cléir, 482.277 .


(a) No instance.

(b) -rbsat, -rsat, -rsa, -rbat : ro-t-rathaig narbsat fírgaeth that you were not, SR 1318. nirbsat meirb, RC xx 12 § 16. nirsat neóit, TBC-LL¹ 43. lēir dam ... | nārsat cara do Chellach, CCellaig 447 (where the sense is pres. indic.). gérsa maeth-macámh ... i tús lai o chianaib thu, ZCP viii 529.12 . cot-ráncamar órbat (v.l., see n.) mac, BDD² 1173.

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.


(a) ba, bu (once in Tur.) (gemination occurs after ba, see below) : ba frithorgon dó frithorgon cháich, Thes. ii 246.18 (Camb.). ba calar do galar caich, ib. 16 (do.). ba uissiu són quam inflatio , Wb. 9b1 (modal). 29d8 . ba hed ón ba chóir, Wb. 10b9 . aní ba choitchen, 50a3 . a mba cloithe `when he was overcome,' Ml. 32b2 . a mba ndiuscartae, 19c15 . ar ba P. dubert baithis du Chrimthunn, Thes. ii 242.9 (Ardm.). ba em carat `it were, indeed, the part of a friend,' Thes. i 3.4 . ar ba mmadach, Ml. 135a9 . ba mmo, 86d6 . (cf. ba mmebul lee, TBFr. 136 ). air bu ainm leusom maledictus do c[ec]h óin ..., Tur. 136.

(b) ba, bu, bo, be (once), pa, fa, fá, fo, bad, bud : ba slán iarom, Trip.² 1517. bá cubaid, 1516 (modal). ba lith mor la Colum cille, Mon. Tall. 156.7 . ba di Bretnaib di, Trip.² 707. rofitir in ben ba o Lomnae rofes, Corm. Y 1018.26 . Fél. Nov. 5. ba ferr a comaitecht ... oldaas a tuitim, IT i 75.6 (modal). ba mese ba sacart oc baistiud ind anma-sin fora athair, ScM. § 12.9 . nip sī sin adaig ba sāmam (rectius sh-) dōib, TBC-I¹ 211. BDD² 423. co torchratar bond fri bond ... ba sí tiget ind áirbaig such was the denseness of, TBC-I¹ 1996. cach nech ba siniu ┐ ba so, PH 104. in ti ba (?=ba a) tir `the person whose land it was,' Laws iv 4.29 Comm. With inf. pron. s. 3 : ba-id-n-imomain-side he was greatly afraid, TBC-I¹ 786. With suffixed -ch (= Lat. -que) (see Thurn., ZCP xiii 299f .) : do-luid tar feart a cedteallaig bach for fine forcomal `und es war eine gewaltsame Besitzergreifung gegen die Sippe,' Laws iv 16.22 (tr. Thurn., loc. cit.). bach ri Temrach, 178.13 . 16.22 . nī ticc dīa ēissi bu duilgi āer, MacCongl. 9.5 . ar bo fortachtaid dó día mboí i moxaini, Trip.² 254. bo ferr, BDD² 1320. a mbo ṡeiscc dind ḟolud, TBC-I¹ 1127. is aice bo doigh a mbith, no is e bo doich da fagbail, Laws iv 36.8 Comm. be sé sin trian macraidi Ulad, LU 5907. ol pa immaircede leis Loch nEchach, Trip.² 1956. pa menci, K. and H. § 1. pa hamru delp Fothith, ZCP xx 401.3 . The earlier instances of fa are mostly rel., but later it becomes freq. in non-rel. use. fá is the regular form in TSh. : is mé fa hairdbrethim binn, Anecd. i 28 § 30. 36 § 91 . curob é fa ri Connacht, v 21.25 . im orgain fa togaidhi do Ingcél i nHérinn, BDD² 423. as í fa banchele dó .i. Eithne ... fa díl ... leis hí, Ériu iii 150 § 1. beathadhach fá cosmhail ré mathghamhain, TSh. 1025. 3264 . (Cf. fa gairit limm beth ar Bóinn, Anecd. i 26.15 . Ériu iv 116 § 24. fa hadhbail re innisin an toran[n], Feis Tighe Chonáin 1841. IGT Decl. ex. 861. fá héigean, TSh. 2489. 5559 . 3715 ). ised sin fo lucht dō, Ériu ii 20 § 1. ri fo ferr sith, Ann. Conn. 1224 § 2. issed bad doig la C., Mon. Tall. 161.22 . ? bat (? bad) ead indas ind troiscti sin, 155.35 . bád chumma rom altsat Ulaid uli, LU 10305. do bríogh gurab é Eóin budh teó grádh, TSh. 10328. do bhríogh gurab é Ádhamh budh ceann fine, 9 .


(a) -pu`, -bu`, -po`, -bo`, ? -p` (elision of vowel before initial vowel) : nípu accobor leiss, Wb. 14a22 . nípu séit samil, Thes. i 495.26 (Ardm.). Hy. v 7. nipu nach dernainn-se áem, Wb. 8a5 . Thes. i 495.4 (Ardm.). cepu ed adroilliset, Wb. 4c35 . ar nibu thacair, 33b13 . nibu techtae (`rectius: thechtae, but cf. 34c17 , 53d6 ,' Ed.), 100b22 . níbu machdath, Sg. 65a1 . conepertis ón nadmbu choir, Ml. 136b4 . in loc diambu thabarthi ermitiu feid, 22a4 . nipo chóim, Wb. 4b12 . nípo úaib act ba o apsatalib, 13a20 . napo chenéel, 5a14 . nibo cen fochidi, 24c19 . ? nip (`leg. nipu ? or is it subjunctive ?,' Ed.) ar irlami far cúrsagtha, 26b23 . 5b3 .

(b) -pu`, -bu`, -po`, -bo`, -p`, -b`, -ba`, -fa`, -bad (as lenition was somet. marked we may assume it was regular) : rofitir P. nípu chian, Trip.² 2866. LU 4974. Fél. Sept. 27. nīpu samlaid, TBC-I¹ 1280. napu díb lamaib, LL 123b2 . asrubart M. nibu moo, Mon. Tall. 133.10 . ni bu cād, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 40 § 17. ni bu chul serci, IT i 77.2 . nī bu ṡanct-Brigit ṡúanach, Hy. v 21 ō bu becān, Ériu viii 164.7 . cíid iarom P. combu [ḟ]liuch a agad, Trip.² 1305. nabu cert, SR 3673. nīpo rom, TBC-I¹ 1728. dalēici sōn C., cobo (LU combo) thairis docher, 1737 . ni bo chomailt, AU i 110.8 . Fél. Prol. 114. BDD² 549. abaind letain nádbo domain, LU 1747 (ICM). combo chomsolus lá ┐ adaig, 8056 . iarfaigis dó cia diambo cheli, 8535 (FB). nī fo cīan, TBC-I¹ 485. nipsī sin adaig ba sāmam dōib, TBC-I¹ 211. nip seoit fo-fhiallach, Anecd. ii 57.z . ba fae leo nip n-ēn comadus ina n-ēill, Corm. Y 1059.18 . nīb sī t'opar comadhas, TBC-I¹ 785. nib sam, Anecd. i 13.14 . roluited ind scīn co nāb ālaind īarnamarach, Corm. Y 883.32 . níba s[h]uthain, TBFr. 5. comba samalta ┐ snāth ōir, TBC-I¹ 2027. comba comsolus lá ┐ adaig, LU 10125. co mba fliuch, BDD² 885. FDG 615. comba taí tastadach for Ultaib, MU² 119. PH 1082 (there is no instance here of lenition marked after comba). taitned fria in grían co bba forderg, BDD² 12. diamba Cholum coemdalta, LU 752. ni fa si do conair, YBL 174b14 . co nebairt co mbad mac don rig he, FDG 724.

II Forms with ro-.


(a) rupu`, rubu`, ropu`, robu`, ropo`, robo` : rupu sí a rroilic, Wb. 33a22 . aní rupu thascide, Thes. ii 225.17 (Pcr.). rubu fer-som muintere, Wb. 33a5 . Essu rubu thoisech hi suidiu, Ml. 63b5 . ropu thol les a dénom, Ml. 71b2 . hore rombu thoissech, Wb. 33a20 . ar robbu digaim, Sg. 17a5 . robu foirbthe, Tur. 33. ropo thróg laiss, Wb. 21b5 . ropo thol, 14b3 . ropo chobair dond Érinn | tíchtu Patraicc, Hy. ii 15. amal rombo chuimse, Wb. 22a2 .

(b) ropu`, robu`, ropo`, robo`, rupa`, ropa`, roba`, rop`, rob`, rap`, ro bud ; do replacing ro : do bo`, do ba`, do bu`, dob`, do bud ; dorob (where the final vowel has dropped out the copula is nearly always folld. by a vowel or ḟ) : rob e a n-immed conna ... `such was their multitude that' ..., Thes. ii 298.9 ( Hy. i Introd. ). sádid echlaisc and ropu dos iarom, Trip.² 1851. TBFr. 11. ind ingen robu ṡiniu, Trip.² 1116. ropo cridiscél, Mon. Tall. 136.23 . ropo thír cāich, Hail Brigit § 2. ropo suthain, LU 1077. PH 1673. robo maith, Corm. Y 31. nirbo chucumsa ... robo chóir dál, LU 8750. ar rup[a] la Coirpre Crích Conaill, Trip.² 1724. ropa anaichnid, PH 5287. Mon. Tall. 136.20 . (asbert) ... romba si sainserc samdine hé, Mon. Tall. 150.14 . an romba (arrombúi, v.l.) dech do thimthagail, Corm. Y 1059.12 . is ar a deirc ... ro-ba buidech Dia do Abél, PH 5882. rop nem thened tír Hua Néill, BDD² 240 (= ropo, LU 6743 ). rop é fochond ná dilend, LU 129. rofidir ... rop si Etain, Ériu xii 154.2 . rob aille leo, Corm. Y 503. ScM. § 240. PH 1590. túaith rob ferr icht, Metr. Dinds. iii 310.88 . PH 68. uar rombi (ro-m-bī) ind fit cetne, Mon. Tall. 147.14 . rap aithrech, Ériu vii 229 § 75. dobo mana crimb chnáma, Anecd. i 31 § 50. dobo cléguin, Ériu iv 112 § 2. doba díchur flaithesa dō, ML² 1422. doba ferr linn, KMMisc. 320.4 . doba dhainmidh dhó a ndermad, IGT Decl. ex. 1180. dob áil, PH 7584. dob fhíor, Feis Tighe Chonáin 72. fa chloinn Uisnigh dob ḟearr clú, KMMisc. 356 § 4. dob fhearr liom go n-eagnuighidís (utinam saperent), TSh. 6857. 4957 (both modal). do búdh tusa cnoc na cclíar, KMMisc. 346 I § 2 . do budh [de] chloind Cuillinn ..., Feis Tighe Chonáin 1161. adharc ... dobudh faide ionā an adharc oile, TSh. 22. dorob ingnad in cuairt crecht, Ériu v 246.228 .


(a) -r(o)bu`, -r(u)bu`, -rbo` (the exx. in which the vowel of ro is not syncopated are all from Ml.) : nírbu faás foruigéni, Wb. 13b7 . nírbu chuman leu, Ml. 124b5 . hóre nárbu bae, Wb. 5b12 . Ml. 60a12 . donarobu gnath techt for culu, 129d3 . corbu écen, Wb. 32c17 . Ml. 31b16 . corrobu bec, 131b12 . conrubu chrín, 99a2 . indí ... lasinrubu chumtabart, 102d4 . 131d11. nírbo sar leu ar cocéilsine, Wb. 19a1 . nirbo chuit eperte, 24c5 .

(b) -rbu`, -rpu`, -rpo`, -rbo`, rba`, -rob`, -rb`, -ra, -r`, -rsa(t), -rso : nírpu sía léu oldaas oenuair, Trip.² 2054. nirbu chían, LU 1756 (ICM). corbu réill, Trip.² 2136. ciarbu tholgdae, Fél. 125. fer fial ... diarmbu (sic) lan Temair, AU i 394. 13 (A.D. 878) . nírpo o chridiu, Trip.² 1562. nír bo thoirneach ..., BDD² 191. LU 915. corbo chonair letartha, TBC-I¹ 1887. gérbo tri haicmedha íatt, Anecd. v 20.25 . nírba maith, LU 315. nirba choir, Anecd. i 20.14 . PH 3078. adeirdis corba mac, Corm. Y 896.8 . gurbha (gur fa, v.l.) héigean dó, TSh. 2484. órba cindti forba a bethad dó, BColm. 96.4 . nī rob urāil, Bruchst. 37 § 87. nirb oróil, MacCongl. 111.7 . nírbh é, IGT Decl. ex. 1274. níorbh fheasach, TSh. 2973. nocorb áil, Trip.² 397. aided narb inmain, ScM. § 24d . ainm ... ionarb éigean sinne do shlánughadh, TSh. 2088. níra míad leo dul assin chrích co mbetís aidchi longphuirt inti, MU² 843. nīr mīad ... leis ind ūaburdelb ... tārfas dōib, TBC-I¹ 2020. nīr cōir, ACL iii 221.24 (modal). nir thim a ḟer, Ériu v 244.211 . Feis Tighe Chonáin 1203. níor ghrása na bronntanas na grása ... dá mbeith ..., Donlevy 214.y (modal). níor chían, TSh. 2479. cinnas nachar chomtig, LU 10316 (modal). créad is iontuigthe as sin, acht gur dhearbh leó ..., TSh. 653. cíar adbol a ndrong, LU 9395. ger mhór in ail, Anecd. i 29 § 36. teagh ar ar lia fear faire, PBocht 12 § 26. drong ... rér mhaith deighmheas do bheith ag an bpobal orra, TSh. 8926 (? modal). ón tráth fár dhearbh leis é féin d'éag, TSh. 2800. draig ... ór doilghe dul, Ériu ix 6.51 (modal). ónar thana lucht loingsi `by whom sea-roving crews are thinned,' Duan. F. i 81.9 . The ending -rsa, -rsad may have arisen on the analogy of the 1st and 2nd sg. -rsam, -rsat (qq.v. above) : derb leo nírsa meath don mac, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 44 § 2. nirsa monar maca[i]n maith | dingbail in laich, 44 § 1. ailtir in mac ... gursa hoglach mor, 43.13 . carsa dúal don aithech-mhadudh ... tocht ... d'imrisin risin árchoin ?, ZCP viii 553.29 . ciarso thucait ro-dos-foglúais, LL 133b16 . TBC-LL¹ 1935. ciarsa dam `though it were a bull,' CRR § 5. brugaid ... darsat (? leg. darsa) comainm C., ZCP vii 307.17 , but cf. oglach darsad comainm E., viii 549.10 . Cf. pl. : carsad comhadha sin ?, 544.22 .

pl. 1

I No forms without ro- occur.

II Forms with ro-.


(a) robummar : robumar cuindrichthi gl. erecti sumus, Ml. 43d6 . huare robummar bibdid-ni dait-siu, 62b5 .

(b) ropsar, ropar, robdar, robatar: ropsar marba meni beth Find, RC vii 302.183 . ropar cocle cridi. ropar caemthe caille. ropar fir chomdeirgide, LL 10510 (MS ropdar with d expunged) = TBC-LL² 3071-73 ; robdar TBC(C) 2127-29 , RC xi 29 § 54 ; robatar, TBC St. 2903 ; robadar, RC xi 29 § 54 .


(a) -rbommar : nírbommar utmuill ... nírbommar tromdi gl. non inquieti fuimus, Wb. 26b14 .

(b) -rsar : cid sinni nirsar malla, RC vii 294.81 .

pl. 2 No instances.

pl. 3

I Forms without ro-.


(a) batir, batar : iarsindí batir inricci du báas huili, Wb. 5c14 . batir athissi ... dait-siu, Ml. 90d17 . air batar carait, 31a3 . 23c16 . Hy. ii 6.

(b) batir, batar, bat : batir banbrugaid sōn ┐ batar maithi, Corm. Y 1018.14 . batir faelti, LU 10585. batir hé iarom bátár im Ch., 8161 . BDD² 398. bátir (batar, batir, v.ll.) Érenn ardae, Fél. June 25 . LU 1699 (ICM). bátir īalla bātar inde, MacCongl. 89.26 . forsin fer batair bech whose bees they were, Laws iv 178.15 . batar sinde rīadatar it was we, Corm. Y 698.37 . SR 4072. BDD² 19. batar imtholtanaig, LU 3244. bátár hé sin a imtechtai, 11030 . bāttar dóini carsam-ne, Otia i 122 § 3. § 4 . bat comluatha dana fri conaib, IT i 72.11 . bat failid uili de sin, RC xliii 24 § 22.


(a) -btar, -ptar : nitat pecthi ... indechtso cebtar hé riam, Wb. 4a8 . ciaptar mora a pecthai-som, Ml. 98c5 . a namtar tuidchissi, Sg. 6a13 . amtar mbati `when they were drowned,' Ml. 84d5 .

(b) -btar, -ptar, -btor, -tar, -but : céptar bailci bressa, Fél. Prol. 74. ciabtar glain, SR 2421. cíaptar áilli, Fél. Prol. 133. níptar ecnaig, ib. Nov. 9. níbtar dermaill, Corm. Y 398 . nibdar dimdaig, SR 3550. BCC 66.8 . imtar láin ..., | imtar ilerda, SR (Greene) 4659 . amdar suidigthi ... forsin teinith, Trip.² 131. comtar mairb, SR 5111. LU 8373. PH 5479. comdar slána, Trip.² 157. immuscomarcair cibtar hē asked who they were, Corm. Y 1059.58 . gu mbut ōga a n-ocobair till their desires were fulfilled, ACL iii 3.12 .

II Forms with ro-.


(a) robtar, roptar, robatar (Ml. only), robdar : nitat huili robtar tuicsi, Wb. 11a21 . hore romtar óis teglig, 7b13 . robtar beca, Ml. 90c25 . déde hí roptar bibdaid som, 124c2 . inna hí ruptar ardda, Thes. ii 11.42 (Bcr.). is follus romatar bibdaid som, Ml. 125b9 . 78b12 . rocretset ... romdar tosge maith doib nanní ..., 96b5 .

(b) robtar, roptar, raptar, robdar, robdur, ? ropat : ar robtar cosmaili, Trip.² 1297. Corm. Y 690.4 . robtar auctair in dana sin, Trip.² 328. LU 9602. SR 3449. robdar druid co mōreōlus, TBC-I¹ 835. Anecd. i 46.12 . ar ropdar mebhra laiss iat, ii 43.3 . arinni robdur ceithri uidhi, Laws i 262.4 . ropat móra do berta (? or leg. ropsat), IT iii 484.281 . ropsat comchuibde ar ceta, Ériu i 72 § 4. RC vii 294.82 . MR 214.16 . FDG 557. rapsat irlama, MU² 149. TBC-LL¹ 3243. Ériu i 72 § 4. robsat athlumha, BS 18.26 . robsad buana, ML² 2084. ZCP viii 539.17 . ? To this : na sluaig remi rosatr[i]uin (? leg. ropsat triuin), SR 3983.


(a) -rubtar, -ruptar, -roptar : isuaignid ni rubtar gáitha for comairli, Wb. 18c6 . conruptar fadirci ind usci, Ml. 40d16 (MS. ɔ possibly for co L in which case ruptar could be abs., Ériu lvi 40 n. 56 ). ceruptar enartu, 49a17 . arrumtar doirthi, 34d10 . déde hí roptar bibdaid som, 124c2 .

(b) -rbtar, -rptar, -rtar, -rbat, -rpsat, -rsat, -psat, -bsat, -psatar : nírbtar humail fris, Trip.² 1976. Corm. Y 179. nírptar fáilti, BDD² 337. nirdar subaig, TBC-LL¹ 3242. ciarbat ile, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 548 § 23 ( LL 147a ). garbat discailtig, TBC-LL¹ 544. gurbat daitinigh, RC xliii 75 § 75. Leb. Gab.(i) 118.1 . corbhat foithe, RC xliii 84 § 85. nirbat sathig (nirbot, nirbad, nirbo, v.ll.), Metr. Dinds. iii 78.24 . nirpsat [m'] airm[-si] can ulaig, Ériu i 72 § 2. nirsat tualaing a dhinghmhail, v 158.210 . nirsat methol a n-athól they were not a band in the second drinking ?, BCC 290.28 . a mbrughaidh nírsat bronuigh, Ériu iv 116 § 24. gursad luatha, RC xiv 28.12 . cersat mor, PH 250. da ghadaige ... darsat comanmann Dismus ┐ Iesmus, 2852 . cārsat comadha sin, ML² 1387. carsad, ZCP viii 544.22 . ciapsat guir fri crabud nglé, SR 8007. nibsad adbul a ḟir bain, Anecd. i 13.15 . batar gnima erred lat-sa, nipsatar gnima con, Anecd. iii 53.8 . In : gomsad daerbhesacha macneda Uladh. ZCP viii 546.7 . the form is pres. pl. 3 but the sense calls for sec. fut. pl. 3. Cf. 545.21 .

On buith as vn. of copula see GOI § 817. Cf. mo bith lomnocht, SR 1336. maso ḟír ... | for mbith iarmui do Abram, 3498 .

1 tuisledach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 tuisledach or


adj o, ā (tuisled)

(a) falling, stumbling: tuisledchu, Ml. 26d8 (see n. b ). ni thalla nemdírge dó arnab tusledach, Corm. 16 droichet = sothuissledhach, Corm. Y 434 . a sheanóir thuisleadhaigh thruim (i.e. the world), DDána 50.7 .

(b) In moral sense erring, sinful: epscop t.¤ , Laws i 54.8 = v 458.21 .i. espoc toisledach a dae, a holc, ro-sn-isligenn, 460.1 Comm. sacart t.¤ , Triads 96 v.l.