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báid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. báid or dil.ie/5167

Forms: báigh, bádh, bágh, bāide, buide, bagha, bagha

n báigh f., IGT Decl. § 42 (95.14) ; bádh m., § 96 (130.17) ; bágh m., § 38 (87.15) . g s. bāide , Corm. Y 878 (= bóid, Thr. Ir. Gl. 29 s.v. Munnu, buide, Corm. Bodl. 16 ). bagha, AU i 318.11 (an. 824 ). Orig. perh. not distinct from bág, q.v.

(a) affection, fondness, attachment, partiality (obj. of affection expressed by gen., FRI (LA), I, IMM): b.¤ Ulad ann `the affection of the Ulstermen for him', Stud. Hib. iv 74 § 74. rogab aen baid uili lucht na hEtaili im . . ., Aen. 1758. baidh ┐ connirchle, D IV 2, 73va33 . fam dhúthchus déunaidh(-se) báidh, KMMisc. 56 § 2. Cf. DDána 90.6 . baidh ar n-aicmeadh rer-oile, 90.23 . ar gceann báidhei-ne an bhean our chief love (of Mary), Dán Dé ii 29 . tug a cheann (c., MS.; ? leg. i c.) báidhe na mban / dhamh tar ceann mo náire neamh as well as the love of women (?), IGT Decl. ex. 1220. a los báidh (: éagcáir), Content. x 10. báidh re healadhain, Keat. i 92.5 . Note also: do ghabh bágh re Manainn mé, Aithd. D. 23.1 (: grádh).

In phr. is b.¤ la is pleasing to: báidh lem chroidhe an cleas ra-niad, Magauran 4298 . báidh leam bhar dteisd ar thuir Chua, DDána 91.14 . tú urlamh gidh bé len báidh / is é ar dturnamh do thógbháil, 65.1 (to the cross over his son's grave).

ar b.¤ for love: ar Dia, no ar baid ri eclais, Laws v 128.11 Comm. ar baig no ar blait, TBC-LL¹ 2339. ar connailbhe ┐ ar bhaidh brathairsi, Lism. L. 3277. Cf. ML² 1573. ZCP viii 214.11 . ar báig ┐ chondalbdus i forithin P., LL 32275 ( TTr. 1464 ). Cf. abraid ris ar in mbaid mbunaid dul lib, TTebe 4660 .

In phr. breth le b.¤ partial judgement: breith le báidh, Content. iv 2. nach inmheasta go mbéarainn breath le báidh, Keat. i 76.46 . Cf. ní rug . . . breith mbágha `a biased award', TD 10.17 .

As quasi-vn. cách mar sin ag rabháidh ruibh, Magauran 2066 .

Attrib. g s. Benncor bagha , AU i 328.11 . brun-dalta baidhe, MR 112.3 . inntinn mbáidhe `a friendly disposition' (Note), O'R. Poems 1649. ár n-aon-leannán báidhe, Keat. Poems 524 (some of these may belong to baíde , q.v.). Cf. tonn bháidh an bhéine (bhéinne, v.l.) bráthar / báthadh féine Chláir Chrúachan, IGT Decl. ex. 1004.

(b) In some exx. with suggestion of pact, alliance etc.: luid E. i mbáigh I. . . . co comtisadh le do digail a sceoil for D., Dinds. 24. dia [gcomhaille] báidh go bráth, ML 92.16 . a sochraide ┐ a mbáidh Ghall, ALC i 4.6 . lucht baidhe ┐ bith-chadaigh, BNnÉ 251 § 206 . is iad rocengal a mbaidh ┐ a mbraithres re cele, Aisl. Tond. 118.3 . TD 26.17 . Ir. Review 1913, 623 § 6 . na Góidhil atrachtatar (sic leg.) in bar mbáigh, Hugh Roe² 130.2 . aga mbeith buain no báidh le Saxancoibh, AFM vi 2056.4 .

baíde

Cite this: eDIL s.v. baíde or dil.ie/5170

Forms: boíde, búide

n , f. (baíd) also boíde, búide

(a) affection, tenderness, attachment: ar boídi a athar his father was so attached (to him), Trip.² 1612 ( baíde , v.l.) cennsu . . . ┐ trōcaire ┐ bāidhe, Otia ii 96.21 . buide na trocaire `kindness', Aen. 837. dosrat cen baide fomnad / fo dóire, SR 5281. mo heich, mo charpait, mo bāide do Mane, ZCP viii 305.5 = baede, Rawl. 138a28 . a Medb co mbaide (: rodaíne), LL 7137. a rí na baíde (: naíme), Metr. Dinds. iv 208.97 (baidheg, buidi, baighe, baide, v.ll.). ar do bāidhi, a bāidhathair / . . . / nīmreilce isin searbcarcair, Ériu iii 30 § 17. báidhe mor ┐ caer condailbhi ┐ gradh a n-athardha, CCath. 618. a bunad na huli buide, PH 162. breith le baidhe . . . la hua Domhnaill `a partial sentence for O'D.', AFM v 1282, n.g (cf. báid). baidhe no baoidhe .i. báoidheamhleacht no faidigheacht, O'Cl.

In phr. ell mbáide (see ell, 3 etal): ell mbáidhe ┐ condailbhe, TBC-LL¹ p. 429 n.6 . co ndēnaind ella bāide imme, Moling 39 .

do-gní b.¤ (FRI, IMM, AR) is kind (to), deals gently (with): is ris dorigni C.C. in mbáide, LU 368. nech . . . doneth bōidiu nō trōcuirie immum, Cáin Ad. 9. déna bóide ar do bidbaid, Ériu vi 114 § 4 (: noīme).

As quasi-vn. ic bāidhe immut caressing, fondling , Otia ii 96.1 . occ buidhe frisin náeidhin, Anecd. ii 17.22 .

(b) piety: an bhúidhe (= piedad), Desid. 6689. tré bhúidhe (one of the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost) bhímíd crāibhtheach ┐ umhal do Dhia, Parrth. Anma 3305. buidhe ┐ eagla an Tighearna = piety, Donlevy 238.17 . go buidhe, 420.3 . Cf. baíthe.

baíthe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. baíthe or dil.ie/5267

n [, f.] (báeth) foolishness, levity: ni di braisse ni di baithe, LL 1305 = do baethi, BB 34a15 . meic Baéthán cen baethe, Gorm. Ap. 24. tré bhar mbaoithe im fhuil nÉibhir foolish affection, partiality , Content. xvi 13. cetheora aipgitre báise: báithe, condailbe, imresan, doingthe, Triads 252 . Cf. baíde .

1 bann

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 bann or dil.ie/5348
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: bang, aenbaingi, -baing, baind, bann

n o. Also bang ā, f. g s. aenbaingi, CCath. 1950 v.l. (énbhaing, text). d s. -baing, 2105 . Cf. a s. baind, Fing. R. 240. bann m., IGT Decl. § 73 , § 96 (p. 130.8) . Variously glossed: b.¤ .i. buille, O'Curry 583 (H. 3.18, 289). .i. gníomh, O'Cl. .i. gach cumhsgugadh, ibid. Also glossed with meanings not sup- ported by exx.: b.¤ .i. līathrāid, Corm. Y 200. Ériu xiii 76.207 . Metr. Gl. 32 § 7. Lec. Gl. 503. O'Cl. .i. dligheadh, O'Curry 1490 (H. 3.18, 664). Lec. Gl. 42. Stowe Gl. 232. O'Cl. .i. bás, O'Cl. .i. olc, O'Curry 972 (H. 3.18, 416). .i. tend, ibid.

(a) Meaning appar. move, movement, impulse, effort, thrust; hence exploit, deed: dracc ilair band, ZCP iii 465.17 , 21 . atnecham (atteocham, v.l.) ria mbandaib before making any move (?), Fél. Dec. 21. b.¤ baide ┐ trócaire impulse, SR 2072. lín ṁband mbalcbúada, LU 8289 ( FB 22 , rhet.). rosbaí damna bróin don b.¤ `the deed was a source of sorrow to them', Metr. Dinds. iv 20.28 . cath Bregmaine band `of deeds', RC xxix 211 § 8. ni maiti da bidbadaib band, Fen. 378.21 . b.¤ tre cheardchaibh caithshleagh gcorr (of a chief), DDána 79.26 . ní héidir liomsa achd b.¤ báis `the only steps I can take are fraught with death', Aithd. D. 51.12 . a bh.¤ claonta leis an gcoir `her conduct inclining to sin', 50.34 . b.¤ mear taidhbhseach tar tor (of a mare), Measgra D. 15.24 . Oar-stroke : dá luing . . . fó énbaing imruma, CCath. 2105 , 1950 ; `with one pull of the oars´ Loinges mac nDuíl Dermait 88 . cach band do-beread forsin curach (with) each oar-stroke that he gave the curach, 58 § 31 . ód bhand ḟíchmhar imramha, IGT Decl. ex. 860. Cf. DDána 83.20 . ? band īslighthe, ar ar n-onōir, Éigse xiv 92 § 2 and Notes 103 § 2 b . perh. to 1 bang.

With verbs: fer dobeir b.¤ ar cach ṁbūaid achieves (?), attempts (?), ZCP viii 119 § 40 ( Rawl. 88b42 ). dobert G. band feramail fora churach vigorously propelled, LL 12702. Cf. IT ii1 181.192 . tucad b.¤ ele arna cobhlaigibh [co ndechadar] . . . imásech araile, CCath. 1966. tucadur iaromh b.¤ dúr dīochra ar an deabhaidh made for, Cath MT 786. beiridh b.¤ tar bhladh a sinnsear surpasses , O'Hara 4175. b.¤ ar a ais ní headh rug did not retreat, PBocht 10.15 . Cf. band ar ais ón irgail, Hy Fiach. 260.7 . téid crann ó Dhonnchadh fa dheóigh / b.¤ tar orchar in áirseóir, IGT Decl. ex. 1309. do-chuaidh Pilib / . . . / b.¤ suas tar na sinnsearaibh surpassed, O'R. Poems 432. imbered a baind foraib, Fing. R. 240. Elliptically: is mithid damhsa b.¤ do bhaile `to foot it homewards', Ó Bruad. ii 240.5 (bonn. v.l.).

(b) Passing into sense of length (of cast, etc.), distance, period, extent, amount: níbo moo in band oldas a chéle (of casting a ball and hurley), LU 5006. dobert G. fochrothad . . . fon scíath co roacht band ḟata úad, LL 12719. Éire ┐ áirdrí Bearta / ní bhfuil aonbh. uaisleachta / . . . / d'iomurcadh air ná uirthi degree, 23 G 24 , 274.13 . Conchobor bliadain a band / noco torchair la Crimthand, LL 15151. ? ri ro bai ria mbetha b.¤ , SR 5273. ? b.¤ ar t'fhíoch ní fheadarsón, Bard. Synt. Tr. 193.12 . Diancecht . . . is e ro chind in b.¤ decided the amount (?), Laws iii 362.4 Comm. (`that established the rule').

Freq. in chevilles: niba hifernach, búan bánn, / clann na cined dó, Trip.² 393. Fél. 86.31 . úarda band, LU 9856. ? 10543 . būaidh ria mbannaibh, ZCP vi 264 § 5. ? fíad slúa g Eigept, amra bainn, SR 3291 (: Foraind).

Note also: briathar baile (builidh, v.l.) b.¤ , Metr. Gl. 11 § 10. ba difulaing cloistecht re fogurmuirn in muighe fos, cona búi a barsamail acht amail bad b.¤ don brat[h] doberta isin uair sin ind, CCath. 5650 (`ban of Doom'). benfaid na trī band[a] .i. band crābaid, band ecnoi, band trebairi, ZCP ix 453 § 34. Of Eóin Bruinne: a bhrágha ní fhuair ionadh / os chionn cíche an dúiliomhan / b.¤ do bhí tar an gcroichse / dí is gan chrann 'n-a caomhthaighse, PBocht 23.13 (`a band was fixed about the cross'). inmain bund sin, inmain band, / dotelccad do nim anull, TTebe xvi 1 (`a dear strain'). forbann .i. for b.¤ .i. ní ós ceann dligidh, óir as ionann b.¤ ┐ dligheadh, O'Cl.

Compds. With nouns: cen báes ṁbandgaile impulsive valour (?), LL 25803. bandmaidm Lettrech Ainge (.i. cath Cilli Mōna) rout, ZCP xii 236 § 56. With adj.: cur meabaidh don abhainn ina buindeadhaibh borbghloracha . . . bangdhlúithi (b.¤ dluíthe, v.l., TBC-LL¹ 3911 ), TBC St. 3238.

Cf. 1 bang.

búide

Cite this: eDIL s.v. búide or dil.ie/7350

x see baíde .

? buidell

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? buidell or dil.ie/7359

n b.¤ spredghaile ┐ achmusan ┐ imresain ┐ imsergaile, IT iii 95 § 149. Poss. compd. of báid (búid) + ell. Cf. ell báide , see ell, ella.

1 ell, ella

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ell, ella or dil.ie/19966
Last Revised: 2019

n (a) a flush, a sudden emotion, a rush of feeling freq. in e.¤ condalbe, e.¤ (m)báide , used generally of an emotion experienced on seeing one's kin in danger. (a) tanic ell condailbi im Ultaib dó a flush of affection for his kin of Ulster TBC-LL¹ 468 . tánic a ell chondailbi fair, 2964 (= tainic ell mbáidhe et condailbe dhó, St). dosuicfe uile ell condolba oc aiscin in maic isind nith, TBC-I¹ 3378 . RC xiii 444.16 . arrangab ell chondailbe, RC xiii 458.18 = SG 316.38 . do eirigh ell baidhe ann, TBC-LL¹ p. 899 n. 1 . eill nári `a feeling of shame' MU 34.20 = LL 267a20 . (b) ro eirigh ealla bagha ann, TBC-LL¹ 399 n. 10 . tanic ealla aithrechuis dó im a nderna `a fit of repentance for what he had done' Celt. Rev. ii 212 . pl. (?), geubdaid ella aithreachuis, ITS v 168.19 . i richt meic sheacht mbliadan ...co ndenaind ella baide imme, Moling 39 . Cf. ris atbert a bhuime...tré ealla buidhe Baoísgne, Duan. F. i 25.6 . Cf. corbar clochthige os chella | nírap ella aislinge, RC xiii 114.8 = SG 388.31 (`may all this not be a mere fit of dreaming' ii 423 ).

(b) a blush: ell n-ailgen issindara hoil dó... .i. frecra mín munterda indara fecht an expression of gentleness (?) in one cheek MU 36.27 = LL 267b9 .

(c) a sudden pang or pain (probably this is the earliest sense); generally in pl., of pains of travail: tancatar bressa brighi ┐ ella da hindsaighid ┐ rucustar gein meic, Acall. 543 . tangadar breasa briogha ┐ ella idhna (alla idhan v.l.) dá hionnsaidhe, Ériu v 80.28 . ella idan, YBL 180b20 . alla idhan, RC xiv 28 § 5. BNnÉ 126.1 .

fomnad ?

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fomnad ? or dil.ie/23217

Forms: fomnaid

v dosrat cen baide f.¤ | fo doíre, fo bithfognam, SR 5281 . Perhaps for `fomnaid,' ipv. pl. 2, see fo-moinethar.

fri

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fri or dil.ie/24329
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: frimm, rimm, frim, frím, frium, frimsa, friumsa, frit, fritt, friutt, fritsu, rut, rutt, fris, friss, frissom, f., frie, friae, frise, frie, frinn, rinn, rind, friunn, riund, frind, frinni, raindi, frinnai, frib, frithib, fribsi, friu, friú, friu, friü, frithiu, friithu, friusom, riom, rum, riot, rut, ris, ria, rinn, ruinn, ribh, ruibh, riú, r, frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, frim, frim, frim, ram, frit, frit, frit, rit, rat, rot, friar, friar, fribar, fribar, fria, fria, fria, re-na, rena, fria, fris(s)a, frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-, frismbiat, fris-mbruchta, fris, fris, fris, risa, frisin-, frisnid, risnad, ris, fria, frisa, re n-, fria-, re, ra-n-adh, re, re, ré, freisin, FRI

prep. with acc. For etymology see Thurneysen, GOI § 839 , Fraser ZCP viii 37 , J. E. C. Williams, Celtica iii 126 . In later spelling prefixes h- to following initial stressed vowel; does not leníte following consonant (cf. frinna aill, Sg. 45a16 . fri nnach ..., Ml. 75a9 , fri nnech 23c20 ; but fri nech further on in same gloss and regularly elsewhere); the initial s- of the article following fri is preserved. In Middle Irish gradually replaced by the forms RI, RE (already in Ml: oc eregim re Abisolon, 44b4 , cf. fre, 90c27 ); RA (common in some LL texts, see CRR 54 , TBC-LL¹ 499 , 602 , 740 , etc.); rarely RO ( SR 1990 ZCP xiii 204 15 ); FRIA, RIA, RE also common. Hence in Early Mod. Ir. there is occasionally confusion with , RÍA `before', see Bergin's note Stor. Keat. p. xix , and section IX (e) below. Apart from this the latter prep. sometimes replaces FRI after fáilid, fáilte and kindred words (as in Mod. Ir.). On the parallelism of some of the pronominal forms of FRI with those of LA see GOI l.c. (with Translator's n. 178 ). Though FRI still appears in some later texts, especially those of the archaising type, it had become obsolete in the classical language. Its later form (RI, RE) remains down to the end of the Early Mod. period and is recognized by the grammarians as distinct from LE (LA), see IGT, Introd. § 75 , 24 P 8, 194 ( IGT VI , Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ). In the modern spoken lang. it is replaced partly by LE, partly by CHUN (O.-Ir. dochum). For a contrary development cf. Engl. `with,' originally `against,' which has absorbed the functions of A.S. mid `(together) with.'

In development of meaning generally FRI shows a remarkable parallelism with Engl. ` with '; it also agrees with ` against ' in several senses.

Forms: With suff. pron.

sg. 1 frimm St. Paul Codex Thes. ii 298.17 . rimm, IT i 123.24 . frim, SR 1422 , 2049 . LU 5228 . LL 110b26 . frím Ml. 38c19 . frium, Ml. 71b9 . frimsa, Wb. 26d17 . Ml. 33a18 . friumsa, Ml. 127a2a .

2 frit, Wb. 5a31 . 10a29 ; Ml. 103d14 . SR 1425 . fritt LL 93a10 . 249b1 . friutt, PCr. 62b2 (= ḟrit, Sg. 151a3 ). fritsu Ml. 91d8 . 112b8 . rut, SR 2031 IT i 123.15 . rutt, LL 110b27 .

3 m., n. fris, Wb. 14c37 . 15a1 . 22c15 . ACL iii 304 [: [Mael] mis]. (: eisleis). SR 6109. 6317 . ([mēt] anfis) LL 33b21 . friss, Wb. 2c24 . 3c6 . 6a4 . 8a12 . 14d22 ; Ml. 91a21 . frissom Wb. 5d39 .

f.¤ frie, Sg. 72b1 . Ml. 40c15 . 67d15 . friae, 130c9 . Wb. 28a20 . cf. frise, Ml. 74c21 , which Ascoli corrected to frie ( Thes. i 722b ).

pl. 1 frinn, Wb. 4b12 . 17b10 . 19d22 . rinn, Ml. 54a3 . SR 1821 . rind, SR 1905 (: herḟi[o]nd). friunn, Ml. 38d20 . riund TBC-LL¹ 1874 . frind, LL 177b39 . frinni, Wb. 17b32 . 17c5 ; Ml. 32c15 . 93a13 . 106c12 . raindi, BColm. 68.9 . frinnai Ml. 91c9 . 114a8 .

2 frib, Wb. 17b16 . 22d9 . 24d26 . cf. frithib, Ériu iv 162.13 . fribsi, Wb. 14c42 . 17b14 .

3 friu, Wb. 4a10 . 4c37 . 24a4 ; Ml. 54c23 , 72b22 , 110c9 . LL 35a21 (: fiú) friú, Wb. 17b9 . Ml. 74a2 , diss. friu, Hy. V. 54 , cf. friü: at-chiü, ACL iii 294 § 10 ; frithiu, Blathm. 94 § 17 ; friithu, LU 4671 (see further GOI 515 ). friusom, Wb. 20c25 ; Ml. 17c5 , 54c18 ; 26 .

For forms found in later texts see citations below.

In the Early Mod. Grammatical Tracts the forms given are: riom, rum; riot, rut; ris; ria; rinn, ruinn; ribh, ruibh; riú, r, 24 P 8 194 ( Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ).

With following poss. pron.: frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, e.g. frim ort. Wb. 29d2 . frim peccad, 28a14 . frim foraithmet, Ml. 23d9 ; ram anmain, TBC-LL¹ 3692 (rem St.). frit adrad su, Ml. 136c11 . frit c[h]ele, 70d2 ; frit laim, SR 5854 . rit láim, TBC-LL¹ 3055 . rat láma, 3052 . rot chlaind, SR 2031 . friar corp, Wb. 15c22 . friar fochric, 33a9 ; fribar n-ícc, Wb. 24b3 . fribar pecthu, 13b19 ; fria mbriathra, Wb. 31b30 . In Mid. Ir. the form `fria' is often used for the simple prep., hence occas. fria a = prep. + 3 s. pron. In Early Mod. Ir. 3 s. and pl. form re-na sometimes appears: rena ardnaem, BCC § 12 (see III c below). fria n-a, Fl. Earls 214.4 . Cf. the n- prefixed to poss. after le, ó, tre in Mod. Irish.

With rel. pron.: O. Ir. fris(s)a n ...; Mid. Ir. also frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-: frismbiat, Sg. 202b3 . fris-mbruchta, Fél. June 21 . fris n-agar, E. 406 . fris-reith, Prolegomena 302 . fris-tarddam, Thes. ii 293.19 . risa n-abar, Acall. 53 , etc. With cop. frisin-, frisnid, risnad ail, LB 257b9 . ris na duthracht 256a44 . fria ndechraiged (= frisa nd.) Sg. 28a14 may be a mistake. In later MSS. the form re n- becomes common: fria-cosmailend, PH 7674 . re ndubairt, 7464 . ra-n-adh KMMisc. 156. 124 . re n-abar, Acall. 1241 , etc. re rāiter, Ériu viii 139.4 . ré raibhe, Keat. ii 4467 , etc.

Composition.

(a) In vn. and prototonic verbal forms, before a vowel, frith-; before a cons. fre-, e.g. frecre, fretech; with syncope of a follg. vowel, fres-, e.g. frescsiu, fresndid, fresndís, fresngabal. In Glosses fri is often used in compos. with a vb. to represent Lat. ob-. Later frith- is used before cons. with or without lenition of following cons.: see frithgnam, frithsét, etc.

(b) In deuterotonic verbal forms fris-; before an infixed pron. in rel. construction frith- or friss-: fritum-chomart-sa (= frith-dum-) Wb. 33a12 ; but friss-idn-oirctis, Ml. 39a20 (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 147 and cf. Strachan's OIPG⁴ ed. Bergin, p. 27 n. 2 ).

SYNOPSIS OF MEANINGS.

N.B.—The classification is perforce somewhat arbitrary as, perhaps in the majority of instances, the meaning could derive from the original sense in I. Cf. J. E. C. Williams Celtica iii 122 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to ;

(b) against (touching; cf. d); alongside, down along, by ;

(c) against (implying violent or hostile action);

(d) next to, at, in contact with (cf. b).

II To express association, along with, beside (both of local and mental relations).

III To express figurative direction

(a) aim, purpose (cf. VI), frequently of function, specific purpose;

(b) after adj. in sense of Lat. gerund or with ad or supine in -u;

(c) to express direction of feelings, behaviour towards (cf. I a);

(d) of prayer, etc. to ;

(e) of opposition to, hostile feeling, attitude towards ;

(f) to express protection, guard, watch against, also limitation, boundary;

(g) in elliptical sentences with these meanings.

IV

(a) after adjs., nouns or verbs expressing resemblance, equality or comparison;

(b) to express difference, distinction from .

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to ;

(b) on account of:

(c) on behalf of ;

(d) according to, in agreement with (cf. II).

VI To denote occasion

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. verb or equivalent;

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on which something takes place.

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of .

VIII

(a) to denote agent;

(b) to denote instrument through, by means of .

IX In expressions of time

(a) in O.-Ir. in locatival sense;

(b) to denote period during which something continues or takes place;

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place;

(d) of point of time;

(e) used for RIA ` before .'

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs.

A classified list of the instances in Wb is given by Fraser ZCP viii 37 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to: do rosc frisna nemdaib = looking heavenward SR 1604 . a n-aiged fri Dia facing God LU 2048 ( FA 12 . Cf. III c). a lām chlē fri muir the sea on their left SR 4074 (see lám). do cumlaiset for fairgi ┐ dochorsatar aurlunn fri tir, Corm. Bodl. s.v. prull . bai D. 'sa druim fri fraig D. had his back to the door SR 6053 . is amlaid bai in gilla ┐ a druim fria thigerna, TBC-I¹ 2327 (see druim(m)). Ethne ... fria chossa E. (standing) at his feet (i.e. at the foot of the bed) LU 3300 ( SCC 10 ). Carpre ... 's a hucht ra hág, LL 32b49 (see ucht). a druim re dimsachaib, a des fri deiblenaib, ZCP viii 204 § 26 . an let[h] bis rinne don rē the side of the moon turned towards us ITS xiv 90.19 . fri bun cruche at the foot of the gallows Mon. Tall. § 1 . síl nÁdhuimh ... re sáluibh a senathar at the heels of (i.e. following) Ériu iv 118 § 33 . níor chubaidh tigearna ... d'ḟágbáil re caladh on the beach [i.e. when about to land; perh. fig. cf. beirid i gcaladh brings to safety, see 1 calad] viii 139.23 . dā traig .x. ... a [sic leg.] fot fri dún its length towards the stockade (of the internal slope of an earthen rampart) Laws iv 336.23 . dā dúncladh ... ré dá taebh na clasach along both sides of the fosse CCath. 1747 . ní thurcaibh crand ... cét míle fria taebhaibh within a hundred miles from (lit. towards) its sides Marco P. 11 [cf. the temporal use IX (c)]. See also phrases s.v. agad, ais, enech, gnúis, sáil, taeb, ucht.

This use is regular in Old-Ir. in stating relative position: fri Grecia aniar ... fri Etáil anáir west of Greece ... east of Italy Wb. 6d17 . fri Alpai ndesiu (gl. cisalpina) Sg. 217b8 . frie anall ... frie desiu (gl. ultra ... citra) 71b1 , 2 . fri Ath F.D. desiu, TBC-I¹ 2183 . frie anechtair outside it Ml. 40c15 . fri Pardus amuich outside Paradise SR 111 . ra chuala sa fri hEmain andess I heard it (as I was) to the south of Emain LU 5056 . altoir fri dorus antuaid, SR 4261 [cf. la taeb ind rigthaige aniar, LL 3810 (30a) ]. a mmag fris anair the plain in front of him LL 122a33 . co ndechaid [in gai] triana chend ┐ co ro marb nónbur ris aníar behind him 121a21 . frit aniar, LU 4134 . is e a chorp in taitneamach rit anall the shining one opposite thee RC xxiv 60 . Also fig. : foscichret i crandchor ... fáicebthair Lugaid fris anechtair they will cast lots for it... L. will be left out of the chance RC xiii 444x ( LL 289b8 ). See also s.v. lám (fri l.).

It is doubtful whether: i mbae neach fri hopair immuig BB 362a21 (= Dinds. 20 ) is an instance of this construction; the literal meaning here is was anyone at a work outside ? The Rennes `amuig' is perhaps merely a late spelling.

After verb or vn.: tan turcbad E. a di láim fri Coimdid nime, SR 5085 . suidig do da laim fri ... clasp thy hands (in prayer) to ... 1606 . rosecroth a chend frisin slúag brandished his (severed) head at the host LU 5269 . crothad in chind frisin slóg, 5280 . donnochtat a mbruinni fris bared their bosoms to him 5199 . rochoraig fri tenid he arranged [them] before the fire RC xiii 6.21 . roscóraig gnúis fri gnúis (see gnúis) LU 2046 ( FA 12 ).

Cf. tuídhleach ind óir frisin ngréin the glistening of the gold against the sun BDD 1 . crand airgit ris tatin grían LU 3700 ( SCC 33 ).

(b) against (touching), alongside, down along by: doesetar ┐ a nglūne fri talmain, TBC-I¹ 3164 . éc fri hadart death against a pillow i.e. a natural death Lib. Hymn. i 62.72 (see adart). fri etnu dam ... bátár fedmand la firu Herend = [till then] the loads had been harnessed to the foreheads of the oxen LU 10816 (= Ériu xii 178 ). tennait a n-ette fria curpu press their wings against their sides LU 2281 ( FA 33 ). cf. doimmaircet ind eoin a n-ette friu ┐ a cossa can scibud ette ná cosse co tairic in precept the birds fold their wings, etc. LU 1361 . dosnimthasa i llai a broit fri a bruinde `gathered her to his bosom in the fleece of his cloak' Ériu xii 154y . co tard a druim frisin liic leaned his back against the stone LU 3284 ( SCC 8 ). dossleced fria thoeb he let them (i.e. his arms) fall to his sides SR 5091 = no thimoirced a lama fria thoeb, LB 124b29 (cf. LU 1361 above).

In local sense of attached to or pending from: úathroic ... cona cimais do banór fria having a fringe LU 6421 . beilge óir friu golden bits on them TBFr. § 3 . srian ... fria graig, LU 3649 . Cf. srian do thabairt fria thoil to bridle his passion PH 4990 (see srían). Cf. la I (a).

Here perhaps: i ngialnai fri fraigid in hostage-ship at the wall LU 7015 ; 7295 ( BDD 66 ; 94 ). (of the brazen serpent, Numbers xxi 9 :) turgabar fri crann ... uasin [t]slúag fri sirsellad let it be hung on a pole to be gazed at SR 4163 .

Cf. an carracc ard ar cuiretar ... an Tigerna da teilgen ría sís to cast him down from it Maund. 106 . tuitim sioss re beinn an ailt, Fl. Earls 86z .

(c) against (implying violence or hostility; cf. III e): rop saiget húan fri demnai, Hy i 20 . friu conuccaib ind oub, Hy v 54 . conéracht Glaiss Ch. friu the stream C. rose against them (= to bar the way) LU 5362 . Cf. conocbath in carpat fris ... ┐ concligtis ind h[e]ich fris the chariot would tilt up before him and the horses would spring at him Ériu vi 134.21 . bēim a cinn fri cloich, Ml. 139c3 . beim cind fri hall, LL 225b38 (see benaid). esarcain cind fri hallib, 176b33 . aiges (feras) in tond frisin mbruach, Anecd. i 12.19 (21) . cf. FB 44 , see fri. See also phrases with cúl, druim(m), lám).

(d) next to, at: folt dond fri toind a chind, folt croderg iar n-airmedon, LU 2564 . dond fri toind cind, 6542 . lene de sról ... i custul fri gelcnes ... dó, 6296 . léne ... sita fria gelchnes, 1810 . cona luirigh ... ria cnes ... ┐ lethan sciath fria gualaind, Stair Erc. 1243 . In this use frequent with ais, cnes, taeb.

II To express association, along with, beside (of local or mental relations, cf. V d): ní bí friu hi comasndeis it is not with them in apposition Sg. 212a5 . in tan mbís nihelas do .u. fri .g. when u is silent beside g, 6b11 . nobiad fri femen `it would be [used] with the feminine' 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them' 215a5 (cf. biit remsuidigthi ... cen briathra leo ib. 6). See also s.v. comṡuidigud. is tabarthi `bonum est' fri cechtar in da fersa so, Ml. 112d1 . cen tabairt anman trén fríu, 30a9 (see do-beir). ni bai crand dond indsi fri aroile (i.e. the walls were shattered) Anecd. i 2.5 . ar choibnius frisna comaccomla sa, Sg. 203a10 . in oentid fri Crist, Wb. 15a12 . ni ba suair[c] comlepaid no comaentu frissi, TBC-LL¹ 2079 (fris St) In: ni reid bith fris im longud no im ligi, LU 5957 , the meaning may be different; see atá (fri). toeb fri toeb ata in ri is Eocho F. side by side LU 2839 (see taeb). comaitecht re hairdrigh, ZCP viii 116.5 . méraid ra cách a chumne TBC-LL¹ 740 (here perhaps: meraid hua chlaind fri claind Ml. 100b4 ). is frit mo chairde `with Thee is my compact' Fél. Ep. 534 . (see cairde). iar corai fri I. after making a pact with I. SR 5946 . Cf. córe fri Dia, Wb. 2d16 . is core doib fribsi (gl. salutate invicem) 18b19 . bad chore dúib friu, 7b4 ; - 14 (`lit. let it be peace to you towards them' Thes., but the original meaning of córe points to `with' as the sense of the prep. here). Cf. also: biid pax libsi fri cách (gl. cum omnibus hominibus pacem habentes) 5d33 .

Here probably: isi no beired teora pōc fria cach copān ... dō, TBC-I¹ 2218 . Cf. further: hi cocetul fri Eman in unison with Hib. Min. 4.12 . do dlommad E. is A. ... fri gorta, SR 1419 . ara toimlid fri sid sain | toirthi Parduis, 1085 . taed as fri sidh ┐ fri subha `let him go ... in peace and happiness' AFM 979 .

In this sense with verbs of joining, connecting, also occasionally with verbs of motion and in nominal phrases, such as imma llé fri, immaróen fri, see s.v. , óen (cf. Ériu xiv 142 n . ) also cos, taeb.

In: crithnaigset ... immar bocsimin fri sruth the meaning of the prep. is doubtful. curtar a fuigill re sruth ┐ re fairgi `be the remnant cast out to be carried off by the sea-tide' O'Gr. Cat. 182w . Cf. perhaps: Drochet Atha do dhul re sruth `D. was carried away by the flood' ALC i 260.7 , though these may be exx. of the confusion of re (FRI) with le (LA). curcas fri sruth, FB 44 ; `against a stream' Strachan ZCP iii 419 . Cf. Ériu i 194.4 . See 1 téit and la I (d).

Passing into sense in addition to: tris fer friu (gl. te tertium) Sg. 2a5 . cethri chet bliadan ... a noe sechtmogat fri sein, Rawl. 68b31 ( ZCP iii 18 ). Cf. is fri ni dona salmaib dognid a figild, Mon. Tall. § 5 . fris sin moreover, besides , Leb. Gab.(i) i 88.1 . Hugh Roe 114.1 (f. 30b) . Cf. mod. freisin. For a special sense of with see Mon. Tall. cited under V (d).

III To express fig. direction (cf. V a);

(a) aim, purpose, freq. of function, specific purpose: cen nech dim chlaind frim foraithmet to preserve my memory Ml. 23d9 . ce notechtad ilgotha fri inchosc in mrechtraid sin `that it should possess many sounds to express that variety' Sg. 197a11 . ní fris arícht fri slond persine it was not for that it was invented, to signify person ib. (cf. cid arna airecht pronomen ... dia ṡlund, 198b3 ). in bríg frissa ndéntar a saithar sin the value for which that labour is performed Wb. 11a9 . am loor fri cach reit (gl. ego ... dedici, in quibus sum, sufficiens esse) 24b16 . altoir ... | fri loscud n-edpart an altar for burning [ = on which to burn] offerings SR 4162 . dá magh ... do ṡlaidhi ... co rabad do grés fri geilt do ceithrib ┐ fri trebad do daīnib, Ériu xii 150.6 . primepscop ... accu fri huirdned a n-oessa graid, fri coisecrad a n-eclas ┐ fri hanmchairdes do ḟlaithib, etc. Ériu i 218.2 . sechtmoga fer fria cobair to aid them SR 4196 . drong ngilla ... fri timthirecht, 6280 . ra ergitar ... dalemain fri dail, LL 173a27 ( CRR 13 ). mōr salm | fri hindarba plāg-tedmann, BColm. 70.8 . slóged hi crích ... fri indnaide slogid tairse a hosting into a country to delay a hosting (coming) across it Críth G. 511 . fergniae fri forngaire ndoirseo, 591 . In this sense perhaps in: fót fri haltóir, see 1 fót (d). pars de feoil fri foimtin terci as a precaution against scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . Here perhaps: dognith Saul intleda ... fri Duaid used to lay snares against D. Ml. 30a3 . techt do Roim ... fri foglaim n-ecnai, Trip.² 241 . roairis re sloind senchasa he remained to relate Ériu iv 152.6 [or remained relating ? See VI (a)]. cid frisi farcbad int id for what end the withe was left LU 4752 (= cid imma ndernad int id, TBC-LL¹ 597 ). cid frisindrolais in cloich why hast thou thrown the stone ? LU 5092 . o tancamair friss `since we have come for it' ( = for that purpose) Fél. 72.24 (cf. inní imo tainic ib. 30 ). co ndernur inní fris tánac LU 4347 . Cf. doluid Saul fri tāirsin David i fus, SR 5959 . lurech imme ... fri cathugud, SR 5757 . treb Leue ... immon eclais fria immarchur, 4883 . docúaidh B. frissan umaloitt sin gusin muilenn `on that service' BNnÉ 26 § 19 . téit féin re toisc ┐ re túrus a crichaib na hEspáine on business CCath. 1806 , cf. do chuaidh gach aon rea dtoisgibh ┐ rea dturasaibh féin, ML 26x (= le tosgaib fein, ML² 347 ). The follg. perhaps are elliptical: the idea represented is anticipating, forestalling: dogniad pars de feoil fre terci do t[h]ecmong = as a provision against the occurrence of scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . do na .u. gaiscedaib dec no bitís ... hi tegluch C. fri maidm n-airm no fri gabáil ngasced do neoch LU 5046 . Cf. Fél. Nov. 14 cited VI b.

(b) after adjs. in sense of Lat. gerund with ad or supine in -u: leiscc .i. fri fognam, Wb. 31b23 . conid mesc fria rim so that it is confusing to count it LU 4794 . ba gnim ṅdangen fri himluad, SR 7229 . ingnad fria innisin, LU 2074 ( FA 15 ). adhbal rea n-innisi prodigious to recount ZCP viii 204 § 26 . cenco beth ... and acht C. ba lór fri immarbaig, LL 107a19 ( Ériu iv 28 ). lia iná rúainne ... re n-áireamh, IGT, Decl. ex. 1201 . Cf. atait ... re a ttaispenadh go follus are plainly to be seen Fl. Earls 50.12 . In this use modern Irish has le (LA).

(c) to express direction of feelings; behaviour towards, after nouns or adjs., both of persons and things (cf. I a and V a): conroib deserc leu fri cách, Wb. 26d22 . fáilte fri noíbu, 7b2 (see fáilte). ar formut fribsi, 12c29 (see format and formtech). ropat ḟáilti frimsa, Fél. Dec. 18 (see fáilid). hissel fri hard, sleman fri garb, ZCP iii 447z . anmne fri fochaidi, 449.15 (see ainmne). mailli fri cloc slowness at (answering) the bell ib. 21 . dána fri tōla tromsluaig daring in face of an army SR 5778 . uair ná dernsam huimli fri forngaire, 1854 . ar gart friu for generosity to them ZCP viii 313.12 . créd nach frim atā a maithe ? why is not their bounty bestowed on me ? ACL iii 296 § 38 . ní ar maith friu it is not for their good Wb. 4b37 . ar ulc friu, Ml. 72b22 . tar aesi n-uilc huai[m] se friusom, 74a2 (see also s.v. maith, olc). bad chert do cluchi frim play fair with me LU 5228 . ar ngabáil bāide ... dō rena ardnaem having conceived affection for his high saint BCC § 12 . lére duit frí ríg ngréne ┐ réde fri doíni, Ériu i 193 . is buide linn frib (gl. rogamus vos) Wb. 25a39 (see 2 buide). is maith robai Dia rind, SR 1905 . ní maith ro mbátar frim they have not treated me well LU 4891 . Cf. is maith ro ngabus fritt, TBFr. § 11 . bad faitig frisin foirin sin (gl. observate eos) Wb. 24a23 (see faitech). bid cennuis a gnuis risin lucht ra-nadh (= frisndid) rathmar to whom he is gracious KMMisc. 156.124 . in maith frit menma ind airdríg whether the king is well-disposed to thee SR 6114 . ba fearr di frib menma bar mathar, RC xxiv 56 ( YBL 206a47 ). Cf. is beite duit menma fris `thou must take heed of him' Ériu xii 176.16 . Similarly in expressions like: do-gní maith (trócaire, etc.) fri (see do-gní). nech no comaildfed fir fer frimb uime RC xiii 29.6 .

(d) of prayer, etc. to: irnigde fri Dia, Wb. 4d18 . cf. abstanait fri Dia, PH 4988 . ro throiscset ... fri Dia im a ḟurtacht, 7258 (see troiscid). im aīne fri Dia cora faillsigthi dō ... fasting towards God, that ... might be revealed to him Ériu v 120.12 . Similarly: frit, a rí ..., mo dēr | conom thī ... Mīchēl, SR 2091 . co ndēraib frisin coimdid, PH 6292 . (cf. use with ad-teich). cossoít a thuaithe fri Dia, Wb. 5a23 (see cosaít). Here, perhaps, should come such expressions as the following: ar Christ frit, aithirigh pēin dam, Cáin Ad. 13 . ar do chubus riut, a ingen, crét tuc ort ?, Acall. 6012 . ar bar cubus rib..., crét..., 5476 . ar fir do chubais riut..., 5824 . cf. 4544 . ar t'ḟírinne riutsa, nā furáil, CCath. 1659 .

(e) of hostile feeling, attitude, conduct towards: fri aicned contrary to nature Wb. 2c25 . ba fri aicned ... in talam ... do indluch, Ml. 129d8 . frisin n-uall (gl. adversum inflationem mentis) 68c1 . trifar pecthu fri Dia through your sins against God 115b8 . Common after verbs of opposing, hindering, fighting: hóre nád comeicnigther nech fri toil no one is constrained against [his] will Wb. 28b1 . tuidecht fri toil Dé resistance to God's will 4c23 (see do-tét). cf. o dorala ... | frim thala mac I. | duit ... | niba céle SR 6014 , where opposition seems implied despite the similar phrase cited below under V (d). soud a gnuso fri nech frisa mbi ferc do (gl. ne auertas [faciem tuam] a me Ml. 47d8 (`to turn his countenance from one against whom he cherishes anger' Thes., but surely `fri nech' here must also mean either against ... or towards ... ? See soïd). fergach fris Fíadu, SR 6837 . iar ndebaid do fri Duid, 6994 . na cathaig frim do not contend with me 2877 . ni sirsan do Ch. a n-imned i tá a óenur fri firu Herend not happy for C is the trouble in which he is, alone against the men of E. LU 5995 . Cf. do thoitim fria Cu | ba dirsan sad that thou shouldst fall by [ = fighting against] C. (?) TBC-I¹ 2715 (see also III g). Mairg fris ticfa a ḟerg ... Mairg ticfa re cert, Fen. 200 (see do-icc). ar bruc fris `in displeasure at him' Mon. Tall. § 58 . namthi garga fri sluagh nA., ACL iii 297 § 55 . atat frim hi cotarsnai, SR 1520 . Cf. ni bia th'anim fri fugall | ind ríg hí laithiú brótho, Ériu i 196 § 13a . With adj.: cotarsne fri Dia, Wb. 26a18 . is torcda ┐ is díchéill notaí frim, LU 10831 (= Ériu xii 172 ). is bairnech mo menma frit, LU 10832 (= ib.). is tromda atai rim, RC vi 183.13 . olc roba rim, Ériu v 208.8 (see III c). Here perhaps: tromde ... ro buí frisim ind chaillech oc atach Dé, Mon. Tall. § 7 (= do bhí sí roliosda ar Dh., Rule of Tallaght § 41 ). But cf. VII below.

(f) To express protection, guard, defence, watch against: gabthe dūnad les fris, Ml. 55c1 . inna cathrach conrotacht la Duaid fri Ebustu, 48d27 . múr trén ... fri dóini, fri demnai, Fél. Ep. 152 . tocuiriur etrum ... inna huli nert so fri cech nert n-amnas in ..., Hy vii 49 . cor gabad Sinann friu the Shannon was held (defended) against them RC xviii 10.28 . gébtaít ar tír frind, LU 4634 (see gaibid). iadad Caisil frim eochu the closing of C. to my horses Anecd. iii 63.4 . cóir duit arechus ri siút, TBC-LL¹ 1280 (aire do tabairt fri ... St; see 1 aire). Dia lem fri cech snīomh, Ériu iv 236 . Crist credal fri demnaib, ACL iii 221.12 . dín ... re holcaib, ZCP viii 202.18 . Of limitation, boundary: nā bí crích la nech fri peccad that no one sets a limit to sin Ériu i 218.9 . Cf. samaiges crích fri aidchi, Hy ii 55 , corresp. to contra noctem terminum pones, Ardm. 8a1 . See also s.v. inillius.

(g) In elliptical sentt.: leic ... in fognam, ol se; ni lamaim, ol sī, frisin rigain = I dare not disobey the Queen RC xxiv 192 (but perh. FRI here = because of; see V b ). ro an ... ina aenar ru remained alone to oppose them ZCP vi 56.31 . rofetursa a n-as maith dúib fris I know a good way for you to deal with him LU 5934 . tarmairt mo Dia dil frisin tuaid ... a cor fo leittreib lethglenn = my dear God had well nigh (in His resentment) against them cast them down ... SR 4718 . Cf. lām fri idal to renounce idolatry SR 4845 (see lám).

IV

(a) after adjs. and nouns denoting resemblance or equality (esp. those compounded with com-) and vbs. of resembling or comparing: cosmil fri cethir (gl. animalis) Wb. 8b14 . cutrummus fri Dia, 17c8 . i cutrummus fribsi 17b14 . ɔodernain hi cutrummus frim cheliu `to do like my fellows' PCr. 2a2 . (pariter) fri, Sg. 77a2 . i tomus fri nech Wb. 17b11 . intamail ... fri nech, Ml. 22c1 . cen a chondelg fri nech, Sg. 42a6 . cosmaili tuisil `sui' fri tuisliu `ego' ┐ `tu', 200a12 . (similiter) fri, 203a5 . cf. (eandem significationem habens) .i. fri `cum', 218a1 . diatā oenḟolaid ... frissin Athair, PH 177 . ba cudruma re core mōr é, RC xviii 183 . ni caithedh acht coibeis fri gach manach he used to eat only as much as any other monk BNnÉ 300 § 3 . nir chumma nech ris im chath, Metr. Dinds. iv 344 . ru boí i comré ri Cormac, LL 3796 (30a) . i comhrē ris coeval with him Moling 4 . rogheanair i n-aenuair fria was born at the same time as she BB 406bz (= Dinds. 111 ). Cf. IX (b).

Replacing O. Ir. construction with equative: comdhub fri hec, Thr. Ir. Gl. 36 (prull) = duibidir éc, Corm. Y 1059 . Bodl. comard fri fid, Ériu iv 138.26 . meidithir fria hasal as big as an ass Marco P. 10 . corbo chomfota frisin sroin LU 6472 .

See also verbs and adjs. of comparison, e.g. 1 do-ella, samlaithir, in-samlathar; cosmail, 2 cutrummae, etc.

(b) to express difference, distinction from : frissaní immeraidtis (gl. longe aliud) Ml. 61c12 . sain fri .c. `different to c' Sg. 6b7 . do dechor fri praenomna aili, 28a13 . huare nád deligedar fri praenomen , 28a15 . do dechrugud persine fri alaili, 202a4 . is allail pronomen aní sin fri `sui' (gl. `is' aliud pronomen...) 209b10 . (differentia) fri, 213b15 , gl. contra 214b4 . Cf. nipo choím less frinn He was not dear to Him compared to us (?) Wb. 4b12 [Fraser l.c. suggests this rendering, ZCP viii 41 n . `in our case (?),' Thes.].

See s.v. 1 dechor, dechraigidir, deiligidir and other words of similar meaning.

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to (cf. III c) : is sain fri cath sain fri scor different for battle, different for unyoking (of trumpet-call) Wb. 12c46 . idain fri cach réit faithful as to 31c13 . cen chinaid n-uaim fri nech, Ml. 54d16 (see cin). nach é Dia is ciontach riú is to blame for them TSh. 10499 . as eola fri aidgne ind Athar, Wb. 19d9 . it maithi a arilti frib `He deserves well of you' (`literally good are his merits as to you' Thes.) Wb. 16c11 . airle Dé fri Herind, LL 49b13 ( Hail Brigit § 2 ). .iiii. seóit a dire ... is fechem is fiadnaisi friu `four seds are his `dire'-fine ... he is a suitor and witness for them' (i.e. he is liable to that extent) Laws iv 308.2 ( Críth G. 138 ). is amlaid in t-athair frisin mac ngor; ... nimtha in t-athair frisin mac n-ingor thus the father acts with regard to the dutiful son; ... not so with regard to the undutiful one Laws iii 56. 22 ; z 0 . ba fria as-breth: cruth cách co hÉtaín 'of her was it said, 'every woman is fair till compared with Étaín'' BDD 43-44 , Celtica xv 57 . 'fer hi lorcc so,' ol in fer deginuch fri Nero 'a man is following us,' said the last man with regard to Nera RC x 216.48 . conidh ed isberdís cách fris, Cóir Anm. ii § 150 .

Cf. further: crādiis Ultu fri Cethirnd guin Fécc the slaying of F. imbittered the U. against C., ZCP viii 305.32 . ferdha a cathuibh iat, ar is friu ronnaltadh oc imairecc fria geinnti, Marco P. 189 . ro alt ... ind ingen co digrais fri légend ┐ gaís, LL 279a47 ( SG 413 ). Possibly the last two exx. belong rather to III (a), also : is me is cintach fris ni he is cintach frim, BB 479b14 (see cintach). See also : a lleth fri, s.v. leth.

(b) on account of (cf. VI b) : ro lega in snechta ... fri meit brotha in miled, LU 5858 . ba lond F. friside (-suidi), RC xxvi 12 § ix . saeth mār fri luga dige great distress from [?] lack of drink Fianaig. 12 § 20 . cid mís no bheinn gun ríg thess | ro-fess ná bíad mo scís fris, ACL iii 304.20 . ní ḟaicim-si ... ni rís budh choir t'obadh for which it were right to refuse thee Ériu iii 154.5 . atchess ... na haīble tened ... uasachind re fiuchud na ferge, LU 6466 . ba mertnech Moisi fri hilchaingni ... fri orddugugd cāich fo mām, SR 4542 . batar toirsech fri Moisi, 3886 (in these two exx. fri = oc of prose LB 122a etc.). féimdid sim imt[h]echt fri scíss he cannot go on from weariness BColm. 94.16 . ni ro chotail C. fri himṡním, LB 274a55 . ni faict[h]e ise fri feidm a léiginn she used not be seen because of her duty of study ACL iii 308 VI 13 . Cf. la III a.

(c) on behalf of: aitchitt an C. ris comad he noberad, etc. they beseech the Lord for him that it might be he BColm. 98.15 . dogníther airnaigthi frisin ríg co nambed fot saegail do, MacCongl. 59.23 . ica cantain fria Cianoig chanting (a prayer) for C. ZCP vii 308.7 . Cf. also : ata mo briathar ┐ mo comairghi fria ar Tuatha D., Ériu xii 152.9 . o doratsat briathair fris, CCath. 1236 . in tī bes rí is fris beimmi, ZCP viii 316.3 . See do-beir, gell, and ráith.

(d) according to ; in agreement with, with pers. somet. = in obedience to: ni ni nach breith nā bi fri canoin cumtastar [sic leg.] no judgement is valid that is not framed according to the canon Corm. Y 1224 . cf. manib fri fasach fuirmider, Ériu xii 199.23 . fri mes airechta adrimter, Laws iv 298.25 ( Críth G. 22 ). fri saltair nogebad ... a salmu by the psalter (i.e. with the psalter before him), Mon. Tall. § 39 , cf. ni lugae mbis ind menme hisin cheill dia gabail ind tsailm de memur indas cid fri saltair ib.). fosernd clothri Connacht ... fri senchus ... fri buaid ┐ breatha in conformity with (the claims of) pedigree, with prowess and legal decision ZCP viii 108.10 = Ériu v 234 . bid som iarum fria toil (= they will be able to do as they like) Mon. Tall. § 35 (= go mbid ... aca ara ttoil fein, Rule of Tallaght § 35 ). fri tala ind rig ... domrala I am about the king's business SR 6187 (Rex praecepit mihi 1 Reg. xxi 2 ). cia ro delb fria thuil a ndath who coloured them to please himself (?) SR 7675 . For FRI TOIL in a different sense, see III (e). Cf. nitattorbi fri toil Dé (gl. non omnia expediunt 1 Corinth. x 22 ) `against God's will' Thes., Wb. 11b 17a . Also : ind tí dogní ní do maith fria menmain fadesin ... ar ind bo neoch gabti he who does a good thing in accordance with his own inclination ... should openly proclaim it Mon. Tall. § 21 (= chuirios ní maith ... do dheunamh uaidhe fein, Rule of Tallaght 71 ).

VI

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. vb. or equivalent = to be at, engaged in or about to engage in (some occupation, process ; cf. III a) : in tinscanfam .i. in biam fris (gl. incipimus ... commendare ?) Wb. 15a1 . ní uisse do mug Dae buith fri debuid to be at strife 30b26 . cf. ní bethe fria acre, 9c20 . ni piam fri aithirgi, 30b17 . ni biat som fria togais adi (= non fallacia ad quoscumque loquuntur) Ml. 31a17 . cechtar nathar fria saindān `each ... at his special art' Thes. ii 293.14 . feib donrala fri comrad, SR 1214 . indí ... bíte fri tnúith `those that are given to lust' Mon. Tall. § 11 . nebbuith fri éthech not to be lying Ériu ii 64 § 6 . céin bete fri soíthar while they shall be at work Fél. Ep. 298 . in tan natbi fri frestal na n-anmand when he is not attending to LB 110b43 (cf. SR 1199 ). ní mo chean ... tarrla re freastal ... na fairrgi sin, CF 42 . amail do beith se re goibhnecht ríam as if he had always been at smith's work BCC § 92 . na saoithe do bhí re seanchus, Keat. i 74 . cuirim suas don ghrádh, | ní fiú é bheith ris, Dánta Gr. xiv 3 . Cf. boí a ben fri idna in travail LU 105.86 (see 1 idu). Similarly without subst. vb. : nachitochthad fria choscc `let him not wear thee out in admonishing him' Wb. 31d11 . conus tarttsat fria ttoghairm chuca an lucht they set about calling the people Hugh Roe § 8 . Cf. airfitech re tetaib, ACL iii 223.23 (= Keat. ii 5358 ). dias fri cerdacht, SR 190 (perh. III a). dá mbeinn re héagnach `had I purposed to revile' Content. v 7 (cf. le hóradh bhriat[h]ar da mbeinn, Ó Héodhusa 4 ). In class. lang. `re' is used with vn. to express futurity : an chathair atá ré teacht ( = civitatem futuram) TSh. 2751 . i n-oirchill na n-olc bhíos ré tuirling orra, 532 .

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on or from which something takes place (some of the exx. could be explained as extensions of other uses (cf. V b ; IX a) ; often the construction is elliptical) : gaibed cach a greimm ... | fria brethir in primsacairt, SR 4400 . ba huisse soillse fri éitsecht na noeb at the death Hy ii 60 . Cf. co mbidis i nd-aenmaigin fria n-ég, Corm. Y 1233 (fri héc LB. ria n-ec LL 179b ). fri gein Críst ... tindscan lechsa léri, Fél. Nov. 14 (cf. III a). ro eirgis fri breithir Isu, PH 2780 . ret[h]it daim ... ri dorddan na damgaire, Ériu vii 2 § 1 . phreab as G. risan gair, Ériu i 18.33 . ac cantain cheóil ... fris coteltais Síl Adaim, LL 3305 ( Ériu xiv 156 ).

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of (cf. similar use of Lat. apud, and see la) : ni cumdabairt fri Cirine is tre metur Jerome does not doubt Hib. Min. 6.187 . nad maith fri C. ciasperthar ..., 7.235 . frithir frisin mac i n-ebras riss, Ériu vii 225 ( LL 209a16 ). ba bind fri cach na canaind, LU 1301 (`sweet to all was what I said' Imr. Brain ii 298 . But this may be ex. of : canaid fri). bid inmain fria cách a ainm loved of all PH 4299 . ba hingnad mor frisin popul sin, 2959 . ba mo a grad fri Gargán oldait a uli cethra G. loved him more than all his cattle 7178 . Cf. Mon. Tall. § 7 cited under III (e) where the meaning seems different. gurbh annsa ré hEóin Críost ioná ré Peadar Christ was dearer to John than to Peter TSh. 10327 .

VIII

(a) to denote agent (a late use, mostly in texts in artificial style). ar na bennughadh fri sanctuss Silvester consecrated by Fl. Earls 196.19 . laech ... frisimbia mo thiglecht (= who will cause my death) Metr. Dinds. iv 360 (but perh. this is ellipt. and belongs to III (e) ; cf. TBC2 cited there). romarbtha na maithe ... frisna crechairib LB 154a63 . in lucht frisa tucad in digal .i. Uespiam ┐ Titus ib. 16 . Constantiana ... .i. eclas rocúmdaiged fri Constantin 157b48 . Of parenthood : trī meic Medba fri Fergus, Corp. Gen. 279.33 . sē meic do Mīlidh fri Scota ┐ dā mac frisin nEspānaig 'Míl had six sons of Scota, and two sons of the Spanish woman', ITS xliv 64 § 424 . do chomthusmed clainni fri hA. to have children by A., Alex. 512 .

(b) to denote instrument, through, by means of, by dint of (cf. similar uses of Engl. `with') : sénais Brigit fria bachaill with her crozier Hy v 58 T = lia F. fria noebainm ... séntae cech slóg subach by [or at ?] his holy name every happy host was sained Fél. Prol. 99 . ícaid [Tipra C.] gallrae ... fri troscud aici, BColm. 52.15 . argain fri daigid (destroying by fire LL 107a21 ( Ériu iv 28 ), cf. multi nobiles ceciderunt ... fri daigidh ro horta uile, AU 900 (see RIA Dict. s.v. daig). go nach deachaidh neach re siúbhal ... as no one escaped by flight ML 88.31 . re dán nglas ... dán breaghdha do bhréagnachadh with a simple poem to refute an elaborate one Content. vii 13 . ro ēirigh fri nert seoin ┐ solaid, Moling § 4 (possibly = with here cf. dol ar fairrge ... ré cóir na gaoithe = with a favourable wind ML 36z = le ML² 466 . cuir me ... chum seoil ... re cóir ghloin, Measgra D. 48.16 ).

IX In expressions of time :—

(a) in O. Ir. in locatival sense in phrase : fri dē by day, in the day-time Ml. 121d8 . Wb. 6a30 . fri dei, 9a5 , 24d14 , 26b17 . Cf. in gabail fri dei ... in gabail cech ráithi a catch (of fish) daily (?) Trip. 250.14 (2950) . fri díe, Mon. Tall. § 55 . fri haidchi by night Trip. 208.25 (2452) . gl. contra noctem Lat. Lives 18 . re lá, Ériu iii 148 § 3 . arna imbreth ... i n-aidchi cía nosgonad fri dé, LU 5609 .

(b) usually to denote period during which something continues or takes place : 'na fuair frisna secht ṁbliadnaib SR 3394 . fri a n-aimsir in their time Laws iv 210.28 . niro chotail C. frisin ré sin, LU 6337 . fria ré hi fut a saegail for their lifetime SR 5932 . bai cocad mor etarro fri re ciana RC xxiv 186 . batar ... fri re secht la amlaid sin, ACL iii 225.1 . conosrala for sechrán fri re bliadna co lleith, LU 1279 . bá-sa i Tul T. fri ré inna dílenn, Ériu iv 144y . maith graig dorat damh rem lá in my day ACL iii 304.23 . D. ba talchar fria ré in his day Metr. Dinds. ii 40 . dorumaltsa ... m'aimsir fri hamsir Nemid, LU 1276 . nir siubhuil in conuir-so re bliadhain aenridiri for a year past ZCP vi 104 z.

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place : ni ba marb-sa fri sin I shall not die before that ZCP i 105.4 (co sin v.l.). Cf. also the locative use in Marco P. 11 cited I (a). tanic ... uidi na .xii. mís fri .xii. laa made the twelve months' journey in twelve days LB 139a31 . icuis fri teorai nomaidhe within thrice nine days RC xii 66x . nos ithend ... friha brathad sula in the twinkling of an eye LU 1895 ( RC x 56 ; fri b. v.l.) do imredar ... re trí lá, ┐ ní ruc G. énchluichi rissin, Acall. 1348 .

(d) of point of time ; in some cases approaching VI (b) above. fri dead n-aissi, SR 2829 . in tan nadbi fri húair i fos | frithalmi when he is not here at the hour of attending ... 1199 (cf. LB 110b43 cited under VI (a) above). cech dūil ... rosdelb fri oenuair, SR 7864 (similarly 7234 , 7386 ). grend Muman ... grend Connacht ... ra hóen-úair at the same time Ériu i 130.36 ( LL 46b ). buaidh ... damh fri deiredh mo ṡaoghail, ACL iii 231.1 . ra dered flatha Domnaill, LL 185a48 ( Arch. Hib. ii 85 ) = Rawl. 154a52 . Rí dorat na deich plāga | forthu fri huair combāga, SR 3942 . ? cid fri geld bāis nobeth `though he were at the point of death.' Mon. Tall. § 48 (see gell). re húair nfaicsiona at the time of looking RC xxix 128.13 . fri huair tacrai do ghníma, Ériu ii 228.7 .

(e) in follg. exx. perhaps used for ria before: na buidne ... robatar fria Crist...rofhogain don Choimdid fria tuidecht soscela (= turbae quae praecedebant ... ante evangelium) PH 4573 . dorad som a cuibidil fria mbass made his confession before death RC xviii 53.19 . Cf. co ro muid fri maccu Israel, LB 122b47 = re, YBL 293b40 (corresp. to mebaid remib SR 4765 ).

(f) In later lang., 3 s. ris occurs as adv. bare, exposed, uncovered : mar do leig ris a n-aoinfheacht 'how it left [her] uncovered at once' Duan. F. ii 332 § 9 , Éigse ix 228 . do theilg Ercuill a bhrat de ┐ ro leig a lorg ┐ in croicenn leomainn ro buí re cnes ris, ITS xxxviii 997 (Stair Ercuil) . chonarcadar a ccroicinn go coirtighthi buídhe ris, Smaointe B. Chr. 150 . ó bhí mo chroiceann-sa nochtuighthe síos reis, 160 . cia d’innis doit-se a bheith nochtuighthe síos reis (leis, v.l.), 161 . See also la VI (d), léicid.

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs (and nouns of cognate meaning with them), e.g., those of speaking, addressing, boasting, complaining, asking, thanking ; meeting, touching, striking, rubbing, grinding ; listening ; waiting, expecting ; entrusting ; co-operating, associating, helping ; visiting ; resembling, comparing, differing ; parting, severing (from) ; doing (something to), acting (towards), giving, distributing, apportioning ; requiting, paying, selling ; refusing, rejecting, denying ; hindering, restricting, opposing, combating, etc. See especially : ad-cosnai, ad-gair, ad-teich, ad-tluichethar (attlugud), aigid, 1 anaid, ar-báigi, as-beir, benaid, beirid, 1 caithid, canaid, 1 cingid, comalnaithir, 1 con-clich, con-delca, con-gní, con-ricc, con-sní, con-túaisi, crenaid, dálaid, dlomaid, do-beir, do-gní, do-icc, do-rogaib, do-slí (tuillem buide fri), do-sluindi (diúltad), do-tét, dúnaid, 2 erbaid, fáiltigid(ir), feraid, fo-gella (2 fuiglid), fo-rig, fris-oirg, fris-tairissethar, fris-taít, gaibid (fris-gaib), gellaid, íadaid, 1 íccaid, imm-beir, imm-fogni, imm-fresna, in-samlathar, in-túaisi (éistid), labraithir (labraid), laigid, 1 ligid, lingid, 1 luigid, meilid (con-meil), naiscid, ráidid (ol, ar), rannaid, renaid, saethraigidir, scaraid (and compds.), soïd (do-soí), 1 téit, tongaid.

imbáide

Cite this: eDIL s.v. imbáide or dil.ie/27287

n (2 imm- + báide affection) [, f.] great love or affection: becc ná romúchda dóine | oc eólchaire, oc imbáide `in eager longing, in fond desire,' Ériu iv 96 § 18.

lerg

Cite this: eDIL s.v. lerg or dil.ie/29984

Forms: lerga

n ā, f. IGT Decl. § 39 (91.11) . Also lerga f., § 4 (with dental infl.), and n, f. sloping expanse, stretch (of ground, etc.).

(a) hillside : l.¤ .i. cach n-eislind, O'Mulc. 793 . a almai . . . / im Charmill do cach oenleirg, SR 6298 . cen lubai lergg, . . . / cen selgc slebi, 7019 . is me dorigni in seilgc séig / forsin chétna leirg don tsléib, 2870 . i lleirc eter lectaibh cūan, Fianaig. 12 § 23 . lecht Luaine seo forsin leirg, RC xxiv 282 § 25 . uisce lerga līgmaise, Ériu ii 56 § 8 . for lergaib in tṡléibe, RC xiii 92 § 117 . ó rolín topor tuile / lergga lána Líathmuine `the brimming levels', Metr. Dinds. iv 68.142 . ós leirg in maige, 124.16 . druim ndrech-ṡlemon na ndathbord, / cuing leth-remor 'na leth-leirg, ii 46.10 . na ḟuaitged . . . / . . . in seisrig iar lō din leirg, Fing. R. 645 . ēta duit cēd ferb re h-as / ar in leirg, ML² 1998 . la forum n-ēn ic gach lercc, ZCP viii 120.18 . for lergaibh lebra lainreidhe in maigi, CCath. 4921 . lassar rígthigi di leirgg, CRR 28. Cf. 29 . roth fri learga (prov. of a difficult undertaking), CRR² 34. Of the slope of a hill lighted by last rays of the sun: fescur is faide tar leirg, Acall. 2867. Cf. sgur leirge dá luisne, DDána 88.18 . íar línad l.¤ ┐ ghlenn an tsaegail, RC xxviii 312 § 8 . eiter mhagh is mhóin is leirg, BS 128.17 . lerga ciabdhorcha a coilltedh, O'Gr. Cat. 459.6. dá fheirg re a fhine / ar an leirg bhus lia duine (at the Judgment), DDána 24.8 . go rug léim ar leirg Ifrinn, PBocht 3.19 . cécht ag (a, v.l.) lenmuin do leirg thúair, IGT Decl. ex. 511 . ina lergaibh loma gan ioth gan fheór, AFM v 1678.x . Fig. of the world: an leargso, a fhlaith na cruinne, / ler rann tú síol síorruidhe, Aithd. D. 50.31 . agá ttograim i nacchaidh na leargan airde, AFM v 1672.5 .

(b) battle-field: Labraid lúam na lerge, IT iii 40 § 35 ( Bruchst. i 5 § 2 ). lamair lergga was intrepid in battle, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 18 § 1 . beti fáenscéith hi lergaib, LU 6613 . silis lergga, . . . / dercfid rói, Imr. Brain 55 . do láim Indich, lúaded leirg `who traversed the battle-field', Metr. Dinds. iii 84.2 . Cf. i 6.22 . tucus scíath ba Dáire deirg / assin leirg, iii 122.30 . maidhm san leirg ar Lochlannchaibh, DDána 85.25 . ar son ghairthe gráin leargan, 101.6 .

(c) Various applications. Shore of sea or lake, river-bank: cota lir lerggae īath nĒremōin, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 10 § 3 ( .i. co himel mara, 11.13 ). ás (= ós) leirg Locha Lind Formait, TBC-LL¹ 4115 . learga Loich Éirne, BS 92.14 . air leargaidh (?-aibh) Locha Séarchaidh, AU iii 598.8 . ar léirg chúain, Rel. Celt. ii 286.26 . croinn ḟinnleargan an Ḟorghais, TD 3.3 .

(d) In the sense of surface, level in various applications. Of the sea: do baide muir . . . fo lergaib lana, Laws iv 378.17 Comm . In a description of a building: gach learg dhlúthta, DDána 119.34 . gan leathtrom learg, 18 . Of parts of the body: ? scíath as (= ós) leirg láin, TBC-LL¹ 4049 (`über dem vollen Rücken') a théig libair fo leirg a droma, MacCongl. 25.16 (cf. stúag-lerg s.v. stúag). a sgíath ar leirg a droma, Celt. Rev. iv 18.2 . learg thais a thaoibh míndealbhaigh `the soft slope of his smooth comely side', Studies 1921, 418 § 8 . cíche . . . / ós leirg áluinn, TD 40.6 . learga . . . a gruadh ngeal, 1.4 . clár finnleargan do ghruadh ngeal, Aithd. D. 41.18 . clár findlergadh a aighthi, IGT Decl. ex. 235 . sgoltadh learg mbán a dá bhonn (of the crucified Lord), Aithd. D. 78.24 . Of a shield: for leirg droma in sceith, CCath. 4730.

(e) In adv. phrases. (i) ar leirg under colour of, for the ostensible purpose of, by way of: do chuaidh ar eachtra ar leirg oilithre is aithrighe, Keat. iii 4594 . ar leirg síothchána (= quasi sub pacis intuitu), 2901 . an cheud drong . . . do bhíodh ar leirg (lorg, v.l.) uaisle ┐ ceannais féadhna, i 214.22 (`in the rank of nobility').

(ii) leirg do leirg: in loch so in Loch daim deirg / fris tangamar leirg do leirg from slope to slope(?), Acall. 2922. annamh le coill Droma Deirg / faoídh cluig innti leirg do leirg, Duan. F. ii 178 § 5.

? Lochlainn as l.¤ a sechnad / da bfaghta fer finnchechnad `there is a way to have done with L.: that is, could there be found a man to outdo him', Caithr. Thoirdh. 60.13 .

(f) In nn. loc. see Hog. Onom. and pl. icon Ḟert i lLerggaib, LL 9566 (cf. LU 6277 ). on Lergain, ALC ii 434.3 .

Compds.

(i) With nouns. ¤brúach: griobh do leargbhruach Luimnigh, 23 G 24, 338.6 . ¤eisce (see eisce): leirgeisce .i. eisce do cur uime for leirg, O'Curry 456 ( H 3.18, 243a ). ¤gort: clúimh na learggort naoidhe, DDána 106.21 . ¤lúam pilot of the battle-field : Conchend . . . / lerg-luam Lugdach, Metr. Dinds. ii 80.7 ( LL 21496 ).

(ii) With adjj. ¤glas: do Chlár leargglas Laoghaire, DDána 121.26 . ¤lór: en do dergor for cach crois / os chind lerglor nach anfois, SR 366 . ōs Laignechaib Liphi lerglōir, RC xxxvi 262 § 4 ( Rawl. 85b7 ; lergmóir, LL).

1 mo

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 mo or dil.ie/32400

Forms: mu, -sa, -su, -sea, -siu, mu, mú, Mo

gen. of 1 s. pers. pron., used only before subst. as proclitic, both as poss. and as obj. gen. (e.g. iar mu soirad after delivering me, Ml. 104d2 ); often emphasized by the enclitic -sa, -su or (after palatal vowel or const.) -se, -sea, -siu follg. the subst. The form mu is common in Ml.: mú bás, Ml. 80a9 ; ar mu sémi-se, 22d1 ; mu menma, SP ii § 1 ; mu lebran, ib. § 2 ; for mu mud, § 8 . Lenites a follg. consonant; the lenition is generally expressed in the case of c, t: mu charat, Ml. 73d1 ; tar mu chenn, 76d9 (but: mu cenn, 80b2 ); ar mu chnamaib-se, 58a11 ; mu thire, 62a7 ; mu th[u]aithe-si, 34b6 ; in the case of other consonants occasionally in Mid.Ir. texts (not in O.Ir.): dom ghalar, IT i 124.8 ; mo ṡerc, ib. 10 ; mo phopa, CRR 3 ; mo pheccaid, PH 7359 ; mo dherbrathair, ZCP xii 393.36 ; mo Dhúilem, 394.1 ; mo tsethracha, ib. 2 (ts = ṡ). Before lenited f the usage varies: moisitiu (= m'ḟoísitiu), Ml. 46b12 ; m[ḟ]eulae, 47c4 ; m[ḟ]ithisi, Fél. 76.9 ; but: do ól mo flede, FB 6.

The final vowel is usually elided before an initial vowel or lenited f, but occas. persists: m'ainim, Ml. 55a4 ; m'ernaigde-se, 50d7 ; m'etarcne, 103a9 ; m'íce, 62c7 ; m'athir-se, Thes. ii 291.9 ; but: mo ainech-sa, Wb. 14a4 ; mo anmain-se, 32a8 ; mo ainm, Sg. 200b10 ; TBC-LL¹ 1053 ; mo ærchoíltiu-sa, Ml. 132c15 ; mo aingil, PH 1823 ; mo airchindech, 2064 ; mo uli indmas, 704 ; mo hires, 2325 ; mo á, Corm. Y 70 = mo ha, H 3.17 c. 662 ( O'D. 946 ) = Ériu xi 43.35 .

Affixed to a preceding prep., the vowel is dropped before an initial vowel or lenited f, commonly before consonants also; the letter m is freq. doubled, showing that it never suffered lenition: domm anmain, Hy. vi 8 ; domm [dom v.l.] imthús, vii 35 ; domm anacul, ib. 37 ; imm'aire, IT i 79.12 ; imm drungu, ib. 16 ; imm fochraib-sea, PH 2893 ; lamm Chua, Fél. Dec. 24 ; huam fonnaib, Ml. 78b9 ; óm céliú, SCC 13 ( LU 3341 ); com iarraid (= ocom i.), ib. 44 ( LU 3937 ); but: dommo mnaí, FB 87 ( LU 9126 ); dommo múintir-se, PH 5793 ; oc mu lebran, SP ii 2.

After the particle a folld. by a voc. case, mo remains unlenited: ammo phopa, TBC-LL¹ 1106 ; ammo Choimde, Ériu ii 122 § 62 , ACL iii 293 § 1.

In late language m' is occas. lenited before an initial vowel: mh'occlach . . . mh'oircinneach . . . m'umhla nó mh'urraim, BNnÉ 266 § 234.

Mo is freq. used in combination with a proper name (usually a hypocoristic form), esp. with names of saints, such forms coming in time to be treated as a single word and often replacing the orig. name of a saint in popular usage. See Wortk. §§ 33 , 92 and cf. similar use of poss. pron. 2 do. The follg. are examples: M'Aedóc (Aed, Aedán): Maedocc, BNnÉ 191.12 ; Maodhocc, ib. 17 ; Moedocc, ib. 4 ; Moeóg, 132 § 3 . Mo Barri (Bairre), BNnÉ 11.2 . Mo Becoc (Beccan), ib. 8.9 . Mo Bí (`my living one'?), Fél. 168.40 . Mobí Indsi Cuscraid, 170.29 = Biteus, Mart. Don. July 22. Baptismal name of Brénainn of Clonfert, Lism. L. 3362 , BNnÉ 45 § 7. Mo Briccu, LL 348 c . Mo Choe, Fél. 158.8 , 15 (prob. variant of Mochuae). Mo Choemóc (Coemgin), Fél. Mar. 11. AU 869. Mochaemóc, LL 353 marg. inf. Name of Senan, BNnÉ 87.9 , 89.4 . Mo Cholmóc, Fél. July 25 = Colmán, 170.33 . Mo Chommóc (Commán), Rawl. 89a36 . Mo Chrítóc, Fél. May 11 = Critán, 130.36 . Mo Chuae (Cuae), Fél. Mar. 30 , May 4 ; lam'Chua, Aug. 6 = Cronan, 182.31 . Mo Chumma (Colum), see ACC 140 Comm. ( RC xx 414 ). Mo Chuta, -u, name of St. Carthach, BNnÉ 291. Mo Dimmóc (Dimma, Diarmait), LL 352c1 . Mo Diuit (Simplex), Fél. 72.40 . M'Ernóc (Ernán ?), Fél. Aug. 18 , 186.32 . Mo Eca (= Moḟeca, Fechín), Fél. 48.27 . Mo Lais(s)e (Laisrén), Fél. 208.23 . Mo Locca .i. Locheni, Fél. 48.22 . Mo Lua, Mo Luóc (Lugaid); lam' Luóc, Fél. July 25 . quies Lugdach .i. mo Lua, RC xvii 168 (Tig.). Mo Ninn, Fél. Sep. 16. Mo Nenn, 208.20 (St. Ninian, Latinized form Nynias or Nennius, see Plummer Bede ii 128 ). Mo Ninne (f.), Fél. July 6 = Darerca, 166.19 ; Monanna, ib. 29 . Mo Ṡilóc, Fél. 168.30 , 170.36 . lam Ṡílóc, July 13 . Munnu, -a (= Mo ḟinnu `my white one') = Fintan, Fél. 226.4 . Munda .i. mo a finda .i. ainm bāide , Corm. Y 878. See Thurneysen, ZCP xix 364.

sonad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. sonad or dil.ie/38462

vn. of sonaid. the act of sounding, naming, mentioning : an roradius, s.¤ sír | is do molad mo roríg, SR 823 . druing Ulad, adlaic s.¤ | bidis fria rianaib nairech, YBL 125a38 . ? To this: mo baide iar s.¤ so | cían bas chomad, a choemo, Metr. Dinds. iv 162.235 (`thus I greet you after a lucky strain' as if = so+nath). ? g s. maiccne Nad Fraich, fuaim sonaid, | huadib ríg, huadib ruirig, Trip.² 2305 .

trócaire

Cite this: eDIL s.v. trócaire or dil.ie/41974
Last Revised: 2013

n , f. (trócar) IGT Decl. § 3 (44.19) . Abstr. Nouns 110.

(a) mercy: t.¤ dé immeforling dunni iris `God's mercy has caused faith to us,' Wb. 15b8 . manithised trocaire, 4c15 . innahí dia rumuinestar som trócairi, 38 . attach t.¤ , 5c17 . bad inna trocaire `let it be bowels of compassion,' 23c10 . issí didiu in trocaire, Ml. 23b5 . do-mm-air trocaire tolam | o Crist nad cétla celar, Lib. Hymn. 130.21 . ni dam trocaire trinoit, Laws i 12.6 . mote dogentar co gle | frit o do Dia trocaire, SR 1536 . bann baide ocus t.¤ , 2072 . ola th.¤ , 2217 . ar is tre troccuri rosechar firinne, Hib. Min. 352 . lucht na deirce ┐ na t.¤ , LU 1942 ( FA 1 ). fairind ... dogníat t.¤ , 2195 ( FA 27 ). tánic a throcaire form `His mercy came upon me,' PH 2779 . ro-guidius he im a throcaire, 2786 . dena trocaire frind, 751 . tosach trocairi toirrsíge, BB 64c9 (cf. Anecd. iii 16.17 ). arna coisegrad do dee na trocairi .i. Misericordia , TTebe 4762 . sirim ceannsa ar Mhac Mhuire | cia ar nach tug a thrócuire, Dán Dé xxv 46 . ní bhíodh do chruas a chroidhe | dí nach déanadh trócoire, PBocht 14.23 . ná bíom taobh re a thrócuire, DDána 6.21 . oibreacha na t.¤ , TSh. 1830 . a throcair[e] ┐ a thaisi do labhair se is in croich he spoke so mercifully, ITS xxix 170.22 .

(b) In Laws leniency, equity: loscadh anfoit ... do nither trocaire ris, o ro sia lan in marbhta, coná téit tairis `burning by mad venture ... leniency is exercised towards him, so that when it (the fine) reaches the full amount for the killing, it goes not beyond it,' Laws iv 250.2 Comm. is dilsi na hairme do trocaire, 26.6 Comm. cach cin imna dír logad no trocaire, Cóic Con. 17 § 5.

(c) piety : trocaire gl. pietas , Auraic. 4215 . atāitt secht [d]tiodhluicthe ag in Spirit Noemh … in seisedh in trōcaire, Celtica i 195.1124 . tiodhlacadh na trōcaire, 196.1146 .

tuilled

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tuilled or dil.ie/42331

Forms: tuille, tuilleamh, tuillti, tuillem

n o, m. vn. of do-lína. In Mod. Ir. somet. tuille, SG 273.3 . ML 184.13 . tuilleamh, 1 Chron. xxix 3 (by confusion with tuillem, q.v.). pl. tuillti, Cóir Anm. 70 (316.z) . IGT Verbs § 71.

(a) act of increasing, adding to: ni relic Dia Dauid dil | do th.¤ int slúagaid sin to add to the number of that host, SR 6430 . ni thechta duinne t.¤ noibscreptra dianechtair `it does not behove us to add to the Holy Scripture from without,' Hib. Min. 408 . dogniat arale immurgo guchoibsenae do thuildiud inda ldeth fadesin do tormuch pende foraib ┐ ni coir son, Mon. Tall. 153.1 .

(b) increase, additional quantity, supplement: A. ... doróine in t.¤ .i. a secundo uersu usque In finem laudis , Fél.² clvii 39 . muine airbiatar chuice in tuilledh `wenn ihm die `Zufüllung' nicht in Naturalleistungen geliefert worden ist,' ZCP xv 240 § 3 (perh. leg. tuillem, Thurn. Hdb. p. 241 ). cen tulled cen dígbáil with nothing added or deducted, LU 2548 . a n-umalóit do dénum cen t.¤ cen dígbail, PH 5094 . co fagba t.¤ `somewhat more,' Metr. Dinds. iv 362.152 . am tuillidh do char 'n-a gceann it is time to add to them, Aithd. D. 17.9 . deich cét toin can cleith ar ceal | fichi cét toin a tuillead (=i t.¤ in addition ?), Lec. 1721a28 . fer tuillid (name of a drinking-cup), SG 97.33 .

Introducing an additional paragraph or section: tuilleadh dod chéibh ... | uaim, a Aodh (introducing additional stanzas after dúnadh), DDána 84.46 . tuig tuille leat a leughthoir, MS. Mat. 583.3 . tuilleamh fós, 1 Chron. xxix 3.

In phrase co t.¤ and more: na briathra-sa co t.¤ , PH 1691 . fri re bliadhna co ttuilleadh, AFM ii 858.y . in saethar sin cona thuilledh, Aen. 871 . Note also: Amentes se seacht a shel | a tri rotheacht dia thuillead in addition (?), Lec. 27vb6 . ni bia acht nos do thuillead dam it will be merely additional reputation for me (?), 212vb6 .

(c) With follg. gen.: t.¤ péne, LU 2098 . a th.¤ nua-pheccaid (of the body), PH 8227 . ? tuille cloinne flatha Fail | Maolfuad, LL 394.28 . atá teaghlach a thighe | ar tí tuillidh muinntire, Dán Dé xxi 29 . cuiridh eagla Dé tuilleadh laithe = timor Domini apponet dies, TSh. 2678 . do chum tuillidh neamhdhiághachda, 2 Timothy ii 16 . In phrase t.¤ anma an additional name, cognomen: tuccad t.¤ anma fair .i. Abraham, PH 5680 . ba Forann tuilleadh anma gach righ Eighipht, BB 18a55 . Cf. tuc sua mater (sic leg.) tre báide t.¤ sillaibe fris (expl. of name Conandil= Cona+dil), Fél.² lxii 24 .

(d) Folld. by various prepositions. With ar: atá in cnocc ... | cen t.¤ air ar airde `without addition to its height,' Metr. Dinds. iii 46.82 . ēnrēd de nī theisteobha, | t.¤ air nocho bīa, ZCP vii 302.31 . tuilledh ar trí mhíle, AFM ii 664.12 . tuilleadh ar thrí céd fer, Cín Lae Ó Meall. 9.9 . With de more of: cuiream t.¤ innar longaib do shétaib, Mer. Uil. 44 . tuillead do cloind A., Lec. 219ra18 . tuilleadh ... d'alladh, Aithd. D. 11.21 . tuilledh dia míorbhuilibh, BNnÉ 121.4 . With do: comadh tuilledh dia h-alladh, BB 351a7 . Cf. Metr. Dinds. i 6.12 . With fri: tuilledh fris `an addition should be made to it,' Laws i 278.20 Comm. tuilleadh ré, DDána 13.2 . tuilleadh re ceud bliadhain o shoin, Donlevy v 8 . With la: tuilleadh le toirse, Aithd. D. 3.6 . gach uile ni ... ┐ tuille leo, MS. Mat. 658.3 . gach ní dar cuir in papa do t.¤ leis na haithfrenaibh `every addition ... to the masses,' Maund. 269.

(e) With ocus: atá tuilledh is ar thuirmes `more than I have recounted,' Studies 1920, 418.59 . tuilledh ┐ da ced, Stair Erc. 1491 . tuilledh 'sar luaidh sinn still more than we have mentioned, BNnÉ 249 § 203 . t.¤ ┐ coictigis, Ann. Conn. 1409.8 .