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achtugad, echtugud

Cite this: eDIL s.v. achtugad, echtugud or
Last Revised: 2019


n u,m. vn. of 2 achtaigid, echtaigid act of stipulating, making a condition; stipulation, condition : madh ro hachtaiged cinne airithe hecnairce ann, acht madh ro gabad an t-achtugad sin 'if a particular kind of ...prayer was stipulated and that that which was agreed upon has been recited', Laws v 212.13 . is achtugadh ro achtaighestur [leg. achtaighsetur ?] hicfaidis a cinuidh 'there was a stipulation...that they would not pay for his crimes', Laws ii 170-176 . co n-eachtugud erce ann fo cetoir, Cóic Con. 34 § 38 . da raib a.¤ orra is a nic amlaidh, Laws iii 152.16 Comm. ma ta a.¤ airithe air eturru `if there be a particular stipulation respecting it between them', 270.1 Comm. ┐ a.¤ ice uil and, ii 374.25 Comm. mas achtudh a coraib bel is a beth ar [in] achtudh sin, v 188.28 Comm. in clann ro rine rias in achtugadh `the children whom he begot before the stipulation', iii 309.24 Comm.

Cf. echtugad.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. adguide or


adj (guide?) laudatory adj. of uncertain meaning (desirable?): ar is mo chéle cáem / . . . coibledar céim n-ard n-a.¤ , LU 8308 ( FB 23 ). a tír n-alaind n-a.¤ (: buidhe), AU i 438.21 . buaid nard nAlmaine ni chél / a.¤ bél do cach dúil most desirable to every element was the decree, LL 6115 = buaidh ard Almuine ni fan / adguidi dal do gach duil, RC xvii 230.15 (Tig.). adgudi .i. adasgudi, O'Mulc. 18 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. ad-noí or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: atnoim

v (* ath-no-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 586 ). entrusts, commends to (DO): Indic. pres. 1 s. ?atnoim .i. fulang, O'Curry 1300 ( H 3.18, 539b ). 3 s. atnoí do epscop Brón día altrum he entrusts (entrusted?) him, Trip.² 1611 . Aed atnoe (atnoi, adnai, adnaoi, att naoe v.ll.) huile oll doene dronchetal .i. . . . ┐ ro aithnistar Aed do Dallan . . . co mbad druine cech cetal in cetal-sa, ACC 115 ( RC xx 282 ). aithni timna . . . .i. timna in tí ad noi don tír, O'D. 939 (H 3.17, col. 659a). Pass. sg. sruith in aicdhi (ind aithne v.l.) adnur duit `noble is the knowledge that is imparted(?) to thee', Arch. Hib. iv 207 § 19 . ?adnuither cert (`let justice be dispensed'), Laws ii 130.19 . Ipv. 3 s. atnoad Concobar eim . . . ol is cetaicce Fionncoimiu let C. hand him over, IT i 142.15 ( Comp. CC 8.17 ). 2 pl. tairngid lib a aingliu . . . in anmain n-écraibdig sea ┐ aititnid (leg. aithnid, Ped. = tabraid, LU) i lláim Lúcifir dia bádud give it in charge to Lucifer, 183.22 . ?Subj. 3 s. (see Ped. loc. cit.) adnoodur gl. reseruare, Thes. i 714.11 . rodbo dia adroni et connói a rrad file andsom no is hésom adroni do dia in fochricc file do i nnim `either God has committed and preserves the grace that is in him . . .', Wb. 29d29 . uair ini ada chuir bel atbelat an ti adrona .i. icfa so in aithgin atrona, O'Curry 676 (H 3.18, p. 330).

With de: atnóe díobh gan tochar fris na Gallaibh he enjoins them, Hugh Roe 100.30 (fo. 27b) .

Vn. 1 aithne. Later as simple vb., see 1 aithnid. Cf. as-noí


Cite this: eDIL s.v. ad-rig or


Forms: adruig, adregar, adragar, -arragar, -áraghar, ad-riastar, adroeris, adracht, atrechtudur, arracht, -arrachta, árach, áirgid, áraigid

v (* ad-reg-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 592 ). Indic. pres. 3 s. adruig, O'D. 2222 (Nero A vii, 151a). Pass. sg. adregar, Laws iii 22.12 ; adragar, 14.11. -arragar, 2.2. -áraghar, Ériu xiii 13.23 . Subj. pres. pass. sg. ad-riastar, Laws iii 228.7 . ?Fut. 2 s. adroeris, Fél. Dec. 16 (see infra). Pret. and perf. 3 s. adracht, O'Curry 756 (H 3.18, 358a). 3 pl. atrechtudur, Laws i 22.z Comm. Pass. sg. ro arracht , Laws ii 78.25 Comm. Pass. pl. -arrachta, Laws iii 26.28 .

Vn. árach.

Later as simple vb. áirgid, áraigid.

(a) binds (in physical sense): acht bid o lias no airbe adriastar a laeg, Laws iii 228.7 . adragar don nomad cleith on dorus, O'Curry 564 (H 3.18, p. 281). in gaid airgither . . . don crand, O'D. 568 (H 3.17, col. 440). ma ro airge he . . . is cu ced cintach dligach hi . . . munar hargi . . . is cú céd cintach inndhlithach hi, O'Curry 2505 (Eg. 88, 41a). in ti ro airgestar he don crand crin cuachda, Laws iii 416.26 Comm. coro airgiset (araigset, choraigset v.l.) a n-eocho dergae do dorus in tige (with gloss .i. corcengailset,) BDD § 37 = áirgiset, BDD² 342 . Fig. airdugdu[i]r in tSencusa (i.e. Senchus Már) . . . atrechtudur suainemain filidechta fou who bound a thread of poetry round it, Laws i 22.z Comm. buaid find Ualentini / co cléir cháin atróiriss (atroiruis, atroris, atroirius, adroeris (.i. tarrais), atroeroiss, atreris, atroeris v.l.) `with a fair train thou wilt tie him' (but perh. difft. vb.), Fél. Dec. 16 .

(b) binds (legally): adragar cach fria techta .i. airgitir cach fria dliged fein everybody is bound to what is legally right for him, Laws iii 14.11, 17 Comm. laich ┐ laichcesa ┐ aes tuaithe adragar fri flaith, .i. airigther iat fo dliged na flatha, 14.28, 16.3 Comm. lanlog einiuch don fir isa faithe ma ro arracht [in athgabail] fris, ii 78.25 Comm. cid fris naragar aithgabail cuicthi in dul is gnathu do gres oldas cach athgabail, i 250.15 .i cid frisi nargither ana cuicti for in athgabail, 252.1 Comm. (cf. fris-áraig). ?cid i n-agar (aragar v.l.) breithemnus berla Feini . . . i fir ┐ dliged ┐ aignead, v 2.1 . dirithe cach dia flaith . . . do neoch adregar doib, iii 26.4 .i. do neoch airgither do dleisin doib, 8 Comm. adregar, inomblegar (sic leg.), fegar, asrenar cach ndliged do neimtib, iii 22.12 adregar .i. forin cintach, z Comm. arachta (?adracht) cach racht isa sund co n-arrachta in da recht, 26.28 . airgidh leat so ┐ ro bia so tar eisi, v 188.19 Comm. ar ni [a]ragar neach tar a cumang .i. uair noco n-oircther nech, 466. y , 470.22 Comm. co harragar a coraib bel? how are verbal contracts made legally binding? iii 2.2 .i. cindus airgithir, 5 Comm. óenchairde fon Eilg n-áragar one peace-treaty is established throughout Ireland, Ériu xiii 13.22 ( O'Dav. 768 ). is orrasin rosaraigh A. gan chlannugad fria a cheli those are the people whom A. bound not to intermarry, Fen. 390.8 . Perh. also: atomriug . . . niurt trén togairm trindóit, Thes. ii 354.24 (`I arise', see at-reig). Cf. ar-rig. See now Binchy Ériu xx 232 ff.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. ad-suidi or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: atsuidhim, adsudi, a-t-suidi, a-ta-suidi, -asstai, ad-suidet, ad-suiter, ad-dom-suiter, -astaider, ad-suidetar, adsuighidter, -astaiter, asta, -astad, adsode, a-ta-sode, -astae, -asta, -astat, roastar, -astatais, adsuife, -astaibther, adrosoid, atrosoid, adsaidh, adrodad, -asta, roasta, astide, astaithi, astad, fastód, astaid, fastaid, fostaid, astaigid, fostaigid, fastóid, -astád

v (* ad-suid-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 637 ). Indic. pres. 1 s. atsuidhim, O'Curry 1066 ( H 3.18, 440b ). 2 s. adsudi, Ml. 114c6 . 3 s. a-t-suidi, Sg. 66a20 . a-ta-suidi, 64b3 . -asstai, Ml. 114a19 . 3 pl. ad-suidet, Sg. 4b15 . Pass. sg. ad-suiter. Ml. 68d5 . ad-dom-suiter, Thes. ii 3.33 . -astaider, Sg. 3a4 . Pl. ad-suidetar, ZCP xiii 22.11 . adsuighidter, Laws iv 142.z Comm. 144.2 Comm. -astaiter, i 30.27 . Ipv. 2 s. asta, LU 2983 . 3 s. -astad, Wb. 10d7 . Subj. pres. 2 s. adsode, Wb. 10a9 . a-ta-sode, 10 . -astae, Ml. 55a19 . 3 s. -asta, Ml. 126a6 . 3 pl. -astat, Wb. 29a16 . Pass. sg. with ro: mad roastar , Ériu vii 154 § 3 . Subj. impf. 3 pl. -astatais, Laws iii 2.2 . Fut. 3 s. adsuife, CMT² 30 § 29 n. Pass. s. -astaibther, Laws i 192.4 Comm. Pret. and perf. 3 s. adrosoid, Ml. 97d16 . atrosoid, 39a16 . adsaidh, O'Curry 469 ( H 3.18, 246 ). Pass. sg. adrodad, Laws i 52.3 . = atroadh, O'D. 19 ( H 3.17, col. 397 = CIH v 1897.11 , Contract Law 222 ). Pl. -asta, Lism. L. 2514 . roasta, LL 22122 . Part. astide gl. adpensum, Ml. 20a22 . Vbl. of necess. astaithi, Laws v 286.11 Comm. Vn. astad, fastód.

Later as simple vb. astaid, fastaid, fostaid. Also astaigid (fastaigid, fostaigid). Cf. fostaid, fostaigid. Occas. with long vowel in second syll.: fastóid, LU 2109 . -astád, TTr.² 1141 (see under fostaid). IGT Verbs § 64 , § 80, 106 . See also assoith.

(a) stops, holds back, detains, hinders: nach nastad in cretmech `let the believer not detain him', Wb. 10a7 . ci atasode lat ar écin `though thou keep her with thee perforce', 10a10 . atrosoid gl. (se mali uicisitudine) suspenderit, Ml. 39a16 . ni astaider ┐ ni timmorcar fri slond nintliuchta gl. quae a nullo affectu mentis proficiscitur, Sg. 3a4 . atomsuide serc Dé, IT iii 51 § 95 . adrodad fri less na túad / isin port co bráth it has been detained for the good of the people, Trip.² 786 . asta dinetan fort cind stop a little while, LU 2983 . timchellaid . . . múr . . . ┐ fastóid (astaid, v.l.) anmand inna pectach, LU 2109 ( FA 17 ). coro asta na heonu cen togairad C. so that the birds were prevented from calling to C., LL 22122 . im amus ceneoil do denam de dus i n-astaibther no tuilithe do radh ris to know whether he will be kept or be regarded as an interloper, Laws i 192.4 Comm. dia mbed da clad íme . . . adsuitear leo `he is restrained by them', iv 158.3 Comm. . . . eoin ┐ énluithe Leithi Mogha do thiachtain cuigi isin crainnsin co n-asta uile acasom, Lism. L. 2514 . o samain co medón erraig ro hast ind imguin ultu, RC vi 188.15 . astaid da n-ag dibh he seizes two deer, v 200 § 12 . mad roastar cach mil díb i mbethu lasin merlech if each of these animals be detained alive, Ériu vii 154 § 3 . Intrans: asdofe (gl. no adsuife) ant ór ina broinn 'the gold will stick in his belly', CMT² 30 § 29 .

(b) Legal fixes, makes permanent or legal, binds, establishes: ni astat nadmann in diupairt bonds do not bind such a fraudulent arrangement, ZCP xiii 22.29 ( Bürgschaft 10 ). cenisnasta naidm na raith adasuidhe dliged law establishes them, 24.1 (§ 39). astud cáich hi coruib bel, ar ro buí in biuth i mbailiuth mani astaitis cuir bél if verbal contracts were not binding, ZCP xvi 176 § 6 ( Laws i 40.24 ). man[i] astat cuir bel . . . cia beth dono cuir bel and adsuidet adi, Laws ii 130.2 Comm. atsuiter cuir bél la Feine amuil ad-rodad Adam ina derbdubairt: at-bath in biuth uile ar aenuball `as Adam was bound by his deception' (i.e. the Fall was considered as a contract whereby Adam exchanged the immortality of man for an apple), ZCP xvi 177 § 13 . fosuid cach aititiu adsuidet folaid, Laws iii 10.8 . cona ndilsi feibh as dech atsaitar (no atsuitar) dilsi, Ériu ii 4 n. 46 . atait .x. nailche annscuichthecha atsuidet cach ndilsi, O'Curry 416b ( H 3.18, 229a ). ?adsuighe crích cadesin . . . ar id comarda criche insin that defines a `crích', Laws iv 142.24 . With FRI and FOR: it e trénailche in sin frisa n-astaiter bretha in betha for those are the strong rocks to which the judgements of the world are bound fast (i.e. which support the law), ZCP xvi 175 § 1 ( Laws i 30.27 ). nī nī nach breth berar . . . nad fri hapstal n-uasal n-astaigther (nascaider v.l.) i.e. no judgement is effective unless a holy apostle guarantees it(?), Corm. Y 1224 ( Anecd. iv 106.19 ). adsuidetar tra frisna [na]dmann so ┐ ni diuprat, is de ata adsuidet naidmann ┐ ni diuprat they are held binding (as valid) by these `naidms' but the latter do not guarantee fraud; therefore it is said `naidms' bind but do not cheat, ZCP xiii 22.11 ( Bürgschaft 9 § 25 ). is misech maine astaithur fri som(m)uine n-aircendcha he is entitled to do this when he is not bound by dues already given, ZCP xv 248 § 6 ( Laws ii 210.15 ). Cf. also: at-chíu a chlaideb . . . ina intiuch . . . conid fri crúaid n-aurrdric n-aister, BDD² 1037 . ni asta rudrad rugnassa . . . manab for ailchib udhpart astaiter, O'Curry 2471 (Eg. 88, 38a2). nach breath nad astaiter fors nach aei (i.e. on `fír' and `dliged'), Laws v 10.4 . Note also: atasuidi for sobus íar córus fine `he holds them (viz. the aforesaid dependents) fast to good conduct (i.e. he must see that they fulfil their legal duties)', Críth G. 341 and note. adsuide fis .i. dia festar for nech olc do denamh adsuidhe fiacha(ib) fair it makes him liable to fines, O'Curry 483 ( H 3.18, p. 251 ). cia met i n-astaither cach dib `to what extent each of them is confirmed in his rights', Laws iv 344.8 . Note also: mani astat in da recht peccad foir unless the two laws convict him of sin, Wb. 29a16 . With IN-: atsuidi neutur isnaib anmannaib in es a n-accomol fri neutur i n-immognom `their connexion with a neuter in construction establishes the neuter in the nouns in -es', Sg. 66a20 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. áilid or


v (áil)

(a) In forms of address: a Chommdiu non-áiliu `o Lord whom I entreat', Fél. Ep. 559 . Osualt nóeb ṅáilme `holy Oswald whom we implore', Aug.5. epscop Iacob . . . non-áilem, July 14 . not álim a Chorán, LU 10011 . ailiu (.i. cluintí) Dia, dirged mo set, Laws i 10.15 . ailiu (.i. alim) iath ṅHerend, LL 1634 . Eber alius (.i. ro alius), 1653 . See 4 aill.

(b) requests, entreats: sic ailes som fordiuclaim . . . inna námat, Ml. 104b5 . ailme trocoiri [De], Trip.² 3092 . áilsi P. . . . ara tailced maccu C. `P. besought him to let back C.'s sons', Thes. ii 240.22 (Ardm.). āilfithuss F. `F. shall demand it', Ériu xvi 146.17 . ailsius A. A. demanded it, Ält. Ir. Dicht. 17 § 8 . áiltius n-écces go líon bertus, Ériu xiii 41.7 .i. guidhe in t-eces iar [n]imat a briathar, O'Dav. 246 . áile laith go meala maith, Ériu xiii 40.20 = ailiu laith lam co meild maith .i. guidhimsi, O'Dav. 1218. 1199 . costud sída .i. álim síd do chách .i. brithemnas do chach, LL 187a41 (cf. RC xxvi 24 ). alid in fer / concerta do chách, LU 8475 ( FB 33 ). concertfa fír foraib / feidm airg ailfes alid, 8487 (ib.). tiagam . . . co ro aileam ar n-eolus i tig ar n-athar, YBL 181a32 . almini a n-itge / náchan tecma drochrann `we pray a prayer to them that an evil lot may not happen to us', Fél. Jan. 10 . ailim th'itchi a Mhaodhoíg mhais, SG 29.34 . aílit na naeimh anti Ruadhan . . . ar co tairsiudh co cutrama friu, BNnÉ 321 § 23 . ailiu uisce co torair muir, O'Dav. 569 . ro ailestar he co ro leced dond arrucht labrad, RC xlvi 236.5 . ail dún co rodilgaithe triut ar tarmthect trogh intercede for us, Ériu i 122.7 . á.¤ x im y asks x for y: áliss P. Dubthach im damnæ nepscuip, Thes. ii 241.7 (Ardm.). ailthus Eogan imm esomon E. prays them for a truce, ZCP viii 313.5 . á.¤ x for y asks y for x: ben Adaim alainn nadchres / furri alim mo lanles, SR 1192 . ális Patraic fair ócláig n-álaind, Trip.² 2221 . ronáil fair cona tormaigfed `bound him not to add', Mon. Tall. 150.3 (§ 61) . ised rusáil Finn fuirri, RC xi 129.27 . ro ailsiot na cloimh almsain fair, BNnÉ 325 § 44 .

(c) is entitled to, deserves, requires: ni alet na daine so acht log a notrusa (.i. ni dlegaid), BCrólige 12 . atat .iiii. airig i tuaith alid annlunn . . . amal no[n]dalett miad a fer . . ., 26 . ailid carnai cach aire `every freeman . . . is entitled to fresh meat', ibid. ata .iii.[ar] i tuaith nad ale (.i. na dlig) otrus na fiachu `there are three men . . . who have no right to either nursing or fines', 43 . atá fóessam . . . nad áili acht tri séotu ara c[h]uru bél , Ériu xvii 64 § 4 . ailid nemed trian tora[i]d, Laws iv 186.1 .i. airiltnigid, x Comm. ailid gach rath a somaine, 376.19 . alidside taurgille nairib (bees), 162.1 . ma dosraid nech do gort ┐ ma alaid aithgin `? if it (the trespass) is entitled to restitution', (Plummer MS. notes), i 182.9 Comm.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. ainmnech or


adj o, ā (ainmne) patient: bēl a.¤ urnaigthech, ACL iii 234 § 9 ( Aithd. D. 61.9 ).


Cite this: eDIL s.v. aipéil or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: aipél

adj (?ad + bél . See LEIA (apéle), and Lochlann ii 221 ). Also aipél. quick, sudden: do bhásaibh aibéile obanna, TSh. 5438 . is aibeil do fregradar, Duan. F. i 13.52 . Compar. cid ullamh rainic cach, luait[h]i ┐ lanaibeile (luaithe lanaibhele v.l.) rainic Fergus, TBC St. 923 = luathium con arnic F., TBC-LL¹ 1035 . As adv. dichuir hi co haibeil (= citius), ITS xxix 150.2 . fuaraidh sin co haibeil (cito refrigerat), Rosa Angl. 60.8 . cin a nindsaighedh co hollamh ┐ co hapel, ALC i 616.1 . cuiris fios go fíoraibéil ar cend C., BNnÉ 234 § 151 . docuaidh Gyi . . . mur a roibhi Feilis co fíraibeil `went directly', ZCP vi 26.6 . do theith co hurrlum aibeil, Stair Erc. 1518 . dá fhuadach go haibéil, TSh. 5222 . Cf. aidbéil.

? airbél

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? airbél or


n ( bél ): tri lorg línfíaclach o urbél co úae, LU 7276 = o ur bél co uoe, BDD² 909 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. airdbide or


part. of ar-díben

(a) cut off, destroyed: annat a.¤ gl. non peremptum, Ml. 135d6 . airdbidi gl. interceptam, 49a25 . na n-airtbide gl. interfectorum, 33d6 .

(b) fixed, specified: im a biad nairdbidhe, Laws i 126.23 Comm. cis n-a.¤ , 158.9 Comm. In phrase cairde a.¤ pact subject to fixed conditions or a fixed term(?): cis lir cairde do cuisin? a tri. Cairde na.¤ (.i. ima mbi airdebi cinntech .i. aithghin no ainm dareis araile) ┐ cairde nimdilsi crichi . . . ┐ cairde feine, O'Curry 524 ( H 3.18, 262b ) (cf. ZCP xv 326 ). cairde féne ┐ cairde na.¤ ┐ cairde niundlius criche. Cairdi na.¤ cetamus a fiach amal inlathar, ZCP xiii 24.31 = O'Curry 804 ( H 3.18, p. 327b ). comeiric im cairde airdbi ┐ coimdire im cairde fene, O'Curry 221 ( H 3.18, p. 117 ). is eric cairde airdbid and no cairde feine, O'Curry 523 (ib. p. 262b). nocu netar cairdi imdilsi crichi gan cairdi feno no gan cairdi airdbidi, O'D. 2304 ( Rawl. 506 fo. 30a ). frisnascar .i. a coruib bel .i. fognam a.¤ , O'Curry 838 (H. 3.18, 382b). benar .i. cinnter, ut est fiach nad ardbenar i cairdi airdbidh .i. fiach na fircinnter isin cairdi i mbi airdbi cinntech, O'Dav. 243 . As subst.: airdbidh nó airdeibi .i. cinnedh, ut est na téid a slan acht for airdbidhe .i. na rachadh in lan ro hiocadh acht for airdeibe cinntech, O'Dav. 110 . See also 148 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. airdrachda or


adj (-ae) io, iā (l airdrech) weird, uncanny: ríastartha a bél co úrtrachta, TBC-I¹ 1942 `his lips were marvellously contorted', Faraday p. 90 ( urthrachda, TBC-LL¹ 2606 ). síarthar co hurtrachta im Choin Culainn, LU 8880 ( FB § 67 ) = siabartha im C. . . . ┐ imsaig na hurtracha, Eg. ( IT i 288 ). ar batir erdrach a (? leg. erdrach[t]a) cumachtai na hingine `supernatural', RC xi 444.39 = ar batar herdruch a cumachtæ, ZCP iii 248 § 62 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. airnisi or


part. of ar-naisc(?): niss len lebaid ni hi tossaig i n-aurlise / acht ni leicet co iarmis bad a n-a.¤ `but let them not leave . . . what are bound upon them(?)', Ériu xvi 180 § 15 . Freq. with 1 ráth: raith airnisi, Laws v 340.17 .i. trebuiri uasal fonaiscfither in cutruma icfus ┐ icfaither fria, 342.5 Comm. rath urnaisi ar is eside frisnascar i coraib bel , O'Curry 518 ( H 3.18, 261a ). raith aurnaisi .i. arnaisc ┐ doaisfena a cuimne .i. is raith ┐ is fiadnaisi co tisad fiadhain, 841 ( H 3.18, 383a ). adsuiter naidm nurnaisi, O'D. 792 ( H 3.17, c. 568 ) = adsoiter naidm nurnaisi . . . .i. astaither i naidm fonaisces nech, O'Curry 2390 (Eg. 88, 30(31)c).


Cite this: eDIL s.v. airrainn or


Forms: airrind

n also airrind (1 rind?) fore-part(?). Common of weapons in phrase co rucc (gaí, claideb, etc.) urraind tre pierced and protruded (came out) on the other side, pierced through and through: gomdaseasairg insleigh culind inaculadhaib do gorghabasdair urraind ind agabhel, RC xiv 261.2 = co ndechaid trina bel dochum talman, TBC-LL¹ 2191 = co ndeochaid fora béolo sair co torchair tara aiss issa nglend, LU 6026 . co ndeachaid triana chridhi . . . co ruc a urraind asa ucht (of a spear) went through his heart and out through his breast, Aen. 2134 . gur gab arrind anmin . . . tremit, Cog. 184.5 . co tuc forgam for Hectair co ruc urraind triana ṡlíasait, LL 240a43 ( TTr. 1749 ). pl. dodibraig . . . faga . . . cor-gab urraindi tré brathair robai iter a da láim, TTebe 1017 . co ruc arrinni triit ón táib díaraile, TTr.² 730 . Note also: gur bho h-urranna ina reangaibh na ruadhchrainn, ML 88.2 . Hence perh.: tre erranaib na n-áladh `extremities', MR 272.5 . Cf. Gilla B. ... | tug na harrainde gu hard, BB 56b49 . Of a ship prow(?): dreibreang eraind, BB 39a25 = dochoid sin seólchrand, LL 1526 .

Cf. errend, airrinde.

? aithṡlis

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? aithṡlis or


n (cf. 2 slis?). In etymol. gl.: sabull . . . .i. saebél .i. is athslis a beul, O'D. 64 ( H 3.17, 56 ) = .i. sae bel .i. aslis a bél , Laws i 140.11 Comm.

? algas

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? algas or


n = alga: bainneada ┐ a.¤ sa bel , 23 P 10³, 8a17 (alga ssa?).

1 ar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ar or


Forms: ar, air, er, eir, air, er, ar, arin,, airind, air, airnaib, armo, aire, aratobarr, arandéntar, arambiat, ara, armbad, ara, arindepur, aridlabrathar, arna, áirium, erum, erumm, erom, erut, ærut, airiut, airut, airiut, aurut, airiu, airi, airi, erre, airri, airre, airthe, erunn, erund, erond, airiund, airriun, airund, airib, airibsi, airiubsi, airiuibsi, eruibsi, erru, erriu, erro, airriu, airiu, erthu, airthiu, airtho, airib, airaib, or(u)m, or(u)t, air, uirre, orainn, oirinn, oraib, orru, orrtha

prep., leniting, with accus. and dat. See GOI § 823 , Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 150 , Frazer, ZCP viii 5 , Williams, Celtica ii 305 ; IGT Introd. § 130 .

Usually spelt ar. air, Ml. 51c2 , 2d2 ; er, 122a16 , BB 449a10 ; eir, Ériu iv 180 § 39 . The spellings air, er, etc. (more freq. in later lang.) and the modern pronunciation show that O. Ir. ar as simple prep.was replaced by a conflation of airi and fo(i)r (3 s. n. of 1 ar and 1 for).

In Mid. Ir. 1 for and 1 íar are frequently spelt ar. See III, IV below and the articles on these words.

With article arin, -int, -a, etc. Note also airind, Ml. 31b17 , air ind, 53a15 . arndi (= arindí), Ériu vii 138.4 . airnaib, Ml. 110d9 .

With poss. armo (m'), -do (t'), -a, -ar, -far (-bar) etc. Note also ar mh'éigse, Content. ix 26 . aire slicht, L. Chl. S. 2 .

With rel. part. ara: aratobarr, Wb. 12d29 . arandéntar, 2a10 . cid arambiat , Ml. 56b9 . ara n-eperr, Críth G. 1 . With copula: cid armbad , Wb. 11a19 . cidar impotabis, Ml. 56a13 . cid arnabu son, ib. ardott áigthe, LU 5656 = arṅdotāigi, TBC-I¹ 1178 (taking áigthi as vbl. of necess.). ara trēn, ACL iii 239 § 32 . ara n-amra, ZCP vii 312 § 26 . Before inf. pron. arindepur, Wb. 5a31 . aridlabrathar, 7d2 . With neg. arna airecht, Sg. 198b3 . arnach faca, ZCP xiii 169.13 .

With pron. suff. Early forms. 1 s. áirium, Wb. 7a12 . erum, LL 286a25 . erumm, PH 1397 . erom, 1503 . 2 s. erut, Wb. 27d19 , 29d7 , YBL 326b42 , PH 6565 . ærut, Ml. 2d8 . airiut, Blathm. 569 , LL 289b30 . airut, LU 8086 . GOI § 437 also gives airiut, aurut without reff. as `old forms which occur only in later sources' ( p. 272 ). 3 s. m. and n. GOI § 437 gives airiu as the dat. form (cf. airiu, O'Dav. 22 ?), airi as the accus. airi is the usual form passim in the early language. Cf. áiri, Wb. 11b21 . f. (accus. and dat. not distinguished) erre, Irish Texts i 3 § 8 (sic MS. See Ir. Hist. Stud. i 347 ). airri, SR 405 (emended to airre, GOI § 437 ). airthe, LL 286a7 . 1 pl. erunn, Wb. 15d13 , Ériu ii 124 § 65 . erund, LU 597 . erond, 588 . airiund, TBC-I¹ 170 . airriun, ZCP xi 110 § 26 . airund, LU 593 . 2 pl. airib, Wb. 20a3 , 22d25 , 27c19 , Metr. Dinds. iv 232.33 . airibsi, Wb. 14d25 , a33 , 16a26 . airiubsi, 15c1 , 17a5 . airiuibsi, 16c23 . eruibsi, 27d7 . Ml. 2a11 . 3 pl. acc. erru, Wb. 4d20 , 11a29 ; ZCP ii 315.26 . erriu, Wb. 9c8 , 11a20 . erro, LL 289b30 . airriu, Wb. 15a23 , 21d11 , O'Dav. 985 . airiu, Wb. 11d11 , Laws iv 176.7 . erthu, LL 280a1 . RC viii 154 § 5 . airthiu, LU 4915 . ZCP viii 310.22 . airtho, TBC-I¹ 409 . dat. airib, Laws iv 162.2 . airaib, 114.21 Comm.

In later lang. all pronominal forms influenced by those of for, giving or(u)m, or(u)t, air, uirre (uirthe), orainn (oirn. oirinn, O'Gr. Cat. 556.25 ), oraib ( oirb, BColm. 100.3 ), orru (orra, orrtha), etc.

The presumed distinction between ar with accus. when motion is implied and with dat. when no motion is implied ( Zeuss 622 ; with reservations Vendryes Gramm. § 283 ; see also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 73 - 74 , Williams loc. cit.) appears most clearly in the stereotyped phrases ar chenn towards, ar chiunn ahead of, before (see 1 cenn): ar beolu towards, ar bélaib before, in front of (see bél ). The dat. is usual in ar cach láu daily (see ) and in ar thosuch ( Sg. 203a7 , see tosach). Usage is less clear outside fixed phrases, and that of the various collections of O. Ir. glosses differs (the available material is also much reduced by the frequent identity of form of a s. and d s. of nouns). The accus. is regular in Wb. in senses of taking away from and counting as , and also in glosses on Lat. ob, the dat. where the meaning is with regard to, instead of and in glosses on Lat. super. Both cases are found where the meaning is for the sake of, because of . In Ml. accus. is constant only in set phrases. The dat. is usual in meaning counts as , do-beir ar (for?) calls and in glosses on Lat. dat. without preposition (ar gentib gl. gentibus, 78a12 , 89c2 ) and where a Lat. compd. noun is treated as two words (arintinmlegun gl. promulgatione, 71c18 ). In general use the meanings saving from, instead of, in meaning of, in return for, on account of, because of, for the sake of, for the purpose of are all found both with accus. and dat. In Sg. the meanings instead of and on account of are found with both cases. See also IGT Introd. § 130 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 2 - 4 , 17 , 20 (where detailed rules are given for accus. and dat. both with simple ar and for compd. preps. such as ar aghaidh, etc.).


(a) Much less freq. in concrete or physical meanings than in more abstract ones. Perh. before, in front of in (case of follg. noun not certain): dá [n]dorus [n-]and, comla[e] ar ala n-aí, clíath ar alailiu (-e, MS.) `in front of' (Gloss.), Críth G. 100 . ar Tuatha Dé Danann `before the T.D.D.', Ériu xii 152 § 15 (TE). cethridoruis airri (recte airre) im-mach, SR 405 . ó beit fíanna fer nÉrenn ┐ Alban do Chonaire ar thig, BDD² 1416 . Cf. 1081 , 1400 , 1492 . ? airiu . . . iarmo in front of it . . . behind it(?), O'Dav. 22 . Cf. airber .i. frit anair bere .i. eter do dī lāim, ar is fort muin bere ere [n-]aile, Corm. Y 58 . Acc. to Binchy, SCano p. 33 , frequent in meaning east of, the only example cited being: acon loch ar Mag Aí `by the lake east of Mag Aí', Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 32 § 2 (`on'). Cf. Airbri .i. fri Bri Eli anair, O'Mulc. 70 = Dinds. 16 ( RC xv 308 ). ? a nAicill ar Temair, Anecd. i 17.1 . Cf. perh. Síd ar Femin, LU 7846 ( BDD 140 ), etc. (or for al?). Perh. orig. with concrete force also in: do té(i)t aitire ar ḟer feras in fuil, Críth G. 52 `goes surety for', Gloss. Concrete meaning is perh. also to be assumed in the phrases agaid ar (late, orig. for?), ar agaid, ar amus, ar beolu, ar bélaib, bél ar bél, ar chenn, ar chiunn, ar dorus, ar dreich, ar fed, ar gnúis, ar leth, ar medón, ar ṡúil, ar thosuch, ar thús, ar úairib. See under the nouns concerned. With more abstract force in ar aí, ar apu (see 3 aí, 1 apa). Here may also be included: doire acummisc arúir `of their being mixed with mould', Wb. 13d3 . úachtar ar lemlacht dó mixed with, Críth G. 63 . loim midc do chumasc ar usciu `to mix a sip of whey with water', Mon. Tall. 143.25 . ba fial ṅdō buith arnaib ōcaib, cēin dogēni calma among, TBC-I¹ 1266 = LU 5739 . ? tiucfa in mac cētna ar bar cloind, ZCP viii 563 § 27 (for?). Perh. for for in: ó fó-certa a ṡrúb ar géscoe against a branch, BDD² 349 (= ar gésce, 355 ). conadh ar x. míli cathrach do shiublaighdis techta Magnuis Cam . . . ō maduin co fescor `to ten thousand cities', Marco P. 96 .

Rarely of time. See ariu before .

(b) In the follg. exx. the meaning is also more or less concr., though the precise meaning of the obscure, and it would be possible to consider them as early exx. of the replacing of for by ar (see III, and fo-ceird III): arnarala for cubus áiri, Wb. 11b21 (see note). Cf. focheird mo menma airi `my mind is set on him', Ériu ii 92 § 2 . ón lá tarrla ar n-airi air, iv 220.27 . torala dia archeill do degnimu su `let God bring to mind thy good deeds', Ml. 43b15 . iscor lame ardodced buith ocairbiathad sainte gl. nam qui volunt divites f[i]eri, incidunt in temptationem, Wb. 29b18 . ? Cf. ni comarleiced (.i. nir cetaig) dó cor lamha aire (.i. dul do sacarbhaic) cin foghlaim, Trip.² 243 . mabeidní dirúnaib dothéi armenmuin indfir, Wb. 13a12 . Note also: arnaib réib ilib gl. et qui ascendit super omnes caelos, 22a8 .

(c) In compd. numerals (with dat., see Celtica ii 312 ): a n-óen ar fichit (fichet, MS) the twenty-one, Ml. 2d2 . cóic míli ochtmugat ar chét one hundred and eighty five thousand, 34b17 . a ocht deac ar chét, BCr. 32d2 . deichinbair ar dib fichtib ar trib cétaib, Trip.² 3104 . secht cathae ar chetharchait / ar secht cétaib is huilliu, ZCP viii 313.34 . cōicer ar ceithri fichtib, 219.29 . fer ar sheisir seven men, Celt. Rev. x 348.23 . fri re tri n-aidhche ar mís, RC xviii 162.32 . Note also: tāinic buiden mōr . . . dōig lim is ar trichaid cēt inti approximately(?), TBC-I¹ 3142 (text perh. faulty).

II In a wide variety of abstract meanings for the most part deriving independently from those given under I.

(a) for, for the sake of, on behalf of, etc. (often gl. Lat. pro) (with accus. and dat. See Celtica ii 309 ): cia dudrigni dia mór di maith erriu, Wb. 11a20 . innahí dorigeni Día ar maccu Israhel, 30 . mirabilia dorígeni Dia ar maccaib Israhel, 28 . massu arinbethid . . . dagníu, 13c11 . mor ní as dénti ní airriu, 15a23 (in sense of mod. déanaim rud ar I obey, see Thes. Suppl. 51 ). niarséuti . . . robcarsi tíamthe, 23d4 . ar erchru gl. pro defectu, Ml. 31a4 . dusrigeni dia erru amal robu thol doib, 54a34 . fri assaru ar maccu israhel gl. rerum gestarum (testimonio), 94d2 . ara bǽsaib som .i. ar denum a thule gl. pro suis ritibus laborantes, 87b20 . a ndorigēnai in rí / do ḟertaib ar ṡanct Brigti, Thes. ii 332.4 (Hy. v). or ar Bran nailither, 286.34 (inscr.). lānamain . . . nī fil etarscarad dōib acht ar Dia, Corm. Y 824 . léicfider cach bean do mnáib airiut thou wilt be preferred to all other women, BDD² 59 . ar ghaol for the sake of relationship, Studies 1918, 99 § 15 . dorindedh mainistreacha ┐ sepeil le ar anmain Gyi `for the soul of G.' ZCP vi 90.11 . See also under meince, 1 pairt. Freq. in sense of (praying) for, see airnigde, guide, guidid, oráit.

(b) for the sake of, by in adjurations and invocations: dilig dam . . . / ar Maire n-amra n-Ingin, SR 7820 . ar do chumachtae . . . tesaircc dam-sa mo chūrcha, BColm. 54.3 . ar do thrīnōiteacht, a Thrīnōit, ACL iii 241 § 2 . ar t'fhírinni riutsa, na furáil etc. by thy honour, CCath. 1659 . ar na deib rib, TTebe 4025 . síol Ádhaimh . . . / ar do thocht díobh slánaigh sinn, Dán Dé ix 22 .

(c) on account of, because of (with accus. and dat. Glossing Latin ob, pro, propter): ar ar comoicsi do bás on account of, Wb. 14b25 . aracethardese gl. quam ob causam, 31b24 . ob mirationem .i. airinn adamrugud, Ml. 61a15 . ar chosmaili ind fochuinn diaragbtha gl. causae uicinitate, 35b24 . ar ét im chrabud gl. pro zelo religionis, 36d24 . arna lithu gl. propter cultús diuini festa, 47b2 . arna pecthu immefolngat guasacht do anmin gl. propter animae pericula, 7 . cid arnaibhisiu .i. arnaib hi forodamarsa gl. ob ista, 58d13 . ní ar pianaib do thabairt forru `not on account of the infliction of punishments upon them', 114b7 . ara foirbthetu fadesin, Wb. 6c19 . tocombaig a ṡlán ara ḟornert because of, Críth G. 415 . ar ṡóethaib because of grievances, 581 . ar ilar a imarbus, ZCP viii 104.7 . Corco Bāiscind ar a nert / nī damaid cert d'Eoganacht, v 500.16 .

With a variety of nouns in more or less stereotyped phrases: ar na h-ádhbharaibh sin for those reasons, ML 58.11 . ar[a] airmitin som through respect for him, Ériu iv 30.23 . ar t'ḟuath, i 97.32 . ni diles ni doberar ar uathbas `nothing is lawful which is given out of terror', Laws iv 286.25 . See also under áis, cairde, 1 cúis, 1 écndairc, éicen, ecla, 1 gart, midlachas, miscais, omun, sant, serc, úacht, etc.

Common with abstr. nouns from adjj. in the construction: nīr fētatar a tōcbāil ar a truma because of her weight = because she was so heavy, Anecd. iii 9.8 . ar dúire a drochdelba, Ériu iv 102.16 . ar ḟebus na cuidechtae because the company was so excellent, BColm. 78.18 . ar a laechdacht, ZCP viii 318.12 . ar cumga in puill nír féd dul amach, Ériu v 49.7 . in senadh ic á adhradh ar a uaisle, CCath. 334 . ar ghoire do ghaoil, Dán Dé xi 11 . Without poss. or gen.: cona tisa . . . in dam tarais ar airdi (a fence), Laws iv 76.19 Comm.

Freq. in advv.and conjj. in O. Ir. glosses. 3 s. n. as adv. on account of it, therefore: fristemlighter cid ind aier airi, Ml. 73c2 . ni bad pronomen airi, Sg. 203b2 . isairi doroigu dia geinti hore . . . this is why . . . because, Wb. 5b12 . is airi inso rogabad som hi rige, Ml. 14a4 . cinid airi doberr desimrecht acht ar atrebthach nand, Sg. 35b13 . With article and i: arindi gl. eo, Sg. 190a4 . ni arindí . . . sed quia not because . . . but because, 5a4 . arindisin gl. ei, Ml. 54c6 . arndi furumai sár for cach toil, Ériu vii 138.3 . With se: ní nád ṁbed arse di chorp gl. ideo, Wb. 12a22 . arse gl. ob hoc, Ml. 18d15 , gl. qua re, 29d1 . isarse gl. quo circa, Enchir. Aug. 70b , 81b ( ZCP vii 480 , 484 ). airechas ceneóil airsiu (leg. airsin? edd. airriu, Ped. MS Index to Wb. glosses) ní airechas fidei, Wb. 1b12 . Later: air sin on account of that, CCath. 2350 . Note also: ar a smuaintighib do beith . . . a mbeat[h]aidh an tigerna so that his thoughts might be in, etc., BCC § 5 (cf. ara).

(d) instead of, in place of, as substitute for, in meaning of (meaning confined to O. Ir. glosses. With dat., occas. with accus.): arnab geintib huilib taken as referring to all the Gentiles gl. Iudeos et Grecos omnes, Wb. 2a15 . foirbthe ar anfoirbthu gl. decem milia, a perfect (number) for an imperfect, 9a10 . corda .i. arin duiniu huli lesom gl. a parte totum, Ml. 53a2 . todochide ar sechmadachtae n-anfoirbthe gl. commotatio . . . temporum `future for imperfect', 62a16 . arnaib bolcaib gl. pro uesicis, 99a4 . fogur cechtar de ar alaliu ┐ fogur na liter naile airriusom, Sg. 4a8 . ni roscríbad ar naill (leg. ar na aill, edd.), 6b3 . a ṡuidigud ar anmmaimm dílius, 27a1 .

Often with as-beir, do-beir etc.: dobeir inso arnab uilib cumactib gl. supra omnem principatum et potestatem et uirtutem et dominationem, Wb. 21a13 . epert innan (MS. inna) aisndisen arnaib gnimaib gl. dicit autem non quia talia locuti sunt Scribae . . . sed quia talia fecerint, Ml. 16d3 . a ndurigni duaid in gnim sin in tengad do airbirt ar gnimaib in choirp, 31b24 . intan asmbersom pes ┐ manus nochis arnaib gnimaib són dungniat som honaib ballaib hisin atbeirsom, 56b3 . tri suidigud dosom inna cluas arin chorp huiliu, 60b16 . arnaib fedaib sonartaib ardaib gl. pro terribilibus arbustís cedros possuit, 146a6 .

The idiom ad-rími ar counts as (with accus. and dat.) is prob. to be assigned to this section: ní ármisom ar chumactte, Wb. 6a1 . cenid ar chomsuidigthib adrímther inna fortórmach so, Sg. 202a5 . See ad-rími. With LA: petra les arin trediusa sís he takes petra as standing for, Ml. 60a7 . in loc lesom híc arnaib aitrebthidib gl. a loco habitatores intellegite, 144c3 .

(e) in return for, in exchange for, as price of, in payment for, as equivalent of (with accus.): airitiu lóge ar mo precept in return for, Wb. 10d31 . rotbīa a lōg airi you shall have a reward for it, TBC-I¹ 585 . is lá cach(a) tíre do-tét dlega(i)r aire `is due for it', Ériu xvii 70.4 . Freq. do-beir lóg etc. ar: ainm indlóge doberr domiledaib armílte, Wb. 3c1 . intan dobera Dia fochraicci ar degnimu, Ml. 90c14 . screpul doberar do gilli . . . ar comaitecht do neuch o pecad `a groat that is given to a lad for accompanying someone in a sin', Mon. Tall. 143.9 . nī tibur-so in tinnscra sin(ee) cid ar Meidb C. feissin I wouldn't give a brideprice like that for M. herself, ZCP iv 39.7 (cf. TBFr. 185 ). ní conrogab terochraic . . . ar forbrissiud fir truaig `reward for oppressing a wretched man', Ml. 36a32 . ni riat na dánu diadi ara n-indeb domunde sell for, Wb. 28c2 . ríthæ . . . ar ech ndonn, Thes. ii 240.1 (Ardm.). tale damsa a log ar epert do firinne lat, Ml. 36a32 . síodh Dhé 'gá ceannach ar chrodh being bought for herds, Dán Dé xxvii 33 . With vbs. of leaving, abandoning: ni dérsid for sóiri ar fognam, Wb. 20b10 . roleicc creitim ar in paganacht he left the faith for paganism, Anecd. iii 72.28 . as uime do trēig Temraigh / ar Chend Maghair, ZCP viii 108.19 . Denoting preference: ragaid duit aire . . . rígi hÉrend in preference to him, BColm. 68.18 . do mholfuinn fear an leithléighinn 'gá mbíadh beatha ghlan . . . arfhear láinléighinn 'gá mbíadh beatha némhthromdha, Mac Aingil 4782 .

(f) for the purpose of, in order to obtain (as far as the exx. serve with accus. in Wb. and dat. in Ml. The exx. from Wb. given here, however, could equally be referred to the preceding section): precept arbiad in order to obtain food, Wb. 10d13 . madarlóg pridchasa, 23 . is arnach nindocbáil móir fodaimim se inso, 23b12 . asberat isar indeb isdénti tol dǽ, 29b12 . arind etarimdibiu (arindetar imdibiu, MS.) gl. pro interfectione aduersariorum, Ml. 36b23 . ar chuindriug pectho gl. instrumentum est divinae iustitiae `for the correction of sin', 49b7 . gabthe dunad les fris arinoillus for protection, 55c1 . asberar ar thormuch pectha for the purpose of increasing sin(?), 76a5 . bliadain lán dano do M. [┐] a muindtir uli for usciu ┐ bargin ar tuaslucud anmae B. `to obtain the release of the soul of B.,' Mon. Tall. 133.29 . serc fochraici ara n-as[c]nam, piana do imchaisiu ara n-imgabail in order to avoid them, Ériu vii 138.28 . is rimsa . . . rohérbad ar eisnéis it is to me it was entrusted for relating, iv 144.21 . annsa lebur tuc sé dóib ar choimét a ndligid feín `for keeping', Maund. 61 . Also perh. in phrase ar olc fri, see olc (because of?).

(g) by virtue of, by means of, through (dat.): condenad fingail ar chuinged soinmige do gl. mercari peccato securitatem, Ml. 39a6 . ? ar gressaib gal / glenaid luch inna línsam `by feats of valour', Thes. ii 293.20 . ni ar lín óc brister cath, Ériu ix 47 § 18 . ar neart a n-engnama by dint of their prowess, ML² 286 . gaibsit tír and ar chlaideb by the sword, ZCP viii 313.21 .

(h) In general sense of in respect of, with regard to, in the matter of, relating to, etc. (appar. with dat.) (the ascription of some exx. to this section is tentative): desmrecht insin ar aimsir deirb that is an example of, Sg. 66b17 , cf. exemplum ara airiuc far diull tanaisiu, 106b20 , exemplum inso ara rangabalda asrubart, 39a5 . annsom hi taurgillib tairgille ar bechaib, Laws iv 162.1 . rucus tairgilli ar bechaib `für Bienen ist ein `tairgille' . . . zu stellen', ZCP xv 319 § 12 . ? isam ómun ar a aisnéis I am afraid to relate it, LU 5349 . is fon samla-sin . . /gníth . . . a cét-chumma / Temrach . . . / ar áibnius in beauty, Metr. Dinds. i 10.64 . fear feadhma deas ar gach ndān in every art, ZCP viii 562 § 16 . bean as ghloine ar ghníomharthaibh `purest in deeds', A. Ó Dálaigh xv 15 . issí eisimplair Crist . . . do lenfadís ar míne ┐ ar buaine, ar deirc ┐ ar trocaire, Maund. 123 . ro derscnaigh d'ógaibh a chomaoisi ar goil ┐ gaisccedh, Leb. Gab.(i) 200.7 . Also in phr. ar chuit, see cuit. For do-beir teist ar see teist. See airbág.

Common in phr. of type: teine . . . ar thes crabaidh (of a person) a fire . . . in heat of piety = a paragon of piety, Anecd. iii 5.19 . Muridach, ba muir ar crūa[i]s, ZCP viii 299.34 . deochain ar grādaib ┐ sacart ar ūaisle a deacon in rank and a priest in reputation, BColm. 82. 15 - 16 . ba laech ar gaisced, RC xxiv 184.4 . a éan choluim ar cheannsa, Dán Dé i 19 . mar lile ar lí, Dánta Gr. 30.14 .

(i) about (of stories, books, reading, etc. In late exx. only. Perh. orig. for in this meaning): iomda ar Lasair ferta amhra many wonderful miracles (are said to have been performed) by L., Ériu v 90.4 . is mebair linn . . . / in seanchus fil ar Mag Ráin the lore about M., iv 156.18 . Leabhar Oiris ┐ An[n]ála ar Cogthaibh . . . Éireann, i 78 . craoibsgaoileadh ar chath Cluana Tairbh description of the battle of C., 16 n. léighmid ar Alexander n-uaibhrech, etc., Mac Aingil 872 . léan ba sgéal ar fianaibh Fáil, Magauran 2790 . Cf. sgriobhthar ortha go . . ., Ó Héodhusa 68.16 .

(j) With verbs of depriving, stealing, hiding, lacking, etc. from (accus. and dat.): tri airchellad donaib sommaib a n-anae airnaib bochtaib, Ml. 90a11 . is amne asruluús airi, Wb. 17d16 . a manaig do béim ar Lommān, BColm. 84.16 . ní bēram-ne t'áthius ort we shall not take thy victory from thee, 74.22 . ni cumscaichthi cumachtae nairi gl. hoc potestatem literae motare non debuit, Sg. 6a5 . ni fil nach díchlith airi, Wb. 1a4 . tesbanat boíll aíriu, 11d11 . in dá ṡét tesbanat airi, Críth G. 130 . ní gette na brithemnachta becca erriu you would not snatch the petty judgements from them, Wb. 9c8 . nī gatar a forgall ar domun degmnā, Cáin Ad. 4 . a tellad errusom, Wb. 11a29 . dives cui (.i. isar) clam tollitur , Enchir. Aug. 76b ( ZCP vii 482.27 .)

(k) With verbs of protecting, saving from , defending against (accus. and dat.): ainsium Crīst ar cech nernbās, Thes. ii 352.4 (Hy. vi). Dīa dom chobair . . . / ar cech ṅgúasacht, 350.16 (ibid.). dia dítin ar in pecthach, Ml. 57c4 . dia diden . . . ar náimdib, Thes. ii 354.2 . airnaib imnedaib doneimni a dǽ, Ml. 110d9 . fri himdegail cuirp . . . ar demnaib, Thes. ii 354.4 . diar snádud . . . / ar gábud, 359.6 . for soirad ar senachrib, Ml. 33b21 . air ni bói numsoiradsa ar chumachtae ṅduini, 74b13 . Continuing a Latin construction: ar thes inna gréne són ┐ ara naimtib gl. quae etiam inumbraret eos et regeret, 97c4 . arnaib cumachtgaib gl. difensionem, 103c7 . arnaib hi sin gl. ut illis eripiat, 117b4 . defensionis . . . ar maccaib israhel, 124b10 . Note also: comad chādus ar cach ngúasacht that it might be a halidom against every danger, BColm. 96.10 . tucc dam a Dē mōir / . . . / ar pīanu na plāg / tonna dīana dēr, ACL iii 232 § 1 .

III In later lang. ar and for become a single preposition (often with surviving difference in follg. mutation, see the examples in Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 2 ff. ). The follg. are exx. of ar for earlier for. Of local relations (for I): imda gol gargc ar a brú many a fierce wail in its lap, BColm. 100.6 . ar saebchoire in a maelstrom, 94.12 . tarrúd úire ar airib / for leccaib ar láech-maigib, Metr. Dinds. iv 232.34 . seóit Cluana maic Nóis do foillsechadh ar Gallaib Luimnigh `were discovered with', RC xviii 53.12 . Of quasi-local relations, etc. (II). Of point of time (c): ar na tri soldomnaib `on the three chief feasts', Mon. Tall. 129.27 . ar notlaice ┐ caiscc ┐ cengciges, Ériu vii 150.30 . Of rule, sway, over (f): ba rī tenn ar Tūathmumain, ZCP viii 119.28 . flaithius ┐ forlamhus ar crichaib . . . na cruinne, CCath. 1 . In addition to (g): cotardda trá ar se mo chendsa ardo chend my head in addition to thine, RC iii 185.8 . credo ┐ pater . . . ar cech m-biait, xv 490 § 26 ( for cach mbiait, § 32 ). Affecting, afflicting, etc. (h): bíd oirb oman Dé do neim, BColm. 100.3 . trom orm a innisi, ZCP viii 200.25 . duaithnid ar dainib in domain incomprehensible to, Fen. 38. 16 . Subsisting on (j): ar geilt féoir feeding on grass, Ériu iv 156.12 . ar usci ┐ bairgin, RC xv 491 § 30 , cf. for usci ┐ bairgin, 490 § 26 . In a state or condition (k): na biad ar in mbreith sin `that she would not abide by that judgement', RC xxiv 196.1 . nírbo borg báeth ar bruidin it was not a foolish castle engaged in brawling, Metr. Dinds. i 32.46 . With vb. of motion: ge deach rī Conaill a ccēin / ar slūaiged rí Temhra tréin, ZCP viii 116.21 . To express the dativus incommodi (m): adbathadar uile thorad parrthais ar Adam `were forfeited by Adam', Laws iv 266.14 . adbathadar ar Aongus a thire, 15 . rogabsat tech air they stormed the house in which he was, BColm. 72.4 . ni cloifithir oirb bar cath, YBL 314b55 . Perh. also: ben clucc ar Cellach against, Cáin Ad. 18 . cogadh mór le Domnall . . . ar Brian, Ériu i 78.5 . In phrases (p): ar bith c[h]é on this earth, BColm. 100.3 . ar comairci C. under the protection of C., 86.28 . ar debaid in haste, LL 7493 . ar lár cháich in the midst of everybody, Ériu iv 222.28 . ar neam in heaven, Anecd. i 39.114 . ar ṡeilbh (sic leg.) éicsi, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919, v 92 § 9 . With verbs (III): dorad min aire `put meal over it', Mon. Tall. 147.11 . dobert trian forcridi . . . ar chuid cach lae `added one third of water to the daily allowance', 7 . do thabairt geinti ar ireis, ZCP iii 22.6 .

Note also: rostatlaig ar thenn-medón he clasped her by the sturdy waist, Ériu iv 104.8 . roghabh nathraigh mbí ar bolgán `by the belly', CCath. 4194 .

IV Replacing ÍAR. Of time (I): ar cath Ch. after the battle of C., ZCP viii 314.18 . arsin, Ériu iv 132.1 . is ar sein anid sí co arnabárach thereupon she remains till the morrow, ZCP viii 309.20 . ar n-ēirghi grēine at the rising of the sun, ML² 1333 . sóaidh co brónach dia taigh ar marbadh a maic, RC xviii 45.31 . ar tteacht ór tticch, ZCP viii 219 § 13 . do bātar ar n-a crēchtnugad, ML² 386 . ar ngabāil gīall for Mumain, ZCP viii 119.31 . Of place (II): arsin t[s]eit along the way, Mon. Tall. 153.20 . ar slige Póil is Petair in the track of Paul and Peter, Ériu v 24.24 . According to (III): suidfither gach aon duine . . . ar miadh ┐ ar dligedh ┐ ar a sognim[r]adh, RC xxviii 22 § 49 . ar a fidhair fen do cruthaigh Día é in His own image, BCC § 408 .

For use as conjunction see 2 ar, 1 ara.

1 árach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 árach or


Forms: arag, airge

n o, n. n p. arag, Laws i 260.15 . airge, Cóic Con. 15 § 2 (see GOI § 280 ). Later m. Vn. of ad-rig, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 592 .

(a) act of binding, tying; bond, fetter: res in coin na fetar d'arach, Laws iii 416.16 Comm. cibe inad . . . i nderna fer araigh arach `wherever the man who ties [the cow] performs the tying', 228.13 Comm. fot in araig, 412.21 Comm. airge con anaithne, O'Curry 2510 ( Eg. 88 41b ) = erge con, Laws iii 416.6 - 11 (see eirge). būrach .i. bō ┐ ārach, Corm. Y 131 (cf. bárach). a druith na halla / sen araigh corra / croma cama fodchossaigh bindings, shoes(?), IT iii 99.1 . cú áraig `a chained hound', Triads 168 . loman áraig leash , see loman and cf. cona.¤ dog-chain, leash , TBC-LL¹ 1003 .

(b) act of binding, guaranteeing (a contract or other legal obligation or transaction); bond, guarantee: ailid cac otrus a arag hi coraib bel `every sick-maintenance entails its binding (i.e. must be secured) by contracts', BCrólige 55 . a harach: arach fir fri firgilli the binding of evidence takes place with proper pledges (Thurn.), Cóic Con. 17 § 4 . issed coir cach troiscthe . . . arach for soraith nad elai `the security of a good surety who would not evade', Laws i 118.6 . faill . . . do feichemnaib lecud a naraig do derna dar a cenn `breaking their bond', Laws iii 512.1 ( O'Dav. 169 ). mad tuc arach re airisemh uirre, O'D. 538 (H 3.17, c. 433) `if he gave surety to abide by the decision', Plummer MS notes. gell ria narach geall iar narach, O'Curry 2719 ( Eg. 88, 61(62)a ). breth gin dilsi gin arach, 2290 ( Eg. 88, 21(22)d ). inann a nepert ┐ a ná.¤ , 535 (H 3.18, 265b) `their word is as good as their bond', Plummer MS. notes. ? dul do chennach gin airrchi, Ériu xiii 62 § 7 ( Triads § 74 ) (cf. airrach). If certain relatives of a dead man have all pre-deceased him then the person who inherits his `díbad' is: in fear uasal a.¤ in geilfine, O'D. 740 (H 3.17, c. 538).

In literary texts: dogen-sa aní . . . acht nar milter úaib-si a n-arach on condition that the pledge be not violated by you, LU 5849 (TBC). ní géb-sa gan á.¤ / dáig nim láech gan lámach I will not undertake it without security, TBC-LL¹ 3044 . tan nad rabe naidm nó á.¤ nó aitire acht fiadnaissi namma, LL 4996 . do tarlaic dar ārach uad `in violation of a bond', Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 20.3 . gan urradha gan á.¤ , AFM vi 1988.16 . ro naidhm árách (sic) ┐ rátha fair, 2046.18 . fonaiscis fair araige, ZCP iii 247.6 . ocht dtrátha ar atach á.¤ / [. . .] na n-ocht ndubhálach `to implore safeguards', Dán Dé xxiv 2 . fagaibh-si Teamhraig . . . re bliadain . . . dóigh tarrus á.¤ orum-sa uime sin `I have pledged myself to this', Ériu iii 154 § 8 . is andsin tarroidh Meadhbh modh n-aroidh ar Fer nDiag um an comhrag do dhénamh, ZCP x 278.8 = ra siacht M. máeth n-áraig bar F., TBC-LL¹ 3163 . táirthis baéth n-araig fair, RC xiii 106.8 ( LL 306b15 ) (see maeth).

(c) favourable opportunity, advantage, opening (frequ. with for (ar) of dat. incommodi): ōtconncatar dā mac Sgōrāin . . . á.¤ comlainn uirri `a chance of fighting against it', Fianaig. 64.19 . iarras do námhaid á.¤ ort seeks an opportunity against thee, TSh. 7762 . iarrais a.¤ ar an rígh gur marbhadh leis é `sought an opportunity and killed the king', Keat. ii 660 . mná i n-iodhnaibh . . . / gan á.¤ ar sgur dá mbrón, Measgra D. 5.34 . do-chuaid d'iarraidh áraigh air to get a chance to reform him(?) (Monica and Augustine), DDána 59.10 . á.¤ na humhlachta d'iarraidh to seek an opportunity to practise humility(?), TSh. 185 . fo-gaib (gaibid) á.¤ for (ar): ní faghthar, ní fríoth, á.¤ / orra fa Art Chaomhánach no chance was found to attack them under Art, DDána 100.24 . fuaradar Fionnlochlonnaigh . . . á.¤ ar bheith ag aithmhilleadh Éireann, Keat. iii 2911 . á.¤ ní fhaghaim ar shuan, Measgra D. 5.45 . nir gabadh á.¤ oruinn osin alé, ZCP i 131.24 .

Note further: in uair na raibhe á.¤ acut fén ort `when you had no power over yourself', PH 7391 . gidh nach bhfuil arach air though there is no help for it, Fen. 69 n.7 . ríodhamhna saor somholta / ar nach bhfuil neart nō á.¤ , O'R. Poems 1090 . an uair is mó bhíd i n-á.¤ a n-ilchleas rely on, TSh. 528 . conid he arach a raíníg . . . a cor a tenid ┐ a losgadh plan, BB 417a16 .

See also árad.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. ar-dlong or


v (dlongid) splits, cleaves: soais a bél gorurdhlocht, TBC-LL¹ p. 371 n. 7 . sunders, separates: atait secht n-ur[d]luide fine ar d(o)longat cach fine which separate, Laws v 366.10 .i. deilig, Comm. = secht nurdluigi ardoloingit, O'D. 1963 ( Eg. 88, 7(8)d ). Cf. O'Dav. 717 .

For vn. see airdluige.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. at-etha or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: ad-etha, adetha, atnethat, at etha, atethsa, atetha, atetha, atethaid, atethur, attethatar, atethaind, atet[h]ad, atethaidís, atethfat, ad-eath, adethad, at-etha, aided

v (* ad-eth-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 514 ). Properly ad-etha, but us. with mid. Ir. form of preverb (hardly with permanent inf. pron. as suggested by Zimmer KZ xxx 73 ). Indic. and subj. stems identical and freq. with force of a fut. or quasi-ipv., the impf. having that of a condit. (See Thurneysen, ZCP xxii 19 - 20 ).

Indic. pres. 3 s. adetha, Ml. 48d1 . 3 pl. atnethat, LU 5200 . ? Ipv. 2 s. (with inf. pron.) at etha, Blathm. 551 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. atethsa, Vita Br. 25 . 2 s. atetha, IT i 124 § 10 . 3 s. atetha, TBC-LL¹ 1789 . 2 pl. atethaid, LU 9710 . Pass. sg. atethur, RC xxv 35 § 9 . Pl. attethatar, TBC-LL¹ 5239 . Subj. impf. 1 s. atethaind, Ériu xii 178 § 9 (TE). 3 s. atet[h]ad, Laws i 250.20 . 3 pl. atethaidís, LL 12764 .

Fut. 3 pl. atethfat, LL 400b29 ( TTr.² 326 ).

Pret. 3 s. ad-eath, Leb. Gab.(i) 168.17 . Pass. sg. adethad, Trip.² 2901 . Forms cited above as s-pret. of ad-reith may in fact be perf. of at-etha. Cf. Thes. ii 47.25 cited below under (a).

Vn. aided?

Cf. ethaid.

(a) goes towards, attacks, seizes, takes: adetha ┐ loscaid cech rét frissa-comraic gl. flammam autem ab effectu operis, Ml. 48d1 . adreth (adrech v.l.) gl. corripuit, Thes. ii 47.25 . atnethat láith gaile Emna, LU 5200 (TBC). Dauid cen bini adreth buáid, SR 5877 . focherdat . . . na trualli ┐ na claidbiu ina ndíaíd ┐ atethat na trualli conda samaiget impu, LU 7310 . atetha íach etera da cholptha, LL 14094 . ateta a gaisced `he takes his weapons', Ériu xii 184 § 15 (TE). tonindnaig . . . leithi in chon dó . . . adetha Cu. iarom assa láim, LL 13890 . atometha lat . . . dianom riri Eochaid `thou mayest take me if E. sell me', Ériu xii 184 § 14 (TE). atetha a tuarascbáil leiss co h-airm i mbái Conchobor `he brings their description with him', CRR 27 . adreith laiss . . . muince ordhai, Anecd. i 57.54 .

(b) finds, obtains, gets: bes atetha a n-adcobrai, IT i 124 § 10 . atethaind ní bad maith lat chena acht is bairnech mo menma frit `I would have wrought something else to please thee', Ériu xii 178 § 9 (TE). dia mbetís eter biu ┐ marbu Ulaid i n-oenbali atethaidís leór a llessaigthi . . . limsa they would find sufficient to maintain them, LL 12764 . mad mo cheile no beth and atet[h]ad anad foraib, Laws i 250.20 . Frequ. in sense gets (payment, gift, satisfaction, etc.): rega ass ar in clam ateth-sa boin im mbaliu aili I will get a cow, Vita Br. 25 . atethaid a innili oca thig ye will receive his gifts at his house(?), LU 9710 . atetha lóg a iasachta, TBC-LL¹ 105 corres- ponding to do-geubair-si, TBC St. 102 . ? eirggi guin ┐ gabail / attetha as cech anáil, TBC-LL¹ 3041 . atetha-som (do geba som v.l.) na comai sin he shall have his terms, 1789 . atetha a Cruachain crúadchosc, 535 = iteta i Cr. a cosg, TBC St. 444 . ateatha Eirinn in mac sin, Anecd. ii 1.11 = gébaid, Airne F. 16 . mad áil duitsiu atetha sin, Ériu iv 142 § 19 . tuc dam indara mac ┐ beir huaim indara n-ingin . . . atetha anisin, ar Feidelm thou shalt have that, ZCP ii 134 § 4 (`take that'). atetha breth do bél féin duit. Ni géb mo breth féin ar Cu C., LL 13002 . attetha cinaid inna slūag thou shalt pay for everyone's sin, ACL iii 318 § 68 = asrire cinaid inna sluag, LB 261a70 .

(c) With écc, etc.: Oirbsen a ainm, iar cced cath, / ecc ad eath (.i. fuair), Leb. Gab.(i) 168.17 . ? bit ili athet[hat ?] martrai, ba dirsun do feraib hĒrend, ZCP xiii 379.5 ; xx 225.2 (Baile in Scáil).


Cite this: eDIL s.v. augtaracht or


n = augtartás: is e sin in cetri iar n-eladain in F. remraite is e dono iar n-ugdaracht .i. Nin mac Bel . . . according to written authority (i.e. the Chronicle of Eusebius), Auraic. 131 .

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