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1 aile

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 aile or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: oile, eile, arch, aild, aile, aile, aill, aile, aill, aili, ailiu, ailiu, áili, aili, aili, aile, ailib, aile, aili, aile, aili, aili, a., n-aill, n-aile, éile, éle, aill, aili, ailiu, ailiu, aile, alaill, allail, alaill, alaili, alailiu, aili, alaaili, alaili, n-aile, allaili, aile, alaili, aili, alaile, holailiu, horaili, fulailiu, folaill, hualailiu, alaile, alaill, alaile, arele, lelele, alaill, aláil, araill, alaili, aláili, álaili, araili, áréli, alailiu, arailiu, alaili, aili, lialailiu, liala ailiu, aile, alailib, alaili, aréli, alaili, indala, indala, dondala, indala, indala, indala, all, AILE, ALAILE, arailiu, alailiu, alaile, (a)la, al(l)

In later lang. oile, eile other, one of two, second , pronominal used as adj. and noun. Inflected as io, iā -stem except in n a s. neut. (aill, see below). GOI §§ 486 ff. , Hamp, Études Celt. ix 477 (aill, arch. aild). Old-Irish forms. Stressed forms

(a) aile (as adj. follows noun; as subst. always with article or nach). As adj. n s m. aile, Wb. 12c46 . n. aill, 9c3 . a s m. aile, Wb. 9d31 . n. aill, 13a1 . g s. aili, Sg. 30a2 . d s. ailiu, Wb. 21a7 . ailiu, Sg. 30b4 . n p. áili, Wb. 12b1 . aili, 22d14 . a p. aili, Sg. 28a6 . g p. aile, Wb. 12b3 . d p. ailib, Wb. 12b11 . Fem. n s. aile, Wb. 10d18 . a s. aili, Sg. 189a8 . g s. aile, Sg. 188a12 . n p. aili, Sg. 22a3 . a p. aili, Sg. 191a2 .

n As subst. n s m. nach a.¤ , Wb. 20a10 . n s n. a n-aill , Wb. 4b24 . a s m. nach n-aile , Wb. 8a3 . éile, éle (influence of céile, GOI p. 308 ), 6a15 , 6c18 . a s n. na aill , Wb. 17c23 . g s. nach aili , Wb. 17b28 . d s. nach ailiu , Sg. 209b12 . a p. amal na heliu, Sg. 9b1 . ailiu gl. quos (nullos tepefacit sol), Ml. 94b20 . Fem. g s. inna aile , Thes. ii 15.42 (BCr.).

(b) With double stem ala aile, alaile, with dissimilation araile (with stress on -ail-) (as adj. precedes noun; as subst. does not take article or other proclitic, cf. Ped. Ériu xv 188 ff.).

As adj. n s n. alaill ṡain, Sg. 6b24 . allail (recte alaill, edd.) pronomen , 209b10 . g s. alaili thríuin, Sg. 96a4 . d s. alailiu chruth, Ml. 98d1 . n p. alá aili aidme, Ml. 89a9 . alaaili réta, Sg. 111b5 . a p. alaili dliged, Ml. 18c11 . g p. ala n-aile ndoine, Ml. 54a21 .

Fem. a s. allaili mbeasti, RC xi 446.1 . g s. ala aile aidme, Ml. 51c5 . d s. alaili tain gl. quando, Sg. 222b2 . n p. ala aili interiecta, Sg. 10a1 .

When used with a prep. ending in a vowel alaile sometimes drops its initial: holailiu, Ml. 80a2 . horaili, 2a6 . fulailiu (sic MS.), 102d2 . folaill, Laws iv 102.14 . But hualailiu, Ml. 40d17 . Sg. 25b12 . With la see substantival use infra.

n As subst. n s m. alaile, Wb. 6b20 . n s n. alaill, 7d11 . a s m. alaile, Wb. 5d15 . arele, 9c19 . With la: lelele, 16c24 . a s n. alaill, 4c33 . aláil, 12a10 . araill, 23b21 . g s. alaili, Wb. 4c13 . aláili, 12a34 . álaili, 13a9 . araili, Sg. 10a10 . áréli, Wb. 13a5 . d s. alailiu, Wb. 2a14 . arailiu, 21a13 . n p. alaili, Wb. 13a16 . ala aili , Sg. 215a1 . a p. with la, lialailiu, Ml. 14a4 (liaailiu, MS.). liala ailiu, Sg. 32b5 . g p. ala n-aile (gl. reliquorum), Ml. 37a21 . Sg. 201b15 . d p. alailib, Wb. 25b13 . Sg. 208b8 . Fem. a s. fri alaili , Sg. 202a4 . d s. aréli (see above), Wb. 8a7 , alaili, Sg. 189a7 . 212b3 .

In Bardic verse this form alliterates with words beginning either with r- or vowels: líonmhar dá reic re-roile, DDána 61.3 . sgol i n-ucht ar-oile ag ól, 103.25 .

(c) Unstressed forms (always adjectival preceding noun or aí, see below, and most usually with preceding article or cach). With article (both words indecl.) n s m. indala mmod, Ml. 45b11 . a s m. indala fer, Wb. 4c16 . d s. dondala lucht, Wb. 16c20 . n s f. indala chlas, Ml. 138d1 . g s f. indala rainne, Sg. 74b7 . a s n. indala lestar, Wb. 4c32 . With cach, usually cach la: cach la sel, Wb. 15d9 . cach le céin, Ml. 19c1 . Without art. somet. also all, see C I (a) below.

A. The form AILE.

I As adj. following its noun other, second: frituidecht a.¤ anísiu, Sg. 21b11 . pronomen naill, 197b17 . fogur na liter na.¤ , 4a8 . guidiu itge n-a.¤ , Fél. Ep. 413 . anní nail as much again, IT ii1 180.177 . cethri fogaetha a.¤ , SR 49 . immon michil lasin crosfigill-so immon muiri lasind crosfigell na.¤ immasech `with the next', Mon. Tall. 137.z (§ 28) . do nach raod aliu `to any other matter', 143.30 (§ 43) . isind le[i]th ailiu, Críth G. 591 (eliu, MS.). do c[h]ellaib elib, BColm. 62.20 . forsin triur aili `the other three', RC xxiv 174.10 . aisceda imda eili, Sc.M² § 4 R . Longínus in ainm ele, PH 673 . a dhuine dhiombuain eile, DDána 27.3 . céd eili d'uaislib `a hundred other nobles', IGT Decl. ex. 60 . ┐ ní eili and furthermore, Hy Maine 161.31 . beag oile as congnamh ré chois `little else', Dán Dé x 17 . aill with non-neut. noun: ro-lēcus-[s]a gaí n-aill cucut-su, Sc.M² § 13 . issin láim n-aill, MU² 543 . do thuc bulli n-aill, TBC-LL¹ 1998 . fecht n-aile (n-aill), úair a.¤ another time, on another occasion see fecht and 2 úar. Of future time, next, forthcoming: lathi n-and resint samḟuin a.¤ cind bliadna, LU 3298 ( SCC § 10 ). cosin caiscc naili `until the next Easter', Mon. Tall. 132.17 (§ 12) . nach (na) . . . a.¤ (aill) any other . . . : nábat nacha arm aili `let it not be any other arms', Wb. 11d14 . dochum nacha rainne a.¤ , Sg. 188a12 . indtan noteigdis nach leth aili, Mon. Tall. 129.18 (§ 6) . in nacha reduibh ailib, Ériu ii 106.9 . Masc. with neut. noun: huare nad fil na nert n-a.¤ , Ml. 29d5 .

n II As subst.

(a) another, the other, others etc.: cuit inna aine ┐ inna a.¤ of the one and of the other, Thes. ii 15.42 (Bcr.). amal na heliu `like the others', Sg. 9b2 . arus leth do fallaib an aill do doebdadaib `for half is due for the neglects, the other for the claimants,' Laws iv 126.21 Comm. mad a.¤ da lina beta olca folaid `one of two parties', ii 366.11 . ma a.¤ dá lína bes anfoltach, O'D. 565 ( H 3.17, 441 ). co ndearnadhsom in a.¤ chédna likewise, TFrag. 22.22 . mani tucad . . . ní din chéttadall ni bered a n-aill, Sc.M² § 1 . ní fargaib bennachtain ┐ ní thuc anaill (alali, v.l.), RC viii 52.25 . aroile . . . anaill the one . . . the other (ref. to léo), Grail 3399 .

(b) period of two days: a.¤ do mnaib . . . treisi do rig, Laws i 78.15 . nat ṡasai aena tar a.¤ `that one day should not be extended beyond two days', 120.18 . athgabail a.¤ itir uin ┐ treise rosmidir Sencha, 126.11 . cach athgabail a.¤ , 144.24 .i. for ata anad naili ┐ apad aili, 146.21 Comm. is for dail na haili, 146.12 Comm. athgabail a.¤ do ingin im comorbus a mathar, 146.y .i. ar ata anadh naili, 148.3. Comm. a.¤ déc space of twelve days (cf. a.¤ déc one twelfth , (g) infra): a.¤ do mnaib, a.¤ dec doib im roe, Laws i 78.15 .

(c) Frequ. a n-aill something else, anything else: nimbe anaild arbera bith `he has nothing else that he may eat', Mon. Tall. 146.16 (§ 50) . ind lethbairgin ┐ ind cethramtu nó anaild `the half loaf and the quarter or other quantity, 151.z (§ 63) , ní fogbat merdrecha Ulad a n-aill acht foraim én dóib, LU 3254 ( SCC § 5 ). it é do theoir ríagla / nítroib anaill bas diliu `have thou naught else dearer', Ériu i 194 § 7 . in fil anaill? ol Grigoir `is there anything else?' ZCP iii 30.21 .

(d) Hence with ocus, etc. furthermore: ┐ anaill forácbus[s]a . . ., LL 279a7 . ┐ anaill béus, iarfaig-siu and furthermore, ask . . ., TBC-LL¹ 1920 . ┐ dano a n-aill and úair ni chesend nech, LU 2654 . ┐ anaill niro tagaill . . ., Grail 2786 . Cf. similar use of araill: et araill aile dana béus, TBC-LL¹ 106 . ┐ araill and, dano, . . . ní fil rígain . . ., LU 4015 ( SCC § 46 ). araill ele bheós ro leth ainm . . ., AFM v 1858.z . ┐ araill ele nir bó siodhach . . ., vi 2052.10 .

(e) Uninflected aill . . . aill one . . . another, some . . . others (not found in O. Ir. Glosses): imrordus in rígraid / . . . / aill úas laithib lígdaib / aill fo díanaib déraib some . . . others, Fél. Prol. 23 . aill fir mair . . . / aill ingene húage `one of a mighty man . . . another of a virginal maiden', June 5 . áill fri cumaid . . . aill ele fri teichead (of persons), Alex. 309 . .lll. carpdech . . . aill bruitt budi aill bruit deirg `some in yellow mantles others in red mantles', RC xiv 412.8 . Hence adverbially partly . . . partly: aill is tóla catha crūach / aill is cōra cacha crích, ZCP xi 110 § 30 . go ruc in ingen leis aill ar áis aill ar égin, Ériu xi 46.13 . Cf. aill .i. aonfecht .. . ut est aill torla tres tochuired, O'Dav. 34 , Ériu xiii 15.11 .

(f) With nach any other: arna arroímatsom nach na.¤ `lest they should receive any one else', Wb. 14d37 . cen acaldaim nach aili, Sg. 153b7 . cen acomol naich aili do `without joining any other to it', 197b17 . nib écen na aill, Wb. 22d12 . ni gessid na aill act búaid precepte, Wb. 26a34 . ní epur na haill `I say nothing more', Sg. p. 217 marg. sup. (Thes. ii xxii). in fail na aill adcota[r] dam, Trip.² 1323 . cona bía cuit do nach ailiu i nHére, 2766 . do-bérad naill ( = na aill) would give something else, BDD² 276 . With partitive DI something else of: asbéram na aill diar ṅgnímaib, Wb. 17c23 . in fuil anaill d'ingantaib air?, Grail 2983 . Cf. aill do buadaib Duind C. andso something of the triumphs, TBC-LL¹ 1529 .

(g) In numerals (fractions). a.¤ déac one twelfth: oile dég f., IGT Decl. § 3 . oil a dég (oil dhég v.l.) lochdach, IGT Decl. § 14 . aili deac brotto `the twelfth part of a second', Thes. ii 13.29 (BCr.). erpais Patraic aili deac Erend dó the twelfth part of Ireland, Trip.² 911 . `a.¤ dhéc the twelfth part, the Brehon's fee . Anglicé allayéag,' O'Don. Suppl. ni uil aile déc dosomh ┐ atá éiric a gubreite fairsium, O'D. 536 ( H 3.17, 432 ). da tecarthar ni da folaid cruid on breithemain, no ailedec, Laws i 234.17 Comm. diablad na aile dec, 234.18 Comm. no co thormaigi fa geall co roib aile dec, v 252.20 Comm. log a breithemnuis, aile dec, 212.22 Comm. Perh. also in: ni bhía an oile dēgsi am díaigh / nach foighe Ó Bríain d'éicsi úaim, IGT Decl. ex. 216 . barr na ngēg uile re n-idnaibh / uile dég gun fidhbaidh ortt (lochtach), ex. 225 . Cf. Kl. enair for dardain ail uathaid fuirre `the second day of the moon thereon', RC xviii 176.27 (Tig.). 284.2 . For ail dec 35.9 Stokes suggests reading ail uathaid.

B. The form ALAILE etc.

I As adj.

(a) other: aliud pronomen . i. is allail (recte alaill, edd.) pronomen , Sg. 209b10 . cenn cridi ┐ alaaili réta `and other things', 111b5 . sech alaili dliged ┐ indliuchtu `apart from other sayings and meanings', Ml. 18c11 . imtech[t] Boinde . . . ┐ alanaile n-aband, AU i 308. 11 , cf. 330.4 , 374.4 . In later lang. neut. form somet. used after noun irrespective of gender: leth in moige . . . al-leth allaill, RC xi 446.52 . don taeb araill, Stair Erc. 782 . isin luing araill, Grail 2969 . isind láim anaill, TBC-LL¹ 1719 . Note also: adhaigh n-aill n-aile another night, BNnÉ 324 § 38 .

(b) Usually some, a certain (gl. quidam, aliquis): hualailiu chlausul gl. uelut in clausula, Ml. 40d17 . holailiu lon gl. quodam adipe, 80a2 . ainm alaili thríuin `name of a certain hero', Sg. 96a4 . alaill ṡain, 6b24 . hualailiu mud gl. quodammodo, 25b12 . con alailiu fogoir (leg. fogur, edd.) gl. aliquo `with some sound', 39a2 . alaili tain gl. quando, 222b1a . ac gūmāidim ala naile nairec ninganta falsely boasting of various wonderful inventions, Corm. Y 825 . cornan alaili cuislendach, `a certain piper Cornan', Mon. Tall. 131.23 (§ 10) . alaili fáith marb, Trip.² 1395 . di araile anmcharait, ACL iii 5.3 . aroile fer angid, PH 818 . doní . . . araile gaitt irisech `she commits a certain pious theft', BColm. 84.10 . i n-araile domnuch, ZCP iii 33.15 . ro indsaig araile carruic . . . ┐ ros buail, Grail 1435 . in araile locc i lLaighis `at a certain place', AFM ii 1066.3 . Cf. co aroile mainistir ecin, RC x 187.4 .

n II As subst.

(a) another, the other: ni ferr nech alailiu, Wb. 2a16 . ni áir do neuch molad alaili, 16a24 . is coitchen do cechtar de ainm alaili `the name of each is common to both', Ml. 14d12 . intí diib bes tresa orcaid alaile, Ml. 19d6 . tar cenn alanaile gl. aliorumuice, 95d9 . Sg. 201b15 . cenmathá dobrethir ┐ alaaili `except the adverb and other (parts of speech)', 71b17 . muidit secht catha ren Osseirgé for na Déise . . . asberat araile is tricha cath others say, Ériu iii 138.102 . in foirend is craibdige araile `the folk who are more believing than the rest', PH 6363 . coná baí aithgne neich sech alaile díb, TBFr. 271 . cach gabal tra issuidiu araile hisesam `every other division is sung sitting, the next standing', Mon. Tall. 140.4 (§ 31) . gach clas ro claideadh do línadh do arbaim alaill do imbim the furrows to be filled alternately with corn and butter, Laws iv 98.14 Comm. drécht diib i nAidniu, araill diib oc Dubcechair, ZCP viii 305.30 . Hence alaile . . . alaile etc. (the) one . . . the other, another: biit alaili and rofinnatar a pecte rosíu (sic) docói grád forru alaili is iarum . . ., Wb. 29a28 . alaaili diib hi remthechtas . . . alaaili dano it coitchena eter remthechtas, Sg. 215a1 . Later araill . . . de is used of all genders: comérgit Ulaid araill díb . . . araill, LU 5017 . Cf. a dá grúad . . . co ndeirgi fola laíg ┐ araill eile co solusgili sneachta, BDD² 38 . Also when first part of phrase contains ind ala (infra).

(b) With idea of mutual action each other: con rochra cách a.¤ lit. that each may love the other (= that all may love each other), Wb. 6d1 . rosbennach cách dib elathain aroile, Fél. 4.20 . Eogan . . .┐ Oed . . . do marbad aroili, Ann. Conn. 1340.12 . ar bruinnib ┐ ochtaip aroile ┐ a chēile, Fl. Earls, 80.17 . Frequ. with prepp.: combad imned for araill domsa so that it should be trouble upon trouble for me, Wb. 23b21 . Cf. in peccath for arele, 9c19 . is ball cách dialailiu, 5d4 . ar a ndig cechtar dīb sech anaile (araile v.l.) so that they can get past each other (of two chariots), Corm. Y 1082 (96.11) . ni dernai nechtar n-ai olc fri araili, TBFr. 24.3 = fria chéile, 420 . ón tráth co roili, BDD² 1251 . lán ón orsain go ar-oile / an teach . . ., DDána 85.37 . casmhail a rún dá-roile, 92.6 . an ro loitseat Goill ┐ Geraltaig imo roile (roile) isan tansa `the injuries mutually done upon each other', AFM v 1734.15 . dīss derbrāthor dieroile `two . . . brothers', Fl. Earls 124.1 . ?asrean a ceile agh fo laill do `his neighbour shall give him another calf', Laws iv 102.14 Comm.

(c) somebody, something; a certain person or thing . In sg.: araill tra cairigedarsom there is a certain thing (?) (`there are other things now which he blames'), Wb. 25b9 . So also: [con]-secha alaill indib (`he corrects another thing in them'), 26c1 . aroile do lāmhoip S. Niclās `one of the hands', Fl. Earls 80.20 . ba ingnad liasna Fomoire alaill tarfas doib isin cath a certain thing, RC xii 92 § 122 . atpert aroile fris `a certain man', Stair Erc. 1449 . Note also: ara ara bélaib isin charput sin araile forseng fánfota forbrec a charioteer in front of him . . . and he was, LU 9274 . In pl.: is sí cétbaid alanaile `this is the opinion of some', Ml. 36a1 . circunflex la grecu for alailib diib, Sg. 208b8 . With DI: araill d'feraib Midi `some of the men of M.', RC xviii 23.31 . do deachaidh fein cona mac . . . ┐ ar oile dia mhuintir innte, Leb. Gab.(i) 242.26 . d'foraithmet araill dona neithibh remraiti, 272.6 . araill d'áes na cemenn sin, CCath. 86 .

(d) As adv. (d s n.) arailiu `otherwise', Wb. 21a13 (introducing an alternative explanation); cf. alailiu chruth gl. aliter, Ml. 98d1 . alailiu, Wb. 9a23 (see Bergin, Ériu xiv 29 ; xvii 1; Pedersen, Ériu xv 188 ). alaile, Anecd. iii 59.2 . araili .i. gne eile, Laws iv 68.3 . Perh. also in TBC-I¹ 1044 , TBC-LL¹ 1833 ff. (reading ... cadān co leith. Allaile (alailiu LU) dia tonda etc.) .

C. The form (a)la, al(l).

I As adj.

(a) other, one of two, second (in this use a `compositional prefix', GOI § 394 ): all-aidchi on another night, IT ii2 194.21 . alachéill in sin, ZCP viii 313.29 . Morc .i. ala flaith na Fomoire, Leb. Gab.(i) 80.30 . béra cend ríg alathúaithi lat, BDD² 727 . fria lesa alabrugh of other territories, O'Curry 454 ( H 3.18, 242a ). rogrād fir alathīre 'great love of a man of another land', Ériu ii 15 § 2 . ? nach for ala thire tí tarrassais 'that you did not abide upon the surface of another land', PMLA lvi 940 ( LL 37013 ). li ala lécuinn Saul `by one of S.'s cheeks', Ml. 55c1 . ala n-or di i teg, a n-aill fri sīn, Corm. Y 35 (aurso). ala thred dub alaili find, Anecd. i 57 § 58 . tēora blaī būirig . . . blaī mescae . . . alablaī dúnaid la túatha téchtai tecraiter the second exemption, ZCP xi 83.1 . cath Ocha alachath `the second battle', RC xiii 54.10 . ala-chor second contract, Laws ii 274.z . mád ala feacht iar mbrethaib forru `for the second time', 66.16 . See also under compds. and 1 al. See also under allabrig.

(b) With article ind ala one of two, (the) one (. . . the other) (see also B II (a) supra): dotóeth indala fiacail airthir a chinn `one of the two teeth', Thes. ii 248.9 . arambé indala rann cen diall `that one of the two parts be undeclined', Sg. 74b6 . ind ala c. gl. praetermisit unam c (i.e. by writing hoc for hocc), 205b5 . co lluid tré scíath n-ete indala heóin one of the two birds, LU 3282 ( SCC § 7 ). doroigu ind ala fer . . . et romiscsigestar alaile, Wb. 4c16 . is léir dorigni indala lestar is dínnimu dongní alaill, 4c32-33 . ni coir dídnad dondala lucht et troscud dond lucht ailiu, 16c20 . īadais andala (indara, LU) sūil . . . asoilg alaile, TBC-I¹ 394 . benaid . . . Mac Cecht a chend dondala fir . . . ro boí in fer aile oc élúd, LU 7942 . Loch nE. dindala leith di ┐ Slíab C. dind leith ailiu, Trip.² 1957 . Later indara: indara láim dó fri ubull bragat in chon. dobeir araile fria chúl one of his hands, LU 5012 . indara fecht . . . canait ceol . . . in fecht n-aill contúaset fri ceól muintire nime, 1978 ( FA 5 ). is hé indara fer . . . ró an . . . Donnmal int aili, Trip.² 1521 .

(c) ind ala the second (cf. tánaiste): cengsat siar dind ara chur `for the second time', Metr. Dinds. iii 4.33 . isin dara cét lá deidenach don ré `on the second last day of the term', Laws iv 136.1 Comm. Hence in compd. numerals: ala rann deac `one twelfth', Thes. ii 13.29 (BCr.). issed indala nainmm déc the twelfth name, Thr. Ir. Gl. 25.9 = indara hainm, Corm. Y 750 . indala descipul lxx at the seventy-second disciple, Laws i 20.2 Comm. fir errainne co alasét sesed with sixty-two `séts' ZCP xii 361.21 . ?torad cach trethain ala cairrge, Laws v 484.2 (Comm. takes as all beyond). Cf. co treathan ala cairge no ala caire, O'Curry 20 ( H 3.18, 9a ).

(d) cach (a)la every other, every second: cach la céin . . . in céin naili sometimes . . . sometimes, Ml. 19b1, 3 . cachlacein `alternately', Mon. Tall. 146.29 (§ 52) . is i fescur cachlacēin / dlegar dīdnad dōib they are entitled to a meal on alternate days at vesper-time (of fasting regulations), ZCP xiii 29.14 . cach la sel dún for imrádud dé in sel aile for precept `at one time meditating on God, at another time preaching', Wb. 15d9 . ammarbad cach la sel iarum do a mbeogud indtale dia marbad `he continues alternately to mortify and revive them from their dying state', Mon. Tall. 147.16 (§ 52) . bó cona timthuch cech la blíadnai . . . colp[d]ach ḟirenn lee in mblíadnai n-aili every second year, Críth G. 266 . cach alablīa[dain] every second year, Corm. Y 1082 ( Anecd. iv 96.16 ). cach ara bliadain, Laws iv 140.29 Comm. druinech cechla bean / crecōir cechla fer, ZCP ix 170.17 . ate cuir treineacha la Feine cach la fear dia urgaire, alaili dia forngaire, Laws iv 54.13 . gach re n-am alternately, Dán Dé v 41 .

II n As subst. indala n-aí (invariable) one of the two: is dochu ind ala nái oldaas a n-aill, Wb. 4b24 . togu ind ala n-ái . . . damnad alaili `to choose one of the twain . . . to condem the other', 4c13 . ci atbela ind ala n-ái ni epil alaill, Sg. 30a3 . ind ala n-aí antúaid alaile andess, 67b22 . co n-accai in da mnaí . . . indala n-ai brat úaine impe alaili brat corcra, LU 3285 ( SCC § 8 ). elcuig indalanae, ruibidh alailiu, ZCP viii 105.11 . da fítt . . . inddala hí do tabirt do Día . . . araile do tomailt fadein, Mon. Tall. 161.10 (§ 80) . Later also ala (n-)aí: ar lēicse ala aí di arailiu, ZCP xv 316 § 10 . ni frith ala ai do thacru, 354 § 42 . dá [n]dorus [n]-and—comla[e] ar ala n-aí, clíath ar alailiu, Críth G. 101 . bōthar, talla dā boin fair .i. alanāi for fot alaile for tarsnae, Corm. Y 1082 ( Anecd. iv 96.17 ).

COMPDS. cosnamach fri hailecricha, Ériu viii 173.28 . i n-ailithír, Trip.² 2033 . asna hailithírib foreign countries, TTr.² 1747 (cf. ailithir). aile máthair, Sg. 152a2 (not treated as compd. by GOI § 394 . Perh. infl. by the Lat. altera mater). See also C I (a) above.

2 airlann

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 airlann or
Last Revised: 2013


Forms: urlann, orlann, erlann

n (1 lann) Orig. o, later ā, f. urlann, orlann, erlann f., IGT Decl. § 12 . (a) end, butt-end, handle (of a weapon): an baile a negarthar a hadharc fuirre a fochair .i. a hurlann (of a spear), Laws iv 226.10 . Cf. aurlond . . . ainm d'oreill gae .i. ind adarc dub bis mon gai, Auraic. 1621 . ga . . . dá dorn .x. etar a hiarann ┐ a fochair .i. a hurlann, O'Dav. 495 . ro díbairg in ṅgai dó 's a urlond reme butt first, LL 13969 . tummis G. irlund a gai issin n-abaind, LU 1747 . tumais a herluinn, Ériu ix 178 § 13 . cresaigthi . . . in lagin . . . ┐ benaid a hurlond fria a bais, BDD² 1234 . da gae for cach óen crand leo gae for rend ┐ gae for erlond co mbad chumma dagontais do rennaib ┐ do erlonnaib, TBC-LL¹ 4531 . béim d'erlaind in rogaí, MU² 727 . sleg . . . co fethan óir impi o irlond co cró, LU 10665 . crann a c[h]raísighi o hurlainn co a h-innsma, ML² 919 . la tabairt a[i]rlaindi a tsligi for C. `fair t'irlaind dīm', Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 38 § 7 . sleagh . . . an n-uair teilgtear a ndeōigh a hurluinne, Feis Tighe Chonáin 464 . cindus do-béra mé in tsleigh duit . . . in é a gráin do-béra mé roimpe nó an é a hurrlann?, Comp. CC 99 § 31 . maidhm na nUrland . . . for Gallu, RC xvii 364.12 ( = na nErland, AFM ii 808.6 ). éirghi ard ar earluinn ráimhe / balg ar dhearnuinn láimhe láoich, IGT Decl. ex. 591 . point, tip of a staff: teit erlund na bachla triana chois, Trip. 468.26 . do bered in file aurland . . . fors in cend ┐ ro finnad a ainm, Laws i 44.6 Comm. (a form of divination). Cf. tabraid cend na flesci filed fair, Corm. Y 323 . Of the rudder of a ship: intan tra documlaiset ┐ docorustar a lūi nō urland (aurlunn v.l.) fri tīr, Corm. Y 1059 ( Anecd. iv 91.9 ). Fig. cona nurlaind techta, Laws v 438.24 .i. . . . cach grad da daim coir maraen ris, 440.8 Comm. = o a urluth techta .i. dam bas coir inna theg, O'Curry 862 ( H 3.18, 389 ab) `? a persons' retinue or attendance', Plummer MS. notes. co haurlaind a dithma end, completion(?), Laws i 102.8 = co n-aurlund, v 404.22 . Compd.: d'ordaibh . . . urlainnleathna, TSh. 1980 `with broad handles', Gloss.

(b) (? air- + slond) marker (of gender) Sages, Saints and Storytellers 1-3 . In Auraic. of the pronouns é, í, ed (and their Latin equivalent hic, haec, hoc) used to determine the gender of following nouns (cf. also the various applications of 3 a.): aurlond . . . ainm d'oreill gae . . . is di arsisidar in gai, imtha is amlaid arsisidar in indsce don trediu-sa .i. ise isi ised: no dona deich n-urlandaib-sea etc., Auraic. 1621 ff. tri herlonda indsge .i. tri remsloind . . . .i. is se, is si, is edh, 3120 . masgal ┐ feimin ┐ nemutur lasin Laitneoir . . . nus-deochrend a tri herlanna innsge, id est hic, hec, hoc , 3026 = a tri urluimi, 524 . urland ria n-urland ┐ urland iar n-urland ┐ urland inand iter da urland nach it inanda. Urland rie n-urland quidem, iní rie se no rie sí no re séudh. Erland ier n-urland .i. in se no in si no in sedh. Urland inand iter da urlaind nach it inanda .i. in se inand fil in gach focul, ni herlond is achd (leg. achd is) reimtsuidugud: no is fri se no fri sedh. i.e. the a.¤ before an a.¤ is the noun preceding , or sed; an a.¤ after an a.¤ is the word , , or sed; an identical a.¤ between two a.¤'s which are not identical is the which is the same for every word, whether it be for or sed, for `is sed' is not an a.¤ but an `anteposition' ( ni erlond is sed, 593 (i.e. does not indicate gender?), 3114 - 3120 ). cuin is urland, cuin is indsge? . . . Is he [isi issedh: indsci emh intan itberor] nama gan araill imaille fris. Urlond eim antan dobeire fria araill, ut est is he in feur (isé, isí, ised are innsce (gender) when used absolutely but each of these is an airland when it serves to indicate or point out a follg. subst. e.g. isé in fer, isí in ben?), 3103 . Also applied to gender forms of numerals: aurlunna ilair mascul ┐ femen in so sis: se, da, thri, cet[h]ri: si, di, teora, cetheora, 1714 , cf. 1623 ff. See 3 airlann.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. arguntís or


v a.¤ do benaid foo, LU 4874 (.i. in ges boí foraib, H) = arguittis do ina(?) aigid foo, TBC-I¹ 386 . See St. Fr. Táin Gloss.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. athchor or
Last Revised: 2013


o, [m.] vn. of ad-cuirethar. Lit. act of throwing back, but freq. with force of ath- very much reduced.

(a) act of giving back, returning, restoring: is mesech a athcur cib cuin ro-cara, ZCP xvi 211.33 = is meisech athcu[i]r, xv 246 § 5 . ni astaither in saorrath cin athchur, Laws ii 216.23 Comm. diablad fria n-athchur (of stock), v 222.x Comm. cuic seoit ┐ athchur sunn uile san athgabail, 254.13 Comm.

(b) With FOR act of returning to, restoring to: ind praind sin do adcor forsind comdid `to cast that meal back upon the Lord', Mon. Tall. 148.25 (§ 58) (perh. in physical sense to vomit). ma ta aice nech for a derndta athcur, dena (of a wife), Laws v 144.16 Comm. no co nderna a athchur for a athair `until he returns him to his father', iii 502.19 Comm. (of returning a child from fosterage). gu caemsatís a a.¤ focetoir for righ (of a doubtful child whom no `fine' will admit), O'D. 2312 ( Rawl. B 506, 31d ). dá mbeith si 'ga ha.¤ ort `if she be restored to thee' (a wife), TD 20.50 . Hence of handing back, renouncing (a pact, etc.): luid . . . do a.¤ a chairdessa for Coin Culaind to return his friendship to C. (i.e. to renounce his friendship with C.), LU 6017 (TBC). tarmartatar . . . dol do a.¤ a chotaig . . . fri righ Temrach to renounce, Anecd. ii 74 § 31 . ag iarraidh ádhbhar athchuir a chómhosaidh ar Chonn `a cause for breaking his truce', ML 70.25 . In later lang. act of urging upon, recommending to: tánag d'athchur Fhódla air / Aodh Ó Domhnaill Dúin Bhalair to urge the cause of Ireland on him, Magauran 3828 . do ghaolta dá hathchur ort / faghthar t'aonta don Iarlacht `thy kinsfolk pressing it on thee', Aithd. D. 37.34 . máthair Críost re n-abar ógh / bíodh dom athchar ar a huan, 90.8 . dia athchar forro cech . . . truagh nobhiad leo a tidlacad dia dun-som, Marco P. 124 . In literal sense: a athchur ar húa nAinmirech to hand him over to . . ., MR 246.22 . With DO: faidis . . . techta do athchar chisa do M. `to yield tribute to M.', Marco P. 156 .

(c) act of rejecting, adjourning, postponing (a suit): eric troisce tar dliged uaithib ┐ a n-athcur dogres `they shall . . . be non-suited', Laws i 86.28 Comm. cuic seoit ┐ athcur co laithe for sechtmain, 114.1 Comm. ? do beir in saíre athcur for anud `puts an end to the stay', ii 114.13 Comm. ma tainic in grad feine d'acra in graid flatha . . . ┐ ni tarta gella . . . dó is athcor cu cend bliadna, O'Curry 679 (H 3.18, 331). ? re nathcur caitche cethra co ruice fogelta compensating(?), 257 (H 3.18, 149b).

(d) act of throwing; throwing out or away, getting rid of, dispelling: re h-imud na n-urchur aca n-athchur eturru being exchanged, TTebe 3085 . na cathaighthe anall 's anonn / dar n-athchuirne ó all go hall swaying us, Aithd. D. 51.13 . tucatar . . . athchur coitcenn ar a cloidhmib ┐ ar a clogadaib, etc. they flung away weapons and armour (of routed troops), Caithr. Thoirdh. 68.20 . ni mōr nach gcuirit trī lēige d'a.¤ a pelér `they carry almost three leagues in shooting their bullets', Fl. Earls 68.2 . icc atc[h]ur a n-anmann . . . dara mbelaibh seachtair, CCath. 6125 . tainig soillsi . . . iar n-athchur an dorchadais, Aisl. Tond. 110 § 1 . tabhair phóig go díochra dhamh / dar móid fhiochdha budh athchar `this will be enough to dispel our angry feelings', Magauran 2551 . fescar flaithiusa ┐ . . . athchur airechais `destruction', MR 122.4 .

(e) act of expelling (person): athc[h]or ar an ord ēiccius expelling the poets, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. v (1919) 92 § 8 . glún mh'oileamhna dom a.¤ (obadh v.l.) `that the knee which nursed me should reject me', TD 3.46 . nír hachradh cách ó chridhe / gér ghnáth athchar ainbhfine though one usually wishes to expel a foe, Aithd. D. 71.35 . ó atáid Gaoidhil . . . ag a.¤ Ghall, O'Hara 2892 . T. . . . do athchur a flaithes ua mBriuin was expelled, AFM ii 1064.7 . ar macaibh Ruaidhri da.¤ uaidh `on condition that he should expel the sons of R.', iii 228.7 . d'athchur ┐ d'innarbad C[h]uinn, ML² 875 . arna n-a.¤ ┐ arna n-ionnarbadh a parrthas, TSh. 3607 . tugadh achur ┐ ionnarbadh ar in rí, ZCP xxxiii 135 § 24 . do chuireadoir ar achur ┐ ar ionnarbadh é, § 25 .

(f) Various: ro-mboísom do nirt . . . a n-indarba a tír Hérenn do a.¤ a ndíbergi allanall to transfer their plundering to the other side(?), BDD² 400 . cen tinntúd ┐ cen a.¤ cusin coimdid turning back, PH 4196 . cor ┐ athcor . . . in cloigem ort, Acall. 2249 v.l. (= a sochar ┐ a dochar in chloidim ort, text). act of replanting: benaid . . . a croinn a huir dia n-athcur doridhisi, Marco P. 165 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. bainid or


x see benaid .

1 bas

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 bas or


Forms: bos, bos, bas, bass, bassa, bosi, -seng

n ā, f. Also bos. bos bas, IGT Decl. § 39. See ZCP xviii 111.

(a) palm of the hand : bass `palma', Ir. Gl. 94. na bassa gl. palmas, Gild. Lor. 58. ní bí acht oen díb for a bais (of a juggling feat), BDD² 1168. benaid a hurlond fria bais co ba trí (of feat with lance), 1234 . éicnech ra imluaid a bais / ar a ḟindgruaid Enechglais, LL 7126. rosṁbī Brigit fria boiss (bois, v.l.) `against her palm', Thes. ii 346.5 (Hy.v). isat bána do bassa, TFerbe 711 . etrocht b.¤ fo beind mbuabaild bright the hand about a drinking-horn, IT iii 19 § 54. oc ool usci da bois builid, SR 1893. do bhárr a bhoise no imaineadh cach aeghaire feis cacha fidbaidi `with the palms of his hand', MR 100.18 . ro-s-buailset dia mbassaib ┐ dornaib a gnuis, PH 117. dearg an bh.¤ gidh bé ar a geall `red His hand', Dán Dé ix 16 . a-tá 'gan chol b.¤ rem béal `sin raises its hand against me', xxiii 31 . as a basuibh bairr-gheala, Ériu iv 112.26 . gur buail b.¤ Críst in comlaid, 116.22 . ruc leis e ar bharr baisi he took him by the hand, 56.22 . dá ngabha mo bhais, Aithd. D. 40.10 . le bárr méir baise, Hackett xx 22 . daringni rethrean rebach bossi di (sc. of the spear of Saturn), LL 31778 ( TTr. 967 ). In name of a metre: debide baisi fri toin, IT iii 18 § 49 , bosi, 46 § 71 .

With prep. I in possession, control : an tir na bhais gé do beadh `in his hand [possession],' Miscell. Celt. Soc. 412.17 .

In phrase b.¤ do thabhairt fá to reject : b.¤ do thabhairt fá bhréagánaibh an tsaoghail, TSh. 6984.

As object with vbs. of beating, striking, expressing grief or other emotion: adsoirg a bossa la sodain he beats his hands (of Bricriu on seeing his ruined house), LU 8383 ( FB 25 ). robuailsetar basa leo `they smote their palms', TTebe 2253 . rontuaircc a uassv ( = bhassu), Aisl. Tond. 93 § 2. tug . . . / treas fan uaigh ar bualadh bos, Rel. Celt. ii 234.40 .

Of capacity: co tuca nech dib . . . bais gráin do `a handful of grain', Laws iii 382.7 Comm. bass dina fertsib immon creitt `a handful ', TBC-LL² 4819 . Of hoofs, claws, etc. of animals and birds: b.¤ ind Ḟind `the White Bull's hoof', Metr. Dinds. iii 372.17 . co ruildetar a mbossa ┐ a n-eti dind usciu (of birds), LU 3265 ( SCC 6 ). cét mb.¤ for cach laim ┐ cét ningen for cach bais (of an infernal monster), RC iv 252.27 . nosnáitis muir dia mbossa ( = mbassaib, ed.) `they (i.e. ravens) paddled the sea with their feet', Metr. Dinds. iii 258.2 . eoin bas ndearg, Aithd. D. 9.9 .

(b) Extended applications: ballan boisi boighi .u. uingi `a boige is a small vessel with a handle', O'Dav. 201. do basaibh na ruádhrámha blades, CCath. 1934. do bhais fidraidh corcra cruind `with . . . wooden oar-blade', Magauran 1284 .

(c) As measure of length or breadth: ceithri orlaighi i mbais, teora basa i troighid, Laws iii 334.20 Comm. (see ZCP xiv 358 ). tinne laime .i. b.¤ a tiget a tinne, ii 252.8 Comm. is inann in fiche dorn so ┐ in tricha b.¤ tall i mbrethuib neimhe, 23 Comm. trí bassa téchtai: bass etir a assa ┐ a ochrai, bass etir a ó ┐ a berrad, bass etir chorthair a léined ┐ a glún `three lawful handbreadths', Triads 222 . ba cáilithir b.¤ (= unius palmae mensura), Aisl. Tond. 100.3 .

Compds. With adjj. ¤gel having white hands: Ainnli baisgel, IT ii2 137.13 . ¤lebar: slat bhoisleabhar ón mBóinn mir (of Maguire), DDána 75.42 . ¤lethan (of a horse) having broad hoofs: gabur . . . b.¤ , LU 8626 ( FB 47 ). -seng having slender hands: síodhaidhe boisseang (of Maguire), DDána 70.10 . With subst. and vn. ¤béimnech beating of hands (to show emotion): nuall . . . ┐ basbemnech ┐ ecaine, LB 154b35 . ¤orguin act of beating the hands: dogní in bosórguin se oc gait a bíd aire ar écin, LU 6927 (BDD). See basc(h)rann, basgaire.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. basc(h)rann or


n (bas + crann). IGT Decl. § 11. Lit. hand-stick (or -board if = tabula), clapper (cf. `in monasteries the wooden board which was beaten to call the community together, esp. on the death of a member, v. Ducange, tabula No.4 ,' Plummer MS. notes), wooden knocker: benaid bascrann . . . gaibem a ecnairc, or Brigit, ór itbath `she strikes a clapper', Fél. 64.22 . benais Sencha bascrand, MU² 923. bensait bascrand isin dorus (of a monastic cell), RC xiv 58.22 . taem báisi risin mbas-crann `that the knocker had been smitten with frenzy', Ériu iv 116.32 . ciasa bas . . . / do bean go bras in bas-crann ?, 36 . do bhaineadur béim baschrainn frisan dorus `hand-stick' (Gloss.), Feis Tighe Chonáin 60. co cualadar beim bascraind fri dorus in lis `a blow of the knocker', CCath. 1133. go mbean bh. until he strikes the knocker, IGT Decl. ex. 474. (iron) door-knocker: lé baschrann nó lé fairchín iaroinn do bhí as an ndoras do chum a bhuailte, Desid. 408.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. beantain or
Last Revised: 2013


vn ( benaid ) act of striking: bean: bein, buing, beantain air aonceill uil, Celtica xxi 7.z .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. béim or
Last Revised: 2013


Forms: béime

(-mm) n, n. vn. of benaid , see GOI § 735. b.¤ m. and f., g s. and n p. béime, IGT Decl. § 45 (g s. ex. 572, d s. ex. 693).

(a) act of striking; cutting, hewing, taking (off, away), removing, stripping (clothes, etc.): beim a cinn fri cloich gl. capita petrís inlidant, Ml. 139c3 . la beim dom churp cuimnech `at the smiting of my mindful body', Fél.² Ep. 363. fo-loimetar a b.¤ cosna claidbib they threaten to smite him, BDD² 1206. ba b.¤ cride fri cliab leis (of fear), TBC-LL¹ 1038. iarna beím dó asa fremaib (of an oak), Sc.M² 18R . oc bēim ḟeda, TBC-I¹ 778. fertais carpait do bēimim (béim, LU), 780 . a chenn do bēim (bein, v.l.) de, Sc.M² 7. dixit cend Lomnae drūith īarna bēimeim de, Corm. Y 1018 (87.4) . iar mbeim a chind do Ch. `after striking off C.'s head', Ériu ii 30 § 13. a ndrisi ┐ a ndraigne do beim dib (of land), Laws i 128.9 Comm. im beim adbar droichit `cutting the materials for a bridge', 134.27 Comm. b.¤ .i. búain, O'Cl.

Special applications: sesem ic beim in cluic, Thes. ii 346.38 . oc b.¤ tened, BDD² 480. b.¤ spréde, 487 . tene an aonbeime .i. Aodh (see áed), Anecd. ii 52.1 . iar mbēim eiti when he flaps his wings, ZCP vii 310 § 7. dóṡuidigthi .i. cechtar nái foleith cen b.¤ foscdæ innalaill (gl. apposita) without (the one) casting a shadow on the other (of genders of oppidum and Suthul), Sg. 63a15 . íar bēim dei a lēned having taken off his tunic, TBC-I¹ 1387 . a etach . . . do beim do na corpaib, Laws i 176.7 Comm. ní maith lim-sa a manaig do bēim ar L. `to deprive L. of his monks', BColm. 84.16 . ? ni fess mo bunad ria beím `I know not my race to proclaim it', Ériu vii 225.19 .

(b) blow, stroke; cut: bemmen gl. ictús, Ml. 39c17 . bémen dígle . . . nímmalle act is cach ae fo leith .i. coic cethorchuit béimmen `blows of punishment . . . five forties of blows', Wb. 17d2 . ind mbemmi a glancing blow, LL 11091 ( TBC-LL¹ 4285 ). fer benas dam óenbeímmim `at a single blow' (Vocab.), Críth G. 557. is ē nobenfad a crand ōen bēim (óenbéimim, LU) dia bun, TBC-I¹ 339. b.¤ búirid fri teora sústa iarnae they strike a blow with three iron flails, BDD² 1270. co tarat beim ( la tabairt beimen, FB 39 Eg.), LU 8536. dobert b.¤ dind echfleisc dó, 3287 ( SCC 8 ). benaim bēimend ágmara / for slōg síabra, TBC-I¹ 1686 ( LU 6170 ). roben a teora mǣla Midi da thrī bēmennaib, TBC-I¹ 3603. in treas beimennd Fergusa . . . .i. na tri maola Midhi, it e na tri beimenna, Anecd. ii 52.13 . dá cét mbéimen for láma (of penitential exercises), Ériu i 197.5 . cin coisi, di bemium `crime of foot, by kicking', Laws i 238.11 . doradad iarsin b.¤ dara munel cor beanad a cheand de, RC xxiv 56.1 . beim co commus (one of Cú Chulainn's feats), Ériu iv 30.12 . beim fo clos `some kind of military exploit' (Plummer MS. notes), BB 488b22 . co mbeim léoman (rhetoric), LU 5442 , TBC-I¹ 966. bēimm dobeir nathair do neoch an adder's sting for someone, Bruchst. 22 § 48 ( IT iii 78 § 48 ). fri b.¤ n-aéla thrust (of a fleshfork into a cauldron), LL 38376 ( RC xiii 58 ). ráinic b.¤ ǽile fon choire do Conall, RC xxix 219.19 . B. breo betha buadaig / beim in æl airimh ænuigh, Lism. L. 3464. rus-bean bem da heirr `struck . . . with a stroke of its tail' (of a serpent), TTebe 2074 . gearraidh sí (i.e. a scythe) d'aon-bh. an feóithne ┐ an fochnagán, TSh. 2644.

Extended applications: Bemenda Branduib i mBreghaib (i.e. ` seven battles', ed.), RC xvii 163.12 . Bemenna B. i mBreaghaibh, AFM i 222.6 . brogais Bernsa b.¤ don maig `advanced a pace', Metr. Dinds. iii 92.39 . bēim graece bemandro .i. pasus (leg. passus), O'Mulc. 140. bēim didiu .i. césad nó foditiu (through confusion with Lat. passio ?), ibid. b.¤ .i. céim, O'Cl. bēim, cēim `a step', Eg. Gl. 717 (see Ériu xi 119) . beim beg do breathaibh crolighi annso (title of passage consisting of extracts from commentaries on Bretha Crólige, see Ériu xii 2 ), O'Curry 305 (H 3.18, 167). Cf. beimm cenelach lessom anisiu `this is a general remark (?),' Thes. ii 39.22 .

(c) In legal contexts determination, decision, definition, rule, statement (?): b.¤ .i. cinneadh, O'Cl. beim tuathi do nartaiched aicne .i. in cinnedh doní in tuath on aigne dia toirithín, O'Curry 444 (H 3.18, 238b). beim naillech nad nertad tuatha deter- mination, assertion (?) by oath, Laws i 232.1 (and 234.6 Comm.). beim nailliuch . . . .i. noill cinnti . . . .i. in luighe cinnedh (in tuath), O'D. 105 (H.3.17, 86). b.¤ sét ro slanaige tuathband, 576 (443). beim .i. cinne (leg. cinned, Stokes), beim sochaidi ro sluagaigh (leg. slanaigh) tuathbann .i. is cinne sochaidhi, O'Dav. 311. beim sochaidh ro slanaigh tuathbann .i. ro slanaigh in dliged so co obund is na tuathaib. Cail mar cuirfidh in bec sin re cheile. In beim annsa roscadh inand he ┐ in dliged ata sa fasach. In tobonn ata sa fasach is inand ┐ in beim mar in cetna, O'Curry 2113 (H.4.22, 79a). beim sochuir ro slánaigh tuathband ┐ do garar nos la curaibh cosmailsi, O'D. 533 (H. 3.17, 431) `the striking [?] of a good contract which public law validates', Plummer MS. notes. beim tairbe na tarrathar .i. bem so tairben cluais na tarruith nech adidceth, O'Curry 879 ( H 3.18, 394a ).

(d) In various special phrases: b.¤ n-asclaing see asclang. b. císa a rate (?) (levying ?) of tribute: ben do beim císa orainn, Lism. L. 3195 . Cf. (c) supra. b.¤ n-écndaig, cf. (e): ba ussa . . . a dilgud sein oldaas beim n-ecnaich for Dia `blasphemy of God', Ériu ii 122 § 63. See écndach. b.¤ forais (see forus): b.¤ foris inso sís uile all that follows is a laying down, or statement, of rules, Wb. 25c18 . aphorism: forus .i. forismus graece sermo breuis latine ipocrāit (?) no excerptio interpretatur unde dicitur adcomced beim foruis fair (see Gwynn, KMMisc. 183 ), Rawl. 108b36 , O'Mulc. 578. b.¤ súl(a) (see s.v. súil): gebis galur Dauid . . . tria béimm súla ┐ tria aídcell anfhoill, LB 129a15 . treisi an b.¤ súla iná sin the evil (?) (envious ?), eye can go further (lit. is stronger) than that (?), Bard. Synt. Tr. 219.17 .

(e) Fig. blow, stroke of feeling, emotion; reproach, offence (with FOR, AR); blemish, fault, disgrace: beim di omhon, Ériu ii 134 § 118. in bem dimecin dorat L. fair, BB 416a16 . dorat . . . aithis ┐ beim forsan coicedh n-uili, Sc.M² R 14 . benais M. b.¤ n-aisce fair reproached him, TBC-LL¹ 472. beim ar a ecna `offence à sa science', RC xxiv 377.29 . b.¤ .i. égnach no toibhéim, O'Cl. , Eg. Gl. 718. is b.¤ ar inchaib na h-atharda, MR 300.31 . fagail beime ni dual di she should not receive reproach, ZCP ii 337.22 . ní b.¤ ar Bh. `no reproach to B.', TD 6. 17 . le a dtréithibh gan bh.¤ ar bioth, Hackett lv 13 . ná bíodh 'na bh.¤ air ar n-obadh, IGT Decl. ex. 693. buain béime ar mo bhogha-sa `that you have undertaken to revile my bow', Content. xxiv § 22 .

Compd. ¤scrisad: do bhéimsgriosadh . . . le tréan-thuile mhóir violently snatched away, O'Rah. 44.5.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. béin or


Forms: -edh, bén

(conflation of béim and búain ?) vn. of benaid and boingid. b.¤ f., g p. -edh, IGT Decl. § 14. d s. often bén.

Act of striking, beating; cutting, reaping; taking (away): do léigfedh . . . craob chnuais gan b.¤ re bliadain (: Néill) `would for a whole year pretermit to pluck', O'Gr. Cat. 385.10. maidm do tabairt doib fair ┐ a crech do ben `recovered their prey', Ann. Conn. 1276.6 . methel oc b.¤ phupu na fínemnu `plucking the bunches of the vineyard', RC xii 436 § 42. sreabh . . . ag b.¤ a bruach overflowing its banks, Rel. Celt. ii 240.8 . a cluic ┐ a mbachla do bein fair to strike their bells and croziers (together) against (i.e. in condemnation of) him, MR 38.14 . eneclann do bein (beim, O'D. 380 ) ar na mnaib so fein `these women themselves are deprived of honour price', Laws v 276.16 Comm. b.¤ bhéime ar an mban Laighnigh taking away reproach from (?), IGT Decl. ex. 572. gilla . . . do bein na luirgi lethanaidbli asa doitibh `wrench . . . out of his hands', Stair Erc. 308. tri fichit marcc do bhein dfuasccladh ass `exacted sixty marks for his ransom', AFM vi 2226.7 . air mbein a chota d'fer frithe as `has deducted his share', Laws iii 308.10 Comm. atá i nglas a fréimh an pheacaidh / a b.¤ as is deacair dhún to release it (i.e. the body), Dán Dé xix 15 . sraenmaidm sechranach do ben asta `inflicted a shattering rout on them', Ann. Conn. 1401. 26 . ag b.¤ mhadhma a gile a ngrúaidh, IGT Decl. ex. 1151. a dam ar mb.¤ barrthuisligh having caused a stag to fall down, ex. 419 . a grás do bh.¤ fheacaidh as her grace should make Him subject, DDána 59.11 . Éava as a thaoibh réidh do roighnis / do bh.¤ Thou didst fashion, Measgra D. 61.64 . ? do ni sin ríghe da réim (leg. ḟréim) / bein an líne (sic leg.) as an idh óir, Rel. Celt. ii 230.8 . gan bh.¤ aistibh iad undisturbed (?) (of locks of hair), Magauran 1526 . gan ingin rígh do leccad uatha can an cís utt do beín dí without exacting that tribute, RC x 186.6 . i ndigail a feraind ┐ a aicidechta do bein de, Ann. Conn. 1225.4 . b.¤ neith dod námhuid, Dán Dé vii 14 . níor ghníomh cóir . . . / b.¤ a hóir don ealadhain `to snatch her gold from poesy', TD 23.12 . a uili indmas do bein uad, PH 479. ar mbein a cind dí, Anecd. iii 10.7 . ro boí oc folmaisi ar ceand do beinn (buain, bein, v.ll.) dínn, Mer. Uil.² 236. iar mbein an eididh aifrinn de, Grail 3411 . iar mben . . . dō chelli dia bethaid when he had given up hope of life, LB 143a33 (see benaid ). ag bein (sic leg.) forro gan teacht doib asin dunadh amach do chothughud `taunting them', Aen. 2246. bein cind fri hald (of a useless undertaking), RC xii 96 § 127. co forcluin in tonn ac bein ria ṡaluibh, Lism. L. 1948. ag b.¤ re bearnaidh `charging a gap', O'Hara 4044. ni lamad nech b.¤ fria to touch her, PH 1995. ó bhalbhthuinn ag b.¤ re tír, Magauran 2642 . b.¤ ris an amar n-ionnluid having to do with a trough, IGT Decl. ex. 767. b.¤ fa imreasa in Éamuinn `to attempt combat with E.', TD 18.36 . b.¤ fad mhíonbhois as mithidh it is time to try your gentle hand (i.e. seek your patronage), O'Hara 1955. fa bh.¤ / i dtagra nach beanann ruibh through interfering in, Content. xiv 21.

In meaning reproach: b.¤ leam, Aithd. D. 36.22 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. benaid or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: benim, benaim, benai, benith, benaid, bennaid, benid, bentai, -ben, benas, benait, -benat, -rubaim, benair, benar, -bentar, -benad, -bentais, ben, benad, benaidh, benat, benar, -bia, -ruba, -rubai, -bethir, -ruibther, betir, -rubad, -rubaitis, -rubdais, no-m-bethe, bīu, biëd, bíthus, bias, bifas, -biter, bethir, -bífad, -bífed, mbíthe, beo, bii, b, bissis, bisius, bië, -beotur, -rubha, -ruba, -rubai, -rubi, rodmbi, ros-bae, robéotar, robeotar, robeobdar, -rubatar, -rubhradar, bíth, -rrubad, bíthi, bitha, -bítha, ro-bīthe, bethi

v See Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 369 , 461 , GOI §§ 551 , 654 , 691 (a) , KZ xlvii 159. Indic. pres. 1 s. benim, Thes. ii 42.7 . benaim, LU 6170. 2 s. benai, TBC-I¹ 3592. 3 s. benith, Thes. ii 250.11 , benaid , Ml. 46d4 , LU 6206 , bennaid, 5213 . benid, TBC-I¹ 397 , bentai, 1201 (with suff. pron.). bentus, Airne F. 2.17 . -ben, 424 , Blathm. 98 § 26. Rel. benas, Corm. Y 1235 , Críth G. 556 , TBC-I¹ 3605. 3 pl. benait, Fél. Jan. 31 , June 30 , -benat, MU² 544. With ro-: 1 s. -rubaim, LU 6230. Pass. sg. benair, Ériu ix 47 § 19. Rel. benar, Thes. ii 254.3 (Stowe M.). 3 pl. -bentar, Ml. 91b3 . Indic. impf. 3 s. -benad, LU 9137 ( FB 88 ), 3 pl. -bentais, TBC-I¹ 30. Ipv. 2 s. ben, TBC-I¹ 3593. 3 s. benad, Wb. 20c8 . 2 pl. benaidh, Ériu ii 120 § 58. 3 pl. benat, TBC-LL¹ 5834. Pass. sg. benar, Ml. 93d16 .

Subj. pres. 3 s. -bia, Laws iv 124.10 . With ro-: 2 s. -ruba, TBC-I¹ 1596. -rubai, Críth G. 581. Pass. 3 s. -bethir, Ml. 36a5 . -ruibther, CRR 54. 3 pl. betir, Ml. 54a17 . Subj. impf. (with ro-) 3 s. -rubad, TBC-I¹ 2769. 3 pl. (?) -robeotais, Cymmr. xiv 118 § 19 ( Rawl. 132b35 ). -rubaitis, TBC-I¹ 806 , -rubdais, Metr. Dinds. iii 104.24 . Pass. sg. no-m-bethe, Ml. 39a19 .

Fut. 1 s. bīu, TBC-I¹ 3592. 3 s. biëd, Celtica xxi 200.6 . bíthus (with suff. pron.), LU 10481. Rel. s. bias, TBC-LL¹ 3453. With -f-: bifas, Rawl. 132b36 . Pass. pl. -biter, Anecd. i 44.4 . Rel. s. bethir, Blathm. 957 . Condit. 3 s. no bīad, TBC-I¹ 2942. -bífad, SR 5812 , -bífed, TBC-LL¹ 744. Pass. s. no mbíthe (nom bithe, MS.), Blathm. 506.

Pret. and perf. 1 s. beo, TFrag. 108.6 = AFM i 302.9 . 3 s. bii (disyll.), Blathm. 98 § 25. b, LU 1750 (ICM). -bí (= -bai, TBC-I¹ 696 ), LU 5176. Note also (with suffix. pronoun and intrusive -s-) bissis, RC xii 68 § 34 , bisius ib. Rel. s. bië (disyll.), Blathm. 279. 3 pl. -beotur, Corm. Y 698 (59.5) = -beodutar, Corm. 24 (gaire). With ro-: 1 s. -rubha, AFM i 242.9 (= RC xvii 177.2 ), 2 s. -ruba, Wb. 13d25 . 3 s. ro bi, Rawl. 88a30 , -rubai, LU 5334 , -rubi, BDD² 187 , rodmbi, Laws iv 176.26 . ros-bae, CRR 56. 3 pl. robéotar, LU 5110 (= TBC-I¹ 625 ). robeotar (beóatar, robeobdar, ro hortsat, v.ll.), Metr. Dinds. iii 98.3 . -rubatar, TBFr. 60 , BDD² 695. Note also: go n-da-rubdatar, TBC-LL¹ 4384 (see Ériu xiv 118.1 ). -rubhradar, ZCP i 464.29 . Pass. sg. bíth, Metr. Dinds. iii 94.23 . ro bíth, RC xxiii 308.33 . -rrubad (sic leg.), Fianaig. 10.21 . pl. bíthi (bithi, MS.), Blathm. 203. bitha, RC xxiii 308.33 , -bítha, Arch. Hib. ii 62 § 52. ro bitha, Ml. 100b2 , TBC-I¹ 1373. ro-bīthe, ZCP xi 62.4 .

Part. see bíthe. vbl. of necess. bethi, Ml. 114c12 . Vn. see béim, bíth. Later with stem ben-, boin- (cf. boingid), bain- throughout (with ā-subj., f- future and s- pret.). See rubaid.


(a) beats, strikes: in O. Ir. gl. pinso, Thes. ii 42.7 , perculsus, Ml. 45d6 , pulsat, 46d4 , iecta, 123c17 . beanaim .i. buailim, O'Cl. b.¤ in t-aingel in sruth co fleisc, LU 2117 ( FA 18 ). bi ind ala slabrad suil ind rig, Ériu iii 136.2 . co mbensom dia durnn inna ētan, TBC-I¹ 423. fer benas dam óenbéimmim who fells an ox with one blow, Críth G. 556. bentai Cuc[h]ulaind cona claideb, TBC-I¹ 1201. b.¤ in talum o chois deis he strikes the ground with his right foot, PH 1337. benith galar (a charm), Thes. ii 250.11 . araile fer . . . robenad on crithgalur was stricken by, Lat. Lives 98 § 93. benfat na demna o phianaib examla me, PH 2231. (of a head of hair) b.¤ braine a dá imdae it strikes against (i.e. touches) the edge of his hips, BDD² 963. drud rú asa mbearna bheanaid `whose gap they strike at' (Gloss.), O'R. Poems 859. an mheadh as lán dom lochtaibh / bean a clár dod chumhochtaibh `strike up . . . the scale weighted with my sins' (?), Dán Dé xxii 12 . Transfd. casts (a shadow): co mbentais foscod i medōn a dā gruaide (eyelashes), TBC-I¹ 30. reaches: benaidh immorro inis Breatan seach hErinn saerthuaid co cian (`extends', Todd Nenn. 31.2 ), BB 203b40 .

Of hand-clappers, bells strikes, rings: ben do chlocc, Trip.² 1370. clocán bind / benar i noidchi gaithe that is struck, IT iii 16 § 40 . benais Sencha bascrand, MU² 923. robenadur na cluic `sounded', ZCP vi 285.1 . benait cluig ┐ ceōlāin . . . uaidhip fēin `the bells and chimes . . . of themselves rang', Fl. Earls 52.2 . In phr. b.¤ (cloc) FOR (? AR), see II infra.

Strikes (fire), lights: co bethir gl. inuratur, Ml. 36a5 . roben in tenid Chascae = incendit ignem, Lat. Lives 5 § 4. do benusa teine ┐ doronus a fadodh, BNnÉ 69 § 114 .

Note also: F. féigbind ro ben bríg mbreth who passed weighty judgments (Thurn.), ZCP x 271.4 . With galar: benaim galar `I slay the disease´ Celtica xxv 252 . benim a galar, Thes. ii 249.7 . benith galar, 250.11 . See also 1 fris-ben.

(b) hews, cuts down, off: bíi Ququlaind a dī ord lāma ┐ a dī ortt coisse, ZCP viii 120.21 . bennaid Cu Chulaind omnae, LU 5213. do benuit leō roga ro-chleth . . . ┐ mīne mōirf[h]eda, ML² 1064. benat scíathu let them slash shields, TBC-LL¹ 5834. (of breaching, knocking down a wall) dia robenad in t-ochtmad múr, PH 8014.

(c) slays; wounds: beosa L. an[d] do chailg, TFrag. 108.6 (= AFM i 302.9 ). ra mbeótar i n-ecomlond, LU 6680 (= TBC-I¹ 2138 ). intī bifas nō genfas (sic) nech do slōg araile . . . arthús, Rawl. 132b36 . nad ro marb in bech rodmbi (glossed: ro gonastar e, 178.7 Comm. ) `the bee which stung him', Laws iv 176.26 . Eoin . . . do thriall tar sáil / is mó bhíth mé is do ghríos mé ná is mian do rádh `what has wounded me more sorely', O'Gr. Cat. 581.10.

(d) Of crops cuts, reaps; gathers: (of Adam) co n-aireadh ┐ co mbenadh gan allus, BB 16b2 ( ITS xxxiv 58.15 ). benaid in gort uile `they reap the whole field', Ériu v 116.14 . glenn . . . ina mbenaid dáoine ímforcraidh spísraid, Maund. 54. an chnú ní 'na bláth beantair, Dán Dé vii 15 . luibh leighis re báidh beanais with love (for us) He plucked a healing herb, DDána 48.1 . (of turf-cutting) mani bentar hi ina haimsir coir, Laws i 132.7 Comm.

(e) incises, engraves: ise in luathrindi sin robenadh i sciath C. that is the `luathrindi' (lit. ash-point) that was cut in the shield of C., Ériu v 72.23 . (of drawing Ogam characters) no da mbentar uile, LL 5338 ( Auraic. 5449. )

(f) takes (away), carries off: bensat giallu iar congail, RC xvii 145.14 . Of tax, tribute, etc. exacts, levies: mili dam mili bo benaim `I exact', 49.9 .

II With follg. adv. do ben a claidheamh amach drew his sword, ITS xix 44.4 . lér bhain sé a fhlaitheas . . . amach arís `recovered', Keat. ii 1089. do benadh luirech an ridire sin amuig `was captured', L. Chl. S. 38. do bean Úa B. . . an gealladh . . . ar aiss retracted, Expugn. Hib. 69. do benatar ar lár laim ris `they fell to the ground', BCC 132.

With prepp. With A takes from: in pars benar a hichtur in lithe `the particle that is cut off', Thes. ii 254.3 (Stowe M.). ercōit benus do ṡūil as do chinn, ACL iii 308.z. is tu rogab misi . . . ┐ roben fhuasgailt asum `got ransom from me', ZCP vi 285.8 . (of a rescue from a castle) go mbendaís an tiarla as d'áis no d'eiccen, AFM vi 2172.25 . do bheanadar as . . . they inferred that . . ., PublicRecords Appendix 40.22 . eunuchi . . . .i. na daoine as a mbeantur, 23 K 42, 94.18 . na h-ainmhíntidhe a mbaintear asta which are gelded, Corp. Astron. 90.21 . as e as adbur as a mbainter na catraca `that is the material from which cities . . . are formed', Ir. Astr. Tr. 36.7 . do benadh comnuidhe asainne forsan muir we were stayed, BNnÉ 7 § 22 . robenus lēim luthmur . . . as mo sdét made my steed leap, ZCP vi 65.9 . beantur fiuchad as `bring it (i.e. milk) to the boil', Rosa Angl. 94.2 . b.¤ custam as levies toll on: bentor custam as a n-eachroidh in gach baile dip, Fl. Earls 86.1 . b.¤ greim a see greimm. ? gan mo bhac, a Dhé, i ndeacraibh / ná beantair lat é as m'olcaibh, DDána 61.6 .

With DE takes from: robenaitt a lama ┐ a cosa donti dorone were cut off, Ann. Conn. 1224.3 . benuis screapall beg . . . de `broke off', Fl. Earls 34.17 . dobenadh a ceimniughudh de the power of walking was taken from him, Aisl. Tond. 107.3 . Of covering, clothing, etc. ben a erriud ┐ a étgud de take off his equipment and his clothing, TBC-LL¹ 4061. bensat a chroicend de `stripped his skin from him', PH 2146. bean an dá bhliadhain déag . . . do na hocht gcéad déag bliadhan úd `deduct . . . from', Keat. ii 1160. do ben minna da ṡíair fa marbad uile `he made his sister swear that she would kill them all', Maund. 82. go mbeanfaidhear cúntas 'na smuaintighthibh dhe an account of his thoughts will be demanded of him, TSh. 7304.

Various phrases. b.¤ céill, súil de, see cíall, súil. b.¤ cert de, see cert. do bhean Ír díobh . . . tosach `outstripped [them],' Content. xxx 4 ; cf. ag béin túsa d'íbh Táil, IGT Introd. § 38. ris an mbréig níor bhean dá mhóid he did not break his vow (?), A. Ó Dálaigh l 31.

With DO: lucht an bheatha dá mbeanfadh on whom it would fall (i.e. a deluge of rain), DDána 75.22 . do ben escor don nech the person fell, BCC 452.27 . do bhain a mhaoith (sic MS.) do gach fior affected everyone, Ériu i 98.32 . ro bhen a droch-dhiach dhó oir fuair a righedh ar carr `his evil destiny awaited him', AFM v 1818.12 . ní bhean th'aigneadh d'Eóghan thy opinion did not effect E. (i.e. E. was not of thy mind), Ir. Review 1912, 471 § 5 . dom anmain is eadh bheanas / an mac do bhí i mbraighdeanas the child . . . is my soul, DDána 7.21 . gidh cúich mé, a bhean, beanfad daoibh / madh áil leat leannán macaoimh I shall be yours, 67.14 . Caiter ḟíona .i. an chailleach dhubh do ben dó who adhered to him, Ó Héodhusa 42.8 . ní bheanann dúinn trāchdadh orra annso it is not our business to . . ., Mac Aingil 2586 . ní bheanand doibh offic Chriosd do ghabhail chuca `they have no right to', Carswell 225.

With FO: b.¤ foo (in ras. H) attacks them, LU 4874. bean far dtoirmisg-ne far dtoil try to prevent us from achieving our wish, DDána 95. 24 . má bheanann faoi ag mionsmuaineadh . . . ar na neithibh si if he happens to be thinking, Mac Aingil 360 .

With FOR (AR): forom-sa co m-benfat a n-osnaid ┐ a mmallachtain it is at me their sighs . . . will be directed, TBC-LL¹ 197. benais Medb béim n-aisce fair reproached him, 472 . benfait Ulaid form do lecud th'oenur sin cocrích, 1176 . ní bheanfa aimhleas no olc / ormsa inghean Con Connocht `Cú Ch.'s daughter will not charge me with hurt or harm' (?) Studies 1921, 589 § 8 . ro ben cotlud na haidhchi forro deprived them of, CCath. 2439. ni bhenabh sa a chuid don tsaogal fair, BNnÉ 182.15 . ar neach do bhean a mbúaludh / uabhur h'each mear dhā mūnadh `the mettlesomeness of your swift steeds . . . deprived a person of (the need of) beating them' (Notes), O'R. Poems 2535. nā benaidh amhiris for Dia imm immut a mirbhol do not visit God with disbelief (?), Ériu ii 120 § 58. b.¤ (cloc) for (? ar) lit. rings (a bell) against, hence excommunicates: gabais salmmu escaine foraib . . . B. a chlocc foraib, Trip.² 1303. cor benadh an Bernān Ciarāin (i.e. the saint's bell) fair, RC xvii 383.11 . benait co mBríg . . . / barr find for slúag enair they, together with . . . B., bring the host of January to a good end, Fél. Jan. 31. See 1 glas.

With FRI (LA): traig . . . isī benas fri lār touches the ground, Corm. Y 1235. is béss didu ind liacc benir (sic MS.) ilbeim friss gl. lapidem offensionis et petram scandali, Wb. 4d15 . fuair fearthain . . . / nochar bhean re brat an naoimh, Dán Dé iv 22 . in Brug risa mbenand tond, Ériu vii 219 § 6. ? co Luimneach lethanglas / frismbarca ben, iv 154.2 (see F 428.56). benum . . . frisna catrachaib filet fri toeb mara let us visit, LB 142a29 . acht co mbeantai (toccaibti, v.l.) mur friu `if only a wall were set up against them', Ériu viii 179.9 . inud in ro ben in nathair fris 'the place where the serpent had stung him', ITS xxxv 34 § 119 . Fig. touches, affects; is concerned with, meddles with: benad fria chubus fessin gl. opus suum probet unusquisque, Wb. 20c8 . benaidh rind labhairt ar aesaib(h) an domhain, Leb. Gab.(i) 2.7 . ná bean ris, Proverbs xx.19. Ronán . . . / Colman fria mbaig benaim `whom I entreat for their blessing', Gorm. Aug. 18 (? modelled on late Lat. use of pulsare in sense of rogo, see Du Cange s.v. 1 pulsare ). ara mbaig fris mbenab, Nov. 4. gach ní dar bhean le Tepoitt `all the possessions of T.', AFM vi 2146.19 . an té do-ní adhaltrannas . . nō bheanas ré mnaoi neamhpósda, Parrth. Anma 2495.

With I: b.¤ side sleg n-ind, LU 1522. suil beanfuighthear innte = before it be meddled with, Proverbs xvii 14.

with ó forms, derives from (gramm.): cia an t-éntuillréim dég iollraidh ó nach beantur samhlughadh amhuil, IGT Introd. § 2. ? aer o bard benar, Laws v 228.28 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. benáil or


late vn. of benaid . act of cutting: mo chuid biorair do bhenail (: deghdháil), BS 90.4 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. bennaid or


x see benaid .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. benta or


adj ( benaid ?): crabadh buan nar bo b.¤ `which was not prescribed ', Mart. Don. Feb. 1.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. béo or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: béu, béu, mbi, bii, -bíi, béoa, beó, bh, beó, bíe, beoloiti

adj o, ā. In O. Ir. also béu (note n. pr. Beuchell, Sedulius Scottus, Monumenta Germaniae, Traube). See GOI § 204 , § 206 , § 352 . n s. b.¤ , Wb. 10b27 . béu, 13d6 , Ml. 44c11 . a s. f. mbi, Laws iv 218.17 Comm. n p m. bii. Wb. 3b6 , -bíi, 3b7 . a pl. béoa, Thes. i 4.31 . duine beó, g s. beó, bh, IGT Decl. § 205. bean beó, g s. beó, bíe, § 139 .

(a) (i) as attrib. living, quick (ii) as predic. adj. alive . (i) eclás Dé bíí, Fél.² i 20. ité uiui in dóini bí, Sg. 39a23 . na heoin beoa do gabail to catch the live birds, TBC-LL¹ 1334. Crist gunig gach mbeathaidh mbi (: eabraidhi) `Christ who controls all living life', Ériu xvii 74 § 8 ( Laws iv 218. 17 Comm. ). gē dosanntaig bhetha[id] mbī / nīr tsechain Rí an alltair ē earthly life, ZCP vii 304.2 . i lámhaibh an Dé bheó (= Dei viventis), TSh. 5397. Of fire: do theinid bī, ACL iii 242 § 7. Of spring water: benaid in talum . . . ┐ tanic topar usce bíí ass, PH 1338. lively, spirited (of a combat): troid beó fa comthruime cur, IGT Decl. ex. 529.

(ii) céin bas mb.¤ in fer gl. uiuit, Wb. 10b23 . is cundubart leu indat bii gl. qui . . . se uiuere nesciunt, ZCP vii 482.12 ( Enchir. Aug. 75b ). an beó do thigerna ? BDD² 1519. ro hadnaiced na geill . . . ┐ siad beoa `the hostages . . . were buried alive', RC xxiv 184 § 17. madh beo na daoine, Content. xxv 8 . living, alight (of fire): ní béu cid in teni, Trip. 10.17 . For the phr. béo bocht see 1 bocht.

(b) As subst. o, m. a living being; in spiritual or mythological sense an immortal: oc ascnam tíre tairṅgiri inna mb. `the Land of Promise of the Living', Wb. 11a19 . dodeochad- . . . a tírib beó áit inna bí bás nó peccad, LU 9996. cen sa écnach nach bí `without reviling any living thing', Ériu iii 104 § 40. ar nī fírḟlaith nad nīamat bi (bíí, v.l.) bennachtnaib whom the living do not glorify, ZCP xi 97 § 59. totchurethar bíi bithbi the ever-living ones invite you (i.e. Conle, to come to the other-world Land of the Living), LU 10027. is cumma barrurim biu ┐ marbu dó in like manner he enumerated for him the living and the dead, TBC-LL¹ 4761. amail bid bēo nobeith ann, ACL iii 5.15 . do mess for bíu ┐ marbu `to judge the quick and the dead', Ériu ii 194 § 7. gan beó, gan baistedach / aram (leg. ar) bith [c]āemh cé no living creature, ZCP viii 212.15 . beo gach buainchethra, Metr. Gl. 31 § 60. In spiritual sense: créud íad na beóa ar a ttiobharthar breath ? who are the saved (?) who will be judged ? Parrth. Anma 1561.

(c) In phrases. Used with possess. pron. usually in sing.: ní col dó cid less ar mb.¤ et ar mmarb gl. siue ergo uiuimus etc., Wb. 6b20 . a beō nach óe do breith to bring any of them alive, TBC-I¹ 685. ragaid do beo no do marb you shall go dead or alive, TBC-LL¹ 1224 ( LL 8614 ). beannacht dá mbeó is dá marbh a blessing on them living and dead, Dánta Gr. 3.12 . ní suthain a mbí they do not live long, ZCP vi 261.29 . re na beo fen during his own life, BCC 33.

In phr. i mbíu alive (with gen. or possess. pron.) in the lifetime (of): nī dlegat a ndola i mbiu, Ériu vi 121 § 5. otáam inar[m]bíu / nochotacca cusindíu `since we have been alive', Trip. 140.13 . ar ropo námasom na bíu do Laignib `in his lifetime', RC vi 165.34 ).

(d) the quick of the skin: bheith ag dol i mbeó ar Dhia . . . lé dubháilcibh to cause distress to God, TSh. 2296. tairnge i mbeó (prov.), Hard. ii 408.9 . táirnge a mbeó go raibh ann do bhonn, Éigse vi 6.29 .

See argat.

Compds. With nouns: cenmotha beoalma, Anecd. ii 59.1 . -athair in leg. technical term mac(c) b.¤ -athar son of a living father, hence a son unqualified to make valid contracts: gach mac beoathur nad bi saor a chor, Laws ii 288.7 . trí nata[t] túalaing sainchuir: mac beo-athar, ben aurnadma, dóer flatha, Triads 151 . rucus rāith ar mac ṁbeoathar, ZCP xv 311 § 7. -bethu: mess ┐ beobethu animal fodder, ZCP xii 366.10 ( PRIA xxxvi (1923) 310.5 ). Cf. also ZCP xvi 203 - 204 . ¤búaid: ' sin chrích badba co mbeó-búaid (bladbuaid, v.l.) `of living excellence (?)' (Notes), Metr. Dinds. iii 372.6 . ¤chned: dire beocneidhi `the penalty for a non-mortal injury', BCrólige 39 n. 6 . ¤chride: ni minec bar mearughudh / isin brugh co mbeocraidhi with beating heart, IT iii 89 § 114. As attrib. ar da n-echaib . . . beochridi blenarda, LL 10358. lé clódh beóchroidhe bos `with sorrowful beating of hands' (?), Gleanings from Irish manuscripts 18 § 29. ¤chrod livestock: marggad beochruid bó ┐ (facs.) ech, LL 25108 ( Metr. Dinds. iii 480.1 ). ¤chruth: mic Metusalem do b'fhada bhí a mbeóchruith `in mortal shape', ITS iii 84.24 (1900) . ¤dartaid live calf: [d]ersaid bec beodartaid (beomartaid, v.l.). / mani tugedar (leg. tuigther, note) d'ilbíadaib, Ériu vii 6.12 . ¤dédail (?): Rind ┐ Faebur fegar / cen baegul ria mbeodedail, LL 20341 (untransl. Metr. Dinds. iii 272.6 ). ¤dil (leg. technical term, opposed to marbdil q.v.) animate possessions i.e. livestock: as-renar cona fuillem co ndiablad aithgine, mad marbdile: mad beodile, co n-as ┐ los ┐ fuilled ┐ fuillem, Stud. in E. Ir. Law 38 § 18 ( Laws ii 376.2 ). indile (.i. beo dile), O'D. 989 (H. 3.17, 853). ni tascnai fine, na orbu, na beodil, na marbdil `the live chattels', Laws ii 288.3 . ¤ḟedan: beo-ḟeadain . . . for feraib fedair `live carrying' (away on sick maintenance), BCrólige 58 . ¤gasrad: beóghasraidh `vigorous company', Studies 1920, 417. 18 . ¤idbart living offering: amal rundgab in beuidbart sin gl. uitulus, Ml. 87b9 . ¤mainchine service during life: bar mbéomaicne (mbeomainchine, v.l.) ┐ bur marbmaicne (marbmainchine, v.l.), Acall. 3506. ¤thlus livestock: fear ro ba saidhbhre i nErinn a mb.¤ , AFM iv 1128.18 .

Of fire: (?) ¤bruiden burning hostel: adcíat in daigid nduilig / 'na brainig don beó-bruidin (breó-, v.l.), Metr. Dinds. iv 236.35 . ¤chaindell: fri beocaindle with burning candles i.e. clear testimonies of witnesses ( Bürgschaft 7 § 3 n. 2), ZCP xiii 20.7 . atait secht fiadnaise . . . ite secht mbeocaíndle and ro forosnad gae cach rig seven burning candles i.e. certain disastrous events accepted as evidence of his `falsehood,' Laws iv 52.9 . See BCrólige 58 notes. forath ni acair acht beo-cainneall a flaitheas . . . acht an tí dana taithnemach é amail caindill (sic leg., Stokes, Laws Crit. 8 ) mbi .i. mac flatha, ┐ ua aroile, Laws iv 380.3 . ¤grís living flame: co ro bheathaidhsiot beóghrís a seangomh, AFM vi 2054.2 . an tshacramuint-si . . . do bheith 'na béoghrís gacha subhāilce dhamh `stimulant' (Gloss.), Parrth. Anma 5122. ¤luisne burning flame, brand: ar clann Fheóraisne sa n-eachra / b.¤ i n-am debtha díbh, IGT Decl. ex. 179. ¤theine blazing fire: fúair bás ┐ beó-thenid (breo-, v.l.) `he met death in fatal fire' (viz. the burning of Bruiden Da Choca), Metr. Dinds. iv 236. 16 .

With adjj. derived fr. nouns: ¤bríathrach of living words: bennacht Brenainn beobhriathraigh, Anecd. ii 32 § 3. ¤tharrach, ¤thlusach possessed of live-stock: gnithi manach beothlusach, O'Dav. 1530.

With vnn., life-, (while) living: ¤élud (in Laws, in contr. with mairb-élud) abandoning, evading while living (the obligations of tenancy): fri beo-eludh, ZCP xiv 343 § 5 ( Laws ii 228.16 ). ¤léiciud: (of ensuring discharge of liabilities between co-tenants) sith aili no beolegud nascaither na smacta so iarsin `living deposits i.e. witnesses' (Mann. and Cust. i cxcii n. 347), O'Curry 31 (H. 3.18, 13a). ¤scarad (of the termination of a contract between flaith and tenant in the lifetime of the parties) separation during life: atait secht mbeoscartha do flathib ┐ a n-aiccillnib imis-fuaslaice[t] dligid do coraib, ZCP xiv 383 § 48 ( Laws ii 312.21 ).

As intensive prefix oft. meaning deadly: ¤chobra speech before death, farewell: beochobra Con Culaind isind ló fúair bás, LL 13845.

With second element expressing action causing danger to or deprivation of life. ¤bág: a topur na tonn táide / moambí bocur beó-báige `round which hung a threat of mortal import' (sic leg. Corr.), Metr. Dinds. iii 344.8 . ¤gletin deadly (?) combat: ba balc-gent co mbeó-gletin `mortal in conflict', Metr. Dinds. iv 188.24 . ¤marb slain: co fagbaindse a n-eltae beómarbae isnaib slébib, LU 9321. ¤chorach: flaith Dúine Bárc beó-choraig `of deadly-hurling D.B.', Metr. Dinds. iv 8.32 . ¤gonaid, ¤gonaigid wounds but doesn't kill (?), to the quick: bertatar cloic (sic) cach fir beógaíti leo ass, LU 8003 (BDD). māth bēoguin rogonae nech `a life-wound ', Cáin Ad. 44. R. do dul beoghonta dia thigh `severely wounded', AFM iv 690.3 . créad do bheoghnuigh snódh na gréine ? `what has deformed the features of the sun ?' O'Rah. 146.2. ¤loitte, ¤loittithe severely, fatally wounded: beoloiti, Ann. Conn. 1373.5 . rucad Conn beoloitide forin nGrencha .. . et sepulerunt , 1411.28 . ¤marbad act of slaying, killing: do bhualadh ┐ do bheomharbhadh to knock down and kill (viz. cattle), AFM v 1470.15 . ¤thollad act of piercing to the quick: beara . . . ré beó-tholladh bocht-anam ann, TSh. 6677.

With first element bí- see bícherb, bíchim.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. bethi or


x see benaid .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. bidgad or


Forms: bedgad, bidhgadh

n u, m. Also bedgad. vn. of bidgaid. IGT Verbs § 80. sudden quick movement, start, fright; act of starting, jumping: bidhgadh gl. pavementum (cf. paveo and pavio), Ir. Gl. 769. memaid bánbidgud bodba d'echraid C.C., MU² 253. ro chlisesdair a cride ri groidb. na genidhechta, LL 409b10 (= MR 232.11 ). bidhgadh mor do righ Temhrach . . . a thech Casca do thuitim fair, AU ii 110.7 . in b.¤ sin ┐ in t-aduath, CCath. 769 . in bidgadh do-rinne Eoin (=stupefieri), Smaointe B. Chr. 3259. do ghaib bioga leis an mbréithir sin í (Deirdre) `she made a start', IT ii2 151.6 . uair ní fhuairsiot bedhgadh ina mballaibh acht amhail batís mairbh `life', AFM vi 1918.13 . do bhíodhgadh súas = that thou stir up, 2 Timothy i 6. brosdadh, béodhadh, bruideadh, muscladh, cailgeadh, corrughudh, biodhgadh `to stir up', Eg. Gl. 69. an chéaddairt ag cur beadhgaidh, DDána 78.13 . In phr. benaid b.¤ as: dobhen sé biodhgadh barramhail boirbretha aisde he started it (the steed) off at a powerful pace, Ériu v 178.32 . a dtúis an gheimhridh bhíodhgtha bhraonaigh `the tearful winter that has so startled us', O'Gr. Cat. 596.20. bás bíodhgtha `violent death', O'Rah. 96.10.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. binit or


Forms: beinit, binid, binib

n [ī], f. Also beinit ( benaid , see Meyer, Misc. Hib. 31 § 10 ). binid (bineid, binib (sic), v.ll.) f., IGT Decl. § 13.

(a) rennet, curds: b.¤ .i. benait .i. benaid in n-as co mbī tiug .i. tēcht, Corm. Y 125 , Corm. 7. Bentraigi .i. benit-rīgi .i. millsen dliges rī Caisil dīb, Corm. Y 140. millsen (.i. gruth binnde) nó druchtán (.i. medg binde), Rule of Tallaght 3. ni ibheadh medg binde `rennet-whey', ibid. dognither . . . gruthrach doib acht ni theit b.¤ ind, LB 9b25 ( Trans. RIA xxiv 203.12 ) = Rule of Tallaght 5 ( Rule of Tallaght p. 64 ). coagulum .i. an binid, 23 K 42 , 391.14 . b.¤ uain `lamb's rennet', O'Gr. Cat. 191.18. ? im mairbinidh . . . .i. tomus na bracha, O'D. 517 (H.3.17, 420).

(b) name of a plant producing rennet, appar. used to prepare dye , Manners and Customs i ccccii : spatula foetida Fenicul .i. binid .i. ruidhel righ, ACL i 333 § 23.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. bissis or


x see benaid .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. bíth or


Forms: bith, guin

old vn. of benaid (see GOI § 735 ) act of striking; wounding: is líach a bith, LU 6932 (BDD) ( a orguin, 7008 ). bith .i. guin, Lec. Gl. 53. b.¤ .i. guin, O'Cl. bith hail le ni na hail (etym. gloss on biaill) ` wound ', Laws i 140.1 Comm. bith, guin, Eg. Gl. 708.

Usually fo (later also ar, do, tre) b.¤ , bíthin (later appar. bithin) as preposition and conjunction.

I As prep. because of, on account of, for the sake of, lit. under the stroke of , cf. GOI § 858 : fo b.¤ soíre ceneiuil inna ngrec gl. honoris causa suae gentis, Sg. 40a4 . fo b.¤ gl. pro, 198a20 . fo bíith precepte dóib, Wb. 9b19 . fo bith inna soebapstal, 18d1 . fo bar mbíd-si `on account of you', 23d11 . fubíthin creitme ria cách, Thes. ii 240.19 (Ardm.). fobithin iond forcetail `because of the instruction' (according to ?), Mon. Tall. 129.1 . fo chen duit . . . fo b.¤ na mná, LU 3430 ( SCC 20 ). fo b.¤ na fortacht ┐ na hícce, PH 6263. fo bith taisi na naem indti (of díre due to a `vacant' church), Laws v 124.25 Comm. ar bithin eiccni tuc T. ara derbshiair-si, TTebe 1862 . ar bhithin einigh Ferghusa, ZCP viii 551.11 . dobhithin na gona doradais form, BS 146.10 . do bhithin (: bhfrithir) doirre Domhnuill `because of D.'s displeasure', TD 15.8 . bedgaid do bhithin (: chrithir) a chráid, O'Gr. Cat. 461.15. dá bhíth because of it, Measgra D. 57.2 . dia bhíthin sin `for that reason', Fl. Earls 122.24 . da bhithe sin, Luc. Fid. 3990. trí bhíthin do bráthbémmend[a] by (means of), TBC-LL¹ 6012. tre bítin an credme sin, RC xvii 154.18 (Tig.). tre bithin gaoil do beith aca fria cele, BNnÉ 322 § 28 . trena bithin `through his means', TTebe 4149 . fo bith tabarta do chách a chomraime ┐ a gascid for the purpose of giving, LU 3229 ( SCC 2 ).

II As causal conj. ( GOI § 905 ) because, for, since: fo bith is taipe inso, Ml. 14d4 . fo bithin arachiurat `because they will perish', 59b9 . fo b.¤ is nephchorpdae són, Sg. 107a1 . absidias .i. circulos .i. fubíth dongníat cercol, BCr. 18d2 . fobith nád comthoet `o' in `is' `because they do not convert `o' into `is',' Sg. 163a1 . fob. ṅoenaigedar a cialla ar chinn, 172a4 . fobithin ní mór tolnathar di día `because . . . is not greatly pleasing to God', Mon. Tall. 134.19 . fo b.¤ no bíid, LU 5079 = fo bithi (-i later, edd.), TBC-I¹ 593. fo bith is ditaithme `because it is irrevocable' (of a prescriptive right), Laws v 314.20 . fó bh.¤ as beg lenus Iosa Críosd, RSClára 142b . ar bith ba slúagad baga dó in sluagad, TBC-LL¹ 462.

Extended forms: dobīthin gur uo hēiccen dōip, Fl. Earls 24.27 . fobithin ar na fodlat ind tuati `because the lay folk do not distribute', Mon. Tall. 141.14 . fó bith ar is d'óenóentaib bátar . . . hi cend Ulad, LU 3446 ( SCC 22 ). ? an tan atusa do niort . . . do fiondfasa ar bhithín on att dhealbh troch fort, ZCP x 293.11 . uair (= ar) bhithin on am cnethach croilinteac[h], 291.28 .

Rarely as final conj.: fo bithin co ro cuiredh si Brian tar muir `in order that she might send B.', RC xxiv 176.12 . fob. na rucad gubreith, Ériu iv 24.23 . ar bithin nach helodis uatha, TTebe 3874 .

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