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2 a

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 a or dil.ie/3
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: á, e, a, a

In O.Ir. also á (see Celtica ii 339 - 40 ), e ( GOI 285 ). Poss. pron. (proclitic form of , q.v.) of 3 s. m. and n. (leniting), 3 s. f. (geminating) and 3 pl. of all genders (nasalising). When a numeral intervenes between poss. and noun the usage fluctuates. The older is represented by a nda ara. LU 4729 , the later by a da nduma, LL 1541 , where the initial of the noun is mutated independently of the numeral. The poss. of the third person is also used in combinations such as adám my two, adád your two, adár our two. Similarly with trí. See Ériu xi 146 ff. and the numerals , trí.

For the forms in combination with prepositions see the several prepositions.

I Denoting possession, ownership, relationship, connection, etc.

(a) a thuaithe of his folk, Wb. 5a23 . a bullu `His members', 9d4 . a chnámi, 4d15 . á luum `their pilot', 4a14 . irroimed cách a chéele, 6d4 (see céile). ní diá geneluch, Trip.² 78 . a hétach her clothes, TBFr. 232 . a mmod ┐ a fit `her portion', Mon. Tall. 149.14 (§ 60) . inna mbossán, LU 3231 ( SCC § 2 ). al-lorga ┐ a mbachla their croziers, PH 5103 . gan fios a gcéille, Donlevy vi 9 . co cend a seacht mbliadan till he was seven, ZCP xi 134. 31 .

With adjj. used substantivally. iss é a fír `that is the truth of it', BColm. 100.7 . ēill ngēisi . . . cia de bud ferr la hUltu a mbeō na a mmarb do brith dōib, TBC-I¹ 692 (perh. to be referred to II). bit lía a mairb and andat a mbí, LU 8266 ( FB 21 ).

(b) With copula in relative clauses expressing genitival relation ( GOI 321 - 2 ). Cf. issa gl. quorum, Ml. 90c3 . intí asa ainm bís isnaib titlaib, 2c3 . Tenobi ata (= ata a) scél ro-c[h]lotha `of Tenobius whose tidings have been heard', Fél. Aug. 24 . in fer asa erbaid aire, Trip.² 408 . bennachais in ríg bá (= ba a) gaisced he blessed the king whose armour it was, LU 5048 (TBC). an mhaighden-so 'sa hainm an Tnūith this maiden whose name is envy, Desid. 1652 . Occasionally also with intervening adj.: na féle assa fortrén taitnem `of the feasts whose radiance is mighty', Fél. Prol. 330 . ata (= ata a) n-aidbli bríga `whose vigours are vast', Ep. 34. nocon ḟetar cúich in Cu/Culaind asa caini clú, LU 4561 (TBC). Note also: a bronnad aineclann cháich as a aí the honour price of each person who owns it (of a mill), Críth G. 240 , ( GOI 322 ).

With dat. of accompaniment, a oenur, a ndíis, a triur etc., see these words. On the construction tá sé ina ríg see Dillon ZCP xvii 307 ff. and prep. i.

(c) With nouns indicating quantity, portion (of something), likeness, etc. (for fuller treatment see the nouns concerned): ni ro-pheccaig . . . a becc in the smallest degree, PH 2622 . a bheag nó a mhór do thoirthibh, TSh. 3751 . denum-ne a choibes ┐ a macsamla, PH 119 . a thri chomméit three times as much, LU 8248 ( FB 19 ). nochon accasa riam a chutrumma anything to equal it, TBFr. 50 . ní áirmhim a leth nó a thrían gach a fúaras ó sin siar, ZCP viii 220 § 22 . tria tharmcruthugud a letheti `the like of it', PH 3091 . ara lin do gablaibh i fodlait(h)er grā[d] túa[i]the, Críth G. 4 . is e a mét ro-s-lín oman, PH 1121 . a shamail-seo do clochad, 7328 . dā dabaigh décc do lionn maith/a thrí urdāil do deghbraith, ZCP viii 116.1. i n-urmhōr the greater part of them, ML². 1825 . So also with adjj. compounded with com- e.g. a chomglan so, Maund. 22 .

II As objective gen. with vnn. of transitive verbs: á híc `his salvation' (that he has been saved), Wb. 2b11 . a marbad `killing them', 4a12 . ní arilset geinti a fírianugud, `the gentiles have not deserved to be justified' 4d10 . a chomalnad `to fulfil it', 5d10 . ma ad-ced torbe inna thec[h]t `if ye should see benefit in its going' (i.e. in so going), 11b22 . a bronnad, Críth G. 240 . a indarpae `he must be banished', Mon. Tall. 147.32 (§ 54). dénam-ne an degaithris, let us worthily imitate them, ZCP viii 216.15 . dutracht lim a nguidhe I wish to pray to them, Ériu i 226. § 1 . ro-gab Petar uad-som a chairiugud Peter accepted his reproval (of himself) from him, PH 5892 . ada fis . . . araen . . . ada nanfis . . . imaraen, the knowledge . . . ignorance of both of them, Laws iii 276.18 . Hence in construction OC + vn.: occá sirḟegad imme anair, LU 2028 ( FA 10 ). aga thabhairt fo dera coimhéud na bochtaine, RSClára 41a .

With DO introducing agent: massu ed béso mó a fius dúibsi `the knowledge of it that ye have', Wb. 19b11 . act cuit a scribint domsa, 13a23 . ní fitir nech díb for araile a n-imchossait do Bricrind, LU 8251 ( FB 20 ). in pendit nopeinebad ind laoch . . . a denam do a mac tar a cend, Mon. Tall. 163.17 (§ 86) . With LA: ro aduim Sinoip a claí la hErcuil `that she had been defeated', Stair Erc. 1138 . With ó: ro-p áil dó a aimsiugud o diabul, PH 2020 .

With other nouns (with wide variation in the force of the poss.): a lóg the reward for it, Wb. 5d35 . a lúach soin don rí ní rug, IGT Decl. ex. 1271 . ricfaither a les do gille, Sc.M² § 7 (see less). dommanic amh a hadbur cause for it, Ériu v 72.15 . go dtugsad a rige do D. they gave the kingship of it to D., Ériu i 102 § 60 . bid lia turim a chath the combat for him, Sc.M² § 3 . nī cōir a chuma to grieve for him, ACL iii 221.24 . a húamun fear of him, ZCP viii 218 § 20 . co naca fir Erenn . . . a reir uaimsea so that the men of Ireland may see me submitting to him, Ériu v 240.132 . d'fulair a grádh ar hIrúath by imposing love for herself on Herod, Ériu iv 178 § 29 . ferr les a sidh na a cocudh `that he would rather be on peaceful than on hostile terms with them', Stair Erc. 1859 . a aitherrach sin do fregra, Maund. 27 . aenduini nach fuair a soludh who did not profit by him, CCath. 1188 . pontifex a grēc p. is the Greek for it, ZCP viii 113.25 .

As subjective gen. with vnn. of intrans. vbs.: á buid `that it is', Wb. 11d3 . a mbith samlaid, Laws iv 212.2 . a éc he died, Ann. Inisf. 1075.2 . a ndul coríg Locha Léin that they should go, ZCP viii 316.7 . in gabul tirimm a beth fo blath, PH 1317 .

III In prolepsis.

(a) With follg. noun in gen. a dénum in maid sin, Wb. 1d7 . a masse in choirp `its, the body's, beauty', 28c25 . a n-athir inna fer, 4c1 . a ndírmann / in tríir imrádam, Fél. Oct. 11 . a cathim na raod sin, Mon. Tall. 132.22 (§ 13) . a n-andord mac n-Usnig, IT i 72.4 . dia fholcud a chind, TBFr. 256 . romórad dano a ainm Dé ┐ Colmáin, BColm. 54.6 .

Later also with nom.: nipa mor a glanad deitsiu ind chomairle dobeir Findio deit, Mon. Tall. 154.5 (§ 67) . mairg dá dtig a seac[h]na so / an teaghdhais i dtá Íosa, Dán Dé v 31 . a innisin . . . na hoibreacha, RSClára 19a . With follg. DI (partitive): a foróil bess lib dinaib anib, Wb. 16c22 . is mór a thorbe de dúnni, 1a3 .

(b) With abstract noun forming adverbial phrase modifying verb of follg. rel. clause: is e a erat fritammiurat `that is the (lit. its) length of time they will hurt me', Ml. 33a1 . a lére ropridchissi, Wb. 24c17 . ba sed a barbardacht atraachtatar, MU² 494 . ara ḟoillsi ┐ ara imchuibde ro indis scéla Crist, Trip.² 13 . a imisle ro bui sé isin comlunn, Stair Erc. 1134 . a dhoimhne do chuaidh an cló, Dán Dé xxiii 24 . fo bhīthin a onōraighi airmitnighi rothaisspēin a s[h]upāilce mōrthrōcairecha dhōip, Fl. Earls 170.22 . In the follg. the phrase is adjectival rather than adverbial: a lomnachtaighe fhágbhas an bás iad, TSh. 657 . a threise atá an chlí, Dán Dé xxiii 10 .

(c) Anticipating a following clause. With finite verb: is mó a fius deitsiu a ndo-rigeni di maith, Wb. 30a8 . a dérbad co n-id fír na hí atberimsi, PH 2036 . a lorgairecht cionnus congbhaidhther . . ., RSClára 135b . a mheas gur dlisdionach, Donlevy vi 20 . Note also: aní rongéni ho gnimaib á epert, Ml. 31b24 . With vn.: dorucadar a buideachus risna deithib Ercuil d'iaraidh a n-ingine, Stair Erc. 937 . a thecht dim bas d'faghail don te, 2549 . a theacht de sin é do chailleamh an ghill, TSh. 10638 .

Common in compd. prepp., see dáil, 1 degaid, 1 deóin, dochum, éis, 1 muin, 1 son, etc.

aicill(n)e

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aicill(n)e or dil.ie/801
Last Revised: 2013

, f. Vn. of ad-gíall(n)a. base clientship . Used of the status of a `céle' who has received `rath' (stock) from a lord and has thereby entered into relations of dependence, being entitled to the lord's protection and on the other hand bound to render him certain service (frithgnam), Thurn. ZCP xiv 336 . Cáin Aigillne, name of a law tract, ZCP xiv 338 § 1 ( Laws ii 222 ). cain aigillne ┐ giallnu. Cid do-slí? Ni hannsa: seoit turcluide ┐ tuircrec besa airceanna, ib. aiggillne .i. auggugīallne .i. ō dorat in fer sét taurchloithe dialaile .i. lōg a enig ar airitin sēt ūad ar bēs n-airc[h]endchaige, is ugga dō īarom gīallae dond fir sin ┐ airitiu sēt ūad ar bēss n-airchenda, Corm. Y 81 . aigillne .i. céillsine no óglachas, O'D. Suppl . (H. 2.15, 61a). cain aicillne .i. riaghail uca ceilsine inn daerraith, Laws i 40.22, 48.29 Comm. rath naicillni .i. ced gialla, ar ni aperar aigillni acht do ced gialla nama, O'Curry 874 ( H 3.18, p. 392b ). atait secht flathe . . . na dlegait techta saer-giallna na a.¤ na riarus feibe, Laws v 358.2 . secht ngraid flatha, flaith fria haicillni . . ., 24.10 . ?atait secht n-anfolaid fofuaslaicet udhburta in domain . . . a cor fri aicille, a tabairt i nduais filed . . ., 128.16 . sencleithi aicille, i 226.24 Comm. In concrete sense of the persons in such relations to a lord: atait secht mbeoscartha do flathib ┐ a n-aiccillnib imis-fuaslaice[t] dligid do coraib of lords and their unfree clients, ZCP xiv 383 § 48 ( Laws ii 312 ). imscarad do-tluigi(g)t[h]er flaith fri aigillni which the lord requests from the unfree client, ZCP xiv 385 § 50 (318). imscarad fri hanmolta aicgillne mad anfoltach in cele frisin flaith because of the bad behavoiur of the unfree client, 387 § 53 (324). ad-mestar cert ┐ coir, fīr ┐ dliged, cumthus ┐ córus cacha flatha fīre fria huile aicillne (aicille v.l.) is to be reckoned according to the number of all his clients(?), ZCP xi 95 § 51 . flaith . . . dligid side a oigréir dia aigillib, O'D. 2234 (Nero vii, 156a). deabaidh itir di aigillne, O'Curry 473 ( H 3.18, p. 247 ) (`two bodies of tenants', Plummer MS. notes).

ailbéimm

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ailbéimm or dil.ie/964

Forms: oilbéim

n Also oilbéim (cf. 1, 2 ail and béim)

(a) stumbling, knocking against a stone: ?is béss didu ind liacc benir il-béim friss gl. offenderunt in lapidem offensionis, Wb. 4d15 (`many blows', See, however, Strachan, OIPG 4th ed. p. 124 ). ni tegemad oilbeim do re cloich (non offendet pedes suos ad lapidem), Rosa Angl. 62.19 . ni faghann oilbheim ┐ ni fuilighter air, ib. n.4. co na ro-bera do chos ail-béim (ne forte offendas ad lapidem pedem tuum), PH 4716 .

(b) offence, scandal: a.¤ Hérenn Cell Rúaid, Triads 30 . .i. cill as measa do cheallaibh nó béim aithesach no ceall dáir, p. 36 . rob oilbheim adhbal d'eineach . . . tuaisceirt Ereann tuitim an trír ísin, AFM v 1636.4 . gídh gurab oilbhéim é dona Iúduighibh, Donlevy 400.23 . oilbhéim do thabhairt d'aoinneach, 340.27 . fuáradar oilbhéim fá chloich noilbhéime, Romans ix 32 . an choir . . . do chur i leith na n-Éireannach mar oilbhéim dóibh, Keat. i 60 z . a bhean nar iarr oilbhéim d'aon `who never sought the harm of any', A. Ó Dálaigh xxii 6 . imdhigmet cen ail-bém, PH 6810 . tusa uainn ag anamain / i ndáil in tslóig cen ailbéim, SG 265.5 . ní thug oilbhéim don anam, DDána 52.13 .

(c) impediment, obstruction: ni fil nach locht . . . isind [ḟ]ir sin do neoch is ailbéim aiccenta do churp duiniu there is no fault in that man that could be called a natural defect in the human body, RC xxii 209 n.l . an talamh ní fhuair oilbhéim the earth was not damaged, PBocht 25 § 10 . da fadadh slighe gan oilbeim on talmain `if it got space without obstruction from the earth', Ir. Astr. Tr. 16.16 . fríoth oilbhéim re samhluigh soin / ar coirrṠhléibh . . . Chláraigh a like disaster happened on . . ., DDána 64.26 .

airchenda

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airchenda or dil.ie/1699

adj (airchenn) fixed, determined, definite: tuircrec besa airceanna, ZCP xiv 338 § 1 (`bevorstehend, Zukünftig', 340 ) ( Laws ii 222 ). airitiu sēt ūad ar bēss n-airchenda (airchendchaige, v.l.), Corm. Y 81 . ceni berat turchreic ar imfognam n-airchendai, ib. diae inn laei aircendai, Laws v 368.12 Comm. See airchenta.

airḟócarthid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airḟócarthid or dil.ie/1974
Last Revised: 2019

n i, m. (cf. ar-fócair) announcer, herald: atbert int irfuacarthid (-g, MS.) . . . cech nech díchelus forsin rig cech ní bess aice bentar uad, Todd Lect. vi 43 § 63 . Cf. guth in challari ┐ in fir furḟocra, 42 § 62 .

2 án

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 án or dil.ie/3242
Last Revised: 2013

adj o, ā. See O'Rahilly, EIHM 286 ff. Pokorny, Jn. Celt. Stud. i 129 - 130 . I fiery, bright, glowing: saigtea ana gl. sagitas . . . ardentes, Ml. 24c3 . cosind saigit áin, 133a4 . ar licc áin tentidi, TBC-LL¹ 3384 . Appar. also in compd. derc (= derg?)-á.¤ : for licc dercain, RC xi 444.25 . amal sladar iasc mbrec for licc dergáin co sústaib iarind, LU 8655 ( FB 48 ). uaim ifirn áin fiery(?), Ériu ii 229 § 6 . grían á.¤ (or similar phrase) frequ. used of a person: ān grīan grīssach / goires brēoda B., Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 15 . in grían á.¤ (of Moling), Fél. June 17 . lassar gréne áne (of St. Patrick), Mar. 17. Cf. Senac[h] á.¤ mar oebill, Gorm. Feb. 11 . Perh. also: buidne ana do ainglib shining(?), LU 1993 ( FA 6 ). áes án bright (or splendid) folk applied to otherworld people and synonymous with áes síde: aes á.¤ nó sithc[h]aire, O'Dav. 1600 . do brigh go millthighe leisan aois áin (sic) no leisna siodh-bhruighibh gach mac, BNnÉ 164.4 . Cf. poc aosáin `a fairy stroke', RC iv 178 .

In more general sense as eulogistic adj. brilliant, splendid, glorious: an .i. uasal, O'Cl. hān flaith for Temair, Ériu xvi 147.15 . dend Eoganacht áin sin, Fél. Oct. 20 . Ailill á.¤ , TBC-LL¹ 483 . a Emer á.¤ folt-buide, LU 3946 ( SCC 44 ). it āna ind ōic, TBC-I¹ 165 . ni rubaim níth n-erred n-á.¤ , LU 6230 (TBC). gillai óca ána airegda, MU² 74 . co trebur co caomar cembedha ana airccecha, O'D. 2201 ( Nero A vii, 140a ). amais ana immglicca, Alex. 3 . Of a place: Emain á.¤ , LL 7515 . Ailbhe Imligh áin, Cog. 96.27 . Of water: ri c[ria]thras usce n-an n-úar, SR 41 . for in n-ocian n-ucht-lethan n-á.¤ , Auraic. 5353 . Very frequ. as epithet of Ireland: ōs Ēirinn āin, Bruchst. 56 § 125 . Hérend áine, Metr. Dinds. iv 150.8 , etc. Of feats, games: co clessaib ana, TBC-LL¹ 1851 . na cleasa ána iolordha, ITS xxiv 46.34 . bá há.¤ aircech aibind nobítis láith gaile . . . isin tig sin, LU 10131 . Of speech , etc. mad sulbair ┐ mad á.¤ in precept `brilliant', Wb. 8a5 . ba suī, ba ān, ba airdirc, Bruchst. 41 § 7 . ogh-briathra ána, MR 160.7 .

Appar. also swift, speedy (see O'Rahilly loc. cit. and p. 517 ): for a ndíb neachaibh ána udmalla, AFM vi 1920.18 . rogres a eochu ana athloma, TTebe 2862 . fer á.¤ athlamh, TBC-LL¹ 5324 . am tren, am an, am athlum, IT i 141.19 . confacatar na cet[h]a ana imtroma ┐ na casrac[h]a ana imluat[h]a, CCath. 4953 . tucadar cuir ana athluma d'aroile, CF 491 . Hence in glossaries: a.¤ .i. luath ut est airgiu ána .i. it luatha do airrechtain, O'Dav. 13 . a.¤ .i. ésgaid no luath, O'Cl. fir conoencosaibh ana (.i. luatha) (: lāna), Leb. Gab.(i) 52.1 .

Compar. is áiniu dúibsi a n-asbiursa `it is nobler for you what I say', Wb. 5a10 . dírimm bas choímiu ná bess áiniu, TBFr. 47 . ? is edh doberiud bruith isna hōgaib no-gontais ann, comtar aniu iarnauārach, RC xii 94 § 123 . co nād būi i fēin Find [fer] bad áiniu ┐ bad escaidiu ō sain [im]mach `swifter', Four Songs 22.7 .

Superl. is é rí as ánem ┐ as ordnidhem . . . tánic in domun uile, BDD² 1070 . In phrase in tan ba háinem (do) x when x was at the height of his performance, at his best: intan ba hánem dó, BDD 109 . in tan tra ba h-aínium doib beith for sin luindi sin when their anger was at its fiercest, BB 437b26 . an tan ba háinemh dona Gallaibh foran abairt atrubhramor, Hugh Roe 36.11 (fo. 10a) . an tan bá h-aínemh dóibh isuidhe `when they were here making merry', AFM v 1862.17 . Compar. used as superl.: in tráth rop ániu doib oc ól when their feast was at its height, LL 14637 . intan ba haniu flaith Cuirc hi Caisiul, Anecd. iii 59.30 . in tan tra b'aine in gleo sin when that noise was at its height, Aen. 2830 . in tan tra ba h-aine ic tafann na fiadmil, 727 . in tan ba haine do o[c] cathugadh fri lucht na long, BB 419a8 .

Adv. gabait ar a ól co h-á.¤ , LL 207b15 . go hā.¤ , ZCP viii 115 § 28 . nert Erenn ni gab co han, Fen. 64.19 . ? ro gerradh . . . co roan .i. co ro-luath, Leb. Gab.(i) 102 n.2 .

II As subst. glory, splendour, etc. orgin. o, n. ni ain something of splendour, Auraic. 1585 . Aimirgen indse Gáedel / ar n-ór, ar n-á.¤, ar n-óebel `our glory', Ériu iv 136.18 . As o, m. splendid person: gach á.¤ is éigeas, Keat. ii 1752 ( BB 43a 56 ).

Compds. ? ¤-bó: caeca an bó a hO. ` fine cows ', Leb. Cert. 64.1 . ¤-breó bright flame , Fél. June 2 . ¤-chainnel bright torch: da ánchaindil gascid Gaedel, TBC-LL¹ 3771 ( LL 10730 ) = anch., 3769 ( 10729 ). ? ¤-chend: doluid Eocho anchend ed, LL 375a28 (no rhyme). la hEochaid Ānchend, ZCP xi 65 § 16 . ¤-ḟer: bītis āinfir (: fáilid) maille frim glorious men, Ériu ii 95 § 4 . ¤-loise: dā ānloise `splendid flames' (of heroes), TBC-I¹ 3313 . ¤-rí splendid king: Maicc Cairpri, cāine ānrīg, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 18 § 2 . ¤-spirut: án spirut nóeb nert nime `splendid holy spirit', Thes. ii 351.2 (Hy. vi). ? ¤tengthaid clear spokesman: antengtaid ardafeith 'it is a clear spokesman who tends it' Peritia v 88 (k) . ? feithem fri hantenguidh timgair gell comgrad 'attending to the clear spokesman who summons the pledge of those of equal rank' CIH vi 2223.4 , Peritia v 104 .

anae

Cite this: eDIL s.v. anae or dil.ie/3271

n io, m. (the expl. as * ad-no-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 585 would require a form *ánae. See the rhyming exx. infra). On conn. with mod. in ann, i ndan, indon etc. see Éigse xi 85 - 88 . In early lang. usually in pl. wealth, riches, prosperity: ana [.i.] saidhbhrios, Metr. Gl. 14 § 26 . anae graece .i. sursum, unde dicitur an. Anōs datur feib ┐ ana caich, quod indicat nomen hominis .i. antropus .i. suas-deicsid, O'Mulc. 86 . aninae .i. dapes, unde a.¤ , 87 . ana .i. sonas no saidhbhrios, O'Cl. lase rombatar a n-anai inna lamaib, Ml. 95a13 . imforling anu dúnni a paupertas gl. habundauit in diuitibus, Wb. 16c2 . nach accuis trissanétatsat som inna anu, Ml. 57a3 . is hé as topur inna n-ane gl. qui prestat nobís omnia abunde, Wb. 29c7 . ar thercai inna n-ane ndomundae, Ml. 56d14 . im chuindchid inna n-a.¤ nerchradach, 59d3 . honaib imbedaib inna n-a.¤ , 45b8 , 56b24 . inna n-ánæ gl. opum, 28a3 . donaib ánib, Wb. 27b9 . a foróil bess lib dinaib anib gl. uestra habundantia, 16c22 . ho anaib gl. diuitiis, Ml. 36a9 . doformaig a ánae, Fél. Ep. 195 . a.¤ ┐ suthaine dóib, Trip.² 2213 . nach tech suidigthir amlaid sin . . . ní bia can ana and, LL 3798 (= Dinds. RC xv 280 `treasures'). imrōl tocaidh ┐ ordan ┐ anai, ACL iii 298 § 64 . tri hana antreinn: tipra i sléib . . ., Triads 147 . ferr ana inā ancis, ZCP vi 261.3 . mathair anai cech ḟini, Metr. Dinds. i 10.71 . a linn na n-uile n-ana (: eangnamha), Dánta Gr. 41.107 (to a person). gér mór a ana / a einech 's a almsana (of Maedóc Ferna), BNnÉ 282 § 268 . sonas ná ana ná ágh, TSh. 9319 . In sense of provisions: nolethad a n-a.¤ tar[na] tire, Corm. Bodl. 28 (orcc tréith) = Corm. Y 1018 . aná mblechta, Ériu viii 69.70 = ana lachta, RC xx 250.20 . fácbaid tra rath ┐ bendachtu for deoradu Imblechu, ┐ ana mhinaráin i n-Imblig, MacCongl. 55.14 . ana cuile, ZCP x 50.4 . ? is tre fír flathemon cach ana lán cach lestar lán imma ḟlaith, ZCP xi 88 § 11 = cach recht rán, 81 § 12 . Fig. of a person: T. O Baighill ana thuaisceirt Erínn (sic), AU ii 270.16 . ó theasda mh'ana eisd mh'uch (: cara), DDána 90.25 . Ultan ana (.i. fertach) `U. a treasure', Gorm. Apr. 16 . As mock n. loc. Ana ┐ Indmas ┐ Brugas a tri ṅdúine, LL 3914 .

Compd. ¤-dénmaid: dind anedenmid gl. opifice, Ml. 25a19 . innanadeinmid gl. opificem, 42b17 .

anumal

Cite this: eDIL s.v. anumal or dil.ie/3844

adj (umal) disobedient, unwilling: nirb' anhumal imrisnech, SR 3206 . nech bess a.¤ , Ériu iii 104 § 36 . Of metrical faults: d'ar n-anochtaib anumla, Auraic. 2112 . See under anullam.

argat

Cite this: eDIL s.v. argat or dil.ie/4140

Forms: argad, airgead, argad

n o, n. Later m. argad, airgead m., IGT Decl. § 11 . argad: slabhradh, IGT Decl. ex. 471 . : damnadh, PBocht 7.24 (see note).

(a) the metal silver: a n-a.¤ nglan, Ml. 31d10 . amal slaidred ṅargait gl. reprobum argentum, 85b7 . arged ab argento , Corm. Y 18 . gasne arggait (of a person), Thes. ii 295.15 . in sét argait, 345.1 (Hy. v) = arggait, 346.4 . ríthæ in tech sin . . . ar chumil n-arggit, 240.2 (Ardm.). cumal do or ┐ a.¤ , Ériu xvi 37 § 3 . gell . . . di arggut, Críth G. 283 . a.¤ n-án n-oigthiagerna (arget (arcat) n-ard v.l.), Anecd. ii 58.12 . ra mbiad arcat ┐ ór, LU 3318 ( SCC 11 ). ór nó airccet, Trip.² 1120 . míleach argit, BDD² 673 . cassán gelairgit isin brot, LU 6295 (TBC). tricha escra do airgiut oengil Espáne, TFerbe 404 . loc i mbi mein airgit, Laws i 170.17 Comm. conn-esnaduib oir ┐ arccuid, IT iii 238.107 . arget ar crannaib, LL 13869 . a lámha d'airgead (of an image), TSh. 56 . a.¤ beó quicksilver: detach in airgit beó, Rosa Angl. 258.6 . Cf. airgat.

(b) As object of value, currency etc. (cf. airgeint): cia duberat a.¤ daitsiu nulla argenti . . . permotatione , Ml. 73d12 . du fuillem argait gl. ad usuram, 36a24 . cim .i. arget ┐ don argat dobeirt[h]i i cís d'Fomorib atroille ainmniugud, Corm. Y 304 . cimb .i. airget, O'Dav. 354 . cerb .i. argad, Corm. Y 381 . unga arcait for fer imthéit co n-eri, Ériu ii 204 § 23 . ni nais uma na hairgead na hor, Laws iv 36.1 . triar brathar dia tart a n-athair tini argaít, Irish Texts i 17 § 50 . sena.¤ fil acut, LL 361 marg. sup. d'athchuinnge airgeit, ZCP viii 201 § 12 . d'iarraidh airgid, DDána 13.3 . airgead croise caoile nó salfás, L. Cl. A. B. 42.18 .

Of money: monad nua . . . do denam ind Erinn ┐ trecad in arcit do bi inte air-sin, Ann. Conn. 1252.2 . argiod fállsa counterfeit money, Párl. na mB. 3907 . drochairgiod, 1862 .

(c) Of special types of silver: lan ind [ḟ]innfaidhig Patraicc do argut gil o cheniul E. do Patraicc `the full of Patrick's F. (name of a bell) of white silver', AU i 464.z . Cf. tri lan cluicc na rig d'ofrail arcit, Ann. Conn. 1244.5 . cuit in cét fir . . . ungi dargut gil, Cog. 94.6 . tri ficit uinge d'airget ghil, AFM ii 818.4 . LL 312a9 ff. mentions three grades: arggat bruthi (refined), argget mar bess (average) and arggat.

Compds. Mainly in nn.pr. and nn. loc. -án: macc Airgetáin, Trip. ii 514.2 (perh. deriv.). ¤-bran: fid nallabrach ┐ arggatbrain, Thes. ii 293.1 . ¤-dán, see Loth, Rev. des Études Anciennes xxi 263 - 270 . ¤-ibar: mac Argatibair, LL 312a55 . ¤-lám: Nuodai Aircetlaum, RC xii 100 § 133 . Núadha Airgettlamh, Leb. Gab.(i) 148.y . la Nuadat n-argetlaim, LL 981 (cf. airgetlam). ¤-már: Argatmár, LL 2508 . Sīrlām mac Argatmāir, ZCP viii 303.6 . ¤-nia: admuiniur m'argetnia I invoke my silver champion, Misc. Hib. 19 § 2 . ? ¤-ṡrón: tri meic Argatroin, LU 7623 . ¤-glenn: i n-Argatglind, ZCP iii 42 § 8 . ¤-nél: isin maig tess Arggatnéul, Imr. Brain 8 . ¤-ros: Argetros, LL 2287 .

arm

Cite this: eDIL s.v. arm or dil.ie/4184
Last Revised: 2019

n o, n. Later m. (Lat. arma). IGT Decl. § 96 , § 204 .

(a) armour, battle-equipment, panoply, etc. Usually collect. in this sense: iter a.¤ ┐ erriud ┐ écosc, BDD² 1077 . do-thoetsat sé chét . . . riasíu ro-soa a a.¤ (perh. a p. here, ed.) . . . iar saigid a airm, 1083 . etach fri lith a.¤ fri nith, Laws i 122.9 . geib sciath is geib slega / on a.¤ niad rot-rubha, Acall. 1036 ( SG 117.9 ) = is airm niadh rod-rubha, Duan. F. ii 176 § 3 . a.¤ timcell cat[h]a `panoply of battle', CCath. 5203 (folld. by descr. of C.'s armour, not weapons). tuicther assin gorop a.¤ is fiu sechtmad loig einech dlighis gach gradh do beith aice, O'D. 877 (H 3.17, c. 629). doire airm, IGT Decl. ex. 405 . ro ḟacsam da trían ar n-airm, LL 204b54 . ní maith bhādar na hĒir[ionnaigh] i n-a.¤ , Cín Lae Ó Meall. 36.17 . a cleas n-airm, Ériu iv 148.2 . ? a shield: Dubgilla dub-airm n-aisse, Metr. Dinds. iv 330.1 .

(b) weapon: bad armatura dei bess lib nábat nacha a.¤ aili, Wb. 22d14 . gaibid armma dǽ foirib gl. armaturam, 11 . combetis arma cholno leu, 13 . act robed arma dæ foirib, 15 . loc i mbiat arma gl. armamentarium, Sg. 35a13 . So also 33a7 . ainmm ṅairm gl. spicum, 104b3 . inna arma dorataissiu doibsom gl. arma, Ml. 44a14 . conarrceoratar a n-arma doib, 26d6 . ar no labraitis demna friu dia n-armaib, conid de batir comarchi forro a n-airm, LU 3236 ( SCC 2 ). atconnarc láechu . . . co n-armmaib, 3762 (ib. 34 ). ba bes lasna geinti a n-adnacal fo n-armaib, Trip.² 804 . a.¤ fir i raei, Laws v 238.20 . fear airm deirg i.e. the murderer taken red-handed, 318.14 . cenmothá fer cech airm dóib ┐ fer cech fir díb, LU 7103 . rúada a n-airm, MU² 441 . cen armu cen fáebru, 644 . lautar forsna harmu they armed themselves, ZCP viii 105.8 . luidhim fom armuibh I swear by my weapons, RC x 342.1 . gabaid bar n-armu cathaigthe, PH 8141 . gabhainn ag déanumh a.¤ n-ard, Magauran 367 . sé go hoidhchi idir armaib / coibchi in Calbaigh hé d'ingin, IGT Decl. ex. 177 . beag mo bhrígh a n-a.¤ an ḟir / garbh asttigh 's as mín amuigh, ex. 690 . mairg do sháith a.¤ ina fheoil (of the piercing of Christ's Body by the lance), Dán Dé xxvi 39 . beith suas i n-a n-armaibh ag forchoimēt dōib `in arms', Fl. Earls 30.29 . a.¤ láma see lám.

Transfd. senses: is iad airm bís acu (of agricultural implements), Laws iv 76.2 Comm. luaidheam cúilteagh . . . / . . . / teach fionn is fraoch ar a a.¤ / is balbh gaoth ós chionn a chearn of keen implements(?), DDána 119.27 . cosgradh cruaidh na n-a.¤ n-amh (of a harper's fingers), Measgra D. 6.20 . ní rī a.¤ acht a.¤ becc beich bee's sting, ACL iii 307 § 18 ( Measgra Uí Chl. 149 ). a.¤ suine .i. gob cuirri (B. na f.), ACL iii 310 § 9 = a.¤ suibne, ZCP xii 361.11 . Of the membrum virile, Laws v 134.1 Comm.

(c) army: tugadh in t-a.¤ don chaislēn, Cín Lae Ó Meall. 26.19 .

Compds. (a) With nouns: ¤-airlech: a fhoirtched ┐ a a. hew him down with his weapon, MR 270.15 . ? ¤-bert: indearaidh d'airmbeartaibh a héigean feats of war, DDána 83.1 . See airmert. ¤-chath: o ri Oilig na n-a. armed battalions, BB 274a39 . ¤-chlaideb: d'armgae d'armclaideb d'armscíath, LL 203a60 . ¤-chletin, TBC-LL¹ p. 273 n.3 . ¤-chosnam: budh argain gan arm-chosnum `it will be destruction beyond the defence of arms', MR 296.3 . ¤-chrech armed foray, RC xiii 96.8 . ¤-chrith (= grith): talumcumscúgud ┐ a., Trip.² 495 . tainic airmchrith (airmgrith v.l.) mor . . . conna roibi sleg for alcuing, CCath. 877 . Cf. 1 grith. ¤-chumtach: ba solas doib dia n-erredaib ┐ dia n-armcumdaigib di ór weaponholders, LB 209b44 ( arc-, Alex. 627 ). ¤-dos: is he ar n-a. (of the Creator), SR 1030 . ¤-dígal: fri hengnom fri hairmdígail `armed vengeance', Metr. Dinds. iii 112.28 . ¤-ḟogrugud clanging of arms, TTebe 1175 . ¤-gae: fuair armgai amrai imdaí, BB 37b2 . ¤-gaisced accoutrements: ro hadnacht co n-armgasciud, LU 9817 . iar facbail a ech ┐ . . . a armgascid, 8529 ( FB 38 ). cethri catha . . . fon armgaiscid, RC xxiii 410 § 21 . Cf. comtis fir fo sciatharmgaisciud, LL 220b31 ( TTr. 261 ). ¤-gal, see separate article. ¤-gein: Ériu ágmar ba h-a. `born among arms', Metr. Dinds. iv 184.10 . ¤-gleó: do iomchradh airmghliaidh `weapon fight', O'Gr. Cat. 501.1 . ¤-gnéithid see separate article. ¤-gonad: a shaoir armghonta `skilled in weapon-wounding', O'Gr. Cat. 456.11 . ¤-gráin: re harmgrain a n-airech the terror of the arms of the chieftains, MR 190.21 . ¤-gres: ro chualadar in a. `the martial strain', Metr. Dinds. ii 30.60 . ¤-grith see 1 grith and -chrith supra. ¤-imbert see airimbert. ¤-lasad: gaedil uime ar a. `glittering in arms', MR 182.14 . ¤-lúirech: umum-sa bid armlúireach `armour', MR 296.22 . ¤-nert: no gu ḟuair eochair airmneirt, BB 31a9 . ¤-nertmaire military strength, TBC St. 4631 . ¤-rand: Fiacha Labraind . . . ós cech armraind `every armed squadron', Metr. Dinds. iii 460.6 . ? ¤-raithe: gasradh armraithe (: anḟlaithe) óg ḟionn fortunate in battle(?), Content. xxi 11 . Cf. armrad. ¤-ṡlaide conflict of arms: da tora Find Almaine / a. ársain dena, LL 296b19 ( SG 363.8 ). ¤-thor armoury, arsenal , GJ iii 50b16 . Fig. a armthuir `o armed lord', O'Gr. Cat. 457.12 . ¤-thríall warlike attempt, expedition: gleo na n-each ar airmthriall creach, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 344.3 .

(b) With adjj.: ¤-chorr: do siol Aonghusa armcuirr, LL 394.21 . ¤-derg: A. a., LL 233a13 ( TTr. 1181 ). Iomchaidh airm-dhearg, ML 12.20 . ¤-détla brave in arms: Ailill airmdhedla, BB 232b45 . U. airmdetla, Duan. F. i 51.33 . ¤-glan: a bhuiden armghlan, O'Gr. Cat. 504.11 . ¤-gér. As n.pr. Airmgēr mac Acarnāmhat, ZCP xiii 174.33 . ¤-gonta wounded by weapons: an fhlaith armgonta ō fhinnGrēig, ZCP ii 350.23 . sluagh armghonta i nothar `weapon-wounded', O'Gr. Cat. 508.14 . ¤-innillte: earr . . . arminnillti `well-armed hero', MR 224.17 . ¤-láitir: fon ocrig . . . n-armlatir, Ann. Conn. 1256.6 . ¤-neimnech: d'óccbhaidh airmneimhnigh, AFM vi 2230.9 . ¤-nocht with unsheathed weapon: láeich armnochta, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 374.23 . tig in Éirinn armórtha 'came ... to Ireland of the golden weapons', Giolla Brighde 194 § 16 . ¤-rúad: ar síol Néill Oilig armruaid, O'Gr. Cat. 410.5 . slúaigh Ailigh armrúaidh (ádhrúaidh, v.l.), PBerchán § 90 . ¤-ṡlán: Eochaid a. airech `arm-proof', Metr. Dinds. iv 100.6 . ¤-thana: Mac Colmán féil a.. `of the slender weapons', BNnÉ 229 § 133 .

arrae

Cite this: eDIL s.v. arrae or dil.ie/4256
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: arra

io, n. Later also with dental infl. arra m. IGT Decl. § 2 . Vn. of ar-ren. For form and meaning see Binchy, Ériu xix p. 51 - 53 .

(a) act of paying something on behalf of another or in place of something else; payment: trī dīrna do argat a.¤ ar teorae ferbai fīrae, Corm. Y 585 `three stone(?) of silver [as] compensation for three white cows', Binchy loc. cit. (cf. Corm. Y 811 and Ériu xiii 48.28 ). ? in trin don arra uil isin coirpdire, Laws i 250.4 Comm. arra .i. er a luagh .i. luach bess mó, O'Dav. 29 . a.¤ .i. eric, 80 . arra .i. luach . . . ┐ adeir a Trecin (leg. Trecheng) Breth: . . . dul do chennach cen airrchi, Ériu xiii 62 § 7 ( Triads 74 ). a.¤ .i. íc, ut est i Cath Mhaighi Tuiredh, ni rabadar fir Erenn ac a.¤ in chísa géin ro mhair Lugh, § 8. tancus o righ R. . . . do cuingidh arrad co S. Doraidh S. . . . nach biath fo chis do righ talmanda, Lism. L. 2088 . a.¤ .i. fiacha, ut est; gabtar a.¤ do lámhaibh feicheman, Ériu xiii 62 § 9 . ? a naradhaibh a ghaisgidhe, RC x 338.17 ( airigidh, TBC-LL¹ 3155 ) = ina airigid gaiseid, 337.x (see 1 airigid).

(b) object or class of objects which has been stipulated for in `consideration' of a contract or in settlement of a debt: a meic ara feiser fiachu masria, aen arra i leth cumail, Laws iii 150.12 . ruidles eneclainni do rigaib in taen arra airgid, 150.y Comm. in set ro recfadh duine ┐ ni fagabar in tarra ro gellastair da cinn, a seoit d'aisic do, O'Curry 279 ( H 3.18, 151 ). da trian d'arraib and ┐ aen trian d'anarraib, O'Curry 904 ( H 3.18, 401 ). In phrase fo-reith arra anarra `a non-`a.¤' represents (i.e. may be substituted for) an `a.¤'' (Binchy loc. cit.), see anarra. arra .i. geall, ut dicitur: isé arra ro ghabhus frim fíachaibh .i. lógh secht cumal do mairbhdílib, Ériu xiii 62 § 6 . mo c[h]orn ōir . . . / timnaim, ga hūaisle arra / do shaoradh m'anma ar olcaibh, RC xxxvii 352 § 5 . Hence of valuable objects in general chattels, ware, merchandise (see 2 errad): trí mairg déag do dháilis damh / re taobh t'éadaigh is t'arradh `small wares' (recompense to a poet), Magauran 2389 . brēc a māini 'sa medha / brēc a ōr 'sa arrada, ACL iii 239 § 17 . gidh bé arra iarroid soin / do-bearar leis do láthoir `whatever article the buyers ask', Aithd. D. 46.17 . tusa fear iarrtha ar n-arra `thou art the seeker of our wares', 19 . bhar gcuirn bláithe is bhar mbrannaimh / cuimhnighthior do chéadarraibh, DDána 74.48 . foireann brannaimh bile bhadhba / d'arraibh tighe in Daghdha dōibh from the valuables, O'R. Poems 3597 . dob é in droch-arra 'ar ndéchoin `how paltry when one had inspected him his value was', O'Gr. Cat. 440.6 . ní reacfa tú í ar énchor ar airgiod, ní dhéna tú arradh dhi (of the captive concubine who is sent away) `merchandise', Deuteronomy xxi 14 . Cf. mar nach fúaras arruid ar fhís 'as I found no substitute for [the] vision' Ériu xxi 116 § 4 .

(c) In legal contexts of the number of oath-helpers required by a person who was debarred from leading proof himself (also a.¤ cuir): caide cor? tricha fear; caide a.¤ cuir? coic fir dec, O'Curry 347 ( H 3.18, 192a ). is e méd an arra cuir .i. is e dligar lanarra na heisinnraice do reir coir: tri fichit fer do martra .i. diablad lanarra na heisinnraice this is the amount of the `a.¤ cuir' i.e. this is what is required, a full `a.¤' of `unworthiness' according to legality, sixty men to swear at the grave of a martyr i.e. the doubling of the full `a.¤' of `unworthiness', Cóic Con. 67.27 . airi forgill medonach no aire forgill is taire air[e] forgill in lethḟira in letharra, in lanfira ┐ in lanarra i.e. the middle a.¤ f. compensates by oath in the full a.¤ and half a.¤ , 38 § 52. is iat na tri arra antesta i.e. these are the three whose oath compensates for one disqualified from testifying, 40.2 . arra cuir o mnai eisinnric, Laws v 454.15 Comm. ma étged no anfes lethfiach ind ┐ arra cuir as n-étged ┐ as n-anfes, Cáin Ad. 35 . ma isli boaire is arra cuir aire; ma boaire do fine nach aile a luighi nama. O'Curry 2591 ( Eg. 88, 50 (51)b ). in lethfir testa ┐ in letharra antesta, 333 (H 3.18, 183). is arra cuir o antest ┐ fir testa o teist, 2003 (H 4.22, 30). is e lan arra na cairdi dias, Laws iii 134.10 Comm. a sena . . . é féin co lucht a leitharra, 108.23 Comm. a sena . . . go lucht a lanfira no a leithfira, ma inraic, no cu lucht a lanarra no a letharra mas eisinnraic, O'D. 2330 ( Rawl. B 506, 35c ). ? Hence: arra .i. tuarusdal ut est sena in arra .i. an tuarusdail, O'Curry 570 ( H 3.18, 284 ). testaigidh in esindraic a ruib co lucht a lanarrad no letharrad . . . masa tuarustal doniat, denat co lucht a fira for robaib na indraici ┐ co lucht a tuarastail, O'Curry 346 ( H 3.18, 191 c).

(d) In ecclesiastical contexts penitential commutation (substitution of a shorter and usually more intensive discipline for the normal penance prescribed by canonical or monastic rules): dona harraib ind so, title of a tract, Ériu xix 58 . a.¤ n-aill tri coicat cach læa, 58 § 2. arre ndubthroischthe, 60 § 11. iss ed . . . a n-arre tri coicait salm, 64 § 25. iss edh cethardae . . . ara ndentar na a.¤ , 58 § 6. ata dechor . . . etar na arre, 60 § 7. is a.¤ secht ṅoiffernn i.e. to recite the whole poem is equivalent in merit to hearing Mass seven times, Fél. Ep. 177 . is a.¤ trí tredan, 186 . arre troisccthe la diarmait da fítt chert chutrume . . . ┐ inddala hí do tabirt do día. Araile do tomailt fadein `as an equivalent for fasting D. used to allow two exactly equal rations to be made, and one of these to be given to God; the other he was to eat himself', Mon. Tall. 161.8 (§ 80) . dí biait déc arra na tri coicat, LB 10a40 `twelve recitations (of psalm cxix = cxviii) are a substitute for one recitation of the whole Psalter', Plummer MS notes. dub-throscuth inna medon nó arra troiscthe. Maith o duthracht etraid is bliadain pendite nó arre, Ériu vii 144 § 27 . nī fil do pecdaib nā hīcat na harra-sa (of prescribed penitential psalms), ZCP iii 30.28 . Of vicarious atonement (see Binchy loc. cit. p. 56 ): arra tessairgne anma a ifurn, Ériu xix 58 § 1 . doessairc anmandæ a iffurnd cach arra dona airraib-se, § 4.

attá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. attá or dil.ie/4927
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: attá, Fil, fil, faeilfit, fil, fil, atóo, attó, attóo, ató, -táu, -ttóo, -tó, atái, atái, -tái, adta, ata, at, atáa, attáa, ataa, att, -tá, -ta, -táa, -dathar, ataam, attaam, ataid, ataaith, ataaid, ataad, -taid, ataat, ataat, -tat, -taat, tathum, tathut, táithi, táthus, táthunn, taithiunn, tathuib, tás, fil, fil, feil, fel, fail, fil, file, fel, fele, feil, fail, biuu, -bíu, -bí, biith, biid, bíid, -bii, -bí, robīi, -rubi, -rubai, -ruba, bíis, biís, bis, bís, bithir, bither, -bither, -rubthar, bímmi, -biam, bimme, biit, bíit, robiat, -biat, -bíat, -rubat, bíte, -bíinn, -biinn, -bíid, -bíth, -bid, -bith, bithe, -bímmis, -bitis, -bítis, b, bíth, bíith, bíid, biid, bíd, bithom, biid, bith, biat, beo, beu, -béo, bee, b, -bee, robhe, beith, beid, bed, beth, -b, -bée, bethum-sa, rob, robe, rubé, rob, robbé, -roib, bess, bes, bethir, bether, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -bem, -robam, beithe, bethe, -beith, -beid, -robith, beit, rubet, be(i)t, -bet, -robat, bete, -beind, -beinn, -betha, nobed, nobeth, -bed, -beth, -robad, -rabad, -bethe, -bemmis, -beimmis, -bemis, -bethe, -betis, -[ro]ibtis, bia, bie, bieid, bied, -bia, -bia, -bia, -bía, bethiumm, bethib, bias, bies, beithir, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -biam, -piam, bethe, bethi, -bied, -bieid, biet, bieit, biet, -biat, -bíet, bete, beite, nombeinn, nobiad, -bíad, nobemmis, nobetis, b, -bá, bói, bái, -bói, boie, boithius, boíthi, baísu, both(a)e, botha, -both(a), bamar, bámar, -baid, bātir, -batar, batar, rob, -roba, -raba, rob, robói, rambái, robui, -robae, -robe, -rabae, romboth, rombod, -rabad, robámmar, -robammar, rubaid, -robaid, robatar, robbátar, -rabatar, -robatar, -rabtar, buith, buithi, atáu, atú, itu, it, atú, ataim, -t, -tái, -toi, taoi, -t, atá, attá, ata, at, atáthar, dáthar, atass, -das, itám, tám, ataum, ataim, atamaoit, atámaoid, atám, -taum, -dtám, atathai, atathi, atáithi, -táithi, -dathai, -taidh, itāt, atáit, ataut, táid, -táit, itat, atat, fil, -fhile, -fhuile, -fuili, -ḟoili, -ḟuile, fail, fail, fuil, -fail, -fuil, -uil, -ḟil, -ḟuil, -ḟoil, fil, fail, fail, filter, -fuiltear, fuilemm, -failmet, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, -bhḟuilti, failet, filet, fuilet, -failet, -filet, -fileat, -fuilet, -fuilid, failet, failet, fuilet, filet, bim, bím, -bím, -ruibim, -bi, bíd, bíd, -bí, -bíonn, -bind, bídh, -b, bither, -bithar, bímit, bídmaid, bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, bíth, bīd, -bíat, -bít, -bíd, bit, bít, bhínn, nobīth, robíth, bhíodh, bhíoth, bithi, -bithi, bithea, naboitis, nobīdis, beitis, bitis, bhítís, bhídís, bír, b, bīdh, bíodh, bíoth, bíom, bíthe, bídh, bidhí, bíod, ber, uér, beor, bheith, bur, -rabor, -rabhus, rabasa, bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, bé, beir, -rab(a)i, -rabha, -rabhair, -mbéis, -beis(se), -rabais, beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, beth, -b, -raib, -rab, -raibhe, rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, bess, beas, bethur, beme, bemmit, bemait, -bém, -beam, -ruibem, -rabum, bheam, rabham, bethi, rabthai, beit, -bet, -beat, -rabat, -rabut, -rabhait, -rabhaid, -rabheid, beinn, rabainn, beithi, beithe, bethe, beitheá, beith, nobith, mbeadh, -mbeath, -rabad, -bethe, -bette, rabtha, mbiadh, nobeitis, nobeidis, mbeith, bíat, biat, biad, bhead, bed, bét, bett, -biu, -bhiú, biad, -bi, bía, biae, biaidh, bía, -bía, bethair, bied, biaid, biáid, -bia, bíes, bés, bes, bess, bhias, biass, beither, beithir, bemit, bemait, -bem(ni, beimíd, -biam, -biaim(ne), -ben, bethi, beitte, bete, -bed, biait, biat, beit, beiti, beti, betit, beidid, -bīat, beidíd, beid, -bíad, no-béind, dobeind, do beinn, -beinn, bheitheá, biadh, -bied, bífad, rot-fiadh, biath, bhiadh, bethe, bheidīs, ro-bádus, bhádhus, bhí, -rabus, -rabhas, -rabadhus, bá, -raba, bádhus, -rabadhas, basa, bhádhuis, bhí, -rabadais, -rabhais, bhádhuis, -rabhadhuis, bae, bóe, baei, búi, -bae, -buí, robai, robae, robói, bí, robuidh, bí, bhói, bhaoi, -rubai, -roibe, -roibi, -roba, -raba, -raibhe, -rabha, -robha, bí, -raibi, baí, -rabha, -rabhustair, boí, bāi, būi, bae, buí, baí, boí, both, rombatha, robās, rombas, robás, -rabus, rabas, -bádus, -bás, bás, bas, -rabas, bas, bhás, bāmur, bámar, bhámair, -rabamar, robabair, -babhair, robadbair, bhábhair, -rabhuir, -rabhabhair, bādar, -bátir, badar, bádar, bídur, -rabadar, -rabhadair, baisit, -rabhsad, bátar, bátar, bheith, beitte

(ad-tá) subst. vb. is . The distinction betw. subst. vb. and copula is in the first place syntactical, and cases are found where there is no distinction of form. Cf. the type, common in ACC: boe sab he was a leader, ACC 26 . See further below, and the discussion by Bergin, Ériu xii 208 - 211 (cia taísiu, cia bé, etc.), who refers to cases like: is uera pictura ro bai sin, Thes. ii 6.32 as emphatic. See also Ériu xvi 46 , GOI 475 . For nimtha laám, Wb. 12a21 , nímptha fírion, 8d24 (copula ?) see GOI 487 . Note also the form of the pron. in (later): matait tall iat, Laws iv 86.8 Comm. , atá ar conair é, ACL iii 216.z . bí N. eices cecinit, RC xvii 175.14 is perh. a mistake. In follg. use of subst. vb. perh. due to infl. of Latin: mar nobéind athair doib = pater eram pauperum, PH 6107 . ata in innsci ordugud etc. = oratio est. . ., Auraic. 591 .

Apart from the ordinary indic. pres. all forms of subst. vb. are from a root beginning with b-. In indic. pres. the stem tá (in absol. position attá) is used in non-rel. sentences without conj. particle, after conj. particles with inf. pron. dat. and when the conj. particle consists of a preposition and rel. (s)a n-. Absolute inflexion of tá- is found in oldaas, indaas, etc. than (is), in meaning is angry, and with follg. suff. pron. The uninflected form fil (with accus.) is used after conj. particles where no dat. inf. pron. is present, in leniting rel. clauses and often in answers to questions containing subst. vb., and in archaic texts in absol. position in meaning there is . For fuller details see GOI 476 - 483 and exx. below. See also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 419 ff. , Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899, 1 - 82 , Ó Máille, Ériu vi 1 ff. , Études Celt. xxxiv 143-44 . Forms of gaibid, do-coissin, díchsnigidir and 1 ad-cumaing also have the force of the subst. vb. in certain uses, see separate entries.

Note further that attá is usual after hóre (see Wb. 19a19 , 22d14 and compare GOI § 781 ) and occurs later after amal ( LU 7072 , Laws iii 90.18 ). Fil is somet. found in sense there is in mid. Ir.: fail crois d'ór in cach dorus, SR 361 . TBC-I¹ 2561 . Note also: fil derg it is red, Marco P. 173 .

The use of accus. after fil continues into the classical period, see IGT Introd. § 129 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 92 - 93 . A few exx. of forms other than fil with accus. occur: ni raibi deilb, TTr.² 1664 , ní raibi . . . mhnái, 370 , ní bhiadh mnaoi, Ó Bruad. ii 252.z (with assonance). Note also with inf. pron. rosṁbai inna tass, SR 5107 . ? nim tha maith . . . do chath fri firu, LU 3343 ( SCC 13 ). From the mid. Ir. period on fil takes personal endings except in 3 s., and occurs occasionally as an independent verb: faeilfit (fut. 3 pl. absol.), Caithr. Thoirdh. 120.26 . In rel. function attá is found side by side with fil from an early period: is heiside attá hi S., Trip.² 534 , a lucht atá istig, RC vii 298.131 , the form fil finally disappearing in this use.

In mid. Ir. fil occurs for earlier -tá with dat. inf. pron.: nichar fail tlacht, SR 1560 , ni-s-fil biad, PH 1310 . Also in rel. clause after prep.: bale hi fail, LU 7516 , fors fil, Imr. Brain 43 (see also Strachan, Stories fr. Táin 3rd ed. p. 1 note).

The consuet. pres. 1 s. conj. -bíu has in classical Ir. the force of a future: biad ní biú, IGT Verbs § 7 , see also TBC-LL¹ 882 , Acall. 6179 , Duan. F. i 43.4 .

Early forms (for fuller lists see Strachan loc. cit.). Indic. pres. 1 s. atóo, Wb. 12a21 . attó, 21c19 . attóo, 26d8 . ató, 26d17 . -táu, 32a10 , -ttóo, 17d24 , -tó, Ml. 92b8 . 2 s. atái, Wb. 5b27 . atái, Ml. 110d15 (sic MS, see Ériu xiv 30 ). -tái, 5b38 . 3 s. adta, Laws v 390.10 (see ZCP xxv 247 ). ata, Wb. 13c26 , at, 27a11 , atáa, 6a19 , attáa, 32a6 , ataa, 26b31 , att, 4b11 . -tá, 31c7 , -ta, 2b12 , -táa, 13a35 . Impers. -dathar (see GOI 477 - 478 ), Wb. 21c9 . 1 pl. ataam, Wb. 15a13 , attaam, 32a28 . 2 pl. ataid, Wb. 4a4 , ataaith, 20b16 , ataaid, 23c28 , ataad, 22d14 . -taid, 19d26 . 3 pl. ataat (trisyll.), Blathm. 471 . ataat, Ml. 55d11 , 37a10 . -tat, 42b10 . -taat, Sg. 71b3 .

With suff. pron. tathum, Metr. Dinds. iv 284.3 . tathut, Fél. July 24 . táithi (tathai, v.l.), Críth G. 197 . táthus, Fél. Feb. 5 . táthunn, Prol. 217. taithiunn, Thes. ii 293.19 . tathuib, Rawl. 88b51 .

For rel. s. without preverb (taas, tás) see atás, indaas, 4 ol.

The form fil, etc. As conj. form: fil, Wb. 16b9 , Ml. 92a8 , Sg. 193b7 . feil, Wb. 24c4 . Ml. 60b2 . fel, Wb. 3c38 , Ml. 27d10 . fail, 44b10-11 , Sg. 32a1 . As rel.: fil, Ml. 121c8 , file Wb. 23a5 , Ml. 51d11 , Sg. 151b7 . fel, Wb. 4c1 , fele, Ml. 93c7 . feil, Wb. 33b18 . fail, BCr. 18c4 .

Consuet. pres. 1 s. biuu, Wb. 16d8 . -bíu, 20a3 . 2 s. -bí, Ml. 135d1 . ACL iii 312 § 4 . 3 s. biith, Wb. 29a26 . biid, 4d33 . bíid, Sg. 150b4 . -bii, Wb. 28b25 , -bí, Ml. 103c3 . With ro: robīi, TBC-I¹ 1730 . -rubi, Wb. 11c17 , -rubai, Ml. 20d4 , Sg. 7b3 . -ruba, 3b28 . Rel. bíis, Wb. 13a12 . biís, 28b28 . bis, Ml. 61a33 . bís, Sg. 140b2 . Impers. bithir, Ml. 56b15 . rel. bither, 108b4 , -bither, 100c21 . -rubthar, cited GOI § 784 . OIPG 69 . 1 pl. bímmi, Ml. 15a4 . -biam, Wb. 16a8 . Rel. bimme, Wb. 12c11 . 3 pl. biit, Wb. 29a28 . bíit, Sg. 217a1 . robiat, 138a5 . -biat, Ml. 59d7 . -bíat, Sg. 148a4 . -rubat, 138a5 . Rel. bíte, Wb. 9d28 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. -bíinn, Ml. 108b1 , -biinn, 58d9 . 3 s. -bíid, LU 5080 (see Ériu xvii 121 ), -bíth, Sg. 148b6 . -bid, Ml. 33a5 . -bith, Vita Br. 12 . Impers. no bithe , CCath. 3971 . 1 pl. -bímmis, cited GOI § 785 . 3 pl. -bitis, Ml. 86d6 . -bítis, Sg. 5a15 .

Ipv. 2 s. b, TBC-I¹ 2391 . 3 s. bíth, Wb. 10a8 , 25 , bíith, 8d9 , bíid, 5d33 , biid, Ml. 74d3 . bíd, Wb. 3a14 . With suff. pron. bithom, Fél. Ep. 404 n.17 . 2 pl. biid, Wb. 23c11a . bith, 22b26 . 3 pl. biat, Ml. 51d13 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. beo, Wb. 23b41 . beu, Ml. 53b8 . -béo, Fél. Prol. 273 . 2 s. bee, cited OIPG 70 and see GOI 482 . b, ZCP viii 311.z (see xxiv 122 ). -bee (perh. absol.), ZCP vii 494 (Enchir. Aug.). -bē, Fing. R. 82 . With ro: robhe (restored as ro-bé), Blathm. 92 § 9 . 3 s. beith, Ml. 108a11 . beid, Wb. 14c23 . bed, 3c10 . beth, Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr. Hom.). -bǽ, Wb. 22b14 . -b, Sg. 29b14 . -bée, Wb. 12c43 . With suff. pron. bethum-sa, Fél. Ep. 384 n.14 . With ro: rob, Wb. 5d30 , robe, 18c4 , rubé, Ml. 20d4 , rob, Wb. 28a23 , robbé, Sg. 169a1 . -roib, Wb. 16c24 , Ml. 118c5 . Rel. bess , Wb. 5d14 . bes, Ml. 77d3 . Impers. bethir, Wb. 5d33 . rel. bether, Ml. 107d8 . -bether, Wb. 10a18 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 31c11 . beimmi, 19a16 . -bem, 24a10 . -robam, 26c10 . 2 pl. beithe, Wb. 18b16 . bethe, 24b13 . -beith, Ml. 46a10 . -beid, Wb. 27c9 . With ro: -robith, Wb. 26a28 . 3 pl. beit, Wb. 10b5 . rubet, 26a23 . ro be(i)t , Vita Br. 35 . -bet, Wb. 9d27 . -robat, 11d9 . Rel. bete, Wb. 10c22 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -beind, TBC-I¹ 1856 . -beinn cited GOI § 787 . 2 s. -betha, Wb. 4c24 . 3 s. nobed, Wb. 3b10 . nobeth, Ml. 27b1 . -bed, Wb. 9d1 . -beth, Ml. 88b15 . -robad, Wb. 17a13 . -rabad, 34a4 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . 1 pl. -bemmis, Wb. 9a3 . -beimmis, 29d23 . -bemis, Vita Br. 23 . 2 pl. -bethe, Wb. 9c20 . 3 pl. -betis, Sg. 138a9 . -[ro]ibtis, Wb. 28a1 .

Fut. 1 s. bia, Ml. 137b7 . 2 s. bie, cited GOI § 788 , OIPG 70 . 3 s. bieid, Wb. 4d6 . bied, 14c1 . -bia, 5d35 . -bia (disyll.), Blathm. 572 . -bia and -bía, GOI § 788 . With suff. pron. bethiumm. Ériu xiii 20.6 . bethib, ZCP viii 316.5 (see xxix 174 ). Rel. bias, Wb. 23b38 . bies, Ériu iii 102 § 32 . Impers. beithir, TBFr. 248 . -bether, MacCongl. 61.4 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 9c10 . beimmi, 21b7 . -biam, 15a1 . -piam, 30b17 . 2 pl. bethe, cited GOI § 788 . bethi, Trip.² 1589 . -bied, Wb. 9a21 . -bieid, 26d26 . 3 pl. biet (disyll.), Blathm. 472 . bieit, Wb. 4c40 . biet, 9d27 , Sg. 198b6 (also bíet, GOI § 788 ). -biat, 9c28 . -bíet, 40b14 . Rel. bete, Wb. 13c26 . beite, 4c40 .

Condit. 1 s. nombeinn, Ml. 59a22 . 3 s. nobiad, Ml. 32d5 . -bíad, Wb. 9d1 . 1 pl. nobemmis, Ml. 134b3 . 3 pl. nobetis, Ml. 100c7 .

Pret. 1 s. b, LU 9407 . 2 s. -bá, cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 , see perf. 2 s. below. 3 s. bói, Wb. 31c18 . bái, 27a16 . -bói, 17d17 , Ml. 78a4 . Rel. boie, Thes. ii 242.11 (Ardm.). boīe (MS. ba), Ériu xvi 46.10 (see n. 0 and Celtica vi 223 ). boíë (MS. baoí), Ériu xxvi 67, 85 . Cf. cech nóeb bói, fil, bías, Fél. Ep. 289 (where six sylls. required). With suff. pron. boithus, IT i 137.8 = boithius, 21 . boíthi, Sc.M² 3 . ? baísu, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 37.5 . Impers. *both(a)e, postulated GOI § 789 , botha, TBC-I¹ 1572 . -both(a), Vita Br. 33 . 1 pl. bamar, SR 1558 . bámar, 3286 , Imr. Brain i 48.5 . 2 pl. -baid (baïd ?), cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 . 3 pl. bātir, TBC-I¹ 217 . -batar, Ml. 55c2 . Rel. batar, Ml. 123b5 . See GOI § 789 .

Perf. 1 s. rob, Wb. 28a9 . -roba, Ml. 44c4 . -raba, TBC-I¹ 3068 . 2 s. rob, LL 14442 . 3 s. robói, Wb. 5c10 . rambái, 2c13 . robui, Ml. 93c3 . -robae, Ml. 41a5 , -robe, Wb. 18d7 , -rabae, Ml. 28d3 . Impers. romboth, Wb. 19a9 . rombod, 5b31 . -rabad, Ériu iv 146.4 . 1 pl. robámmar, Wb. 20d12 . -robammar, Ml. 105b16 . 2 pl. rubaid, Wb. 3b19 . -robaid, Ml. 46a8 . 3 pl. robatar, Wb. 24c5 . robbátar, Sg. 57b1 . -rabatar, Ml. 100c11 . -robatar, Sg. 45b1 . -rabtar, Ml. 37a16 .

Vn. buith.

Vbl. of necess. buithi.

Later forms (see also Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish, Ériu vi 1 ff. ; Mulchrone, Verbalformen der Vita Tripartita, ZCP xvi 440 ; Falconer, Verbal System of LU Táin, Ériu xvii 116 ; Strachan, Verbal System of SR, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1895, 1 - 76 ; O Daly, Verbal System of LL Táin, Ériu xiv 80 ; Mac Eoin, Verbalsystem von Togail Troi, ZCP xxviii 125 ; Sommerfelt, Le système verbal dans In Cath Catharda, RC xxxviii 41 ; Nuner, Verbal System of the Agallamh na Senórach, ZCP xxvii 272 ; PH Glossary; Lloyd, Impersonal passive forms of the Irish substantive verb, Ériu i 49 ff. ; TD Introd. lxxv ; IGT Verbs § 7 ).

Indic. pres. 1 s. atáu, Trip.² 1412 . atú, 2578 . itu, SR 1187 . it, TBC-LL¹ 434 . atú, IGT Verbs § 7 . ataim, Fier. 14 . -t, Acall. 4516 . 2 s. -tái, SR 3102 . -toi, TBC-I¹ 937 . taoi, TD 15.48 . cia doaisiu mac?, RC xxvi 30 § 128 . 3 s. -t, Trip.² 744 . atá, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. attá, Trip.² 534 , ata, SR 7708 etc., at, Acall. 429 . Impers. atáthar, TBC-LL¹ 3316 . dáthar (: máthar), IGT Verbs ex. 99 . atass, Ériu iv 114 § 17 (:as). -das (: as), IGT Verbs ex. 104 . 1 pl. itám, SR 1727 . tám, 3493 . ataum, PH 1556 . ataim, TBC-LL¹ 874 . atamaoit, TBC St. 121 . atámaoid, atám, IGT Verbs § 7 . -taum, PH 1506 . -dtám (: ár), IGT Verbs ex. 111 . 2 pl. atathai, PH 2734 . atathi, 597 . atáithi (: fáithi), IGT Verbs ex. 105 . -táithi (: sáithi), ex. 96 . -dathai, Alex. 190 . -taidh, Ériu ii 118 § 53 . 3 pl. itāt, TBC-I¹ 3132 . atáit, CCath. 1215 . ataut, PH 1064 . táid, TD 8.5 . -táit, CCath. 1701 . Rel. itat, Trip.² 882 , atat, SR 7949 . For later forms in meaning than (is) see atás, indaas, 4 ol. See also II (d) below and daas.

The form fil. 1 s. ni ḟuilim, ni ḟoilim, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. -fhile, PH 8116 . -fhuile, 3335 , -fuili, Acall. 3217 . -ḟoili, -ḟuile, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. fail, TBC-I¹ 60 , SR 353 etc. ro fail , TBC-LL¹ 263 , fuil, 3072 . -fail, Trip.² 2764 , -fuil, 872 , -uil, PH 3181 , -ḟil, Acall. 3709 . -ḟuil, -ḟoil, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. fil, Trip.² 842 , fail, SR 392 , no fail , 933 . With impers. ending: filter, MacCongl. 31.25 . -fuiltear, TD 2.42 . 1 pl. ra fuilemm , TBC-LL¹ 2971 . -failmet, SR 6320 , -ḟuilmíd, Acall. 5101 . -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. -bhḟuilti, Acall. 962 . 3 pl. failet, SR 345 . filet, 477 . fuilet, TBC-LL¹ 4739 . -failet, Trip.² 1119 . -filet, TBC-I¹ 1848 , -fileat, CCath. 1270 . -fuilet, 427 . -fuilid, TD 7.23 . Rel. failet, SR 400 . ra failet , TBC-LL¹ 5225 . fuilet, 4709 . filet, PH 435 . See also do-fil.

Consuet. pres. 1 s. bim, PH 6393 . bím, -bím, IGT Verbs § 7 . ? -ruibim, SG 373.29 . 2 s. -bi, SR 2035 . bí, ní bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bíd, TBC-I¹ 1453 (LU). biid, SR 4537 . bíd, 4588 . -bí, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bíonn, TD 22.12 . -bind, RC xlix 37.13 . bídh, -b, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bither, PH 7441 . -bithar, Laws iv 234.2 Comm. 1 pl. bímit, Acall. 886 . bídmaid, 5481 . bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bíth, Acall. 6139 . 3 pl. bīd, TBC-I¹ 1075 (bít, LU). -bíat, TTr.² 330 . -bít, PH 4189 , -bíd, TD 5.5 . Rel. bit (= bíït), SR 7259 . bít, TBC-LL¹ 1320 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. do bhínn , TD 23.7 . 3 s. nobīth, TBC-I¹ 593 (nobíid, LU cited above). robíth, TBC-I¹ 1903 (LU). do bhíodh , TD 14.23 . do bhíoth , 26.12 . Impers. bithi, Auraic. 5286 = -bithi, RC xx 150.y (ACC Pref.). no bithea , Acall. 156 . 3 pl. naboitis, TBC-I¹ 855 LU (nobitís, Y). nobīdis, 3621 (Y). bítís, 1898 (LU). no beitis , LL 407a27 . ro bitis , PH 1957 . do bhítís , Acall. 830 . do bhídís , TD 15.18 . Rel. tri cnuasa bítís ann, Acall. 455 .

Ipv. 1 s. bír (: gním), IGT Verbs ex. 94 . 2 s. b, Parrth. Anma 3871 . 3 s. bīdh, ZCP vi 271.z . bíodh, TD 16.2 . bíoth, 17.1 . 1 pl. bíom, Dán Dé xiv 17 . 2 pl. bíthe (: -chíthe), IGT Verbs ex. 95 . bídh, ex. 109 . bidhí, Luc. Fid. 3430 . 3 pl. bíod, TD 16.19 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. ber, SG 172.15 . uér, Ériu ii 92.9 . beor, v 222.46 . bheith mé, TD 8.9 . -ra bur , TBC-LL¹ 1112 . -rabor, ZCP xii 401.30 . ? -rabhus, ZCP v 523.27 = rabasa, Ériu xii 144.12 (TE). -rabar, ZCP iii 32.37 . bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bé, SR 1607 . beir, BNnÉ 288.29 . Acall. 592 . -rab(a)i, BDD² p. 80 . -rabha, Irish Texts iv 75 § 16 . -rabhair, Fing. R. p. 13 note 86 . -mbéis (: Céis), IGT Verbs ex. 100 . -beis(se) (: meise), Dán Dé xiv 20 . -rabais, Fing. R. 86 , BDD² 363 (see ZCP xxvii 75-8 ). beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. beth, TBC-I¹ 270 (beith, v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 101 . -b, TBC-I¹ 1671 . -raib, Trip.² 2753 . -rab, TBC-I¹ 1430 . -raibhe, Parrth. Anma 2616 . rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bess , TBC-I¹ 1104 (beis, Y). beas, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bethur, Laws ii 36.20 Comm. 1 pl. beme, Snedg. u. Mac R 9.14 . bemmit, TBC-LL¹ 2137 . bemait, Acall. 5478 . -bém, CCath. 1124 . -beam (: leam), Dán Dé xii 10 . -ruibem, SR 5540 . -rabum, PH 7899 . bheam, rabham, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 1233 . rabthai, PH 1977 . 3 pl. beit, Trip.² 1653 . -bet, TBC-I¹ 1053 . -beat, Lism. L. 4702 . -rabat, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. -rabut, PH 994 . -rabhait, BNnÉ 269.4 . -rabhaid, Parrth. Anma 2836 . -rabheid, RC xxix 136 § 51 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. do beinn , do rabainn , IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. no beithi , Trip.² 2972 . no beithe , 2983 = no bethe , Trip. 252.21 . do beitheá , TD 1.44 . 3 s. no beith , Trip.² 2967 . nobith, TBC-I¹ 3543 . dá mbeadh , TD 29.6 . -mbeath, IGT Verbs ex. 97 . -rabad, RC iii 184.24 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . -bette, Metr. Dinds. iii 382.19 . rabtha, TBC-LL¹ (C) 1675 . 1 pl. dá mbiadh sinn, TD 28.25 . 3 pl. nobeitis, SR 7855 . nobeidis, TBC-I¹ 3557 . dá mbeith siad, TD 26.36 .

Fut. (see Bergin, Ériu ii 46-8 ) 1 s. bíat, TTr.² 89 . biat, PH 1244 . biad (bíatt v.l.), CCath. 5137 . bhead, Parrth. Anma 6378 . bed, ZCP vi 41.10 . bét, 69.2 . bett, BNnÉ 52 § 42 . -biu, TBC-LL¹ 882 . -bhiú, Dán Dé xiv 20 . biad, -bi, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bía, Trip.² 1593 . biae, SR 1599 . -bíai, BNnÉ 291 § 2 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . bía, -bía, IGT Verbs § 7 . bethair, ZCP ii 225.4 . 3 s. bied, LU 10362 . biaid, Trip.² 1071 . biáid, TBC-I¹ 169 (LU). biaidh, -bia, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bíes, Trip.² 2671 . bés, CCath. 300 , bes, 657 . bess , PH 4666 . bhias, TD 3.50 . do biass , L. Chl. S. 1 . Impers. beither, Acall. 5259 . beithir, ZCP x 415.11 . 1 pl. bemit, LU 9753 , PH 1501 . bemait, CCath. 1467 . -bem(ni, LU 9753 . beimíd, -biam, IGT Verbs § 7 . -biaim(ne) (: siairni), ex. 108 . ? -ben, BCC 396.19 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 3083 . beitte (: eiti) (beththi, bete v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 102 . -bed, Trip.² 1590 . 3 pl. biait, Trip.² 2665 , TBC-I¹ 2057 (beite, LU). biat, Trip.² 1288 . beit, TBC-I¹ 80 . beiti, TBC-I¹ 2078 . beti, SR 8157 . betit, SR 853 . TBC-LL¹ 246 , TTr.² 760 . beidid, ZCP x 338 § 1 . -bīat, TBC-I¹ 1132 . beidíd síad, BCC 290.12 . beid, -bíad, IGT Verbs § 7 .

Condit. 1 s. no-béind, PH 6107 . dobeind, 7489 . do beinn, -beinn, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. do bheitheá , TD 19.13 . 3 s. no biadh , CCath. 3754 . -bied, TBC-I¹ 504 . ro bífad , TBC-LL¹ 5112 . rot-fiadh, IT iii 320.4 ( Cóir Anm. 70 ). do biath (: sgiath), IGT Verbs ex. 97 . do bhiadh , TD 2.54 . Impers. no bethe , TTr.² 533 . 3 pl. do bheidīs , Parrth. Anma 5227 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. ro-bádus, PH 699 . do bhádhus , TD 23.6 . do bhí mé, 5 . -rabus, Acall. 7913 . -rabhas, 1584 . -rabadhus, 356 . do bá , -raba; do bádhus , -rabadhas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do basa ( : bádusa; proscribed form), ex. 103 . 2 s. ro bhádhuis , CCath. 553 . do bhí tú, TD 28.6 . -rabadais, PH 3725. 8121 . -rabhais, Acall. 123 . do bhádhuis , -rabhadhuis, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bae, SR 7608 . bóe, 6265 . baei, BDD² 127 . búi, CCath. 95 . -bae, SR 4975 . -buí, Trip.² 1505 . robai, SR 2229 , robae, 2262 . robói, PH 2572 . ro bí , CCath. 1302 . robuidh, Ériu iii 198 § 22 . do bí , CCath. 278 . do bhói , Acall. 58 . do bhaoi (: draoi), Dán Dé xii 22 . -rubai, SR 1241 . -roibe, BDD² 498 , -roibi, 1393 . -roba, 251 . -raba, 1533 . -raibhe, TD 2.25 . -rabha, 8.36 . -robha, 1 . do bí , -raibi, do baí , -rabha, IGT Verbs § 7 . With depon. ending -rabhustair, BNnÉ 322 § 31 . Rel. boí, Trip.² 626 . bāi, TBC-I¹ 1277 . būi, 630 . ro bae , Trip.² 288 . ro buí , BDD² 287 . ro baí , 1451 . ro boí , 1517 . Impers. both, Trip.² 2264 . rombatha, Ériu ii 20 § 3 (-a added later). -rabad, iv 146.4. robās, TBC-I¹ 2147 . rombas, SR 7564 , robás, TTr.² 151 . -rabus, Trip.² 54 . rabas, Laws iv 212.22 Comm. , -bádus, MacCongl. 43.22 . -bás, 61.3 . do bás , do bas , -rabas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do bas (: as), ex. 98 . do bhás (: fhás), Dán Dé xxvi 9 . 1 pl. bāmur, TBC-I¹ 399 . do bámar , Acall. 1283 . do bhámair (: Ádhaimh), Dán Dé xv 17 . -rabamar, TBC-I¹ 2495 . 2 pl. robabair, Anecd. ii 14.9 . -babhair, Blathm. 23 (see notes ). robadbair, TBC-I¹ 2502 . do bhábhair , TD 22a.1 . -rabhuir, Acall. 114 . -rabhabhair, TD 22a.2 . 3 pl. bādar, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bátir, TTr.² 1308 . ro badar , CCath. 573 n. ro bádar , Acall. 75 . do bídur , 5942 . -rabadar, TBC-I¹ 3108 . -rabhadair, TD 26.10 . ro baisit , O'Dav. 728 . -rabhsad, TD 16.21 . Rel. bátar, Trip.² 591 . BDD² 505 . ro bátar , 543 . Vn. an bheith , IGT Verbs § 7 . Vbl. of necess. beitte, TD 28.30 .

Cf. cenmothá, íarmothá, óthá.

Used in meaning is in a large variety of contexts. Normally replaced by copula (see 1 is) in certain fixed syntactical patterns (classification, identification, etc.), and when used in these cases exceptional (see above and II below).

I Expressing existence.

(a) Used absolutely is, exists, there is, etc.: ata in coimdiu gl. Dominus in cælo sedis eius, Ml. 30b27 . nabad hed a méit nádmbǽ `let it not be only that it is not' gl. nec nominetur in uobís, Wb. 22b14 . ní fil aimsir nad mbed ref. to fuit et est semper, Ml. 17a15 . ní torménmar-ni ara mbetis in gnimai sin gl. præter spem nostram, etc., 115b1 . ni fil chumtubairt gl. indubitabilia, etc., Sg. 154b2 . ma nubed `if it existed', 31b21 . ro baoi siomh re tuisdinsiú `he existed', Blathm. 632 . as e as soithcerndomh fil, 773 . ma rombe is maith if it is, it is well, Laws iv 2.14 Comm. ni rabi uair . . . nad ro bai `there was no hour . . . that He existed not', Ériu ii 106 § 16 . a cin for athair .i. uair na bí mac, Laws iv 240.16 Comm. Columb [ro]baoi, Columb bīaas, ZCP viii 198 § 20 . tar ēis a mic . . . / nī raba acht dā aenbliadain `was alive only two years', Ériu iii 198 § 24 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be by saying there is a covenant though there is not, Laws iv 52.30 Comm. ni tha . . . ní a ngeimre in winter there is nothing, 90.1 (with petrified inf. pron. 3 s. n. in dat. sense?). ní bía terca bíd there will not be a scarcity of food, BColm. 52.5 . bid dno maith, ┐ ni bi derrscugud de `yet there is good, and nothing to surpass it', Auraic. 703 . is tré ómun bíid serc, Ériu i 195.1 . céin beti neóil im gréin ngil, Metr. Dinds. ii 38.z . i céin raibh nemh is talamh as long as . . . endure, BNnÉ 314 § 8 . bai cocad mor etarro, RC xxiv 186 § 19 . In phrase (acht) atá ní (chena) but, moreover, see 1 ní (e).

In periphrasis when emphasis on some element other than the verb is required: bieid nach dréct diib hícfider, Wb. 4d6 . bieid bes ferr de, 32a13 . do budh cusmail rit co robuis uair ecin, ┐ co n[d]ingenta rét feramail `that thou wert once such an one that thou couldst . . .', ZCP vi 87.13 . ba-sa tan / nī folabrainn ilach gamh, Ériu ii 95 § 3 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud, Ériu xvii 68 § 9 ( Laws iv 210 ). Note further: atāit teora brīathra / ata lōgmaire for nim, ZCP vii 312 § 25 .

With words expressing time: bieid aimser nad creitfider, Wb. 28c14 . aidchi robuī `one night', Ériu ii 222.25 . fecht robai `once', Mon. Tall. 147.2 (§ 52) . biaidh uair 's . . . a time will come when, Dán Dé vii 31 .

Introducing a statement: cia beith ara rogba bóairechas riasíu ropo chúairddulchach though it be that he assume, Críth G. 67 . dá mbeith fós go mbiadh an Fhraingc comh líonmhar ┐ adeir seisean `granted that', Keat. ii 933 . má tá go seachnoid síol Éibhir . . ., TD 29.7 . ci(d), gi(d) bé whatever, whoever (see Ériu xii 210 ): ria flaithaib, .i. rias na flaithib, cibe flaithe iat `whatever chieftains they be', Laws iv 154.17 . gidh bé lá cheannghar an chairt, Dán Dé xiv 17 . cidh bé do bhean díbh an dúthaigh, DDána 26.1 . bíd (ipv. 3 s.) co n- although: admhuim . . . mo pheactha . . . bīodh gomadh é mo mhīan a bhfolach though I should wish to hide them, Parrth. Anma 4625 . bīodh nach gcaoifithea go spesialta fá gach peacadh though you might not weep specially for each sin, Mac Aingil 235 . bíth gur gheallas . . . though I promised, Ó Bruad. ii 212 § xiv . In constr. manibed x ní bíad y were it not for x y would not be, see má II (b).

(b) The subst. vb. is usual with predicates consisting of adverbial phrases of all kinds (prep. and noun, adjj. and nouns used adverbially, etc.) and thus enters into a large and varied corpus of idioms. A select list follows. Reference should in all cases also be made to the nouns, adjj., adverbs and prepositions concerned.

With CO: atáthar sund chucut your adversary is approaching, LL 10300 ( TBC-LL¹ 3316 ).

With CO N-: atúsa com thegluch there is myself and my household troop, TBC-LL¹ 437 .

With DI: im chaingin robui de muintir Tamlachti friss `about a business that arose between the monastery of Tallaght and him', Mon. Tall. 157.7 (§ 72) . masu de chlaind Echdach aird / atāi, ZCP xi 108 § 1 . ní bia debaid . . . de, Ériu iv 108 § 69 . Of materials: an crann dobí na sesam ... dobí sé do cepresus was a (lit. of) cupressus, Maund. 9 . In phrase a.¤ di such is: roboi du meit a pecthae `so great were their sins', Ml. 98c6 . má beth tra do hūaite ind āessa gráid `if the ordained folk be too few', Ériu i 220 § 13 .

With DO: biid do anmmaim cathrach `(Samnis) is as the name of the city', Sg. 104b5 . nád robatar suin do ṡlund in dúildetad inchoisget `there were not words (enough) to signify . . .', 45b1 . manusbeth tenga dia relad `if (the sun) had a tongue', Ériu ii 126 § 81 . ata eric a fogla do dul a ruradh o duine, Laws iv 50.5 Comm. Expressing possession, etc.: con roib core dúib fri cách so that you may be at peace with all men, Wb. 26b30 . in fochricc file do i nnim, 29b29 . cach ngrád asid n-ísliu bíid dó i céilsini, Críth G. 374 . robi timna in ríg don Comdhe, RC xviii 182.5 . nico mbái dó acht bás there was nothing for him but death, Vita Br. 32 . fecht robúi damsae domchaomnacuir `once it happened to me', Mon. Tall. 144.7 (§ 45) . atá damhsa ris an dáimh / gan ísliughadh neith dá gcáil it is my duty in regard to the sages not to belittle . . ., Content. xiv 8 .

With FOR (later AR): as ṅdath glas roboi forsind sl[é]ib the mountain was green, Ml. 84d4 . cech dath is maith ré neach bid forro, RC vi 183.9 . cēin beó ar in mbith mbuide, Ériu ii 92.16 . nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí / ōtú ar sīth mo Rīgh amuigh since I am outside the palace of my king(?), ZCP vii 301 § 10 . scríbend menmman .i. robbói for a inndṡliucht-som `it had been in his mind', Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent, Ériu vi 115 § 6 . a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though I greatly desire to do so, Dán Dé xix 6 .

With FRI: nobiad fri femen `it would be (used) with the feminine', Sg. 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them', 215a5 . ni humhal robabair rim cen erghe rónn you were not submissive to me, Anecd. ii 14.9 . ba [mait]h ro mboth friu they were well treated, TBFr. 145 . is throit ra bass risin fer út that man was quickly dispatched, TBC-LL¹ 2986 ( LL 10035 ).

With I: is hi tuaisciurt slebe sióin ata in chathir, Ml. 67d8 . ataam ar ndiis i cuimriug, Wb. 32a28 . is and . . . bieid finis, 13b29 . is sunt bia-sa i n-eilithri, Ml. 137b7 . nach dú i mbí isnaib salmaib iustitia, 109a2 . bēti a scēla illāidib, ZCP iii 37.32 . dēna torba airm i mbī, vii 311 § 9 . ro-bas i lurg an madma la clannaibh Néill the Clanna N. pursued the rout, xiv 234.16 . adh bes fiu da trian na samuisce atá isín focreic, issed ata isin fogail doníther ris na ferandaib cétna i fuacht an geimridh `a calf which is worth two thirds of the `samhaisc'-heifer which is paid for the rent, it is it that is paid for the trespass', Laws iv 92.16 Comm. cínta do niad na cethra . . . leth a mbia ina nairlim isedh bias ina tairsci `half of that fine which lies for their `airlim'-trespass . . .', 74.8 Comm. cod a midídar ruire trachta ┐ raite? Nin; co rabadar ocht nurcora dec and do fhleascach, 138.4 Comm. ní bhíadh na ghoin é d'oighedh / toil Dé muna deónaighedh His wound would not be enough to cause His death, IGT Decl. ex. 378 . Common in form with suff. pron. 3 s. n. ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre if there be anyone, etc., Wb. 13a4 . ar atá brithem and cenut-su `a judge is there apart from thee', 6b25 . ataat alaaili interiecta and it coitchena do cach ceniul, Sg. 10a1 . attaad teora bliadna and. Niconcomracamar díoblíonaib `it is three years since we two had intercourse', Mon. Tall. 134.26 (§ 21) . For phr. cid fil and trá see trá. In idiom tá sé i n-a fhear he is a man (see Dillon, ZCP xvii 307 ff. ): is amlaid . . . atá in rigsudi sin inna chathaír chumtachta, LU 2005 ( FA 7 ). cidead bes ina bibdaid `even though he be a caitiff', Ériu v 22.20 . gu raibhe 'na cholum ghel, Acall. 1080 . ce raib se i n-a fhír, PH 7324 . do bí 'n-a mnaí grádaig ac Find, Acall. 2018 . do rígh gion go rabhthá id mhac, DDána 91.15 . Note also: tuc . . . aithne gurbh e righ Eirenn do bí ann that it was in fact the king, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 .

With IMM: ni baitir, ni loisctir cein beit immo `he is not drowned or burnt as long as they are on him', RC vi 183.8 .

With LA: gan bheith le Dia is ann bhus aithreach if we are not on God's side, Dán Dé x 27 . Expressing possession and related ideas: is lib atá a rogu, Wb. 9a23 . is derb lium attá latsu gl. certus sum autem quod et in té, 29d14 . ainmm ninchoisc cenéuil issed file la laitnóri, Sg. 30b8 . is airi nobíth digaimm leo ante ρ. sin, 9b10 . ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter,' Mon. Tall. 151.13 (§ 62) . is dé atá lem, fobíth, etc. this is why I think so (of an assertion), TTr.² 343 . itá a rīgan la cach ríg sund, TBC-I¹ 190 . fail leis secht nimi, SR 629 . ar ní ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 14150 .

With ó: báoi alaile anchoire antuaid o sláne `there was a certain anchorite from Slane in the North', Mon. Tall. 159.8 (§ 77) . cech lennánacht fil isin domvn is úadhi atá originates with her, TTr.² 370 . Bressal Ó Tressaig ō' tāit / Hī Tressaig `. . . from whom are sprung', Ériu ii 50 § 7 . ni fil[et] o neoch ┐ ni filter uaidibh `they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them', Auraic. 1507 .

With OC: ar notéighed dīa sathairn init co mbídh oc Cnocc Droma Coblai, ZCP viii 106.29 = Trip.² 2858 . ma no bith . . . mo c[h]laideb acom if I had my sword, TBC-I¹ 3543 . co rabat aidmi oc cech altōir . . ., Ériu i 219 § 9 . in ti ac na biat ba, Laws iv 36.10 Comm. in fhil biad ocaib sund? PH 6709 . ná raibh agad ar n-éra `refuse me not', Studies 1918, 99 § 16 . In impers. constr. cindas atathar occat? how are affairs with thee? RC xxvi 368.9 . a.¤ y oc x x has the power to do y: ní bhía . . . ag boigṡín / mo chor tar creich Phádraigín, Ériu ix 163 § 7 .

With adverbs and adv. phrases: céin bett abus `while they are here below', BColm. 98.28 . ní rubai nach cruth ailiu `it cannot be otherwise', Sg. 7b3 . ataat ám in chrut sin, 140b1 . hóre nád robe Tit ar mo chiunn, Wb. 14d29 . na muindtire bís id choimidecht `of the monks that live with thee', Mon. Tall. 128.8 (§ 3) . dá rabh mé ar éanmhagh is í, Dán Dé ix 12 . is bether go hīsiul de, ZCP x 51.6 . bidh co mín michuir ret c[h]airdibh, vi 272 § 3 . is samlaid insin robói a flaithemnacht indibsi, Ml. 18a8 . nī hamlaid beitid na nāimh . . ., ZCP xiii 9.26 . dobadus co subhach rompa, KMMisc. 319.27 . léig mar atāit tall, ZCP viii 202.4 . trath atusa sund, TBC-LL¹ 2379 . ionmhuin uan nar fhás ó mhnaoi / do bhás go truagh ar a thí, Dán Dé xxvi 9 . Note also: dá mbem a-moigh `if we win forth', Ériu ix 162 § 2 . With interrogatives: ceth leth atā E., TBC-I¹ 376 . can ata? whence is it? Hib. Min. 8.270 . cāit atā do t[h]igerna?, TBC-I¹ 789 . ciatā inso?, ZCP viii 311.13 . a Findtain, arse, ┐ Éri cía gabad ca rabad inde? `where have things been therein?' Ériu iv 146 § 23 .

(c) Used with inf. and suff. pron. to express possession. With inf. pron.: rosmbia a lóg `they shall have payment for it', Wb. 5d35 . ind indocbál no-b-tá in futuro, 14c16 . ro-n-da-biad cech maith, Ml. 33b13 . rombia-sa la dia . . . a day will come for me when, Vita Br. 12 . roborbē (roburbe v.l.) which is yours, Cáin Ad. 27 . nīmthat asnai I have no ribs, TBC-I¹ 2871 . gell cóic sét di neoch rodmbí `of whatever he has', Críth G. 283 and n. uair nach tá tír dia fhulung fri re napuidh because he has no land to support him (?), Laws iv 30.19 Comm. rom be nem may I have heaven, Snedg. u. Mac R 14 § 76 . Femen intan rombai rí . . . when it had a king, RC xvii 148.19 . cia luag nomtha?, SR 1165 . rombí lethbairgen, Anecd. i 73 § 211 . atbert Cathair nimthasa ní dhuit I have nothing to give you, LL 386b22 . Note also: nintha do imtecht liumm `I have (lit. we have) no news', RC xiii 222.20 . With cumang (or similar word) and prep. DO has the power to: nímtha cumachtæ ṅdo, Ml. 140b7 . ní-s-ta som . . . cumang domm orcuin-se, 60d3 . nísmbói didiu do chumacc a mmbo do imain they hadn't the strength to, Vita Br. 24 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech cumang rotbé (rodbe, rotbia, v.ll.) dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204 § 22 . nícom thása cumang dia tabair[t], TBFr. 302 . apraind nachimbai-si nert do theacht cucu alas that I had not strength . . ., TBC-I¹ 3439 . Used independently is able: nīmt[h]a a dechmad d'indisin / nech doní do maith `I cannot tell a tithe of all the good he does', BColm. 70.6 . nimta-sa sin . . . uair da caithius mo dan re sciathaib Ulad I cannot do that . . ., Ériu v 72.8 . Note also: ango dano for Ingcél adfía basa lecht bas briscium `peradventure I shall be the frailest corpse', BDD 102h ( RC xxii 211 ) = at-mbia basa lecht bas brisceam, BDD² 716 (leg. ro-t-bia?).

With suffixed pron. taithiunn . . . / ni fris tarddam ar n-áthius `we have . . . something to which to apply our acuteness', Thes. ii 293.19 . táithi caire umai he has a bronze cauldron, Críth G. 197 . tathum rūn, TBC-I¹ 848 . bethib sūirsi lim-sa dano ye will enjoy freedom with me, ZCP viii 316.5 . tathat lim logh do áes, logh do sinnsire thou hast with me = I accord thee, xii 365.13 . baíthium anfud mílach mend, LU 3018 . tathuib comram, Rawl. 88b51 . tathum o día praind, Anecd. i 64 § 120 . tāthud ochtar la suidiu / airm hi fail a crōlighe `thou wilt find eight men . . .', Fianaig. 12 § 16 . tathai eolus maith, ZCP vii 310 § 1 . tatos subhae `they have happiness', Blathm. 82 . Pleonastically: tathai erouidh . . . bithbron `Herod . . . has eternal sorrow', 83 .

(d) In nasalising rel. clauses to denote has something the matter, is ailing: ced das in ben maith? `what ails the good woman?', Thes. ii 329.48 . cidh tás do sūil, a clērich? what is the matter with your eye? RC xxvii 280 § 35 . Oengus mac in Dagdai hisiurcc di bliadan. Cid tas or Bodb, RC iii 345.9 . ra[fh]etur sa . . . an daas ind ingen what is wrong with the girl, Vita Br. 5 . ni fetarsa cid no-tó I do not know what is the matter with me, ZCP viii 176.5 . cid no-taí? Sc.M² 3 . roḟetarsa a n-attath[a]i. Ni taam ni or Cano, Anecd. i 9.25 ( SCano 293 ). cid tāthaí, a maccu? . . . oc imresain atām . . ., Ériu viii 157.16 . ni confetatarsin cid rombui hissennath, RC iii 344.10 . dia ḟis cid robái (rombui, v.l.) grían to find out what was the matter with the sun, Ériu iv 140.13 .

With prep. DO feels (inimically) towards, is angry with, worries: propter incredulitatem fracti sunt .i. cani airi .i. badochu lem són is [hed] romboth doib that is the fault found with them, Wb. 5b31 . cren dímsa m'ingin . . . Cid dathir di? . . . Is dichmarcach what cause of annoyance has she given? Vita Br. 13 . fiarfaig Conchobar scēla dō. —Cidh tāi di ṡodain? ol Bricriu why do you bother with it? ZCP v 502.15 . cadai-siu duind?, TTebe 424 . In good sense treats in a special manner: ca tāthar dúin do domnach des / sech gach laithi lāndiles? `why do we hold Sunday above . . .?' Ériu iii 143 § 7 . With added prep.: cidh 'ma bfuile dam? ZCP x 10.11 . ná bí réd chathrachaibh dhúinn `talk not to us of your forts', Content. vi 31 . See further s.v. daas. Frequ. in class. verse in phrase gá dtá, dás (acht) what is the use? in short. Either gá dtá or gá tá may be used to suit alliteration, see Ir. Syll. Poetry 86 . fogus orchra don éigsi / gá ttás cur ré coiméidsi `how can she be saved?' Studies 1923, 421 § 1 . gá dás luadh imdheachta an ḟir? `what need to recount', TD 13.40 . gá dás mé dá mīrbuile / acht sé d'fás ó ÓghMuire, IGT Decl. ex. 200 . gá dtám? —acht torchuir bu dheas in short, TD 3.10 . With follg. prep.: gá dtám ris . . . / acht meise féin foidhidneach, TD 3.41 . ga dtú ris, a rí L.? / ort chuirim mo chomuirghe, 30.12 . ní bhiú ris acht, Dán Dé vi 31 . ní fhuilim dó, xi 30 .

(e) With words indicating number, quantity in sense of accompanied by, having: bí[i]th a th[a]urchreicc cóic ṡétaib, Críth G. 71 . baei Conairi a ceithri cairpthig il-Lifiu, BDD 12 (a cethror cairpdech, v.l.). itó-sa lín do gona, TBC-LL¹ 434 . denam d'ḟiadach na muice in lín Feinde atámait, Acall. 2223 . atáthaoi líon a n-ithte, Keat. iii 4439 . atú-sa caegait fer, MR 248.17 . Later: bed-sa ┐ mili ridiri maraen rium ad diaig, ZCP vi 41.9 .

II Expressing state, condition, kind, etc. with pred. consisting of noun, pron. or adj. (usage more usual with copula, see introd. section above).

(a) With noun pred.: boe sab suithe cech dind, ACC 26 ( RC xx 168 ). boe saegul sneid, 24 . boe dind oc libur leigdocht, 27 . biait betha airchind they will be chieftains of the world, Rawl. 125b9 . With subj. standing between the vb. and pred.: atá dia atach ṅ-dún-ni ais dethrebo God is a refuge to us the people of the two tribes, Ml. 66d1 . bói Fíachnae Lurga athair Mongáin, Imr. Brain 42.1 . Cf. Sg. 20b3 .

(b) With adj. pred.: boe seim sáth, ACC 25 . biat slana, SR 4167 (copula?). feib atam nocht, 1347 (copula?). bía slan, LU 3344 ( SCC 13 ). Cf. habe . . . (.i. sana sis .i. slán bee), Enchir. Aug. 82a ( ZCP vii 484 ). dlegar doibsium na be lobtaigh cor ( ar dlegar doibsium na bed lobthaig cor, O'Dav. 1191 ) (Atk. in Glossary emends to be[t]), Laws iv 54.10. atámait ainmfesach, RC xxiv 371.7 . bítíss meth (leg. methi, ed.) occ tinntúd, IT iii 235.z . co filim garbliath i rricht, LU 1272 . ro boísium imnedach i tossuch a bethad, LL 7305 . ro-bádus-[s]a dronnach, PH 2788 . céin beorsa beó as long as I am alive, Ériu v 222.46 . is follus co fuilti eaclach, Fier. 69 . maith dīghōltar ant andlocht / bethar taoblom tarrnocht trūagh folk will be, ZCP xii 395.23 . With subj. betw. vb. and pred.: is trissa ndede sin biid duine slán et fírian, Wb. 4d33 . amal mbís tegdís fás [amm]edón ┐ scópthe gl. sicut domus uacans et scopata, Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485.23 ). arrobói a rígthech lán de rígaib, Imr. Brain 1 . amal no beithi féin béo and, Trip.² 2972 . co mbatar na hádnaicti óbéla, PH 676 . bis an puls tonnmur lethan, Rosa Angl. 272.8 . oir dobi se crodha do laim ┐ mor do mét, Fier. 2 .

(c) With part. as pred. Immediately follg. vb. (see GOI 475-6 ; OIPG 147 ): amal nombemmis érchóilti gl. tanquam morti destinatos, Wb. 9a3 . biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg `be ye opened before your king' (of doors), Ml. 46a7 . co rabais (rabhdais, v.l.) marbtha mudaigthi, TTebe 854 . With subj. standing between vb. and pred.: ataat mesai Dǽ nephchomtetarrachti the judgements of God are incomprehensible, Ml. 55d11 . céin nombetis inna saigtea tuidmithi inna feuil `as long as the arrows were fixed in his flesh', Ml. 58a9 . órobatar ind liss dúntai, Imr. Brain 1 . co ra-bi in uli demnaigecht fomamaigthi dó, PH 2796 .

(d) In sentences where the vb. stands in a nasalising rel. clause and refers to a pred. expressed in the principal clause: is faittech rond-boi som, Ml. 21d4 . ni ba cian mbias in pecthach, 56c22 . fer . . . nadip romar bed a sommæ a man . . . whose wealth should not be too great, Thes. ii 241.9 . is-gáibthech atátur i-sin-magh sin, RC xxiv 378.12 . is trog robas isin chotlad sin, Ériu v 34.z . ní cás duid madh diomdhach raibh / grása Dé . . ., Dán Dé xix 22 . [is] slán do bhaoi an brat-sain, xii 22 .

(e) In the type of sentence where the description constitutes an independent sentence with copula: ego sum uermis et non homo .i. atāim-si conad cruim mē ┐ nāch duine, Corm. Y 211 . ro boi Victor co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic, ACL iii 10 § 8 = Trip.² 217 . unus non est . . . .i. nochon fhil int aen co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, Auraic. 689 . dom dóigh . . . robadhuis uair ecin ┐ roba díl anora tú `it seems to me . . . that there was once a time when thou wert worthy of honour', ZCP vi 99.5 .

benaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. benaid or dil.ie/5647
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: benim, benaim, benai, benith, benaid, bennaid, benid, bentai, -ben, benas, benait, -benat, -rubaim, benair, benar, -bentar, -benad, -bentais, ben, benad, benaidh, benat, benar, -bia, -ruba, -rubai, -bethir, -ruibther, betir, -rubad, -rubaitis, -rubdais, no-m-bethe, bīu, biëd, bíthus, bias, bifas, -biter, bethir, -bífad, -bífed, mbíthe, beo, bii, b, bissis, bisius, bië, -beotur, -rubha, -ruba, -rubai, -rubi, rodmbi, ros-bae, robéotar, robeotar, robeobdar, -rubatar, -rubhradar, bíth, -rrubad, bíthi, bitha, -bítha, ro-bīthe, bethi

v See Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 369 , 461 , GOI §§ 551 , 654 , 691 (a) , KZ xlvii 159. Indic. pres. 1 s. benim, Thes. ii 42.7 . benaim, LU 6170. 2 s. benai, TBC-I¹ 3592. 3 s. benith, Thes. ii 250.11 , benaid, Ml. 46d4 , LU 6206 , bennaid, 5213 . benid, TBC-I¹ 397 , bentai, 1201 (with suff. pron.). bentus, Airne F. 2.17 . -ben, 424 , Blathm. 98 § 26. Rel. benas, Corm. Y 1235 , Críth G. 556 , TBC-I¹ 3605. 3 pl. benait, Fél. Jan. 31 , June 30 , -benat, MU² 544. With ro-: 1 s. -rubaim, LU 6230. Pass. sg. benair, Ériu ix 47 § 19. Rel. benar, Thes. ii 254.3 (Stowe M.). 3 pl. -bentar, Ml. 91b3 . Indic. impf. 3 s. -benad, LU 9137 ( FB 88 ), 3 pl. -bentais, TBC-I¹ 30. Ipv. 2 s. ben, TBC-I¹ 3593. 3 s. benad, Wb. 20c8 . 2 pl. benaidh, Ériu ii 120 § 58. 3 pl. benat, TBC-LL¹ 5834. Pass. sg. benar, Ml. 93d16 .

Subj. pres. 3 s. -bia, Laws iv 124.10 . With ro-: 2 s. -ruba, TBC-I¹ 1596. -rubai, Críth G. 581. Pass. 3 s. -bethir, Ml. 36a5 . -ruibther, CRR 54. 3 pl. betir, Ml. 54a17 . Subj. impf. (with ro-) 3 s. -rubad, TBC-I¹ 2769. 3 pl. (?) -robeotais, Cymmr. xiv 118 § 19 ( Rawl. 132b35 ). -rubaitis, TBC-I¹ 806 , -rubdais, Metr. Dinds. iii 104.24 . Pass. sg. no-m-bethe, Ml. 39a19 .

Fut. 1 s. bīu, TBC-I¹ 3592. 3 s. biëd, Celtica xxi 200.6 . bíthus (with suff. pron.), LU 10481. Rel. s. bias, TBC-LL¹ 3453. With -f-: bifas, Rawl. 132b36 . Pass. pl. -biter, Anecd. i 44.4 . Rel. s. bethir, Blathm. 957 . Condit. 3 s. no bīad, TBC-I¹ 2942. -bífad, SR 5812 , -bífed, TBC-LL¹ 744. Pass. s. no mbíthe (nom bithe, MS.), Blathm. 506.

Pret. and perf. 1 s. beo, TFrag. 108.6 = AFM i 302.9 . 3 s. bii (disyll.), Blathm. 98 § 25. b, LU 1750 (ICM). -bí (= -bai, TBC-I¹ 696 ), LU 5176. Note also (with suffix. pronoun and intrusive -s-) bissis, RC xii 68 § 34 , bisius ib. Rel. s. bië (disyll.), Blathm. 279. 3 pl. -beotur, Corm. Y 698 (59.5) = -beodutar, Corm. 24 (gaire). With ro-: 1 s. -rubha, AFM i 242.9 (= RC xvii 177.2 ), 2 s. -ruba, Wb. 13d25 . 3 s. ro bi, Rawl. 88a30 , -rubai, LU 5334 , -rubi, BDD² 187 , rodmbi, Laws iv 176.26 . ros-bae, CRR 56. 3 pl. robéotar, LU 5110 (= TBC-I¹ 625 ). robeotar (beóatar, robeobdar, ro hortsat, v.ll.), Metr. Dinds. iii 98.3 . -rubatar, TBFr. 60 , BDD² 695. Note also: go n-da-rubdatar, TBC-LL¹ 4384 (see Ériu xiv 118.1 ). -rubhradar, ZCP i 464.29 . Pass. sg. bíth, Metr. Dinds. iii 94.23 . ro bíth, RC xxiii 308.33 . -rrubad (sic leg.), Fianaig. 10.21 . pl. bíthi (bithi, MS.), Blathm. 203. bitha, RC xxiii 308.33 , -bítha, Arch. Hib. ii 62 § 52. ro bitha, Ml. 100b2 , TBC-I¹ 1373. ro-bīthe, ZCP xi 62.4 .

Part. see bíthe. vbl. of necess. bethi, Ml. 114c12 . Vn. see béim, bíth. Later with stem ben-, boin- (cf. boingid), bain- throughout (with ā-subj., f- future and s- pret.). See rubaid.

I

(a) beats, strikes: in O. Ir. gl. pinso, Thes. ii 42.7 , perculsus, Ml. 45d6 , pulsat, 46d4 , iecta, 123c17 . beanaim .i. buailim, O'Cl. b.¤ in t-aingel in sruth co fleisc, LU 2117 ( FA 18 ). bi ind ala slabrad suil ind rig, Ériu iii 136.2 . co mbensom dia durnn inna ētan, TBC-I¹ 423. fer benas dam óenbéimmim who fells an ox with one blow, Críth G. 556. bentai Cuc[h]ulaind cona claideb, TBC-I¹ 1201. b.¤ in talum o chois deis he strikes the ground with his right foot, PH 1337. benith galar (a charm), Thes. ii 250.11 . araile fer . . . robenad on crithgalur was stricken by, Lat. Lives 98 § 93. benfat na demna o phianaib examla me, PH 2231. (of a head of hair) b.¤ braine a dá imdae it strikes against (i.e. touches) the edge of his hips, BDD² 963. drud rú asa mbearna bheanaid `whose gap they strike at' (Gloss.), O'R. Poems 859. an mheadh as lán dom lochtaibh / bean a clár dod chumhochtaibh `strike up . . . the scale weighted with my sins' (?), Dán Dé xxii 12 . Transfd. casts (a shadow): co mbentais foscod i medōn a dā gruaide (eyelashes), TBC-I¹ 30. reaches: benaidh immorro inis Breatan seach hErinn saerthuaid co cian (`extends', Todd Nenn. 31.2 ), BB 203b40 .

Of hand-clappers, bells strikes, rings: ben do chlocc, Trip.² 1370. clocán bind / benar i noidchi gaithe that is struck, IT iii 16 § 40 . benais Sencha bascrand, MU² 923. robenadur na cluic `sounded', ZCP vi 285.1 . benait cluig ┐ ceōlāin . . . uaidhip fēin `the bells and chimes . . . of themselves rang', Fl. Earls 52.2 . In phr. b.¤ (cloc) FOR (? AR), see II infra.

Strikes (fire), lights: co bethir gl. inuratur, Ml. 36a5 . roben in tenid Chascae = incendit ignem, Lat. Lives 5 § 4. do benusa teine ┐ doronus a fadodh, BNnÉ 69 § 114 .

Note also: F. féigbind ro ben bríg mbreth who passed weighty judgments (Thurn.), ZCP x 271.4 . With galar: benaim galar `I slay the disease´ Celtica xxv 252 . benim a galar, Thes. ii 249.7 . benith galar, 250.11 . See also 1 fris-ben.

(b) hews, cuts down, off: bíi Ququlaind a dī ord lāma ┐ a dī ortt coisse, ZCP viii 120.21 . bennaid Cu Chulaind omnae, LU 5213. do benuit leō roga ro-chleth . . . ┐ mīne mōirf[h]eda, ML² 1064. benat scíathu let them slash shields, TBC-LL¹ 5834. (of breaching, knocking down a wall) dia robenad in t-ochtmad múr, PH 8014.

(c) slays; wounds: beosa L. an[d] do chailg, TFrag. 108.6 (= AFM i 302.9 ). ra mbeótar i n-ecomlond, LU 6680 (= TBC-I¹ 2138 ). intī bifas nō genfas (sic) nech do slōg araile . . . arthús, Rawl. 132b36 . nad ro marb in bech rodmbi (glossed: ro gonastar e, 178.7 Comm. ) `the bee which stung him', Laws iv 176.26 . Eoin . . . do thriall tar sáil / is mó bhíth mé is do ghríos mé ná is mian do rádh `what has wounded me more sorely', O'Gr. Cat. 581.10.

(d) Of crops cuts, reaps; gathers: (of Adam) co n-aireadh ┐ co mbenadh gan allus, BB 16b2 ( ITS xxxiv 58.15 ). benaid in gort uile `they reap the whole field', Ériu v 116.14 . glenn . . . ina mbenaid dáoine ímforcraidh spísraid, Maund. 54. an chnú ní 'na bláth beantair, Dán Dé vii 15 . luibh leighis re báidh beanais with love (for us) He plucked a healing herb, DDána 48.1 . (of turf-cutting) mani bentar hi ina haimsir coir, Laws i 132.7 Comm.

(e) incises, engraves: ise in luathrindi sin robenadh i sciath C. that is the `luathrindi' (lit. ash-point) that was cut in the shield of C., Ériu v 72.23 . (of drawing Ogam characters) no da mbentar uile, LL 5338 ( Auraic. 5449. )

(f) takes (away), carries off: bensat giallu iar congail, RC xvii 145.14 . Of tax, tribute, etc. exacts, levies: mili dam mili bo benaim `I exact', 49.9 .

II With follg. adv. do ben a claidheamh amach drew his sword, ITS xix 44.4 . lér bhain sé a fhlaitheas . . . amach arís `recovered', Keat. ii 1089. do benadh luirech an ridire sin amuig `was captured', L. Chl. S. 38. do bean Úa B. . . an gealladh . . . ar aiss retracted, Expugn. Hib. 69. do benatar ar lár laim ris `they fell to the ground', BCC 132.

With prepp. With A takes from: in pars benar a hichtur in lithe `the particle that is cut off', Thes. ii 254.3 (Stowe M.). ercōit benus do ṡūil as do chinn, ACL iii 308.z. is tu rogab misi . . . ┐ roben fhuasgailt asum `got ransom from me', ZCP vi 285.8 . (of a rescue from a castle) go mbendaís an tiarla as d'áis no d'eiccen, AFM vi 2172.25 . do bheanadar as . . . they inferred that . . ., PublicRecords Appendix 40.22 . eunuchi . . . .i. na daoine as a mbeantur, 23 K 42, 94.18 . na h-ainmhíntidhe a mbaintear asta which are gelded, Corp. Astron. 90.21 . as e as adbur as a mbainter na catraca `that is the material from which cities . . . are formed', Ir. Astr. Tr. 36.7 . do benadh comnuidhe asainne forsan muir we were stayed, BNnÉ 7 § 22 . robenus lēim luthmur . . . as mo sdét made my steed leap, ZCP vi 65.9 . beantur fiuchad as `bring it (i.e. milk) to the boil', Rosa Angl. 94.2 . b.¤ custam as levies toll on: bentor custam as a n-eachroidh in gach baile dip, Fl. Earls 86.1 . b.¤ greim a see greimm. ? gan mo bhac, a Dhé, i ndeacraibh / ná beantair lat é as m'olcaibh, DDána 61.6 .

With DE takes from: robenaitt a lama ┐ a cosa donti dorone were cut off, Ann. Conn. 1224.3 . benuis screapall beg . . . de `broke off', Fl. Earls 34.17 . dobenadh a ceimniughudh de the power of walking was taken from him, Aisl. Tond. 107.3 . Of covering, clothing, etc. ben a erriud ┐ a étgud de take off his equipment and his clothing, TBC-LL¹ 4061. bensat a chroicend de `stripped his skin from him', PH 2146. bean an dá bhliadhain déag . . . do na hocht gcéad déag bliadhan úd `deduct . . . from', Keat. ii 1160. do ben minna da ṡíair fa marbad uile `he made his sister swear that she would kill them all', Maund. 82. go mbeanfaidhear cúntas 'na smuaintighthibh dhe an account of his thoughts will be demanded of him, TSh. 7304.

Various phrases. b.¤ céill, súil de, see cíall, súil. b.¤ cert de, see cert. do bhean Ír díobh . . . tosach `outstripped [them],' Content. xxx 4 ; cf. ag béin túsa d'íbh Táil, IGT Introd. § 38. ris an mbréig níor bhean dá mhóid he did not break his vow (?), A. Ó Dálaigh l 31.

With DO: lucht an bheatha dá mbeanfadh on whom it would fall (i.e. a deluge of rain), DDána 75.22 . do ben escor don nech the person fell, BCC 452.27 . do bhain a mhaoith (sic MS.) do gach fior affected everyone, Ériu i 98.32 . ro bhen a droch-dhiach dhó oir fuair a righedh ar carr `his evil destiny awaited him', AFM v 1818.12 . ní bhean th'aigneadh d'Eóghan thy opinion did not effect E. (i.e. E. was not of thy mind), Ir. Review 1912, 471 § 5 . dom anmain is eadh bheanas / an mac do bhí i mbraighdeanas the child . . . is my soul, DDána 7.21 . gidh cúich mé, a bhean, beanfad daoibh / madh áil leat leannán macaoimh I shall be yours, 67.14 . Caiter ḟíona .i. an chailleach dhubh do ben dó who adhered to him, Ó Héodhusa 42.8 . ní bheanann dúinn trāchdadh orra annso it is not our business to . . ., Mac Aingil 2586 . ní bheanand doibh offic Chriosd do ghabhail chuca `they have no right to', Carswell 225.

With FO: b.¤ foo (in ras. H) attacks them, LU 4874. bean far dtoirmisg-ne far dtoil try to prevent us from achieving our wish, DDána 95. 24 . má bheanann faoi ag mionsmuaineadh . . . ar na neithibh si if he happens to be thinking, Mac Aingil 360 .

With FOR (AR): forom-sa co m-benfat a n-osnaid ┐ a mmallachtain it is at me their sighs . . . will be directed, TBC-LL¹ 197. benais Medb béim n-aisce fair reproached him, 472 . benfait Ulaid form do lecud th'oenur sin cocrích, 1176 . ní bheanfa aimhleas no olc / ormsa inghean Con Connocht `Cú Ch.'s daughter will not charge me with hurt or harm' (?) Studies 1921, 589 § 8 . ro ben cotlud na haidhchi forro deprived them of, CCath. 2439. ni bhenabh sa a chuid don tsaogal fair, BNnÉ 182.15 . ar neach do bhean a mbúaludh / uabhur h'each mear dhā mūnadh `the mettlesomeness of your swift steeds . . . deprived a person of (the need of) beating them' (Notes), O'R. Poems 2535. nā benaidh amhiris for Dia imm immut a mirbhol do not visit God with disbelief (?), Ériu ii 120 § 58. b.¤ (cloc) for (? ar) lit. rings (a bell) against, hence excommunicates: gabais salmmu escaine foraib . . . B. a chlocc foraib, Trip.² 1303. cor benadh an Bernān Ciarāin (i.e. the saint's bell) fair, RC xvii 383.11 . benait co mBríg . . . / barr find for slúag enair they, together with . . . B., bring the host of January to a good end, Fél. Jan. 31. See 1 glas.

With FRI (LA): traig . . . isī benas fri lār touches the ground, Corm. Y 1235. is béss didu ind liacc benir (sic MS.) ilbeim friss gl. lapidem offensionis et petram scandali, Wb. 4d15 . fuair fearthain . . . / nochar bhean re brat an naoimh, Dán Dé iv 22 . in Brug risa mbenand tond, Ériu vii 219 § 6. ? co Luimneach lethanglas / frismbarca ben, iv 154.2 (see F 428.56). benum . . . frisna catrachaib filet fri toeb mara let us visit, LB 142a29 . acht co mbeantai (toccaibti, v.l.) mur friu `if only a wall were set up against them', Ériu viii 179.9 . inud in ro ben in nathair fris 'the place where the serpent had stung him', ITS xxxv 34 § 119 . Fig. touches, affects; is concerned with, meddles with: benad fria chubus fessin gl. opus suum probet unusquisque, Wb. 20c8 . benaidh rind labhairt ar aesaib(h) an domhain, Leb. Gab.(i) 2.7 . ná bean ris, Proverbs xx.19. Ronán . . . / Colman fria mbaig benaim `whom I entreat for their blessing', Gorm. Aug. 18 (? modelled on late Lat. use of pulsare in sense of rogo, see Du Cange s.v. 1 pulsare ). ara mbaig fris mbenab, Nov. 4. gach ní dar bhean le Tepoitt `all the possessions of T.', AFM vi 2146.19 . an té do-ní adhaltrannas . . nō bheanas ré mnaoi neamhpósda, Parrth. Anma 2495.

With I: b.¤ side sleg n-ind, LU 1522. suil beanfuighthear innte = before it be meddled with, Proverbs xvii 14.

with ó forms, derives from (gramm.): cia an t-éntuillréim dég iollraidh ó nach beantur samhlughadh amhuil, IGT Introd. § 2. ? aer o bard benar, Laws v 228.28 .

benn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. benn or dil.ie/5654
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: b(e)inn, beinde, Binde, Beinne, Binne, benna, benna, benn, bennaib, bend, bend, bend, beinn

n a d s. and n du. b(e)inn. g s. beinde, O'Curry 1021 cited infra, Binde, Celt. Rev. x 135.7 . Beinne, Binne, Hog. Onom. n p. benna, Críth G. 450. n a p. benna, g p. benn, d p. bennaib, f., DDána Gloss. Note also a s. bend, PH 2792 , IGT Decl. ex. 643. d s. bend (: lenn), K. and H. 10. n du. b.¤ , CCath. 1337. `n. (? later f.),' Críth G. Vocab.

(a) mountain, crag, peak, point; crest, summit: o Shliab Belgadain don B. / ard in b.¤ imarbaigem `lofty is the mountain', Ériu viii 26.7 , 8 . ar binn ós Loch Feabail aird, ZCP viii 223.26 . Liath na trí mb.¤ , Acall. 936. ar bennaibh is ar barrgail on hill- and tree-tops, Anecd. ii 23.23 . beinnini ar gach mb.¤ , BS 80.4 . as súd soir go beinn Bóthair, Oss. iv 20.25 . [in] ceín bess bend ar in bith `for as long as the hills shall stand', Ériu vii 229 § 77. ó bheannaibh Béirre `from the hills of B.', Aithd. D. 11.7 . ar beinn Chliachmhuighi, IGT Introd. 23.25 . (of the edge (?) of an Alpine crevasse) tuitiss sīoss re beinn an ailt, Fl. Earls 86.z . i mbeannaibh sliabh on the mountain tops, TSh. 3491. as ris shamhlaim th'aiscin-si / is ra bend i nnimh star (?), Anecd. ii 25.11 . Fig. of a pre-eminent person: Gobán sáor . . . / b.¤ ar shaoraibh, BNnÉ 241 § 179 .

Transf. of outline of land: da b.¤ cumga do thír `two narrow horns of land', CCath. 1337.

(b) pinnacle, spire; gable; corner, etc. of building, structure, etc. ; ette nó b.¤ múir gl. pinna, Sg. 67a7 . bend a pinna muri , O'Mulc. 136. for béind aird in tempuil . . . = super pinnaculum templi, Matthew iv 5 , PH 4712. Caisel . . . / b.¤ im a téigenn teine, SG 206.9 . ar beinn inna scríne, Trip. 86.10 . ar bind mhór chluigtighe Chluana pinnacle of the round tower, Celt. Rev. x 143.16 . ar chomhairle clog na seacht mbeann, Oss. iv 42.16 . . . . na múrrtha mbeann of the battlemented walls (?), KMMisc. 50.23 . ar beind chloche, ZCP xii 273.24 . in mac . . . co farcbad for beind chroisse i ndorus chille (an abandoned child), LL 36996 = Fél. 242.7 . fer coirthe .i. in fer curthur for beinn croise gan feronn, O'D. 462 (H. 3.17, 357). Laws v 134.17 Comm. mac toc[h]air .i. do binn croisi, O'Curry 399 (H. 3.18, 222b). ingen do cuirthear do cill, i mbulg no for beinn croisse, O'D. 529 (H. 3.17, 428). fágbhais ar beinn croise . . . an mála `on one of the arms of a cross', Keat. iii 2122 . caithir chuanna ceithre mbeann (of a castle), DDána 119.16 . gur thúirrlind Léithin (an eagle) ar bind don lomán `a corner of the rampike' (p. 124), Celt. Rev. x 135.21 . beann do bhúain da thalamh `to take a piece of his land' (Gloss.), O'R. Poems 1627. beinn `a high top, pinnacle ', Eg. Gl. 104. do bhennuibh bhárc `poops of ships', Rel. Celt. ii 228.9 . Hence in plant-name: beand múir (lit. projection on a wall) `houseleek?' (Index), ACL i 335.71 .

(c) wing of an army, fleet: i mbeind cli in catha `in the left wing of the battle', CCath. 5781. do bennaib cath, O'Dav. 1335. tig féin is beann don chabhlach i dtír `a wing of the fleet', Keat. iii 4828.

(d) horn of animal: inna benna duacarbat gl. corn[u]a, Ml. 87b12 . b.¤ gl. cornu, Sg. 63a6 . cornua .i. b.¤ , Thes. ii 46.31 . co mbert a inathar as fora beandaib (a bull), TBC-I¹ 880. for bennuib na mbó, Airne F. 353. dá beind for trí fichtib rend sixty-two points (?) (of stag's antlers), Imr. Brain ii 288.18 . benna na n-aigi, TBC-LL¹ 1342. tucsat didiu a mbenda ┐ a n-dedu docum na scor their (sc. elephants') tusks, ZCP xxx 136.6 (Alex.). (of a whale ?) na blaith ┐ na benna sin, Éigse vi 119 § 16. gell tar benna i.e. a pledge given in respect of impounded cattle: ata, dono, gell tar benna . . . di athgabail iar ndithim, Laws ii 128.29 Comm. ni dlig feichem acht apad cuicti . . . acht geall tar benda . . . dar benda na bó uair is fri logh enech teid(h), O'Curry 519 (H. 3.18, 261b).

b.¤ (búabaill) a (buffalo) horn; hence drinking horn, goblet: atraacht Conchobor ra beind breccṡolais buabaill a speckled and shining buffalo horn, LL 34745. crúaidi . . . / immar bít benna búabaill `hard . . . as a buffalo's horns' (of a hag's teeth), Ériu iv 102 § 45. etrocht bass fo beind buabaill, IT iii 47 § 76. ar ól mb.¤ `quaffing goblets', O'Gr. Cat. 479.13. See also s. búaball.

Of musical instruments b.¤ (búabaill): ro bidhgsat . . . lasin fuaim . . . do ben Ercuil asan mbeinn mbuabuillsidhe `which H. made on that trumpet', Stair Erc. 177. ro hir dom .x. ngrib ingne .x. mbenda (.i. .x. cuirn buabhaill) bonnadharc buabaill blaith, Ériu ii 4.3 . searbhghlaodhach a mbeann mbuabhall `ivory horns', TD 4.32 . píp trí mbeann `the three-droned pipe', Ó Bruad. iii 130.12 .

(e) prong, point (of various forked and pointed objects): gabul ina laim ┐ da beind eisti a two-pointed fork, Ériu v 72.20 . aél co mbennaib braine, LL 38335. for cetheora benna na gabla (in c[h]raind, TBC-I¹ 308 ), LU 4799. trí chét unga óir isin chainde[l]bru, secht mbenna fair forsa mbítis secht sutrulla `seven branches upon which were seven lamps', Celtica iv 32.18 . beanda . . . slegh spearpoints, ZCP xiv 230.2 . seacht cumala go leith lenta locht mara bennaib Baisgne, glossed: .uii. cumala . . . i cinaidh do beinde it armaib a ua Baiscne, O'Curry 1021 (H. 3.18, 431a-b). beann bhrasbhaoghlach thréan nách trom, Measgra D. 14.12 . b.¤ gher do beith agud, ┐ fend lesin mbeinn `have a sharp point and lance (?) it with the point', Celtica ii 46.3 . cen slegha, cen bera cen benna `points' (of a fence), Laws iv 114.9 Comm. ? carbat bo bricci for beind (benn, v.l.), IT iii 81 § 57.

(f) crest, diadem, etc. (of a helmet, head-dress, etc.): buidne bend `crested bands', Hail Brigit 20 . beann oir . . . as gach cathbarr, Anecd. ii 77 § 3. pn In epithet: Findchad Fer Bend Uma, MU² 36. donn a cuach ballghlas a beann `her coif (?)', Aithd. D. 1.34 . beann eich uaibhrigh `frontlet' ( Ir. Monthly 1929, 333.20 ), DDána 111.20 . By metonymy (?) of a horse: an bheann (perh. = bean) is fearr cluas is cos, Measgra D. 15.1.4 .

(g) Various applications: bratgal na mbrat siúil risna bennaib yards , TTr. 1420 ( LL 32231 ). uagais brigais beand siuil, ` sail-tops ', Ériu xxiv 14 § 13. Of a shield: cetheora benna óir fair, TBC-I¹ 3580. Of a garment (see Ériu xvi 201 ): a dá beind imo brágait the two corners (of the cloak) about his neck, MacCongl. 65.2 . ocht mbruit co mbennaibh (mbuindibh, v.l.), Leb. Cert.² 1314. co r-gabus bend etaig Isu `hem', PH 2792. ar beinn a bruit on the skirt of her mantle, Ériu v 76.37 .

In phr. rí b.¤ king of peaks (?), one of three classes of kings enumerated in Críth G. (see p. 104 ): ríi b.¤ . . . Is hé rí túaithe insin las mbiat .vii. ngrá(i)d Ḟéne cona foḟodlaib i céilsini, ar it hé benna flatha doruirmisem, Críth G. 448 - 450 . O'Dav. 1335.

(h) In adverbial phrases: immo rēir a b.¤ i mb.¤ `from height to height' (Thurn.), for ever (?), ZCP xi 57 § 10. co bráth b.¤ for ever (and ever): ni theit co brath buidneach beann / neach it relcib in ifernd, YBL 318a58 . o sin amach co brath mbend, Anecd. ii 40.7 . re mbrath mbend, BB 17b32 .

(i) Freq. in nn. loc., usu. in senses point, peak, hill , see Hog. Onom. B. Étair, ibid., also ZCP xv 195.

In late use heed, attention, regard: gan beinn air bith air na haitheanta do choimheud `without any care to keep the commandments', Donlevy 176.24 . ní bhí beann agad orum = thou regardest me not, Job xxx 20 . nách fuil . . . beann aco air, Párl. na mB. 625 . gan beann do chur ar raidhtibh na heagluisi coitchinne, Luc. Fid. 3993. na cuir beann, suim, spéis, seadh, ann `regard', Eg. Gl. 71.

Compds.

(a) With nouns: don bheannabrog bhuadhach bhán gabled mansion, 23 G 24 , 388 . dá cromsciath ┐ da bendchlaidiub mara occo, LU 7671 (BDD). ōs Bregmaig na mbendchros ` peaked crosses', Arch. Hib. ii 94 § 25. re fogur thet mbeandchrot, Lec. 174rb3 (for mennch. ?). sreatha . . . téad mbeannchrot, Maguires of F. 86. cloidme m[ora] benndorncair horn-hilted, TBC St. 4524 , Gloss. cuirn mc Donnchadha / dleghait buideachus / buidhe bendgealla securities of horn (?), IT iii 91 § 128. do bheannmhoighe `thy lofty plains', Gadelica 11 § 3 .

(b) With adjj.: faoidh a stoc mbennbuidhe ` yellow-tubed ', O'Gr. Cat. 474.20. táin láoghach bhenncor bhó with pointed horns, KMMisc. 174 § 33. do dhromchladh na Bóirne bennghairbhe ` rugged-topped ', AFM vi 2102.11 . laogh Droma bheinnghil Bhó `white-peaked D.B.', Aithd. D. 25.12 . rosaich co Cua cendmar cain / comét bend-glan in buair sain, Metr. Dinds. iv 338.26 .

(c) With adjj. formed from nouns: múr na sgiath mbeannbhladhach mbláith with fair-famed and gabled buttresses, DDána 119.1 . tar beilgibh bennchairrgidhe `rocky passes', AFM vi 2198.8 . brocc bendchoprach (sc. Cell Dara), RC xiii 114 § 160 (see ¤chopor supra). cloidme benndornachae 'swords with hilts of horn', BDC 106.37 .

1 bés

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 bés or dil.ie/5755
Last Revised: 2013

n (Cf. Hiberno-Latin bes(s)us Latin Letters in Early Christian Ireland xii 207 ). u, m. b.¤ m., IGT Decl. § 95.

(a) habit, custom, usual procedure, practice; manner, way: ni fil linn in béesso gl. consuetudinem non habemus, Wb. 11c21 . iudide ó béssaib, 10d35 . ithæ inso bésse inna fedb `these are the manners of the widows', 29a3 . ishé didiu a mb.¤ adi intí diib bes tresa orcaid alaile gl. more uiuitur bestiarum, Ml. 19d6 . ón bes dóindu gl. homano more, 51d25 . iarsin bǽs doindu, 127d15 . bithbethu iar ṁbes for Dé deis according to custom, SR 1497. modh (ón bh.¤), IGT Decl. § 95 (127.9) . b.¤ modh o eincheill araen (v.ll.), ib. n. 7 . cach cenél dib cona deilb ┐ cona bes ┐ cona aicned foleith (of animals), Ériu ii 126 § 89. gach béas ban da, DDána 114.30 . b.¤ duine dhubhaigh likeness , IGT Decl. ex. 1089. is bes tra . . . briathra na salm . . . do erlabrai ánd `it is customary', Ml. 26c6 . isse a bees . . . fogeir a nggalar in uile corp the disease is wont to inflame etc., Thes. ii 245.33 (Cambr.). is béss didu ind liacc benir (sic leg., note) ilbeim friss, Wb. 4d15 . isé b.¤ ind fir se marbad a óeged, Thes. ii 323.13 (Hy. iv Comm.). With DO: is bées . . . donaib dagforcitlidib molad ingni inna nétside, Wb. 11b6 . is b.¤ tra dosom anisiu, 22c10 . is bes do som tra buith cen chomaccomla, Ml. 28d6 . is b.¤ duibsi . . . ní réidid it is not your wont to drive, LU 5093 ( TBC-I¹ 607 ). is béas don bhláth machuire the field is natural to the flower, DDána 7.3 . With LA and OC: is b.¤ leosom in daim do thúarcuin, Wb. 10d6 . is bǽs linni epert gl. nobis moris est dicere, Ml. 30c3 . ar ba bes la suidib .u. tar hesi ṅí , Sg. 4a9 . ba b.¤ oc Rómanachaib, etc., PH 3291. ní béas eilte d'éis a laoigh / agam I do not practise the habit of a doe bereft of its fawn, DDána 69.25 .

In prep. phrases: (ó) b.¤ , (ó) bésaib: trebait isin cathraig . . . o b.cethecailsi na n-apstal in the Catholic manner of . . ., Anecd. iii 69.25 . Cf. bés (cen bes, v.l.) mora, Lament 88 § 1 . étiud bān bēsaib srotha `white raiment after the fashion of an elder', Ériu ii 66 § 13. ni bia o besaib mogha, Laws iv 16.23 . See Celtica vi 234.z. fo b.¤ : fo b.¤ srotha luaith `in the manner of a swift stream', Wb. 32c16 .

(b) In more specialized sense (particularly in pl.) moral(s), good behaviour: ar chuit óisa et bésa, Wb. 28d24 . cid maith a b.¤ oca thig his conduct, TFerbe 521 . riaglóir . . . / conoathar b.¤ `who preserves good manners' (in a monastery), Ériu iii 106 § 43. intamlid a béssu, Wb. 9a14 . asbera frib coteeet mo béssise gl. uias meas, 9a17 . bési nodaberat inæclis, 28d26 . inna mbéso (`rather bése,' note) sainemlae gl. morum, Ml. 30d15 . ar indí atreba bésu aristotil, Sg. 33a29 . cen buaidred ar do béssaib `no deterioration in thy conduct', PH 7552. do bhéasa ód óige = thy manner, Jeremiah xxii 21. ar bhéasaibh ná ar mhíbhéasaibh, DDána 120.29 .

(c) Legal customary (annual) (food-) rent (glossed biad uais, Laws ii 222.14 Comm.), tribute, etc. (see ZCP xiv 340.19 , Críth G. p. 75 , PRIA xxxvi C 283.25 ): sudiges bēs foruib nō cacht (etymol. of forbasach), Corm. Y 658. turcrec cacha besa of every annual rendering of tribute (Thurn.), ZCP xiv 341 § 3a . ná[d] fuiln(g)e a b.¤ tar molt cona ḟosair. Ma ḟorbera folud a thige . . . co mbí b.¤ a thige and íarna míad, Críth G. 80 , 83 . do berthar boin cech lis a Mumain duit . . . acht na derntar bes de, RC xliii 16 § 10. fri comus a mbesa ┐ a císa doib `to assess their tributes and taxes', Ériu xii 162 § 2. v. tricha in rig do ┐ cis ┐ bes do estib `rent and tribute for the five King's Cantreds', Ann. Conn. 1235.19 . See airchenda

Note also: b.¤ gl. idioma, Ml. 51c25 , 62d8 . dun b.¤ ebraidiu gl. Ebreco idiomati, 71c11 . anat n-uaibrigthi in bæsai cosecarthi gl. ritibus sacris, 100c16 .

Compds. bésgnethid gl. morigera, Thes. ii 3.29 . trisin ṁbæstindrim gl. per tropologiam, Ml. 41a2 . 48c11 .

2 bés

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 bés or dil.ie/5756

Forms: bheas, beuss

(a use of 1b. ?) adv. and conj. In O.Ir. with subj. (with copula béso, -u) perhaps, maybe. Later (?) with indic. in all probability, doubtless, certainly, indeed. In class. verse bheas (see rhymes cited below). See GOI 241 , 329 , 488 . trí sethracha goa: béss, dóig, toimtiu, Triads 136 . béss rísat ade maybe they will attain, Wb. 5b39 . b.¤ asberasu, Thes. ii 7.29 . bésu dagduine, Wb. 6b23 . béso mó, 19b11 . bésu ocus, bésu chían (besa, beuss, MSS.) `whether it be near', Imr. Brain 19. bes ni bat fira, Ml. 51b8 . bes immagaba, Mon. Tall. 152.5 . b.¤ adchotar, LU 4713. bess budh móide, CCath. 1296.

With indic.: bes is ed rocindead dun it looks as if that was to be our fate, Anecd. i 4.10 (SCano 94. See Éigse xi 76 ). bess isshé Issau of a truth it is E., SR 2893. bes nirbo rom, LU 4186. bess is í menmai D. an imper ro-cload ann `doubt- less', PH 1047. Appar. with dep. clause in: bes na n-árlaid duni beo, LU 3865 ( SCC 38 ).

In class. verse: ba caithleomhan re cneas Goill /as bheas do haithbheodhadh eadroinn of a truth, DDána 112.9 . éigin bheas (: mheas) go saorfadh soin, Aithd. D. 25.19 .

breithemnacht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. breithemnacht or dil.ie/6704

Forms: brithemnacht, brithemnacht

n ā, f. O. Ir. brithemnacht (breithem). GOI § 260. judging, judgment, adjudication: doairchet a-llaa ṁbrithemnacte sin, Wb. 6b26 . léicid iudicium deo .i. brithemnacht bes huilliu (an leg. (?), ed.) nísṅdenaith gl. non ergo amplius inuicem iudicemus, 6b29 . ni epur brithemnact for nech, 8d26 . ní gette na brithemnachta becca erriu ref. to de minimis iudicatis, 9c8 . amal bete som in impudiu inna brithemnacte `in the encompassment of the Doom', 9c10 . combad firián a brithemnacht gl. iudicandi, Ml. 89b15 . brithemnacht firiáin gl. iudicium `righteous judgment', 89b13 . iustitia is du firinni brithemnachtæ téit, 109a2 . air biid aslach oc eráil inna brithemnachtae condárbastar gné firinne fuiri, 95b6 . bith soer som as in brithemnacht hisin `he will be free from that judgment', 57c7 . med brithemnachtae dæ, 57d8 . brithemnacht gl. sanctione, 40a3 . mad fír in brithemnacht bess in mente , Thes. ii 4.32 . breithem an breitheamhnais bīas agan breitheamnacht at the Judgment (of Doom), ZCP viii 199 § 4. atchota milteṅga brithemnacht, LL 345c1 ( RC xlv 14 § 21 ). ni aidlingcet o nachaib rechtaib na fúiglib na brethamnachtaib, acht recht n-aicnid namma, Alex. 850. M. . . . sui brethemhnachta ┐ seanchais `doctor of jurisprudence', AU ii 36.1 . ollamh breithemhnachta Ua Failghe `chief brehon', AFM ii 888.18 . In legal texts: concertaim breithemnacht (sic leg.) bais, Laws i 12.24 Comm. lúan do br(e)ithemnacht, do choccertad túath for adjudication (in order of engagements of a king), Críth G. 544. in tan as [re] brethemnacht sin. In tan is re conairib fuigill, etc. `pronouncing of judgment', Laws v 6.16 Comm. in ord breithemnachta `in the laws of the Brehons', i 16.15 (Preface to Senchus Mór).

1 calad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 calad or dil.ie/8029

Forms: caladh

n o, m. (Low Latin calatum, Stokes Ling. Val. Ir. Ann. 71 ; but probably subst. use of 2 calad) shore, port, landing-place; land (as opposed to sea): caladh `a porch (leg. port?) a haven', Eg. Gl. 203 . caladh .i. cuan, O'Cl. na taisc do churach co c.¤ do chaladaib Herend, LL 12698 ( RC xiv 408 § 17 ). ó imell an longphuirt co caladh (bord, v.l.) in mara `seaport', CCath. 1741 . ar cruadh-ghaethaibh caladh `against the strong streams from the land', MR 288.5 . a inghean og ḟind / a caladh na craebh, IGT Metr. Faults§ 64 = o inbear na craebh, ib. cith-anfad cuan-trachta calaid `on the haven', MR 236.19 . uain calaidh the time to seek harbour, PBocht 26.7 . sraighlid di clochaib na caladh, RC ix 470.z (g pl. ?). é ré calaidh ná congaibh (: tabhair) delay him not, DDána 58.15 . i ccaladh locha techet `at the callow of Lough Techet', AFM iv 726.14 (see note). ón tráth thriallas a cuan a ghein-eamhna go caladh a chríche (of homo viator), TSh. 2385 . ré mbaidb calaidh Chorcaighi `the raven of Corcach's callow', Caithr. Thoirdh. 67.10 . ní baoí bó ar oilén . . . nár chuirset goill ar caladh in aon ló `carry off to the shore', AFM iii 280.1 (mainland ?). gan bhréagnadh do rachainn don Éigipt tar caladh `across the sea', O'Rah. 168.5 .

In game of táiplis home, finishing point : cuir an t-aon a gcaluith (ccaladh, v.l.), Ériu xvii 13.20 . See p. 13 .

beirid i c.¤ brings safe, places in safety : biaid a ord i mbreith a muntire i c.¤ , LL 24842 . bess nacha bertha a c.¤ / me a Fodla na findchalad, Prolegomena 44 § 12 . mena beram i c.¤ if we do not succeed, LL 31665 ( TTr. 852 ) = mani ructhar i c.¤ , TTr.² 318 . gaibid c.¤ (i n-) lands (at): imon airer inar' gabsat c.¤ `where they had landed', Aen. 290 . co rogaib sium calath comnart, MacCongl. 85.22 .

Compds. With adj.: ón [O]chrómín chalathchruaidh, LL 31985 (`hard, obdurate', TTr. 1170 ). in chuigidh caladh-réidh `of smooth callows', Hy Maine 134.6 .

In n. loc. see Hog. Onom.

clois(t)id

Cite this: eDIL s.v. clois(t)id or dil.ie/9588

v (conflation of coistid and clos?) hears, listens .

(a) With acc. clostid gl. tá chein, LU 6898 ( BDD 50 ). oir do chloisfea-sa é, Imr. Brain 66 § 18 . co cloisind guth na n-én, ZCP v 496 § 3 . ferr duit nā cloisti as do chinn that you should not be heard, xiii 3 § 2 . gáir fói (leg. fo ?) na clósed `so that he should not hear', TTr.² 1189 . má tá . . . nach claistear a gcaoinfhriotal, Hackett xx 39 . cluistear a chlinn a gcríochaibh Éibhir, ZCP v 230.1013 (Midn. Court). is céasta an tásc . . . chlaisim, Ó Bruad. i 34 xix . ? `bess ni hingnad anisin' ar ind ingen, ardaig co cloistis na gillae, Expuls. 19 (but prob. read co cloitis).

(b) With FRI: claisdidh riom, KMMisc. 168 § 7 . comēt dam mo chlūasa / nār' cloistet fritt ēcnach, ZCP vi 259 § 3 . ciúine na ceileabradh / frissa (leg. fris') cloistenn clūas, viii 200 § 8 .

cóir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cóir or dil.ie/10380
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: co(a)ïr, cooir, cáir, cocorib, cáir, -a, -e

adj i Orig. co(a)ïr ( coair: doaib, Fél. Ep. 432 (coir MSS), cooir, SR 1102 ). Later often cáir (see Bard. Synt. Tr. cited below). See OIPG 20 .

1 In physical sense even, well-proportioned, straight : mná córi, LU 3887 ( SCC 40 ). fer c.¤ cutrumma, LL 11917 (TBC). a dá malaig chóiri, BDD² 853 . do grúadaib córaib, Ériu iii 100 § 25c . mani dirgisiu corop c.¤ unless you right it (a leaning house), LU 8394 ( FB 27 ). lenti . . . cori, Cog. 160.y . in cruindi cōir, ZCP viii 114 § 1 .

2 proper, correct, right; suitable, fitting, just : int ord coir, Ml. 29a6 . tara cricha corai, 51d3 . a siansu corai (a p.), 94c3 . taithesc coir, Wb. 27c29 . ? cocorib gl. congruentibus (uerbis), Enchir. Aug. 81a ( ZCP vii 483 ). ríasind trath c.¤ , Mon. Tall. 131.19 . cách 'na cert c.¤ , ZCP viii 200.4 . a comairci cāir, BColm. 88.24 . cauraid cára (: rodána), Rawl. 158.17 . is anima as choair hi sunt a. is the correct form, Ml. 130c10 . ba hed ón ba ch.¤ , Wb. 10b9 . ar ni c.¤ in fotha utmall, Sg. 4b3 . ind pennit bes ch.¤ fort-su `the penance that is meet for thee', Mon. Tall. 130.23 . damadh c.¤ é if it was right (a grammatical procedure), IGT Introd. 29.33 . bés nī bat cōrai just (of persons), ZCP viii 318.32 . Legal: teora tomalta ata chórai, Críth G. 502 . flaith ciniuil coir, Laws ii 202.24 . a mama core, BCrólige 43 . eallach déne cóire, Ériu xiii 18.16 . With n. pr. in voc. a mmo ch.¤ Cathaīr, Fing. R. 484 . a Ch. chóra (: chróda), CRR 26.y (ch.¤ , 4.11).

3 is c.¤ with follg. verbal or vn. clause: is coir a tuic i ndiad á prosperum , Ml. 84c19 . is coir a thabairt doib (sc. tributa), Wb. 6a21 . ni coir descad pectho do buith i sollumun, 9b13 . ba coir ce na chomalnithe you ought to fulfil it, 13a33 . is c.¤ apronomen diainchosc, Sg. 208a4 . is cōir cīa noderba it is fitting that you should confirm it, ZCP viii 108.9 . gan caoineadh na gcorp is cáir, Ó Bruad. ii 122.9 . c.¤ with semi-adverbial force: mé Eba . . . c.¤ is me dochóidh 'sa crand `by rights 'tis I that should have gone upon the cross', Ériu iii 148 § 1 . cáir do-chuaidh na chomhoideacht fittingly , DDána 73.21 . c.¤ do ghabh T. ré dtaoibh, Content. iv 44 . Cf. is coir do marbhus, Stair Erc. 2215 . See compds. with vbs. With added DO: ni coir do neuch rosacht ronícad Duaid one should not hesitate, Ml. 18d20 . doadbadar híc as coir do chách guide dée lia chéle, Wb. 7a13 . ba coir dúibsi cia doberthe testas dinni you should bear witness, 15d8a . amal as coir domsa gl. sicut est mihi iustum, Wb. 23a21 . c.¤ dhó dol 'n-ar sealbha, Dán Dé viii 17 . With LA: ní coair leu a denum gl. minus dignum est, Ml. 48a8 . issed is choir lais . . . inda sacairt doellad . . . arna tiagsad fo graid nepscuip in his opinion erring priests should not become bishops, Mon. Tall. 134.11 .

4 Compar. and superl. ba coru tra bid adnuntiabit no beth híc a. is the better form here, Ml. 45b14 . conid córu suiscélaigthi da rád fris quam fáith, Trip.² 12 . eirg do Themraig . . . Is córu deit, BDD² 149 . nech dar córa creidemain (with intensive force?), BNnÉ 227 § 130 . cára almsa lem anmuinn, Hackett li 16 . coraite a taithmech `it is all the more proper', Ériu xvii 66.19 . go madh córaide dhó sin do dhéanamh `that he might the more easily do this', Keat. ii 3495 . ba sí . . . as córam, BDD² 41 .

5 Adv. co c.¤ gl. effecax, Ml. 69d12 . go c.¤ properly , Celtica i 95.238 . Without co: ferr co mbad chōir nogabtha | comarbus in Rīg, ACL iii 316 § 45 , CMCS i 50 . ? cōic bliadna cethrachat cōir, Arch. Hib. ii 85 § 46 .

As subst. i, f. (in older lang. often with nasalisation of follg. vowel; n., Críth Gabl.). c.¤ , cáir f., IGT Decl. § 42 (g s. -a, -e). Only c.¤ (as against cáir) correct in verse in phrases ar c.¤ , c.¤ gháoithe, Bard. Synt. Tr. 5.29 . Freq. with k- inflection in later lang.

6 rightness, justness, propriety; that which is right or proper; right, due, justice : ro laad cech alt asa choir dam gl. totus resolutus sum, Ml. 44d2 . find cach c.¤ , ACL iii 229.126 . cona tochmaghad a choir cirt, Ériu xiii 17.16 . do ná gaibhter a coir chirt, 31.5 . coir iar n-ecoir, Laws i 254.12 . do reir cora, v 62.33 Comm. do reir coir, 132.10 Comm. ma dognethea a choïr if you did right, ZCP vii 498.7 . fa cheart córa mo bhaile, KMMisc. 56.11 . a coraigh ┐ a n-egoraigh, Hy Maine 161.3 . fer . . . congbala corach for in popul `maintaining the law', PH 2578 . fagháil na cóire, IGT Decl. ex. 1166 . ag cosnamh a gcórach, 1170 . ar an córaidh right (in their teaching), Mac Aingil 6696 . más í a ch.¤ for that is fitting (chev.), SG 390.6 . ar son . . . na cōra, Beatha S. F. 356 . dí maithtear c.¤ na cána the full amount(?), A. Ó Dálaigh vii 8 . an ch.¤ the correct (weight), TSh. 3636 . atorra sin atá in ch.¤ `between them is the golden mean', SG 242.7 . Cóir Anmann `Fitness of Names' (title of tract), IT iii . In phr. tar in cóir: maoin tar an ccóir 'more wealth than you should have', Ériu lxiii 56 § 30 .

7 See also s. córanna. In sense of claim, due, tribute; hence recompense, compensation, penalty, retribution, punishment (partic. in relig. class. verse): ba mor a chair ┐ a chonach, YBL 159b15 . gan coir as O. . . . ar son mairt do gait T. O. not to be held liable for(?), Trans. RIA xv 19 . do ch.¤ aca nī anfodh, O'R. Poems 2254 `what is justly yours', Gloss. da ndernum cáir if I claim my due, Ériu iv 220.17 . ata coir fer talman air ┐ ní fail a coir ar aennech acu, Stair Erc. 702 . gurab orra sin amháin bhíos a ch.¤ (of death), TSh. 754 (`power, authority', Gloss.). do gheabhadh sé c.¤ it ḟeirg `will bring on you punishment', Content. xix 6 . sgaoil do ch.¤ an chíghshéala `lessen the just claim', A. Ó Dálaigh xxxi 7 `requital for', Gloss. c.¤ ghuine Dé the price to be paid for, Aithd. D. 64.25 . na lean c.¤ meidhe an mheasa, Dán Dé vii 16 . maithiomh cóire m'anma `the offences of (claims against) my soul' (notes), LBranach 3616 .

8 Freq. with follg. gen. correctness, correct form (of); proper (legal) arrangement (for); procedure, device, means (of doing someth.): tre cōir bæguil ar demhan a chance of catching the devil napping, Irish Texts i 42.z . coir n-urnadhma `das Ordnungsmassige' (`hier ist es vornehmlich materiell zu verstehen'), Stud. in E. Ir. Law 109 . nídamcuirfe ar ch.¤ cháirde `reduce me to terms of postponement' SG 111.44 . inna coir chétmuinterasa as an accredited c.¤ , Críth G. 200 . dún iona cáir cinnlitre `a fort as it were a capital letter', Ériu v 60.4 . c.¤ clann a chúil arrangement of locks, Magauran 906 . co na hirmaised coir a dhenma the right method of making it, Anecd. ii 7.3 . ní hí an choir égára is fherr unfair method(?), Rel. Celt. ii 291.10 . c.¤ gaíthe favourable wind: techt la reith choir gaithe `with an unfavourable wind', Ml. 126a5 (leg. la frithchóir gáithe ? note). dorala coir gaethi dóib, LL 1654 . coir na gaithi, Ériu v 156.179 . So also: robu ḟearr in choir dunn co S. inas co hE. etir risin gaeth sin, BB 459a39 . coir seolta, 450a20 . c.¤ gáoidhilge correct pronunciation, IGT Introd. 14.z . dēni cōir ṅgaiscid frim fight fair, TBC-I¹ 1289 . c.¤ n-imdegla means of defence, LL 8437 (TBC). tri chōir nindlaig ┐ imc[h]osāidi in order to create division and strife, TBC-I¹ 2237 . c.¤ irnigde `the right way of prayer', Wb. 4a27 . hi coir lanamnusa `in a proper union, BCrólige 56 . coir molta .i. molad laech do forlaéch, BB 301b46 . c.¤ ortagraiph (sic leg.), Corm. 8 s.v. Cormac = ordagraiffe cōir, Corm. Y 204 . tre ch.¤ séisi `skilful arrangement', ZCP i 64 § 81 . coir cach troiscthe `das ist ordnungsmässig bei jedem Fasten', xv 262.1 . c.¤ tuarastail a fair recompense, Metr. Dinds. iii 352.54 . Perh. with ellipse of noun in: dochansaidhe c.¤ , Ériu xiii 42.17 . canaid c.¤ / coscrach cridemail, LU 8694 ( FB 52 ) (perh. adv.). With adj.: c.¤ tessaide `a febrile (pestilence)', Ann. Inisf. 1093. 10 . See athchomarc, athgabáil, cethrochair, comrád etc.

9 In prep. phrases (see Celtica i 349 and comair): ar ch.¤ choróine in the form of, Dán Dé xx 21 . ? fótha ar c.¤ troda, IGT Decl. ex. 1049 . do coir a coinghilla `by right of', Laws i 266.7 . dá coir near it, BCC 51 . ó nach fuil comhghar dhar gc.¤ (: seanóir), Ériu i 16.15 . cunnig dam mnaí menmnag móir / bess ria c.¤ mo theglaich thúaid, LL 29524 `who can watch over', Ériu vii 232 . re c.¤ mara (: dóibh) beside, LBranach 778 . re coir a cheilebartha `for the purpose of', MR 300.12 . a gc.¤ feadhma ready for, LBranach 6246 . a c.¤ (ar ch.¤, v.l.) druidealta ar dorchacht like, IGT Decl. ex. 672 . tiagait . . . A. ┐ S. a coir a seda co sruth A., Aen. 1311 . tangattar i cc.¤ thurasa d'fios a ttíre fén on a journey, BNnÉ 12.10 . Cf. iar coir Parduis towards P., SR 1180 .

10 In adv. phrases: ní thaudchaid a brú for c.¤ never recovered, LU 6078 (TBC). a thabairt fór c.¤ , PH 2128 . co ná rabhadar rechta nó cinnti senaidh ar coir occo `were rightly with them', CCath. 251 . nī bīat rīg is nī bīat suïdh for a coïr as they should be, ZCP viii 195.12 . fon c.¤ cetna in the same way, Rawl. 87a48 . cona facbatís cnáim . . . i c.¤ re cheli, LB 154a61 . gan clērca iar cōir `without proper clergy', Ériu xviii 60 § 12 . co no fil iar n-a choir, PH 4239 .

11 Compds. With nouns: coir aisneis, Laws i 80.27 Comm. a chóirchloch `o chiselled stone', O'Gr. Cat. 492.33 . i gcóirchuibhreann, DDána 20.24 . coirdírgi, BDD² 31 . coirseis gl. corus, Laws i 132.3 Comm. With adj.: cúinge an chreidimh chóirshlighthigh, Ó Bruad. iii 80.24 . With vb. cairemain .i. is coir-fuaiprid (etymol. gl.), Laws v 106.21 Comm. cōir fūaigt[h]er, Corm. Y 340 (crūach). Perh. as conj. Part. in: nad coir canad do chennaibh, Ériu xiii 17.5 (= c.¤- chanat ?). niba hegna nad coir coiccerta canoin, 31.13 .

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