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abacc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. abacc or dil.ie/19
Last Revised: 2013

n o, m. (see Vendr. Lex. and Études Celt. xxiv 185 ) dwarf. In native glossaries derived from 1 ab (cf. Ériu xvi 38.4 cited below and We. afanc beaver), but the exx. do not support the meaning castor (Vendr.). abac .i. ab aband ┐ bac beg; bec bīs i n-aibnib é. Nó becc a á .i. a airde, Corm. Y 83 . a.¤ .i. bec abae, ar is a n-aibnib bit, ut dicitur: Tuatha a.¤ usce uair gluair conanat in gach dail, O'Mulc. 3 . a.¤ .i. bec adbae fobith senbic frith is in boind, O'Curry 123 ( H 3.18, 74 - 5 ) (referring to the story of Senbec, RC vi 182 ; Ériu xiii 26 ). in t-aboc o Rus chaem Chas / noco n-é a taeb as imda .i. fota, LU 1029 (ACC). doluid in t-abac . . ./ . . ./ co romarbsat in abacc / fo a cossaib iar crín-amarc / ó lecht ind abaic-sin síar, Metr. Dinds. i 18.69 . a.¤ Pátraic, Trip.² 1905 . ro tṡillestar sí ar in n-abhacc .i. Cnú deireoil, Acall. 6000 . mar do bemais 'nar lenbaib bliadne nó 'nar n-abhcaibh beca, 5927 v.l. Lecht ind Abaicc (one of the monuments of Tara), LL 3843 (cf. lige). lige in abuic, Todd Nenn. 200.1 . mac Mēin in t-aphac bec aon-dhuine is lugha a ufianaib Ēreann, Feis Tighe Chonáin 255 . abac do fuair Fionn ferda, SG 108.6 . Cronán abhacc ab Cluana mic Nóis, TFrag. 94.9 = Cronán becc, AFM i 296.6 . cruitín no abhac, Levit. xxi 20 . abhac `a dwarf', Eg. Gl. 27 . Associated with luchorpán: doloto(ta)r lucorpain dond rig . . . atgege fergus fair . . . eolas fobarta fo muirib . . . rotbia ar int a.¤ acht aen ar[a]cuillimm airiut loch rudrige, Ériu xvi 38.4 ( Laws i 72.6 .) líntar in port forru do demnaibh i ndealbhuibh abhac ┐ luchrapan, Lism. L. 3776 . nān .i. bec, ut dicitur, nanus .i. abac lucharbán, O'Mulc. 828 .

airis

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airis or dil.ie/2127
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: aires, aires, irisse, irse, oires, -is, -esa

n Also aires. Form and inflection uncertain. Most forms indicate compd. of air- and 1 fis, whence u and o, m. But n s. aires, LU 6146 and g s. irisse, ZCP iii 243 § 46 , irse, Mon. Tall. 153.23 (§ 66) suggest a fem. ā-stem (which does not occur in meaning (a) below). No doubt two different words have fallen together in meaning (b). Identical with ires(s), Marstrander, Lochlann ii 210 . See LEIA oires (ó dhá chéill) m. (g s. and n p. -is, -esa), IGT Decl. § 38 .

(a) (fore-)knowledge: ro léicsem slóg forru cen airḟius unawares, LU 4784 (TBC). ná tístáis námhait fair cen airius inna chatraig, TTr.² 201 . co mbadar issind arucol . . . cen ḟis cen airḟis, Anecd. i 3.7 ( SCano 50 ). a tabairt do snadud as tualaing a turtaigthi mad cenairis snaite, Laws i 92.3 .i. mad cin fis faesma, 98.14 Comm. athgabail fir tairirid cen a.¤ fecheman toich, 194.21 .i. na fitir athgabail do gabail, 196.16 Comm. Perh. vn. of ar-finnathar.

(b) tryst, assignation, arrangement to meet: doboi iriss (.i. comdal) laiss do Galluib. Luid docum a irisse do Gallaib, ZCP iii 243 § 46 = iress, iresse, Comp. CC 39-40 . foceirtt lamae fair . . . commaranic caradrad irse `intercourse by tryst', Mon. Tall. 156.23 (§ 66) . asbert frie airm iressa `to arrange a place of meeting', Imr. Brain 42.10 . do rinne oiris . . . fa loing do tabairt i n-a aircis co Cend Traga, Celt. Rev. iv 16.16 . ? do N. na ḟir énoiris, IGT Decl. ex. 1031 . i n-a.¤ (with vb. of motion) to meet: tancatar . . . i n-herus C. (i noires v.l.) . . . is aire con deochatar sin i comdail C., TBC-LL¹ 1426 . tocht i n-herus inalta Feidilmthi, 556 . tánaic ind aires aodha uí D. gus an maighin sin came to meet O' D., AFM iv 1928.6 . In phr. a.¤ dála: i n-airius dála, SCano 309 . dogén airius dála frib, PH 3008 . in tan ticfad i n-a.¤ dála di[a] acallaim si. ar baí aires (.i. comdal) dála dissi ara barach fri C., LU 6146 (TBC). ar ní fuarsa co sse ingin follongad i n-airius dala imacallaim fón samail se frim who could hold her own with me in conversation at a tryst in this way, 10317 . tic in t-oclach a cind blíadne i n-a.¤ [a] dala, IT iii 194 § 29 . a.¤ catha meeting in battle, time of joining battle: airisin (for a.¤ in) catha .i. coinne chatha, O'Cl. o tanaic tra a.¤ an cathai moir, RC xii 96 § 127 . lotar do oiris an catha, § 129. co raibe tri la . . . and a noires chath[a] `awaiting battle', xviii 279.2 (Tig.). do thinoilsed Conmaicne ┐ Húi Briuin . . . a n-oiris catha do Thairrdelbach `to give battle to T.', 45.21 (Tig.). ised ro cinnset, anadh i n-a.¤ catha dóibh `to wait and meet them in battle', CCath. 132 . imat na slog dodec[h]atar i n-aires catha dó, 3042 . inn airius in morcatha, 4659

Of the person trysted with: dorala tria gabhra ar iris sainrethach d'fiachoibh ogo . . . ua foilid a iris ┐ a feichemh riamh a special friend owed him three horses . . . his friend and debtor welcomed him, Aisl. Tond. 93 § 2 = tarrla fiacha aige ar cumpanach airide dhó, 120 . In laudatory sense: flaith go roimheas 'gar ghnáth geall / oirios do chách go coitchenn, L. Cl. A. B. 140.32 . Cf. eiris.

Compd. do-rinnedar imram . . . an-athlam oiris-beg expeditious, ML² 658 .

1 aithrigid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 aithrigid or dil.ie/2785
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: athraigid

v Also athraigid. Late form of ad-eirrig and no doubt influenced by aithrige, q.v., see (b) below.

(a) changes, alters, moves (intrans. and trans.) Intrans. rí . . . / asathoil nir' athrucha who did not turn from his purpose, SR 7754 . re lia gcorr do chuir a shlios / . . . / níor aithnidh do chách an cleas / an treas tráth gur aithrigh as until he moved from it i.e. until he arose (of Christ), Dán Dé ix 29 . do athraigh sén catha cloinne Cais an lá sin, AFM v 1572.4 . co natrocadh an seantrom `so that the earth would change', Ir. Astr. Tr. 74.x . do shúil re hanáir nach athraigh / d'fhagháil dúinn i ndaghthaigh Dé, DDána 17.33 . athraigis in teagh . . . go rānic gusin log so, Fl. Earls 116 z . bídh cuid díbh doní etilladh ┐ aithrighius ón tír co céli (= qui vont de region en region), O'Gr. Cat. 213.9 . gur athruigh sé ó bhás gu beathaidh, John v 24 . anaidh ag bhar n-oidibh féin . . . ná hathraighidh, Content. xvi 83 . ? ó ro lessaig Fiacha in Féind / co ro athrígis-si, a Oisséin until you changed(?), Acall. 2492 .

Trans. niaithrégsa he hi céin bam beo, Fél.² li 20 = ni aithreghsa, Fél. Feb. 11 Comm. ro ath[ar]raigh longphort (atharraigh, v.l.), CCath. 1331 . tucc D. an baile sin do Déclan ┐ do athraigh fein a bhaile ass go hionad ele, ITS xvi 12.11 . gabhaid daoine is is díobh mé / an ród aimhréidh as fhaide / athraighid is claon céille / raon athghairid eichréidhe exchange(?), Dán Dé vi 3 . ní hathraighthe asa céim `was not changed from his rank', CCath. 80 . dá mbeith . . . go n-aithreōchainn na sléibhthe, Desid. 4244 . arthaigter co minic iad (of plasters), O'Gr. Cat. 193.4 . go nathruighid a mbeusa, Donlevy xv 5 . ní athróch-sa in téidedhsa, Caithr. Thoirdh. 107.37 . ní aithrigh síon séis mbuinne `the tempest does not alter the note of the stream', Studies 1921, 75 § 14 . ní háithreochthar fréamh a nfíréin, Proverbs xii 3 . áthruigh do chos ó nolc, iv 27 . athruigh uáimse do bhuille, Psalms xxxix 10 . do áthruigh tú mo thúarasdal, Gen. xxxi 41 .

With nouns indicating form, shape, appearance etc.: connách bia aingil . . . nách aithrébadh delbh lé mét in gábaid sin `qui ne change de forme', RC xxiv 382.20 . athrigedh (leg. -idh) an topur sin balad . . . cach aenúair has a different perfume, Maund. 147 . tobur J. athriges dath cacha bliadne cethri húaire, 103 . taom asar athraigh aigneadh, TD 15.3 . Cf. dá haighidh do aithrigh gné, DDána 103.4 . datharruigh a dhealbh `his countenance fell', Gen. iv 5 .

(b) repents: mani (manini MS.) aithriged (leg. aithriget, edd.), Mon. Tall. 128.6 (§ 2) . ro faillsige Dia i fiadnaisi na n-uili pobul corom aithriger-sa, YBL 156b49 . Vn. athrugad

1 ard

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ard or dil.ie/4041
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: árd, árt, art, arad, arad, arrad, arruidṡliocht

also árd. árt, Wb. 24d9 . art, Thes. ii 235.15 . Somet. arad metri gratia, esp. in later lang.: arad, IT iii 104 § 202 . arrad, Ó Bruad. i 32 § xiv . arruidṡliocht, 23 G 24, 239.4 .

I Adj. o, ā

(a) Of objects not in contact with ground high: innahí ruptar ardda dunnai (of planets), Thes. ii 11.42 (BCr.). In compds. tri ardlémend, LU 4021 ( SCC 47 ). ard-luth a eich high motion, CCath. 4712 . ardnem na náemh, RC xxiv 372.25 . Cf. airdrenn, 2 airdrech.

(b) high above ground, elevated, lofty . Of a place: huand luc digas no a.¤ gl. e loco editiore, Ml. 58a12 . 47c19 . isna lucu arda, 23d23 . Of a mountain etc.: hi tilchaib ardaib, Ml. 14a9 . iter da sliab arda, TTebe 898 . Of a building etc.: gríanána . . . ardda, MU² 201 . i n-iomdhaidh aird raised high from floor(?), Magauran 1380 . Cf. compd. ¤-lepaid: iomdaighe ┐ árdleapthacha, RC xiv 30 § 12 . go rabat ind (leg. id ?) ardleabaidh / a mna a meic may they be in Thy high bed (place of honour ?), Anecd. ii 33 § 17 . mairidh an fhithchioll eagair / do h-imbearthaoi a n-áirdleabaidh, ML 50.6 . Of a tree tall: ind huinnius ardd, Sg. 67a11 . arnaib fedaib sonartaib ardaib, Ml. 146a6 . crann a.¤ , Stair Erc. 384 . Of a vessel in compds.: fó inbiur in ardchori `lofty cauldron' (deep ?), MacCongl. 39.17 . airdiena (ardíana v.l.) ibardha deep(?) yew vessels, Anecd. ii 58 § 20 . Cf. 1 ardán.

(c) Of the sea: cathair ṡlúaigh do airg d'ḟoiléim / a ngoibéil chúain aird ainiúil deep(?), IGT Decl. ex. 518 . In compds.: an ardmhuir thened high sea, ocean (?), Ériu ii 124 § 68 (calque from Lat. altum mare , Deutsche, Kelten und Iren 99 ). tar ard mhuir cciachdhuibh `tossing', Ir. Review 1913, 624 § 16 . dún is inber is ard-ler, Metr. Dinds. iii 112.34 .

(d) Of sounds loud: a.¤ aniu . . . gáir guil, Cog. 96.3 . frecra n-a.¤ n-obéle loud answer, Tec. Corm. § 25.12 . traetaít na ciulu islí na ciuil arda, BB 327b33 . In compds.: blūsair .i. nuall ardegóir, O'Mulc. 180 = O'Dav. 329 . firfid Findbennach fri dond Cúalnge ardburach loud bellowing, LU 10401 . ag Eochaid Ardghair `of the loud cry', Ériu i 81 § 11 . ardghaire mbaeth loud foolish laugh, Fél. 206.y . do breth a hardguth for aird, LL 9226 (TBC). árdghothach ┐ easurramach loud and stubborn, Proverbs vii 11 .

(e) Of colour: fual . . . á.¤ , Rosa Angl. 188.4 .

(f) In fig. usage. Of rank or superior quality noble, dist- inguished: aire ardd, one of the grades of nobility , Críth G. 368 and p. 69 . Andreas a.¤ a ordan, Fél. Feb. 6 . bit áird úas dind ḟlatha exalted (of saints), Prol. 155. a bhanaltra charthannach an Chomhachtaigh aoird mighty(?), Hackett xix 41 . óclách a.¤, imnair, IT i 79.2 . art .i. uasal, Metr. Gl. 27 § 35 . Stowe Gl. 22 . Of foundations, institutions etc. ba cóir ceniptis árdda do chongbala-su, Trip.² 1564 . bid á.¤ bid úasal do chathir i talum, 472 . abb ecailse ardae, Fél. Jan. 2 . sacramaint ro-a.¤ a cuirp fein august, Smaointe B. Chr. 3324 . Of a place: bátir Érenn ardae / la m'Luóc . . . / grían Liss móir de Albae they were of noble Ireland, Fél. June 25 . Of a feast: ré Notlaicc aird aurgaiss, Fél. Nov. 13 . In compds.: domhnaighe . . . ┐ airdfheile, AFM ii 952.15 , casc . . . ardshollumun na bliadne principal festival, Lism. L. 323 . Gramm. ón táoibhréim a. iollraidh i.e., the g p. in a dental, IGT Introd. § 142 (see ísel).

In phr. ardu árosc, see árosc.

(g) great, extensive(?): ba ha.¤ in coscur .i. ba mor, Thes. ii 334.1 (Hy. v). a.¤ .i. mor nó sochaide, ut est a.¤ in athlighi .i. sochaide facbhuit ina lige, O'Dav. 21 .

(h) proud: ná bísi ard nó íseall, L. Cl. A. B. 132.58 . atbert athesc a.¤ proud answer, LL 19874 .

(i) difficult, laborious, arduous (based on Lat. arduus JCL ix 44 ): is rét a.¤ .i. foglaim inna hirisse foirbthe gl. res ardua atque difficilis, Ml. 14c10 . roart lessom epert friusom intsamli dæ, Wb. 24c10 .

Equative: ardithir . . . seólcrand prímlui[n]gi, LU 6474 (TBC). airdithir neolla nime gach fer dib, RC xvii 416.38 . goma hairdithir re h-én, MR 300.11 .

Compar.: cia thes hi loc bes ardu ní ardu de, Ml. 23d23 . ni arddu feisin quam a chocéle, Sg. 161b9 . ni artu ní nim `nothing is higher than heaven', Thes. ii 248.3 . arddu (arddiu v.l.) dōinib / acht nōibrī nime, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 10 § 4 . airdiu cach múr araile, LU 2037 ( FA 11 ). airddiu, IT i 77.13 . harda (: Alba = Albu), ZCP viii 197.11 . airdi sa hairdi `higher and higher', Études Celt. i 87.23 . As superl. caithir fhionn as airde múr, DDána 119.19 .

Superl. dobeir grád as ardam, Fél. Ep. 207 . ardam dossaibh highest of bushes, Auraic. 5548 . ardam iactadh loudest of groanings, 5575 .

Adv.: eigis co ha.¤ , TTebe 4407 . ? teist dober cu arad ort / tu labor olcc eltaide edranach, IT iii 104 § 202 . is a.¤ do ghradaigh si sibh she has loved you much, Smaointe B. Chr. 4970 . ag foillsiughadh go ha.¤ showing openly, Donlevy 62.28 . In phrase ós a.¤ : gan feis lé fear ós a.¤ `publicly', Keat. ii 2924 , cf. 1 aird.

II Subst. o

(a) high place, height: etir fán ┐ ardd, Ml. 140a2 . conid Temair a hainm ind aird sin, ZCP viii 313.29 . cit n-é . . . ardae ┐ indbera do-riadhad ? BDD² 456 . rith fri ha.¤ , Tec. Corm. § 21.8 . tar Echtge na n-a.¤ 's na n-áth, ZCP viii 222.8 . triall . . . ó arduibh iarthuir Eireann `hills', Ir. Review 1913, 624 § 16 . bás an daig[h]f[h]ir . . . / do theilg thuinn a n-aighidh aird, Bard. Synt. Tr. 24.28 . gan leath-trom learg d'fhán nó d'a.¤ (: bard), DDána 119.18 . eirnithe cach na.¤ (of a wound. Cf. cnocbéim), BCrólige 64 . ní léimid na héisc le hárdaibh eas, Hackett xv 12 . mar do ghabh sruth Iordan . . . a n-aghaidh áird i.e. flowed backwards, up-stream? Eochairsg. 66.2 (cf. Joshua iii 16 ). Frequ. in nn. loc: Ard nGabla, Metr. Dinds. i 40.29 . Ard n-Umai, RC xvi 79.20 . For further exx. see Hog. Onom.

(b) Of persons: isel fri art `lowly towards the high' (proud ?), Thes. ii 235.15 . in t-a.¤ . . . Ailill na n-áth, LL 4207 . tú in t-a.¤ ós gach iomaire, O'R. Poems 26 . a n-aird ┐ a n-airdirc, CCath. 4409 . ? ní cria . . . di ardd (di aird v.l.) `do not buy . . . from a superior', Tec. Corm. § 19.7 . art fine, one of the titles of the head of the `fine' (`den aus der oder über die `fine' Hervorragenden', Thurn., Mélanges ... à H. Pedersen 302 . In this phrase always with final -t. Cf. 1 art etc.): a.¤ uasal, unde dicitur a.¤ fine, Corm. Y 26 . in t-a.¤ fine .i. inti is airdi don fine, O'Dav. 486 . dia mbe a.¤ fine ar aird . . . is a.¤ fine icus, Laws v 224.14 Comm. dia tisad a.¤ fine fae, 13 Comm.

(c) Various: is caín cech a.¤ , LU 3915 ( SCC 43 ). a.¤ n-athe (of a king), ZCP viii 108.6 . tomus fri arddu (a sign of bad pleading), LL 345e14 ( Tec. Corm. § 22 n.12 ). ní guais áidh . . . / do bheanfodh dhe dol ar a.¤ (: Tadhg) `from growing to be great', O'Hara 4400 . In phrase a.¤ i n-a.¤ fri see 1 aird.

(d) Metrical term for a final rhyming or consonating syllable in the metre rinnard , see RC vi 273 , 298 ; vii 87 ff. ; Murphy Metrics 28 , 35 . rindaird dá n-a.¤, rinnaird tri n-a.¤, rinnaird iiii n-a.¤ , Fél. 4.z ., IT iii 137 . fil and mór nard ṅáille (of the metre of the Fél.), Fél. Ep. 83 . In compd. ¤-breccad internal assonance, IT iii 87 § 95 .

Compds. Used with nouns, adjj. and verbs. Besides its use in literal sense often indicates pre-eminence in rank or excellency over others of the same designation e.g. ardrí over-king (see ). ardḟlaith (flaith. ardlathi ` chief princes ', Wb. 1a3 ). ardap (ap) chief abbot (of the a. of Clonmacnoise, RC xviii 287.15 Tig.). ardepscop (epscop) archbishop . ardṡuí (suí) chief sage. ardáenach (óenach, of Taillte, Keat. ii 3851 ). ardídal ( ídal. á. na Héirenn .i. Cenn Crúaich, Trip.² 1005 ). Cf. ardchaerich adobcomnaicsi, ardlias duib, lias bec anisiu, caerig beca ann you are important sheep and have a great fold; this is a small fold with small sheep in it, Anecd. i 41.25 . Frequ. a mere intensive or alliterative prefix adding little to the meaning. A representative selection is given below. Some compds. have been included above to illustrate meanings.

(a) With nouns. ¤-aicned haughtiness: nír dhénta uaill na ardaignedh, Études Celt. i 85.28 . ¤-ammus judgement, estimate (interchanges with airdmes), O'Curry 1063 ( H 3.18, 439a ) = airdmes, O'D. 1629 (H. 5.15, 16b). O'D. 542 ( H 3.17, 434 ). O'Curry 2578 ( Eg. 88, 49(50)a ). ¤-broenud gl. imber, Metr. Gl. 5.2 , RC xx 276.23 (ACC). ¤-chell chief church: na tri haird-cealla (Maedóc's settlements), BNnÉ 260 § 220 . ? ¤-chellach incumbent of an ardchell(?): Adamnan ardcellach, Flower Cat. 490.30 . ¤-chend, as adj. having a lofty head: ech . . . ardchend, LU 8661 ( FB 49 ). da ech . . . ardchind, 8592 (ib. 45 ). for echaib ardchendaib, Alex. 253 . a Brain ardchind, LL 306a7 . As subst. a. iarthair Eorpa ar . . . ecna, AFM ii 838.2 . Moling 50 . ¤chless juggling in the air: ardchless co n-ublaib 'juggling in the air with balls' Celtica viii 149 (Mellbretha) . ¤-chustal: a. ┐ drochgné fair, LU 10829 `his loins girt(?)', Ériu xii 178 § 9 (TE). ¤-chor: ardchur ag an bpríomháid air while the primate had authority over him, Keat. iii 303 . árdchor aige ar na Scotaibh he had supremacy over the Scots, i 14.16. ¤-gabáil: gabaid a lēnid i n-ardgabāil `tucked up his shirt', MacCongl. 9.25 . in ardgabail-sea doníat in cuanairt . . . `high-catching', Acall. 7385 . claideb . . . i n-a. gaili fora chris raised, uplifted (for action), LU 6561 (TBC) = i n-ardgabail churad bar a chlíu, TBC-LL¹ 5340 . So also RC xliii 82 § 84 . seol grás uaidhe ar ardghabháil `a sail of graces is hoisted by Him', Aithd. D. 60.5 . do ardgabalaib in domuin chief conquests, ZCP iii 17.2 . ¤-gal: go gclos go nemh an a., Duan. F. i 32.9 . As n.pr. co teach Eachdach meic Ardgail, ZCP viii 219.27 . ¤-gním breast-work, rampart: airdgníma (adhgnímha v.l.) caelaig, CCath. 1394 . ¤-mac : ardmhac oglaig (oppd. to certmac o.), O'Curry 285 (H 3.18, 157) `chief son', Plummer MS notes. crichaireacht ... a taiseach, ┐a n-ard mac n-oglach, ┐ a n-olloman, Iar Conn. 368 (H. 2. 17, 188b). ¤-menma: dimus ┐a. arrogance, CCath. 3868 . ¤-mess: nir nanacht airdmes roclos / no chairdes no condolbos great esteem did not save him, SR 3135 . tria na n-a. ra halta / a cairdes bud ceṅgalta, LL 7134 . ¤-nemed: atnaig tar fót crúach i n-a. di[a] díte he conveys him over the bloody ground into full sanctuary for his protection, Críth G. 54 . ¤-nert superior power: ardneart Muman do gabail dó, AFM ii 1098.8 . ¤-nós: alladh ┐ ardnos, AFM vi 2368.4 . As n.pr. Grigair mac Ardnōis, ZCP viii 114.25 . ¤-phersa : techtiri ártphersine gl. Christi apostoli, Wb. 24d9 . ¤-radarc : ed ardradairc . . . úan fa deas atá `of a great prospect', Ériu iv 142.16 . gurab eissan ardriaghlaightheoir nimhe & talmhan e, Adtimchiol 27b11 . ¤ríge high kingship : debthaig immonn-ardríge, SR 6538 . ¤-scél : innisim dó mh'airdsgēla great news, ZCP viii 220.40 . ¤-ṡreb : ō chéibh īochtuir airdshreibhi, O'R. Poems 204 . ¤taoiseach 'haut chef' Études Celt. xii 514 . ¤-thuile : abann ard-tuile in full spate, BNnÉ 108 § 33 .

(b) With adjj. ¤-aicentach: do bhádar árdaigeantach haughty, Ezekiel xvi 50 . ¤érmach, éirmech: an agh fholuaimneach ard-érmeach, Acall. (Leabh. ó Laimhsgr.) ii 27.22 . ¤-mór : esculus . . . .i. fid arddmár `a very high tree', Sg. 53a7 . ar muraib ardmoraib an baili, TTebe 4453 . trí chert Amairgen ardmóir, LL 1762 . ¤-menmnach : airecht . . . a. high-spirited, CCath. 5362 . ¤-medrach sportive (of a wave), ML 94.16 . ¤-mín : a ingenraid n-a. tall and gentle, LU 3601 ( SCC 30 ). óclach seta fata . . . n-a., LL 11793 . ¤-réil : co sleib n-Ailp n-a. lofty and bright, Rawl. 78b35 . ¤-úallach high and haughty. As n.pr. a. ingen Ḟind, Acall. 6453 . ¤-úasal : a ardrí . . . a., MU² 834 . cech etha ardūasail imbeth, ZCP xi 92 § 19 .

(c) With vbs. ¤-chuirid : d'ardchuir m'atuirse which increased my sadness, Hackett xii 29 . ¤-ḟodlaid : maith fáth ro hardfódlad de was nobly divided(?), LB 185a21 . ¤-gaibid : ro ardgaib Assal, Fen. 342.20 . ¤-légaid : airdleghais B. . . . an leabar ngreccda read aloud, BNnÉ 84 § 169 (cf. ar-léga). ¤-lesaigid ir: ro hoiled ┐ ro hardleasaidhedh í (of Mary), Ev.Inf. (LFF) 171 § 24 . ró hoiled ┐ rohardleasáigiodh iad educated to a high standard, RC xiv 28 § 6 . ¤-mesaid : ar a eól is ardmesta `for his knowledge he deserves high esteem', Metr. Dinds. iii 438.8 . ¤-rígaid: airdrīghaigh rí, ZCP viii 205.4 . ¤-thidlaicid: ro edhbair ┐ ro ardthiodhlaic he nobly bestowed, Anecd. iii 6. x .

bliadain

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bliadain or dil.ie/6133

Forms: blédin, -blédni, blédne, blíadhain, bliadna, ṁblíadnae

n ī, f. See GOI §§ 293 , 294 . n s. blédin, Imr. Brain 62. n pl. -blédni, ib. g pl. blédne (bliadna, v.l.), 55 . blíadhain, f., IGT Decl. § 10.

Year: annus .i. bliadain, O'Mulc. 845. hi cinn bliadna, Laws i 28.29 Comm. co cend .ix. ṁbliadan .i. nói mis fá noí (`the [native ?] year has nine months,' Contribb. 228 ), LL 319b3 . isin bliadin sin hi cuiretar salt gl. eo anno, Thes. ii 18.34 (BCr.). hi cach óenbliadin gl. annuatim, 27.38 (ibid.). ar ni tosceli argumint acht bliadni sláin `a whole year' (`was `b. slán' a technical term for a year without inter- calation ?' edd.), 18.32 (ibid.). o thosuch bliadne egiptacdae, 18.38 (ibid.). co cenn ṁbliadne `till the end of the year', 36.29 (Vienna Beda). coic bliadnai deac do tórmuch for saigul Ezechiae, Ml. 43d27 . teora bliadni frithriagla gl. anni tres `three irregular years', Thes. ii 17.35 (BCr.). tri fichtea bliadne , 238.17 (Ardm.). di bliadin re mbas dáu, 18 . maccān sē ṁblíadnae déac, 308.17 (Hy. ii). .lx. bliadan robo lan do P., 313.6 . bó cona timthuch cech 'la blíadnai . . . . colp[d]ach ḟirenn lee in mblíadnai (bliadain, MSS.) n-aili, Críth G. 266 , 267 . áes cetheora mblíadnae ndeec, 34 . dlom cóic ar thrib cóectaib / blíadnae, Fél. Aug. 7. ina .vii.-mad blīadain . . . intan ata lāna a .vii. mblīadna dēcc, TBC-I¹ 731 . cinn bliadna at the end of a year, Sc.M² 2. bliadain on ló cu céle, IT i 129 § 17 (TE Eg.). ó'n chind bliadna c'a chéile, CRR 11. Lagin oco dēnam bliadain lāin for a full year, Fing. R. 418. airthend da blíadan do thabairt dia n-echaib two years' (supply) of grass fodder, LU 8834 ( FB 63 ). tri míle bliadan . . . / da bliadain coicat noi cét, / co gein Meic Maire . . . o thús domain, LL 15424 - 5 ( Trip. 530 § 5 ). co bliadain ṁbáin / sechtmaide uate enair, 15430 (§ 6). in chet bliadhain iar n-gabail righe d'E., IT i 118 § 2 (TE Eg.). sé mis ┐ secht ṁbliadné (: ṅglé), SR 6564. cech lathi is cech bliadain, MacCarthy 60.6 . cethri cóic bliadna (fichi bliadan, v.l.), 212.1 . co cend teora mbliadan, PH 6628. da bliadain ria cessad Crist, 218 . di bliadain cóicat for cét, 1065 . bliadna robai-sium 'na mnai `for a year', TTebe 1625 . dobhí 'na fochair ris an mbliadain sin `during that year', RC xxix 138 § 57. isin cethramadh bliadhain do flaithus Laegaire, Laws i 4.18 . mucu gu secht mbliadnu fichet `to twenty-seven years', v 220.13 . gur caitheadh an bhliadhain-sin, DDána 120.21 . fiche bhliadhuin, O'Hara 331. ar fheadh dá fhichead bliadhan (: sgol), 430 . dá chéad bliaghoin (:iarruidh), 2246 . blíadhna do sháoghail = the years of thy life, Proverbs iv 10. ar feadh bliadhna, TSh. 385. táim a n-acharan daingion na mbliadhanta, ZCP v 212. 310 (Midn. Court). ? fuil carpait for bliadain (one of seven special cases of `bloodshed'), Laws v 362.17 .

In phrases: aṁbliadna is lé tuidecht d'indsaigi in tṡída so this year, Acall. 7206 = a mbliadna, SG 223.24 . anuraidh . . . i mbliadhna, O'Rah. 218.x. día bliadna `on that day year', Mon. Tall. 149.16 . ticed dia bliadna co Herind im degaid mad ail di a year from today, LU 10453 (Tochmarc Emire). oenach dogníthe la Ultu cecha bliadna every year, LU 3222 ( SCC 1 ). Lugnassad, luaid a hada / cecha bliadna ceinmara, Hib. Min. 49.12 . gacha bliadna, Ériu iii 150 § 1.

Attrib. g s. mac bliadna a year-old child, LU 9072 ( FB 82 ); mar chuimhniughadh bliadhna `yearly commemoration', Keat. i 220.13 . seirc ṁblíadnae ( a s.), Fraech 300 .

See bisech.

1 cenn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cenn or dil.ie/8622
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: cend, ch., cenna, ciunn, cinn, cenda, cinnu, cind, cind, cinnu, cionn, ceann, cionn, cionn, ceinn

n o, n., later m. n p. cend, LU 9385 . ? a p. ch.¤ , Sg. 54a11 . n a p. usually cenna. On d s. ciunn, cinn see GOI 177 . For masc. infl. in pl. cf. a p. cenda, TBC-I¹ 483 = cinnu, LU 4970 . n p. cind, FA 22 LB. cind `chiefs', Laws v 440.23 . a p. cinnu, LL 8132 . In later lang. both cionn (O. Ir. ciunn) and ceann occur in d s. (see Donl., Párl. na mB.), the former mainly in fixed prepositional expressions (ós cionn , etc.). a s. cionn, Beatha S. F. 2567 . g s. ceinn, Párl. na mB. 535 , n p. Keat. i 196.15 . IGT Decl. § 65 .

Note also: for ar ceinn, Vita Br. 24 . in ch.¤ cleasach . . . Tesifóne, MR 168.6 . iar ndenamh creiche chinne maghair (n. loc.), AFM iv 1356.6 .

I The human head, head of an animal .

1 cend a uerbo graeco .i. gennome (γίνομαι) .i. nascor, O'Mulc. 217 . donchind gl. capiti, Gild. Lor. 102 . du-uic in foiltne i ndiad in chínn, Ml. 84c24 . mani roima fora c.¤ ní mema forsna bullu, 89c11 . beim a cinn fri cloich, 139c3 . ammi corp do Crist et is c.¤ som duunni, Wb. 5d2 . airmitiu féid in chinn, 7d14 . cen chaille fora ciunn, 11c9 . in boill dó ass ón chiunn, 22a17 . adart foch., Sg. 198a10 . dim chinn, Blathm. 95 § 17 . oc folcad chinn a athar, Vita Br. 15 . airecc cinn Iohannis, Fél. Feb. 27 . contt cēill ciunn curp in sense, reason, head and body , ZCP vi 258.10 . rochromsat a ccinnu, ZCP xiv 234.5 . imruidbed mo tenga as mo chind, Ériu ii 102 § 9 . madit a shuili inna cinn, 122 § 61 . amhuil chinn ina bhalluibh, Luc. Fid. 3454 . Of a head of hair: ceinn-fhionna (sic) do bhíodh ar fhearaibh Éireann re n-a linn `white heads', Keat. i 196.15 (see cenann).

2 In phrase with follg. gen. forming n. pr.: Coirpri Cind cait Cathead , Cóir Anm. 241 . C.¤ Fáelad Wolfhead , see Corp. Gen. 541 - 2 . Cend Ghegain, IT iii 101 § 183 . Finguine mac Laeghaire Cenngégain, Cog. 18 (see also s.v. cinnchucán). Eochaidh cendmhairc Horsehead , Miscell. Celt. Soc. 6.8 . da ingin dec ailella cind nathrach Snakehead , Rawl. 134b18 .

3 Of the head cut off in battle: fris-cithsead far cenna díb, BDD² 869 . tri laíchcind . . . im chend do chétmeic, LL 13149 (Sc.M2). co fargaibhset xl c.¤ lais, AFM i 498.2 . So in phr. ár c.¤ = ár: co fargaibset ár cend aicce, LL 2536 . cor' ben a ngabala dib ┐ ár cend leo, RC xvii 354.4 .

4 Attrib. g s.: na heónu / cosna ceólu cinn-sin (sic leg.) shrill notes, Metr. Dinds. iv 214.68 . Cf. gotha cinn . . . ag báinealtoin, Ir. Syll. Poetry 71 § 5 . See Études Celt. iv 397 . iter chosa cinn ┐ cos[a] tóna front legs , Thr. Ir. Gl. 26 . nocha bán-bhéim acht cneadh chinn head-wound, serious wound , Miscell. Celt. Soc. 162.9 . ? secht ccumala cinn, Ériu xiii 22.24 . gilla cinn eich gl. auriga, Ir. Gl. 17 . laicce chinn, RSClára 4a . go mbeith rith chinn ré fānaidh aco ar gach n-aon eile would completely outdistance, would utterly rout(?), Párl. na mB. 99 .

Vendryes, Études Celt. iv 397 , cites BDD² 886 and We. parallels in support of a meaning mouth.

5 In various idiomatic phrases: ro héige in ben nert a cind at the top of her voice, SR 3215 . conā fāgad inad a chind for bith that he might find no abiding-place, TBC-I¹ 2214 . o cionn co fonn from tip to toe, Blathm. 152 . nom-loiscc eter chend is choiss completely , Ériu vii 223 § 34 . dia cennaib ┐ cosaib utterly, entirely , LB 115b42 . bein cinn fri hald `striking a head against a cliff' (of wasted labour), RC xii 96 § 127 . co ro benad a tech dia chind `unroofed his house', RC xxiv 46 § 4 . roloiscedh . . . a ndúin . . . ina cendaibh, Ériu v 158.215 . a ndiaidh a gcinn headlong , Donlevy xviii 25 . an ceann fá dhruim head first (coffin lowered into grave), Dán Dé xxix 7 . co mbiat cend ar díb cendaib (of a fierce battle), TTr.² 907 . ar ba `c.¤ i mbolg' . . . do ṡil Adhuimh were in complete ignorance, Ériu ii 98 § 1 = ba-c.¤ a-coim, RC xxiv 369.6 , cf. Études Celt. vi 201 . cend i cotlud a peaceful death(?), Ériu ii 118 § 54 . ? ní bheinn teann ar chlíabh a cill / sní bhíadh mo cheann a cuigind, IGT Decl. ex. 1400 . c.¤ a ngabal `head in fork' (bad behaviour in a horse), Laws iii 180.18 Comm. c.¤ i láp see láp. c.¤ i, fo muine see 1 muine. ? fír, ol Óengus, Fergas cend fo raithin, Trip.² 1495 .

6 Of a single animal, etc.: do mac Loigsiu pa mōr ngō / ar in āincend an cēt mbō, ACL iii 2.12 . Note also: aon bhuaidhreadh amháin . . . an dara ceann, De Imit. 29.23 . ? robii cosnom im oenchend `there may be strife about one head' (Faraday), TBC-I¹ 1730 .

7 Various: ceann cait owl , Párl. na mB. 1452 . go dul tar ceannaibh cuan, Measgra D. 48.8 ` billow, breaker ', Gloss.

8 In various idioms with prec. vb.: ni mo tarrthus cend furre no forin gaeth `it was no more possible to get hold of her than of the wind', Aen. 649 . do-fócaib c.¤ appears see do-fócaib (D 269.36 ff.). ? immicurtis iarum cenna sechaiseom darsi ṅGairb sair ┐ siar eter Laigniu ┐ Ossairge, LL 36728 . tug a ch.¤ a n-inisle iomagallaimhe orra `entered into converse', ITS v 112.17 . no indsaiged in Troianda . . . congebead cend in Grecdai ┐ no indsaiged in Grecda . . . co ngebid cend in Tr. ┐ combdis cind ar cind, BB 435b22 .

9 Of buildings roof: ni rabi cenn for tempul Fidnacha in tan-sin, Ann. Conn. 1244.5 . c.¤ co claradh oir for tor dibh, Marco P. 117 . c.¤ Frangcach `a ribbed vault, a groined roof ' (Meyer Contribb.), AU iii 161.8 . don chend luaidhe boí for tempall an bhaile, AFM vi 1956.16 . Note also: roclúdadh na lestra fóa ccennuibh covers, tops , Ériu xiii 24.22 .

II End, end-point, termination.

10 In concrete applications: c.¤ cridi gl. uiscus, uisceris, Sg. 111b5 . nóe cend nine tips(?), LU 9835 . achind dochnama, IT iii 103.19 . a-cinn a-cruibh, RC xxiv 377.1 , .3 . cennæ na ngái, Liad. and Cuir. 12.9 . ceand muilind `the head of a mill', Ériu xvii 70 § 12 gl. 3 ( Laws iv 214.29 Comm. ). laim re ceand in droichid, Ériu xvii 72 § 13 gl. 10 . comrad chindcherchailli, TBC-LL¹ 3 . mó ná cliab co cendaib dés ` sheaves ', Metr. Dinds. iv 138.81 . do bhalad cinn én coinnle, RC xxiv 383.33 . dealg do chennaib óigsgech, IGT Decl. ex. 1082 . Metr. aisde cind tṡinte, IGT Metr. Faults §§ 48 , 49 . co casbairn chinn truim, Decl.ex. 623 (see cenntromm).

11 Of territories: a tá isin chionnsa thes (of a hill), SG 118.10 . isin c.¤ ba nesa dó don tír, AFM vi 2056.19 . i cind Maige Dála at the end of Magh Dala, Ériu i 132.74 . Of journeys: a gceann uidhe their objective, O'Hara 1241 . ceann bhar gcoimhleanga, DDána 74.56 . is iomdha slighe . . . / 's a ceann go magh nimh a-nonn, Dán Dé xxiii 4 .

12 Abstract applications: ceann m'aradhna ná léig lim let me not hold mine own bridle, IGT Decl. ex. 311 . sa chionn cunntuis in the account, Fl. Earls 90.13 . ní ricfa c.¤ scéoil úainne tar tech not a whisper of it will get out of this house, TTr.² 1796 . Of time: ar c.¤ fri c.¤ Enair `our end against the head of January' (i.e. 31 Dec. and 1 Jan.), Fél. Ep. 8 . c.¤ do shaoghail, BNnÉ 293 § 12 v.l. For sa cheann cháol etc. see cáel. do cheann don dáil `what you shall get in this affair', Content. xxvii 15 .

13 Of the end or completion of an affair, etc.: foruirmed c.¤ forsnaib cotarsnaib gl. aduersa nostra . . . constant inpleta, Ml. 74c20 . ni tucthar c.¤ essib gl. genelogís interminatís, Wb. 27d22 . oc tabairt chind for airimmeirt sluaigh ┐ shochaidhi, TTr.² 310 ( LL 400b10 ). cend ┐ forcenn air sin that's enough of that(?), Acall. 5361 . ní bia cend for th'ermitin `there shall be no limit to thy dignity', Celtica iv 16.180 .

III Of persons, chief, head person, leader.

14 Legal: nad cennaib coirib comallat, ZCP xiv 379 § 43 `cond . . . den voll Geschäftsfähigen. Die andern haben einen cond als c. `Haupt' über sich, der sie `unterstüzt', für sie in ihren Sachen spricht, etc. ', 380 . rí bunaid cach cinn, Críth G. 447 `caput, head of family, individual', Vocab. fortét cech c.¤ ba tressa(i) inní bes étressa, 474 . c.¤ caich iar nduinib i fine besid sruithe, ZCP xiv 369 § 31 ( Laws ii 278.21 ). cend cartus a memar a chief who rejects his tenant, Laws v 164.19 Comm. dlegaid cind cuindreach `the chiefs are bound to rectify', 440.23 . cach cind (sic MS) a chonrach, ACL iii 227.31 .

15 In non-legal contexts: cend do ḟeraib Herenn Patraic, Thes. ii 326.32 (Hy. iv gl.). for bélaib a cind ┐ a tigernad, Alex. 274 . M. . . . fa chend ar clēirchib, ZCP viii 120.5 . na cinn clāena cin crābud `the wicked, impious chiefs', Ériu iii 30 § 8 . a cheann féin `his Master', PBocht 11.20 .

16 With follg. noun in gen. indicating category of persons: c.¤ bocht almoner (?), AU ii 32.4 . c.¤ cáid caillech n-Érenn, Fél. Feb. 1 . cend degban is deorad, SG 64.35 . c.¤ fedna see fedan. c.¤ fine head of family or clan: lochdach an Róisdeach achd ón chionn fhine, IGT Decl. 7.14 . da ch.¤ fhine ina ionad, AFM iv 1146.16 . i ndioghail a ccind ḟine, iii 404.z . i ndegaid in chinn manach the abbot, Ériu iii 100 § 25c . c.¤ in réclessa, Ríocht na Midhe viii 15 . c.¤ sluag fer Fáil, Trip.² 1793 v.l. Cf. also: is cend daim for dartoid [.i.] mōrpersan for becphopul, O'Mulc. 753 .

17 With follg. gen. of abstr.: c.¤ athchomairc see athchomarc. ar gceann bāidhei-ne an bhean our chief love (of Mary), Dán Dé ii 29 . cend cathaigthe as chalma ro bai do Leith Mogha battle-leader , RC xviii 11.24 . a Chind, coisc na crích (a chind coisc ?), Ériu vii 221 § 22 . nach ben forsa-mbe c.¤ comuirle (i.e. husband, Thurn.), ZCP xiv 375 § 38 . cend crabaid ermoir Erenn paragon of piety, RC xxvi 362.2 . gan chend cundraid na comairle rempo, LL 12344 (TBC). uair robesin cend gaili . . . sluaig, Cog. 194. 29 . c.¤ ecna . . . iartair domain, CS 320.9 . c.¤ cech erais, Fél. Apr. 23 . in bandea ingen Terrae cend scaílti scél in betha chief disseminator of news, LL 31001 (TTr.). a chend sochair slúaig Ulad chief benefactor, MU² 58 . In follg. perh. headquarters, centre : uail (= bhail) itā ceand in cogaidh, ZCP viii 115.18 . baili i mbai cend ídlachta ┐ druídechta na Héirenn, Trip.² 431 . flaitheas Dé is ceann chomhsanta dhúinne, Eochairsg. 98.25 ( end, goal ?).

IV Used in a wide variety of adverbial and prepositional phrases.

18 cinn at the end of (see 33, 40, 52) (ciunn, cinn, dative without preposition, GOI 537 ): cinn rehe gl. secundum hoc tempus, Wb. 4c11 . cinn blíadnae at the end of a year, Fél. Sept. 17 . cind .ix. mís, LU 1662 . cind in tres laí, 7977 (BDD). cind cethri ndíni `at the end of four genera- tions', Arch. Hib. ii 48 § 1 . cind mile bliadan, Ériu ii 132 § 109 .

19 In phr. cinn chomair: nó huachiunn chomair gl. e rigione `or, from before', Ml. 119a9 (`von dem Anfang der Richtung', Ped. KZ xxxv 435 ). fri re mis cind comar, AU ii 88.x . Usually of place (see 28, 31): cinn chomair gl. contra (solem), BCr. 33c17 . for in phurt cind chomair dó `opposite to him', RC xiv 406.1 ( LL 12675 ). cind comair frissin ṁbeist n-amnais, LL 398b18 = cinnchomair, TTr.² 148 . i cinncomair friu opposite them, CCath. 5561 . ro badhusa cind comraic riusom, Acall. 6795 . Cf. i comair chind airtherthuascertaig, LL 3865 = hi comardus cind, etc., RC xv 283 § 29 .

Usually with prec. prep. In the follg. sections the arrangement is according to the preceding preposition, with which an adverbial in addition to a prepositional phrase is frequently formed. In a number of cases meanings under various prepositions coincide.

With A.

20 In sense of ós ciunn (60): asa chind guarding him, Metr. Dinds. iv 358.94 . ata M. . . . asa mo chind-sa oc fúr m'anma, PH 806 . batar a cind na cathrach who were over the city, 2488 . In diff. sense: as a cheann féin `of his own Head' (of his own accord), Donlevy 330.16 . The follg. are obscure (leg. ar for as in one or more of the exx. ?): cen ascur sáitha asa chiunn `without remission of tribulation from His presence(?)' (in store for him ?), Wb. 25d16 . conid ari rogabad al-lam a pardus dochum gortæ ┐ bochtæ . . . ┐ bais ┐ hifirn asa cind `thenceforth', Ériu vii 164 § 8 . ? gidh bé do cuir asa chionn `it matters not whom he drove from his head' (Notes), Duan. F. i 32.20 . Perh. in literal sense: in t-ēolus-[s]a rádi rimm, / ferr duit nā cloisti as do chínn, ZCP xiii 3 § 2 .

With AR (see also 42).

21 ar chenn with vbs. of motion towards, in the direction of, to meet (see 39, 45): ceni esǽrsitis in choirp ara c.¤ `to meet them', Ml. 15c8 . condaáerset do failti ar ch.¤ a rríg to welcome their King, 46a12 . ara cénn gl. occurrentes, 60d5 . do-luid in biail arithissi ar ch.¤ inna samthige came back to the handle, Tur. 131 . techt ar ch.¤ Crist, Wb. 25d25 . co toracht Emain Macha ar cend Conchobair, LU 8073 ( FB 4 ). ní-s-cuirfind techta ar dho chend-sa, PH 450 . canat biet in alltair / ar ch.¤ clocáin don phroindtig at the sound of the refectory bell, Ériu iii 102 § 28 . gearr go dtiocfa teachtaire / . . . / ar do cheann, DDána 56.1 . docuaidh . . . arcinn na conuire a ticcidh aran sliabh `went to the road', ZCP vi 56.8 . Cf. airg ┐ áird-leasdair . . . do chomdhlúthúghadh ar cheann na céd aimsire do thairrngir D. . . . dhóib `against', ML 6.25 .

22 Of going to meet in battle: ara chend dait a Fergus, LU 6698 . rotbīa F. . . . ar ndul ar c[h]end ind ḟir ucut, TBC-I¹ 1247 (LU).

23 In sense of going or coming for, to fetch someth.: is ar ch.¤ focheda dodechommar `to meet suffering', Wb. 25a12 . tecat ar ch.¤ in chon co sochruid to fetch the hound, Sc.M² 4 . dula uaimm ar do chend-su to fetch you, PH 446 . teacht ar ceand cind duine isinn ārmuig, RC xxiv 58 § 18 . in lind ara tánac c.¤ the water for which thou camest, Ériu iv 106.7 . ? ochd bhféinnidhe as ḟearr a n-ágh / ar ceann t'éindighi d'fúarán, IGT Decl. ex. 1333 . socraiti do dol . . . ar cend artraige dochum Domnaill, Ann. Conn. 1248.5 . Note also: do lleblaing int écne ara chend (ref. to ordnasc f.), TBFr. 208 , cf. Meyer Contribb., Fraech p. 35 .

24 In meanings of tar c.¤ (66-70) (confusion of prepp.): cuirtha cumtaige ara cend `buildings were overthrown', KMMisc. 152.62 . ar cinn a chesta ┐ a caingne, Anecd. i 42.9 . tagra . . . do thagras ar cheann Mumhan on behalf of, Content. xviii 12 .

25 ar chiunn of time in the future, afterwards, later : frisnaccai archiunn gl. ad aliquam rem, Ml. 53b23 . artha ciúnn són gl. in posteram, 132a3 (see note). ar chinn gl. adhuc, Wb. 2a9 . archiunn . . . diéis gl. siue ante seu retro, BCr. 31b4 - 5 . ar oman imtormaich ina pecad ar chiund future sins, Ériu xix 58 § 6 . in maith iar cind future good, LU 9889 (for ar ch.¤ ?). rogabsat flaith ar chiund from then on, ZCP viii 313.21 . doairchaintis . . . anno bíth ar chind dóib, Trip.² 327 . ? mod airchiund di lubair a disposition ready for work(?), Rawl. B 512, 40c (Plummer MS. notes).

26 ar chiunn as quasi-adj. of points of time next, following, ensuing (in later lang. somet. with (i)ar in this use): san aidhchi ar chínd, BB 39b6 . co belltaine ar cind, BColm. 92.2 . an bliadhain ar ccionn, Leb. Gab.(i) 56.4 . isin laithe ar ccind, 146.2 . In later lang. also as prep. with poss. in this sense: go medhōn oidhche buī ar a gcionn, Fl. Earls 8.20 . go Bealltaine ar a gcionn till the following May, Keat. ii 3137 . See 38 .

27 ar chiunn in textual reff. below, in what follows; later, following : forsin canoin ar chiunn `on the following Scripture passage', Ml. 54c34 . trachtad . . . forsa nouit ar chiunn `on nouit that follows', 64a7 . in testimin ar chiunn `the following text', 104b3 . titul in dligid ar chinn, Wb. 10a12 . ata ní ar chiunn, Sg. 39b10 .

28 ar chiunn in front of, before (see 19): córus dúne ríg . . . ar chi[u]nn a thúaithe, Críth G. 566 `vis-à-vis', Vocab. bui siom oc huamim ara cind `before her', Mon. Tall. 149.18 . co nacca ara chind in fer, TBC-I¹ 448 . Cf. muir ara cendaib, in nem huasa ṁbennaib, 3006 . amail nobeith beo ar a chind as if he were alive in front of him, ACL iii 5.5 .

29 ar chiunn awaiting, ready for, in anticipation of (someone or someth. arriving): biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg gl. eliuamini, portae aeternales, Ml. 46a7 . ni farnic-sede nach maid ara chiun isin domun, Wb. 2a21 . ar ar ciunn-[n]i `against our coming', 25a33 . anais ar cionn antsluaigh `waited for', Blathm. 102 § 41 . co fuaratar a cele isind apdaine ara cind `on their arrival', Mon. Tall. 162.30 . aínínbuidh na fuair acht triur ar a chinn thall isin fíne (of a man who has joined or rejoined the tribe from outside), Laws iv 294.26 Comm. ar cinn ṡamraid at the arrival of summer, ZCP vii 310 § 8 . dá rabh a Rí na glóire / . . . / do mhaor ar chionn na coinnmhe / liom if Thy steward receive the company, Dán Dé xiv 11 . ar cinn chamhárach before daybreak, IGT Decl. ex. 1195 . ar cinn in lae, Fier. 135 . With petrified masc. poss.: arna beith ar a chind `in her way', RC xi 452.2 , cf. Meyer Contribb.

30 ar chiunn of time in store for (see 51): a fil ar mo chiunn gl. ad destinatum, Wb. 24a15 . cén bes fine ar a cinn as long as he has descendants, Laws iv 240.19 Comm. a n-airchend fil ar ar cinn the destiny which awaits us, Ériu i 68.12 . fuair Poimp bas ┐ fuair cidh Cesair ara cind afterwards, CCath. 8308 .

31 ci(u)nn ar chi(u)nn face to face, at grips (see 19, 54): atraig cach fer di alailiu . . . co m-bátar cind ar chind is taig, IT i 67 (LMU). fíal tened ┐ fíal d'aigriud . . . cind ar cind, LU 2067 ( FA 14 , cf. RC xxvi 148 § 27 ). inn-uair dobímmis cind ar chind, RC vii 302.1 . as and baoi Laogh ┐ a brathoir ciond ar ciond, ZCP x 295.27 . cind ar cind fri Dunchad, Ériu v 242.153 .

With co.

32 co c.¤ to the end, to completion (see 43): berthi leiss co c.¤ gl. perficiet, Wb. 23a19 . ní dernad in cnocc co c.¤ , Metr. Dinds. iii 44.79 . is co cend in cuidbiud the mockery has come to a head, Ériu i 118 § 10 . Cheville: céim co cend, Metr. Dinds. iv 26.9 .

33 co c.¤ with nouns indicating periods of time till the end of, for the duration of (see 18, 40, 52): co c.¤ blīadne , Thes. ii 319 ( Hy. ii 56 ). co c.¤ cairdi, Críth G. 366 . co cend trédenuis, PH 1859 . go ceann cóig n-aimsear, DDána 6.9 . go ceatra ceand[a] raithi `for four quarter-years', Magauran 804 . Note also: in fer co cind a chéli, MU² 991 `against', Gloss.

With DI and/or DO.

34 di chennaib of poetical composition appar. extemporaneously (see however Thurn. cited below and compare aisnēis do c[h]ennaib a chnāmae, Corm. Y 756 , which may point to a ritualistic procedure of some kind): canad do chennaibh, Ériu xiii 17.5 . ailges do ceanduibh, O'D. 2208 (Nero A vii, 144a). dligedh do feghar saor daor do chennaibh, Ériu xiii 25.30 = fedhair .i. dorenar, ut est dliged dofedhar sóer, dóer dochennaib .i. continuo , O'Dav. 828 . do . . . suid filed for-can di c[h]ennaib `von (seinen Knochen-) Enden', ZCP xvi 175 § 4 ( Laws i 40 , co ndenand rand can smuainedh, 42 Comm. ). is dochennaib . . . ro trial Dallán a duain do denum `extempore', RC xx 122.z (ACC). Also in phr. díchetal di chennaib, see díchetal. cetal do chendaib (a metre), IT iii 61 § 123 . See Ériu xlviii 45 .

35 intan tét a laithe di chiunn `passes away', Ml. 21c3 .

36 di and/or do chiunn in return for, for the sake of, instead of, on condition of, because of, for , etc. (see 68): do chinn a mbíd, SR 3406 . do c[h]inn loghaidh `in return for remission of tribute', Ériu xvii 22 § 16 . dúais do chionn chomáoine a quid pro quo , KMMisc. 346.28 . sgēl do chinn chummaéine, Anecd. i 36.3 . dia chind an tsréin in return for the bridle, BColm. 38 § 40 . nech . . . do cathugud di chend Crist for, PH 789 . do tairgeadh bó aile dí da cind, Imr. Brain 58.30 . berair-siu mac díachinn in its place, Cóir Anm. 133 . do chinn mo claidhem fen instead of my own sword, Fier. 60 . ragtais dia chind i comrac on his behalf, Metr. Dinds. iii 446.88 . do chionn a seachna `on condition of' (notes), Dán Dé x 12 . ró-mhór fuaramar d'a chionn too much we have got from it, Ériu i 96 § 52 . do chionn ubhaill, DDána 26.6 . do chionn an tshaoghail do thréigean through abandoning, Beatha S. F. 748 . dá chionn on that account, TSh. 1942 . do cind ced cennaighechta do denum in order to get leave, ZCP vi 90.15 . ar ngellad a marbtha d'Ulliam Burc do chind luaigi in consideration of, Ann. Conn. 1310.5 .

37 Of soliciting or having intercourse with a woman in spite of or unknown to her husband, etc. (see 70): comrac frim dot chind-so, Fing. R. 114 `in disregard of', Vocab. ben-side Ch. . . . co rustoirrchestar E. do chind a cēile, Corp. Gen. 139.x . a breth di-a chind (another man's wife), PH 833 . luid . . . F. . . . do thochmarc a mnā do chind Oilella, Fianaig. 6.16 . docomraiced-som fria mnaib aili dia cind si in disregard of her, ZCP i 104.10 .

38 Various: cia ruslā dia c[h]ind . . . T. . . . is he rosla(n) dar a chend, ZCP xiii 7.24 . conom thí de chind chúarda till it is my turn(?), LU 6699 ( TBC-I¹ 2158 ). ar chuir dá ceann all he added to it(?) (cf. 48), DDána 91.14 . ó Inid go Cáisg dá gcionn till the following Easter (see 26), Aithd. D. 75.18 . ? nior cuir dha chionn do bhí ag Fionn, Duan. F. i 32.20 .

With FO.

39 fo ch.¤ towards, against, for (see 21, 45): teacht fam cheann `(to) attack me', Content. xviii 1 . éirghid fo cend mo c[h]reiche they go for my booty, ZCP viii 226.22 . Note also: gabh fád cheann mo chonmharccsa `take upon thee my quarrel(?)', Studies 1924, 243 § 12 .

40 Of time within, during (see 18, 33, 52): fo ch.¤ aimsire giorra at the end of a short time, Ériu v 188.456 . fo c.¤ begain aimsiri, Stair Erc. 258 . fo chionn dā lō go n-oidhche, Fl. Earls 10.16 .

41 fo ch.¤ (less freq. chiunn) about, concerning, with regard to, for the sake of, etc. (see 59): ? craed aderum focheann, YBL 149a4 . fuaire a chách a-taoi fám chionn towards me, Dánta Gr. 86.8 . fa a gcionn because of them, DDána 25a1 . déna . . . fá ch.¤ oirbire t'filedh `to thy poet's objurgation make concession', O'Gr. Cat. 402.20 . mar go bhfuair duadh ┐ doghruing fá a ceann `on her account', Keat. ii 2342 . ? alaind a dath / fa ceand na cuach, IGT Metr. Faults§ 68 .

With FOR.

42 for c.¤ , ciunn. Usually = ar ch.¤ , chiunn (21 ff.): an do lotar for cend conaire, Vita Br. 40 `as they were proceeding on their way', Ir. Hist. Stud. i 132 . dochuaid fóncaillid forcend chonnaid for firewood, RC ii 396 § 33 . ro-fhóidestar P. . . . gilla turusa for cend Ísu, PH 2602 . for bar cind, LU 8388 ( FB 26 ). doluid D. for cuinn (leg. ciunn) a sethar do ḟailte frie, Rawl. 134b1 . co tarrla in muir ina clár comréidh . . . for cinn in catha, CCath. 1927 . for a g-ceann awaiting them, ML 44.22 . gusin dia dardaoin buī dō for cionn `until the Thursday following', Fl. Earls 258.4 . Perh. for orig. tar c.¤ (68 ff.) in: du gabail rigi for ch.¤ á athar `in his father's stead', Ml. 44d29 . cach adaltrach do-t[h]et for ceand cetmuintire, Stud. in E. Ir. Law 49 (`in spite of', note p. 50) ( Laws ii 384.1 ). do accallaim Grigair for cend uird ┐ riagla, LU 3095 (fo ch.¤ ?).

With I.

43 beirid, do-beir i cinn finishes, completes (see 32): doberar opair i cind and sain, LL 32264 ( TTr. 1452 ). maine berthar i cinn, 400b18 . ? focal nāchar thuill a gciond (: rinn), ZCP viii 223.x .

44 do-tuit etc. ina ch.¤ falls down, topples (see 67): a toitim ina chend dorisi, TTebe 1669 . ag tuitim ina ccenduibh do bhedis colamhuin . . . na cathrach, Ériu iv 56.18 .

45 i c.¤ in contexts implying motion (us. with prec. vb.) to, in the direction of, towards, against (see 21, 39): na torcair nemh inna ccent `on them', Blathm. 68 . lotir remib hi cend in Brogo, LU 10575 . co torracht C. i c.¤ in droichit cucu, CCath. 1283 . ben sund i cend for máthar, Metr. Dinds. iii 6.55 . dorat . . . / Conall i cend Chonculaind matched C. against C., Metr. Dinds. iii 446.96 . ro cuired cach i ceann araili dona Romanchaib, CCath. 3159 . an uair chuirid i n-a chionn when they oppose him, DDána 96.33 . connsuine . . . do rachadh na cheann, mur atá so: slat ┐ dearg, slaitearg sin which would be assimilated to it, IGT Introd. 10.2 . do tuit an torc a cend a choss fell forward, BCC 324.30 .

46 i c.¤ with prec. vb. of motion and follg. Vn. etc. in g s. implying beginning or undertaking of an action: o dochotar . . . i c.¤ taispenta ind immuin do G., Lib. Hymn. 63.40 . do chuadar i cend a retha took to their heels, MR 318.4 . notheiged-som ┐ a gilla a cend bleogain na bo, Ériu v 34.22 . ná ragaind i ceand catha ina agaid, FDG² 465 . dochuaid i cend in sceoil (d'innisin, v.l.) `she went ahead with the tale', TTebe 1833 . T. . . . do dol a c.¤ oilithri, Ann. Conn. 1307.18 . lotar . . . i cend séta, TBC-LL¹ 451 . Note also: ra érig in fili ┐ do chúaid i n-a cend ┐ issed ro ráid, LL 39018 ( SG 385.34 `went to work'; `came to them', Stokes, RC xiii 107 ).

47 i c.¤, ciunn in addition to (see 63): foghellta ┐ bleth do dul ina ceand `shall be added', Laws iv 130.27 Comm. Matha a cind Crist ro scrib a shoscéla together with, LB 153a64 . ag flaith Li do chím 'na cheann / ní do gach tír 'na thimcheall also, Ériu v 64.15 . a cc.¤ gach sgéil eile dar innis doibh, Rel. Celt. ii 196.32 . a c.¤ a roibhi aigi, ZCP vi 51.10 . na c.¤ sin in addition, Maund. 15 . hi cc.¤ a chéle together, Hugh Roe² 40.13 .

48 cuirid i c.¤ adds to (see 38): cindus do-chuirfed tuilled i n-a chend, PH 7730 . cuir 'na ceand, O'Gr. Cat. 311.9 . teine do cur a ceann teineadh making bad worse, 23 P 10 ³, 15a30 . Note also: ni fuair Fergus ríam ni do cuirfe a cend Modha do marbadh do Dubthach `anything to compare with the slaughter of M. by D.', Celt. Rev. ii 116.x .

49 i c.¤ in preference to: am cheann do chomóradh 'was given preferential treatment over me', Ériu lxiv 162 § 1.7​​​ . S. . . . do chor i tticcernus . . . hi ccend Ch., AFM iii 360.16 . taisech do denam doib do mac M. . . . ina c.¤ , Ann. Conn. 1262.9 .

50 i ciunn at the head of for purpose of leading: m'anam-sa a Dhé mar budh dall / sé 's an chalann-sa 'n-a cionn, Dán Dé xxiii 13 . bi 'n-a cinn = ducas eum, Smaointe B. Chr. 1050 .

51 i ciunn in store for, destined (see 30): a-tá lá cúirte 'n-ar gcionn, DDána 23.29 . a uilc i gcionn gach chiontaigh his wrongdoings await every sinner (for punishment), Dán Dé vii 15 . i gc.¤ gach baíth a baegul, MR 286.21 . go bhfuil an bás . . . i gcionn gach aoin, TSh. 99 .

52 i ciunn of time at the end of (see 18, 33, 40): a cínd da bliadna onaímsir-si two years ago, RC x 186.1 . hi cind tredenais, ACL iii 309.10 . a cc.¤ a fhichet bliadhna da aois in the twentieth year of his age, Rel. Celt. ii 196.7 . a ccionn trí lá, Desid. 6345 .

53 Various: i mbun na gabla ro boí hi ciund tened over against, LU 9194 ( FB 92 ). a cheann i cind tened, ZCP i 464.33 . gach aon a gceann a dhíre ┐ a dhúthchasa féin in possession of, ML 102.14 . mac S. a cind arrad at the head of nobles, Ériu v 244.194 . in cís d'ícc a cind chruid, LB 133b56 `in respect of', Todd Lect. vi 40.6 .

c.¤ i c.¤ (ceann a cceann is an exception to the rule that the same word may not be used more than once in a line, Bard. Synt. Tr. 24.36 ). ? ceann a ceann, .c. o an doilgheas, 55.24 . Also cionn a ccionn (: fionn), 25.1 .

54 c.¤ i c.¤ = ci(u)nn ar chi(u)nn (31): misi do cur c.¤ i cc.¤ / as Cuchulainn, TBC-LL¹ 3151 . cuirid c.¤ hi c.¤ , Fianaig. 60.27 . is and sin . . . do rancadar Leth Cuind ┐ Laigin ceand i cend, RC xxiv 50 § 10 . go g-cómhraiceam ceann a g-ceann, ML 82.25 .

55 c.¤ i c.¤ together; simultaneously : Conchabor, Aedh cend a cend `head to head' (of kings buried together), Ériu ii 166.47 . cia leitir sin c.¤ a c.¤ / dognīad lethfod is lethtenn, ZCP xii 295.8 . nocor thathaigh ceann i c.¤ / na cuic cuicidh na hEirenn, xi 43 § 31 . cred dorad tu c.¤ a c.¤ / a comhaitreab na catcend?, KMMisc. 315.16 . trí Cormaic theas ceann i gceann / im an seang, DDána 91.33 . do dortsed fair cend i cend (of attackers), Ann. Conn. 1405.15 .

56 c.¤ i c.¤ successively (see Aithd. D. Vocab.): gan a ccloistecht cend i ccend / gabhāla airdrīogh [n]Ērenn, ZCP viii 218.30 . fiss gach catha c.¤ a ceand, Anecd. i 29 § 35 . rob ionchuir é, ceann a cceann / is inghean airdrīgh Éireand point by point, KMMisc. 356.7 .

With IMM.

57 is fachain dá gcar um cheann to make them change their attitude(?), DDána 67.4 . (taken by Ed. as i and mo).

58 imm ch.¤ about, around : tarrassaid inn irgal im chend Connacht, LL 12308 (TBC). doiri crannrabhan mad cheann round thee, Magauran 436 . ní ráidhte um cheann gcomhóla during a drinking-bout, O'Hara 146 . radharc um cheann a calaidh `the sight of its shores' (Gloss.), Measgra D. 52.35 .

59 imm ch.¤ about, concerning, with regard to (see 41): rola B. . . . / ilach im cheand Feargaile (perh. in semi-literal sense), RC xxiv 54 § 14 . imcheand cach formaid bai etarru `for all the ill-feeling', Ériu ii 178.16 . an-scél . . . im-c.¤ deilbe . . . in-domain, RC xxiv 369.5 . t'fhearg . . . um cheann do chloinne, DDána 10.22 . um cheann craos-óil in the matter of, TSh. 7446 .

With ós (see 20).

60 ós chiunn (on as cionn beside ós chionn see Desid. p. xxxv ). In more or less literal sense: in tituil robói huas ciunn Crist isin chroich over Christ's head, Ml. 74b1 . ōs chinn sanct-Brigte, Thes. ii 329.2 ( Hy. v 15 ). Over, above: baí . . . ben . . . oc airiuc dont ṡluág os a cind, LL 259b15 . Cuncha cnoc os cind Life, ZCP xi 41 § 1 . nochtais . . . in claidheab os cind na hingeine, RC vi 175.30 . ós chionn mo leabhráin studying, Content. ii 14 . ōs a ch.¤ , Fl. Earls 66.15 .

61 With prec. vb. of motion: tānic . . . ōs ceann N. made for, Celtica i 116.118 . téighim ós chionn a chosnaimh I undertake to defend it, Content. xxi 12 .

62 in control of, in charge of: os chionn Bhanbha, Content. xxx 26 . sdiobhard ós ceann mhórāin maoine, Mac Aingil 568 . ōs cionn in cholāiste, Fl. Earls 68.25 .

63 over and above, in addition to (see 47): ós c.¤ fhichit each, AFM iv 1134.28 . faoi nó ós a chionn `or thereabouts', Corp. Astron. 4.12 . ōs a ch.¤ sin `besides', Fl. Earls 90.15 .

64 Note also: bun ós cionn `upside down', Psalms cxlvi 9 . más bun os cionn atá sé `if he haue any auersion', RSClára 155a . For fuller treatment see 1 bun.

65 With ré: ria cind tri trath in three days, RC xvii 386.2 .

With TAR (see also 24, 42).

66 fo-ceird etc. tar c.¤ (somet. with possess. before c.¤ ) overthrows, upsets, turns upside down : in cor tar c.¤ gl. euersio, Ml. 36d23 . gl. euertando, 72b12 . tochur tar c.¤ , Críth G. 233 . ro lá in slúag . . . tara cend, LU 9760 . fochichret in Trói dar cend, TTr.² 389 . ro-chuir cend dar cend . . . miassa na monotóri, PH 4392 . is e ro-lá dar cend ar forcetul-ne subverted, 1686 . See fo-ceird. Cf. dos-curedar tara cend 'she collapses', CMMucr. 50 § 43 .

67 With do-tuit (see 44): co torchratar . . . dara c.¤ hi suan, ZCP iii 6 § 20 .

68 tar c.¤ on behalf of, for the sake of, in return for, in lieu of, because of, for, etc. (see 36): dufiastar tara c.¤-som `punishment will be inflicted for them', Ml. 27c4 . deich tarm ch.¤ `take vengeance for me', 72d11 . no oircthe . . . tar c.¤ a p[ecthae] ind aile `for its sins', Tur. 110c . taiccéra cách dará chen fessin gl. pro sé, Wb. 6b28 . oc irbáig dar far c.¤-si gl. de uobis, 16d8 . ? mo ort do gabál darm ch.¤ `that my rank should be taken for me', 23b18 . a setig . . . do pennait tar a cend fadesin ┐ dara cendsom on her own behalf and his, Mon. Tall. 163.18 . dar cend na cāna in return for, Cáin Ad. 25 . ciata glinni con-daigi dar cend frithaisceda?, MU² 65 . do foglaim na Tāna rucc in sái rōmānach a hArdmacha dar cend in cuilmin, ACL iii 5.31 . na feicheamna dara tecait cend, Laws iv 60.18 Comm. tarc.¤ gabhála aigi ┐ tacra tar a ch.¤ pleading in his behalf, CCath. 535 . díol tar ceann a chomaoineadh, Content. ix 25 . tar ceann do chloinne, Dán Dé xxviii 29 .

69 in spite of, in violation of; notwithstanding : ba holc lais dith Fergail darceand a shida, RC xxiv 64 § 25 . tar c.¤ Conoill, Duan. F. i 84.8 . tar a cheann sin nevertheless , Desid. 3220 .

70 Of begetting offspring by a woman in spite of or unknown to her husband (see 37): trī meic Medba fri Fergus dar c.¤ nAilella, Corp. Gen. 279.1933 . mac ruc don Dagda . . . / dar cend ḟir na síde, Metr. Dinds. iii 30.75 . is e doroine in toirrcis sin fria dar c.¤ Cathbaid, RC vi 175.51 .

71 As conj. tar c.¤ go notwithstanding the fact that, although : tar ceann go n-abair an Chóir Anmann gur . . . ní mheasaim gurab . . . , Keat. ii 2344 . tar cheann go n-anann tú feadh do bheathadh san olc, Mac Aingil 1040 . tar ceann gur shaoil . . . notwithstanding the fact that, TSh. 541 . tar cheann go bhfuil mórán etc. even though there are . . . , Párl. na mB. 461 .

Compds. (general composition-form in early lang. cenn-. Later also cinn- and ceinn- before palatals).

With nouns.

72 In dvandva-compds. (see Wortk. 130 ): bidh suī lēigind co cendanim head and soul, ACL iii 231.22 . cend-chossach head and feet (of cooked animal), Ériu iv 124 § 2 .

73 With c.¤ qualifying second member: cu nach fácbadh claidem ar cennadairt, Acall. 1632 = SG 129. 29 `pillow' ( -adart, BLism. 212 rb13) . Fig. cennadart fona fertaib inso, Thes. ii 332.27 ( Hy. v 23 gl .). Of a person: O'M. a cceann adhart, Top. Poems 58.18 . oenball dia curp nó da cendagaid `countenance', CCath. 4700 . gráin catha ar mo cheannaghaidh (sic leg.), Content. xxiii 15 . tria cendairde no tria cendísli doníther in taidbhriudh anuasan, O'D. 908 (H. 3.17, 649) = O'Curry 2164 ( Eg. 88, 4(5)d ) (see O'Gr. Cat. 139 ). cennait muilind `the head (site) of a mill', Ériu xvii 76.10 . cennáit `head residence', AFM v 2082.2 . ? Cf. an chríoch nó an cionnaidh is dúthaigh dhó, TSh. 1775 (chianáit, v.l., Gloss.). ar Chrīst ar cennabaid chief lord, ZCP viii 214.6 . do ghabh clogat . . . fa n-a cheann-bhaithios `head', MR xiv 21 . ¤barr see cen(n)barr. ¤bécc see cennbécc. ¤bert see ceinnbeirt. cennbhile oir na n-ardriog (a prince), LL 394.8 . bheith dheit ad chinnbhile ós coill, O'Gr. Cat. 381.22 . súdh ceannbhracha `malt liquor', O'Hara 4076 . in Cennc[h]at[h]ach ina laimh .i. a bachall, Lism. L. 3103 . ¤chléithe = cenn: scothais a chenn clēithi de, ZCP viii 117 § 12 . ní chuirthear ceannchnaipe óir ar phaidrín mhaide, Mac Aingil 1041 `Pater Noster bead(?)', Gloss. lom[r]aid a cendchongraim din mnái headdress, Hib. Min. 77.9 . ceann cosnamach comegin C. `violent groans', MR 260.6 (leg. ¤osnadach ?). for cenn-cumhdach a choroine ` head-covering ', Misc. Hag. Hib. 43 § 62 . capitolauium .i. cenddīunach, Corm. Y 296 . cend-drong filed fó fírda, Metr. Dinds. i 36.93 . inceindetan gl. gigram, Gild. Lor. 82 . donchendfiacail gl. capitali, 134 . ¤ḟochrus see cennḟochrus. cenngalor (in marg. dolor capitis), Wb. 17b25 . Vita Br. 28 . dia ro h-icad don cheann-galar, YBL 174b23 . ? ni tormaig ni fora notrus . . . a cendgelt, Ériu xii 40 § 51 ; 'tonsure' ZCP xlii 48 . caeca echlosc orda co cendimlaib airgid, IT ii2 191.14 (cennpairtib, v.l.) `end knobs'? Plummer MS notes. ¤ísle see cendairde. ¤lá see cennlá. ¤liter capital letter. Usually metaph. of persons and things: cinn-litre ceall `the capitals of the churches', Content. xv 30 , cf. xviii 73 . dún iona cáir cinnlitre, Ériu v 60.4 . ceinnlitir siodha ┐ coccaidh `arbiter', AFM iv 976.3 . snímcha cendmaisse `head- dress', Tec. Corm. xvi 84 . cendmaisse laime glove, Acall. 5971 v.l. ¤míl name of an ornament: coíca acrann . . . co cendmílaib, TBFr. 31 . fuath . . . [na] cendmila tucsat a coscar catha, Aen. 1563 . Of persons: Ísa Críst . . . in cennmíl cumdachta, ZCP viii 204.34 . ní ba cendmíl muinntiri / nech nach fulaing a hécnach, iv 468 § 17 . a fírchlethe a chendmullaig, LU 6475 . brat tlachtgorm corcarrda hi cennfait impe (i.e. thrown over her head?) (cennḟait, MS), TBC-I¹ 2791 . cendpaite imma cenna `fillets', RC ix 484 n.5 . cinnréallna `stars of first magnitude', Ó Bruad. iii 14.7 . cend-róit `highway', CRR 28 . (Auricula Muris) ceinn-sgethrach do ghenam dhe, ┐ glanaidh an inchinn o na salcar, 23 K 42, 367.5 (see sceithrech). fá cheannsmacht, Oss. iv 274.24 . ` paitric' cennsrián, Metr. Gl. 19 `headstall', Plummer MS notes. dotuit ar a cenntruime topheaviness, O'Dav. 200 . cenntruime .i. gin collad, O'Curry 2598 ( Eg. 88, 50(51)d ). cend-urra a slánaigthe `Captain', Heb. ii 10 .

With adjectives.

74 C. chendalaind, ZCP xi 41 § 5 . cendard cassetnach, IT iii 246.80 . dá ech . . . cendbeca, LU 9257 . na dá chendbricc 'the two piebald-headed ones' TBC-LL² 1086 . cnā ceand-buidhi, ZCP v 22 § 16 . tre cnoccuibh corra cenncæla, ZCP vi 290.22 . ic imbirt fidchilli .i. na Cendchaeme (as subst.), LL 8350 (TBC). ingena cendálli cendchassa curly-headed, 31382 (TTr.). do innsaighi cnuic cennchuirr, ZCP vi 60.12 . cendchrom torsech, LL 12064 (TBC). ¤étig freq. as n. pr., see Corp. Gen. etc. trian a scéith chendfhada comdhualaig, ZCP xiii 211.11 . ar coiciud cendḟind Connacht, LL 3224 . See cenann. cheillínill / ceandfolaim, IT iii 92 § 139 . an fer cendgarb, i 273.29 ( FB 40 Eg.). cairrge ceann-gharbha, ML 34.4 . cranngal cheinngér, IGT Decl. ex. 905 . Eoghan an airm cheannghlais, DDána 99.40 . ar taisbenad a craisigi cenn-guirme catha, MR 196.5 . ¤grúcánach see grúcánach. a muinter . . . cendísel Corccaige `hang-head', MacCongl. 29.22 . arocul becc . . . cendisel low-pitched, Todd Lect. vi 42.2 ( LB 134a35 ). laech caem cendlethan, LL 11824 (TBC). cofacca . . . in deilb . . . cennléith, Ériu iv 102.12 . ocbud . . . chendmas, Anecd. i 60.88 . a dhá chraoisigh ceann-reamhra, ML 112.21 . ar ná ba cennscoilte `lest you get your head broken', Tec. Corm. 38.26 . Cuirrín Cheannsholuis, ML 32.18 . dia sephaind céis cenntoll céol, ZCP iii 7.2 . ¤tromm see cenntromm.

Rarely with verbs:

75 ceannlasfaidh a cró coirrshleagh (of warriors), Aithd. D. 16.28 . gu cennlúbdais na clocha na caolsoighdi the stones turned the points of the arrows, Caithr. Thoirdh. 113.6 .

Freq. as second element in compds.

76 See GOI 219 (nochtchenn, ardchenn). Freq. in this use in form -genn, see GOI 87 , O'Rahilly, Ériu xiii 140 . See cloicenn, cromcenn, corrcenn, 1 dícenn, táilgenn, tollcend (1 toll). Note further: crothid conchend catha ceirp, LU 3629 ( SCC 31 , see note in SC2). teiti tair fo thalmain trell / i nEgiptacthaib láncend (the Nile), LL 16325 . m. Fiachach Uanchind, Corp. Gen. 88.7 . Baccan mac Brain meic Eircc hUbulchind, Rawl. 126b43 .

77 Very freq. in nn. loc., see Hog. Onom.

do-cuirethar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-cuirethar or dil.ie/17442
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: tochraid, dorala, tarla, tachraid, tochur, tachar, docuire, ducuiredar, du-nd-chuirethar, dochuirethar, docorethar, docuiretar, dochuiret, tochre, tocraid, corathar, -tochrathar, -tochra, dochora, rathochra, -dochrat, tochorad, docorad, nothachrad, -tochratis, ducorastar, dochorastár, tochrastar, rothocair, tochuir, tachair, tochratar, tochradar, tochar, tochuirther, dofocuirther, docuirither, tochradar, docuirter, docuired, tochrad, tuichred, ndichret, tuichret, dofóichred, toichred, docuirfed, tochērat, doceradh, tacerad, dofoicherthar, dindrala, torala, tairle, tarlam, doralus, darolus, tarlus, torlus, tairlius, doralais, fris-tarlais, dusrale, toralae, con-darraile, dorala, tarla, tarlathar, daralsat, doralaighset, doralatar, tarlatar, doralad, duralad, ceta-tarlad, do-t-ralaid, tarlaid, dutárlid, doralta, docuiriur, tochuiriur, tochuirim, docuirethar, dochoirethar, docuiredar, tocuiredar, tócurid, tócuired, tocuirid, docuirifar, dorochurestar, dorochuiristar, rothochurestar, ro-s-tochuir, rothochuir, dorochuirsemmar, rom-tochuirseat, dofocuirther, tocuirfiter, tochuiribthe, tocuiredh, tochuired, rodocuirit, tochur, tochuired, tocuread, do-m-cuirethar, dorala, doscuirither, con-tachrad, tocraid, dorala, dorala, tarla

(* to-cuir-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 501 ), in O.Ir. a deponent vb. used in the senses (1) puts and (2) invites . For the development of meaning (2) see Gaidoz, RC xxiii 91 . In O.Ir. (1) occurs chiefly in 3 s. , often in impers. construction; in subj. and pret. the root la- is used side by side with cuir- and the fut. is supplied by *to-(fo)cherr- (cf. 1 cuirid); in (2) all forms are supplied by *to-cuir-. In later Mid.Ir. *to-cuir- comes to be represented by tochraid (tachraid), treated as a simple vb. and often forming an ē-fut. (see TBC-LL¹ 5707 , Cog. 225.18 = LL 309b3 , Acall. 1137 , Aen. 290 ), while dorala or tarla (the former of which survives as late as the 17th cent.) exists independently in the sense met, happened . The form tachraid may be regarded as a lineal descendant of do-cuirethar, dochuir[id], -tochraid rather than as a distinct denom. vb. formed from the vn. tochur, tachar, the syncopated form (common already in Mid. Ir.) being probably due to the need for distinguishing it from tochuirid invites, in which syncope does not as a rule occur. See GOI § 762 . IGT Verbs § 95 .

Forms.

I In sense puts

(a) Forms from *to-cuir-: Indic. pres. 2 s. docuire, Corm. s.v. taurthait . 3 s. ducuiredar, Thes. ii 19.36 . du-nd-chuirethar, Ml. 35d22 . dochuirethar, BDD 71 . docorethar, 106 . 3 pl. docuiretar, Fianaig. 84 . dochuiret, Metr. Dinds. iii 292 . Ipv. 2 s. tochre, LU 10881 . 2 pl. tocraid, 1486 . Subj. pres. 3 s. do corathar , O'Curry 1999 ( H 4.22 29 ). -tochrathar, Críth G. 418 . -tochra, O'D. 739 ( H 3.17 ( H 3.17, 537 ). dochora, LL 146b . co rathochra , Triads 117 . 3 pl. -dochrat, MacCongl. 99.4 . Impf. 3 s. tochorad, Ml. 44a19 . docorad, BDD 54 . nothachrad, TBC-LL¹ 1180 . 3 pl. -tochratis, RC ix 468.6 . Pret. 3 s. ducorastar, Ml. 52 . dochorastár, LU 5366 (TBC). co tochrastar , IT ii1 184 . rothocair, Metr. Dinds. iii 234 . tochuir, tachair. 3 pl. tochratar, LL 293b25 . tochradar, BB 33b22 , etc. Pass. pres. s. fora tochar (= tocharr, an archaic form), Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485 ). tarsa tochuirther , Ml. 22c1 . cf. 80b7 and dofocuirther, 18c10 ( Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 301 ). docuirither, Laws i 170 Comm. Ériu ii 120 § 58 , etc. forsa tochradar , BB 330b22 . pl. docuirter, Anecd. v 24 n. 25 . Pass. pret. docuired, PH 7767 . Imr. Brain i 88 . co tochrad , MacCongl. 37.4 .

(b) Forms from to-(fo-)cherr-: Fut. 3 s. ? in (ní?) tuichred , BB 298a24 ( IT iii 15 ). 3 pl. co ndichret , Ml. 44a16 . ? ni tuichret , IT iii 15.4 . Condit. 3 s. dofóichred, Sg. 130b2 . toichred, ZCP i 66 § 113 . Later formations from *to-cuir-: docuirfed, Lec. 458c7 ; tochērat, TBC-LL¹ 5707 , etc. Cf. doceradh, BB 298a25 = tacerad, IT iii 15 (H)?). Pass. fut. dofoicherthar, BDD § 81 .

(c) Forms from *to-ro-la-: Subj. pres. 2 s. dindrala (= dia ndrala?), Bvi 74 ( Thes. ii 37 ). 3 s. torala, Ml. 43b15 . tairle, Ériu iv 24 ( LL 106a ). 1 pl. co tarlam , Fél. Prol. 319 v.l. Perf. 1 s. doralus, Fél. Prol. 15 . darolus, ZCP iv 44.12 . tarlus, LU 3863 ( SCC § 38 ). torlus, SR 1872 . ? tairlius, BS 48.24 . 2 s. doralais, Alex. 946 . fris-tarlais, ZCP iii 206 . 3 s. dusrale, Ml. 23c16 . co toralae , Corm. Y 698 . con-darraile, LL 272b21 . Mid. Ir. dorala, tarla; tarlathar, TBC-LL¹ 2069 . 3 pl. daralsat, LL 169a15 . Cf. doralaighset (they) happened to be, Fl. Earls 188 . doralatar, tarlatar, PH, etc. Pass. perf. s. doralad, Wb. 13d8 , Ml. 14b12 . duralad, 67d9 . ceta-tarlad, LL 515 . do-t-ralaid, SR 1307 . ni tarlaid , 3668 . ? dutárlid, LU 10938 (perh. fr. *to-ad-ro-luid). pl. doralta, Ériu ii 106 § 19 .

II In sense invites. Indic. pres. 1 s. docuiriur, Sg. 16b8 . tochuiriur, Thes. ii 357.1 . tochuirim, Corm. Y 77 . 3 s. docuirethar, Sg. 61a7 . dochoirethar, Ml. 29b1 . docuiredar, tocuiredar, ZCP xii 364 . tócurid, FA § 1 . Ipv. 3 s. tócuired, PH 5829 . 2 pl. tocuirid, 5614 . Fut. 1 s. docuirifar, Ml. 3a1 . Perf. 3 s. dorochurestar, Ml. 16c6 . dorochuiristar, 25c13 . ní rothochurestar , 18d16 . ro-s-tochuir, Leb. Gab.(i) 234 . rothochuir, PH 4413 . 1 pl. dorochuirsemmar, Sg. 6b18 . 3 pl. rom-tochuirseat, CCath. 983 . Pass. pres. s. dofocuirther, Ml. 18c10 (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 501 ). Fut. pl. tocuirfiter, PH 4346 . Condit. s. ni tochuiribthe , Ml. 128a2 . Pret. co tocuiredh , BB 10a4 , tochuired; rodocuirit (= rotochuiritt), Cog. 74.8 .

Vn. tochur, tochuired.

I As trans. vb. in personal construction

(a) puts, deposits, places , often used as synonym of do-cuirethar or do-beir: is tre ḟír flathemon docuiredar ildelba muir the sea casts up creatures of divers form, ZCP xi 82 = is tré ḟír flatha ildelba il-míli . . . for tráchtaib téchtaib tochratar are deposited (cast up) on shores, LL 293b25 . di[a] ndrala huait if thou put from thee (gl. tolle), Thes. ii 37 . inna hí batar buthi ar thuus, dusrale fodiad he put them last, Ml. 23c16 . is hed doralad hi tossuch, Wb. 13d8 , cf. Ml. 14b12 . in tascair docuirither do tuinn which is deposited by a wave, Laws i 170 Comm. , cf. iv 194 . nech tarsa tochuirther sciath over whom a shield is placed, Ml. 22c1 . ro-tarlait a teinti their fires were placed (i.e. built up), Mer. Uil. 17 . torala Dia ar chēill do degnimu-su may God bring to mind gl. revocetur, Ml. 43b14 . doralus ar m'airi | gréschi occa nguidi, Fél. Prol. 15 . ó doralaim ar m'aire . . . lecca huara (pres. formation based on perf.), AU 877 (poem). tachraid for cēill dāib . . . senscēlai bar muinntire call to mind the traditions of your people, Alex. 191 . Cf. Ériu ii 136 : ar cid aingil nimhe, rosbi crith ┐ uamun intan forathmentar ┐ docuredar ar cēill (leg. forathmenatar ┐ docuretar . . . when they remember and call to mind). dochurusdar Cond an macamh ar comairci Airt placed under A.'s protection, iii 160 . ducorastar Dia deilb mordraige . . . forsinní Dauid, Ml. 52 . tegdais forsa tochar deg-lí anechtair is placed, Tur. 14 . nocon fetur-sa indat ilgné docuirther in folt fair (lit. different ways [in] which the hair is put on him, cf. RC xxiii 91 ), BDD § 105 . forsa tochratis tonna an mara na héicne, RC ix 418 . go rotochuir [an piast] ainbthine dermair forsan muir, BNnÉ 6 . co tocuir tāmnēll fuirri, RC v 199 . doconnairc . . . prinnsa in dorchuttois . . . da tochrad cét cenn fair there were (lit. had been put) a hundred heads, Aisl. Tond. xiv 1 . focherdsat na draoithe gaotha draoidhechta . . . co ttochradh an muirgrian iochtarach for úachtar an mara, Leb. Gab.(i) 256 . cia dám . . . ceta-tarlad for hErend? was first landed, LL 515 . nir tocrad Cessair for rig o sein amach no king was styled Caesar, Lec. 300b49 = ni rotocrad, 304a46 . co ndichret a ndruim fria naimtea will turn their back, Ml. 44a16 , cf. 44b19 . tocraid for ndrommand fri fraigid uli, LU 1486 . dofil in carpat . . . ┐ dorala clār clē frind it has turned its left side to us, TBC-I¹ 1192 (perh. impers.). cléirchin fris tarlais tinne `to whom thou hast shown stiffness', ZCP iii 208 . ni tocrad dam int aitheachmattud glēid frisin coin mōir should not have engaged in fight with, TBC-I¹ 1228 . do-curead cath Ruis F. re Nemed, Lec. 357b2 . rofich cath Naisi fri hEochaid . . . iar cath Chomair fri hEochaid n-eolach trén doralad, 592a26 (cf. do-beir cath). domchurithar Dia isinn abainn, Imr. Brain ii 292 . gidbead dochuirear-sa deit isin dig, nā hob a ōl whatever I put into thy draught, Lec. 155b27 . toichredh a chenn 'sa chuithe he used to plunge his head, ZCP i 66 . rangabusa in n-éicni . . . darolus i lláim na hingine, TBFr. 342 . co ndaralastar (leg. -ralatar) na halma i talmain a chorp the herds trampled his body into the ground, TBC-LL¹ 2056 = gur cuirsit, St. cid ar dotralaid hi cacht? why hast thou been put into durance?, SR 1307 . is i cruinne dorraladh cach dūil . . . is i torachta chruinne doralta na nime, Ériu ii 106 . doscorad (duscorat, v.l.) a triur isin muir plunge into the sea (reflex.), RC ix 460 . is lib-si fessin . . . in chair doralais inar leth-ni the fault you have brought against us, Alex. 946 = Anecd. v 5 . feib leir donralaid do nim | missi ┐ tussu, SR 1787 . conab-torlus a Phardus that I have put you out of Paradise, 1872 . con-dacuired dar cenn was overturned, SG 316 . con-daralsat é 'n-a ágib (i.e. tore him asunder), LL 169a15 .

(b) deposits, produces, brings forth: crann . . . docuiridar tri toraid cacha bliadne , Ériu ii 116 . nói cuill Chrimaill . . . dochuiret tall fon tiprait `drop their fruits', Metr. Dinds. iii 292 (docuredh, tocuread, v.l. perh. pret. pass. have been set, planted round). ba hinund brú rothocair | Fothad ┐ cóelChuirrech the same womb bore, 234 .

(c) throws, casts, sends: tochrae uait cast it from you, TBC-I¹ 1557 (LU) = tochra, YBL. docuire urchar úait, Corm. s.v. taurthait = focheirdi, Corm. Y 1229 . Cf. IT iii 16 § 37 . ni tharlus dom chirt | urcur anfis, LU 3863 ( SCC § 38 ). dochorastair Dochae ga for Fiachaid, TBC-I¹ 2110 . a arat dia tochuirther the distance from which it is shot, Ml. 80b7 . fochres [a c[h]end] isin mBrudin . . . ┐ dorralad eiste, BDD² 1405 . dochorastar echlacha uada, Anecd. iii 65 . dochuiretar sut a comuirli chugat-sa send thee their decision, Fianaig. 84 . docuredh Conall for a lurg, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 36 . docuirethar bedc throws, i.e. makes a start, bound: docuridar bedg de fodes starts off southwards, RC iii 176 . doscuiret[h]ar bedc as fa thuaid, IT ii1 175 . tathchuireathar bedg ar a ceand, BDD² 357 . tacurethar, YBL = docuirethar, Eg. = ta-cuirethar beadg ón tig, 645 . toschuirther beadc a Tracht F. they make a start from, 620 (the constr. here suggests that `beadc' is either nom. or else adverbial accus., the vb. being used impersonally). dochuirethar bedg anís, LL 281b13 ( GJ v 64 ). Cf. foceird b., ZCP viii 104.z .

II As trans. vb. in impers. constr. folld. by prep. phrase or other complement of pred., e.g. do-m-cuirethar lit. it puts me (in a place, condition, etc.), i.e. I happen to be (come). This construction is esp. common with the perf. dorala (tarla) and continues into the Mod. Ir. period.

(a) Of rest: dorala ind aimsir geimrid it happened to be winter, Trip.² 112 . focheirdi erchor uait . . . Docuirethar obonn anmannae ar a chind an animal chances suddenly to be in its way, Corm. Y 1229 (docuirither, LB). dī ōene sechtmaine . . . feib docorathar ind recht | do neoch las mbē nert as it is (laid down) in the law (?), ZCP xiii 29 . dia tarla Cond C. ┐ Eogan T. i comflaithis fo Erind, RC xvi 136 ( Dinds. 132 ). gon domrala crechtach ngarb so that I am wounded, TBC-LL¹ 2338 . cona-tarla faen so that he fell prostrate, Mór M. 267 . nach n-esconn rotmblaisi . . . dorala inna chunn slān became sane, Ériu ii 116 . ó domrala il-ligi leóin, ZCP vi 263 . co na-tarlai ina ṡuidi so that he fell on his haunches, LL 272b21 . dorala in tech ina ráithsechaib briathar, FB § 29 . ro-imthigset i frithsēt Grēg co nustarla tul fri tul i medhon in ṡéta, BB 419a35 . is and dosralai sede tunc, ic Ross na ferta she chanced to be at, Hy. v 65 Comm. ( Thes. ii 343 ). bái mesca mór for Ulto . . . Docuiridar immarbága móra . . . eturro there arise, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 4 . Cf. further: ni chuincem colcthi . . . acht in talam cona sraith trit nó lomm amal docuirether (leg. docuirethar) covered with grass or bare as it may happen to be, Alex. 874 = Anecd. v 3 .

(b) Folld. by prep. denoting motion: doscuirethar as co trāig in baile, IT ii1 178 ; 'they set out' Loinges mac nDuíl Dermait 100 § 20 . conacca . . . dorrala inna huili fiadmila asin fidbaid that all the wild animals had come out of the wood, TBC-I¹ 3108 . domrala don áith I came to the kiln, Fél. p. 12 . dosrala do Dún na mbarc they came to, LL 4b33 . inis diandorala iar n-imram, Anecd. i 53 . toscuirethar dochom tíre they come to land, BDD § 55 . con-domrala dochum slúaig, Metr. Dinds. iii 120 . nirbo chian . . . condarraile (leg. dasraile) dochum indsi till they happened on, LL 283a21 . doluid in gilla . . . conusstarla dochum thopuir till he chanced upon a well, RC xxiv 196 . dotrala f[o] aineolass thou art ignorant, ZCP xiii 3 . [a]n du[c]uiredar bissext for nói kl. when bisext falls on . . ., BCr. 32c10 ( Thes. ii 19 ). fēil docuiredar for Sathurn, Mon. Tall. 135 , cf. intan doscuirither-si for áin, LB 9b10 (pass. ?). rocloenad a thech, con-datarla for a lethbeolu so that it inclined to one side, FB § 25 . ind eclas i tarla grada for Brigit, Hy. v 15 Comm. ( Thes. ii 330 ). dogní Neide glām ndicend dō, co toralae teorae bulgae for a gruadaibh, Corm. Y 698 . docorastar cess ┐ huamhon for na slúagho gloom and fear fell upon the hosts, Ériu ii 100 . co tarla a dí bond bána fair (he fell) with upturned soles, MU² 987 (LU). dichetal for ochtraig, co rathochra a mbi ina íchtur for a úachtar all that is below comes to the top, Triads 117 . dorala ana mbui . . . a n-íchtar an loch[a] co raibi forúachtar, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 32 . co tarla ind ní bāi ina hichtar co mbōi for a hōachtor, Anecd. ii 57 . con-tachrad cach ní nobith a n-ichtur na fairrgi 'na fuachtur, Lec. 569a7 = gu tocraid , BB 40b8 (pret. pass. instead of the impers. constr.). con-dasrala for combáig comimrama they began to race each other in rowing, LL 235a20 . doscuridar iarum for a rith cētnai they resume their course, Ériu ii 126 . documlaiset for fairgi ┐ docorastar a lūi fri tir their stern was turned to shore, Corm. Y 1059 . feib donrala fri comrád as we have fallen into conversation, SR 1214 . fri tala ind ríg . . . domrala tria tinninas I have crossed the king's will through my hastiness, 6188 , cf. 6013 . ní rádi ní tri thalmaidchi, amal dundchuirethar inna beulu as it rises to his lips (`as he takes it'), Ml. 35d22 . cia dotochra a robaegal though thou fall into great danger, BCC § 348 (poem). docuiredar cach ai i tuaim alaile each of them comes into another's place (of three currents meeting in a whirlpool), Corm. Y 323 = docuirither, LB. dotrala i mbeirn baegail, TBC-I¹ 2648 . dotrala ind, RC vi 183 . doscuiredar i cess they fall into sadness, Ériu ii 112 . darrala tar romuir who came over the great sea, Fél. Dec. 8 (darralad, doralaid, donralad, v.l.). focheird rout n-urchair din liathróit, conastarla dar gincraes a bragat dond archoin so that it went past the watchdog's gullet, TBC-LL¹ 1025 . na cōic mnā nostachair tra | maraen ria n-athair suna came here together with their father, BB 408b16 . atnaid id im choiss indaro fi(u)r . . . Docuirethar iarum ina deguid aitherruch (the withe) comes back after him, i.e. springs off (?), RC x 214 .

Later with indep. pron.: co tarla co Beind E. hí she came to, Ériu iii 152 . co ttarla é go Magh Line, BS 104 . tarlu go teach Laidchinn é, Keat. ii 6282 . co tarla Cormac ┐ isi ar oentaig fo cleith, Lec. 366b25 . lucht in feruinn cusa tárla é (of one cast on shore), Laws i 204 Comm. dorala he (Cain) a mbroind Euba in tan do thomail int uball was conceived, Lec. 385a20 ; ? cf. ba hé tatharla inna broind, IT i 139 (LU) = is he tathlai it bruinn, Eg. dusrala iad a n-ailén aili, RC xxvi 138 . mar dorala a n-imfhoixe chomraic na Fraingce íad as they approached the frontier, Fl. Earls 30 . rothimchill cach a chēle dīb . . . ┐ dorala 'n-a comracaib iad they engaged in combat, Celt. Rev. x 314 . ó tharla gan chroidhe dho é seeing he hath no heart to it, Proverbs xvii 16 . durson damsa . . . na mígníma sin do dēnam dam, gid tre anfhis ┐ aneolus dorala iat they have come to pass, Celt. Rev. vii 116 .

(c) do-m-cuirethar do (ar, fri) lit. it puts me to (on, towards), hence I meet, come upon, come across: docuirethar Banba doib i Sleibh M., Leb. Gab.(i) 250 (possibly pers. constr.). docuiridar simind dóib, RC xxvi 10 (LL). conustarla do díb latrandib he met two robbers, Lat. Lives 90 . tarrla ríg Laighen dóibh, Imr. Brain i 66 . co tarla do sē meic dēg Amalgaid, Lec. 124b26 . tarla dhóib a n-esgcaraid, SG 8 . tárla dh'a chéile iat, ML 16 . tarla da chēli . . . clanna Neill ┐ clanna Chaeman, Lec. 171b41 . ni tharla dia muinntir badēin é, Fl. Earls 28 . go ttárla Carbre ┐ rígh bhfear gC. air a chēile, CF 276 (Eg.). go dtarla é ré moghaibh came upon slaves, Keat. iii 2146 . In reciprocal sense: conustarla do Meidb ┐ do Thindi M. and T. met, Ériu ii 178 . tarla do and ┐ d'Adhamhnan, BB 233b3 . co tarla dō ┐ do Dairi ingen Cathair, 6 . dorala do Césair féin ┐ do lucht innsi Bretain C. and the people . . . encountered each other, CCath. 182 . batar maic Miled bliadain i comrige . . . co tarla doib im na trib druimnib until they quarrelled about, Lec. 30b4 . dorala dam arair fri muintir C. I had a quarrel with, MacCongl. 53 . Cf. further: dorala fri Connacht co mór, ōir do marbsat-som a brāithri he was in feud with C., ZCP i 103 , where the construction may be personal (as in III (b) below).

(d) do-cuirethar form (dul, etc.), lit. it puts on me, hence it is incumbent on me, I must: docorastar fair dul do acallaim na hingine it behoved him (?), TBFr. 13 (but perh. pers. constr. `he took upon himself', Gloss.). docorustair fair techt a Manaind, Corm. Y 1059 . co tarla fair techt i n-ailithre (of Colum C.), Lec. 369b9 .

(e) do-cuirethar etarru they fall out, quarrel: cēin co tochra etraibh fein until you quarrel, BNnÉ 90 . tachair eter na mnaibh, ib. darala eturru ic imbert ḟidchilli ┐ Fergus F. and he quarrelled, LL 103b39 . dorala eturru ┐ Munramar, Ériu i 124 . dorala etorra ┐ clann ócc iarla D., AFM v 1718 . 1874 . dorala itir Luicet ┐ Aed . . . isin chath engaged each other, RC v 197 . go tarrla iter Aichlech ┐ Oedh B. gur fersat comlann fria chēli, Fianaig. 94 . go tarla itir in ríg ┐ in rígain, SG 250 . co tarla eatorro im na tri ndromandaib, BB 42b34 = co tarla doib, Lec. 30b4 . tarrla eturru immon n-es, Acall. 7286 . conad impi sein tarla eturru, LL 242a40 .

III During the Mid. Ir. period, when the infixed pron. began to lose its significance, do-cuirethar and esp. the perf. dorala came to be regarded as an intrans. vb. in personal construction in sense of happens to be (come); it is, however, impossible to decide whether the vb. is pers. or impers. in the sing. except in cases where the accompanying noun has distinct forms for nom. and accus.

(a) Of rest, condition: bid hé dochorad and, BDD § 66 YBL = comad he notocrad and, Eg. = co mbad sé nobeth and, LU; ib. § 54 . ní tharla bó isin recleis ind inbhaid sin, Lat. Lives 72 . ní faca riamh abhann ann, ┐ ó tharla an abhann ann, as greama mur tharrla in droichid tairsi as the river is there, it is well there is a bridge across it, Imr. Brain i 64 . is ann dorála in rí ind uair sin, fó bun darach, SG 413 . an eich dorala foa on which he was mounted, AFM vi 2216 . tug . . . urchor do cloich tarla ina láimh which chanced to be in his hand, iv 788 . dorala ambassadóir righ S. sa gcathraigh in tan sin, Fl. Earls 22 . tarla an uair sin duine uasal . . . i bpríosún ag an bprionnsa, Keat. iii 5027 . tarla an tan soin neach cumhachtach 'n-a bhíodhbhadh ag C., ii 4847 . dorala ben an oirchinnigh ag gabail secha . . ., BS 50 . is ann doralae Onchu mac S. marb sechtmain reimhe O. had happened to die a week before, BColm. 46 . doralatar in dā hapstail [déc] uile i n-oen tegdais, PH 5560 . tarladar ceathrar do chloinn C. 'n-a ngiallaibh ag Niall, Keat. ii 5956 . tarladar triúr mac aige he had three sons, 4844 . do chidhfedh mar tharla an tír he would see the country's plight, O'Gr. Cat. 466 .

(b) With prep., etc., denoting motion: is annsin dorala Becuma amach ar an ḟaithche chanced to come out, Ériu iii 162 . ised dorala anair he came from the east, RC xiii 379 . co tacradh ass a bhiadh cōir do chāch, IT iii 188 . co tocraitis asa tíribh do décsain . . . crotha Hectoir they would have come, TTr.² 1091 . doluid A. for iarraid usci ┐ dorala cosin tobur cétna, RC xxiv 198 . dia tarla sí cusin mbandtrebthaig, IT i 48 . ni thacēra d'iarmēirge, Cog. 225 (LL) = ni ticfa don ērmēirge, 10 . araili ailitir dorala do Toirinis, Todd Nenn. 212 . rosirius Magh Fáil . . . tairlius do Cill Uí S., BS 48 . docurethar in lia forru anair the stone lights on them, TBC-I¹ 1415 (LU). doleig side in gae bulgae . . . co tochrastar annuass for a chathbarr, IT ii1 184 . dorala menma Faelain fuirri, RC xxvii 262 . dorála menma a mátha(i)r uirre, RC xxix 120 . conidh hí comairle forsa tarrla the plan he hit upon, CCath. 1378 (perh. impers.). (With reflex. pron.) dosraladar for merugud they began to wander astray, RC xxiv 196 = SG 328 . is mairg ances a bidbaid | in n-inbaid dochora il-lén when he falls into misfortune, LL 146b38 ( PRIA xix 544 ). lēicid C. in gae fair . . . conid anuas docorastar (tocorastar, LU) in-a mullach, TBC-I¹ 1296 . Cf. 3664 . docoras[tar] casal di nim i n-ucht Pátraic, Trip.² 1228 (impers.?). rotheilg L. in ngai . . . co tarlai il-Laeg, RC iii 178 . tharla tuagh Bhrodair i gceann Bhriain, Ériu i 88 . tus in tochrad i m-aigid to see whether she would meet me, Aen. 626 . dochear Lugaid Riabnderg do chumaid a mna . . . ┐ man a claidem fodein dorala he fell on his own sword (?), Lec. 588a43 . cia tochra int espach eturru though the onlooker should come between them, Laws ii 294 Comm.

(c) Folld. by DO (also AR, FRI) meets, comes upon, falls in with (in some of the follg. exx. the earlier meaning of the vb., not that of an intrans. vb. of motion, is still apparent): dogabh ag luamhairecht an curaigh co tarrla oilen ingnadh dō, Ériu iii 156 . docuir Nae an colum da fis an faighbeadh talamh . . . ┐ tarla dō an talumh ina roibhe, etc., Lib. Flav. i 10a30 . docurastar dam lethbarghen cruithnechta ┐ ordu ēisc = I found, got, RC x 90 (perh. impers.). tarla int ailen-sa ar A., ZCP ii 298 . docuiridar Bricriu dóib forsind ḟaithche, LL 186a42 = RC xxvi 12 . tachraid bocht dó ar in conair, Lism. L. 4305 (docuirethar, v.l.). tús . . . in taichēradh dō aen duine, Aen. 290 . dorala dam forsin sét mo choimdiu Ísu, PH 1892 . doralai dias fer n-arsatai dóib, SG ii 467 . co tarla do in bantrebtach, Hy. v 73 Comm. ( Thes. ii 345 ). co ttarla ben-gheilt dó ann, BS 108 . do bhrígh nach dtárla dhamh mo dhearbráthair T., 2 Cor. ii 13 . dochuir Banba doib, Lec. 28a30 . do-ralatar a námaitt dó, BColm. 94 . tarladur na trí righdha so da chéle, ZCP ii 38 . is mairg ar a tocherat, TBC-LL¹ 5707 . tárla bean air, Proverbs vii 10 . go dtarladar trí mic C. orra, Keat. ii 1300 ; 1273 . amail doraladar forsin topur, RC xxiv 202 . dorála a chos fri cloich, SG 403 . tárla trócaire ┐ fírinne ré chéile, Psalms lxxxv 10 . do mharbhsat gach a dtarla riú do lucht an bhaile, Keat. iii 5242 . doraladar a triur frisin n-uasal, YBL 191a16 . go dtarladar ladrainn ris, TSh. 1450 .

(d) With FRI encounters, opposes (this use is spec. frequent with the late form tachraid): roḟācaib [Fiacha] a clanna dia ēis . . . do thochar ria Padraic . . . ┐ ni tharla neach aile do cloind Ḟiachach fris acht Fothad F. amain, Lec. 143a37 . ni thagraim leat, a L., | ná re Tadg ré dtarlabhair with whom you are engaged in dispute, Content. xi 15 . mairg thochras ri clērchib cell, LL 149b26 = thochrus fri, SG 70 , 78 . gach nech tochrus ré rí[g] réil, Fianaig. 80 . tachraid re chele, Caithr. CC 52 . ba tresi nā gach trēn rotac[h]rad fris, BB 488b24 . baoi do mhéd a mhenman . . . go ttochairfedh friú, AFM v 1766 . ēcoir d'Fathod tachair frim . . . | ní do deoin Luighdech Meic Con | do thaichérad frim Fathod, Acall. 1137 . gomtis ionchatha ┐ co ttochraitis friu, Leb. Gab.(i) 144 . i mbeilgibh bélchumhgaibh i ttoc[h]raittís re aroile, AFM vi 2112 .

(e) With DO falls to the lot of, happens to, befalls (rarely in this sense with infd. dat. pron. instead of do): nachustarla anfaitchess may negligence never come upon them, BColm. 50 . dorala cōir gāithi doib fochedoir, Lec. 569a25 . co tarla anfud mór doib, Hy. v 13 Comm. ( Thes. ii 328 ). co tarla doib imsreang curad (i.e. they engaged in struggle), Lec. 352a44 . Fiacha Fear dā liach . . . .i. liach do cach echt dorala do, 337b42 . cia imned dorala duib?, ACL iii 225 . dorala gnim n-ingnad do he happened to do a strange thing, Ériu v 114 . o tharla dhuit an gním olc, SG 29 . gia nothachrad écht dó, TBC-LL¹ 1180 . cia and do ná tochradar | bét no bine nó baeghul?, ZCP iv 468 . do Chonall dorala imdegail in chóicid it fell to C. to guard, TBC-I¹ 592 LU. rolaesead dā mac Miled crandchar iar sin forsan aes dāna .i. file ┐ cruitire . . . do Erimon dorala in file, BB 42b13 . certar crandchor léo dūs cia do thoc[h]radh dul . . . Dochuir (dofuit, v.l.) son don tres comalta, RC x 78 . rolaset chrandchor . . . conid don dull dorala tec[h]t sis, Hy. v 13 Comm. ( Thes. ii 328 ). is ann dorala dosom a denam, Hy. i Pref . ( Thes. ii 298 ). is grad epscuip dorala do epscop Mél do thabairt for Brigit, Hy. v 15 Comm. ( Thes. ii 330 ). condarala di turgnom catha Findchorad she happened to be preparing for, Ériu ii 184 . as ag an mbile sin dorala do Dhomhnall do ueith, BS 16 . dia tochrad dó Hectoir do thuitim leis, TTr.² 973 . as maith tarrla dúind an chailleach do marbudh it is well for us that we have killed, Imr. Brain i 65 . dorala do B. beith ag saigdeoracht, Todd Nenn. 38 . is amlaid dorala do C. beith ┐ ingen alaind aici in tan sin C. happened to have a beautiful daughter, Lec. 168b16 . condusrala do Meidb dola co Boind, Ériu ii 178 . dorala intan sin do M. condacaid aislingi, ACL iii 10 . tarla dona beachuibh co ndeachadur . . ., Ériu ii 82 . tarla do beirt saighdiuir go ndechator astech i n-aroile egluis, Fl. Earls 60 .

(f) Hence in general sense of comes to pass, happens, takes place (chiefly in perf. dorala, tarla). With noun as subj. often in sense of there was , or in impers. constr. with inf. phrase or subord. sent.: forcaemnacair (.i. tarla), ACL iii 10 . in tan dorala in scēl-sa and when this event took place, PH 46 . cethracha rig dorala frisrohicad borama | o aimsir Thuathail . . . there were forty kings, Lec. 40b28 (perh. rather to be referred to II (a) = dorala cethrachait r.). ní tharla il-leitrib na lāidib . . . aen-triar ban neither in books nor songs is found a trio, 395a13 (II (a)?). go ttárla sneachta mór fán am sin ann, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 40 . tárla méad meanman na bhfoireann ar gcriothnughadh na long the courage of the crew was aroused, ML 46 . tarla iomchaineadh . . . eitir M. ┐ mhnáoi oile a dispute arose, BS 142 . tarla imressan eturru, Acall. 2717 . an ferand fa tharla imresuin adrum-sa ┐ C., BCC 179 . darala debaigh mor etarru, YBL 164b10 . tohruid (sic) frithnois fuigill etorro an altercation arises, Cog. 142 = tohraid (sic) frithnos, 144 . gidh bedh tochrus do bar comhrag-si whatever be the issue of your combat, Aen. 2968 (= quo res cumque cadent, Aeneid xii 203 ). maith tharla it is well, Keat. ii 4725 . dorala . . . Gortigernd mac G. do gabail airdrigi Breatan, Todd Nenn. 74 . amal dorala na dūile do chumscugud oc cēsad Crist, PH 1078 . dorala conid si sein aimser . . . (= contigit quod), Lat. Lives 5 . dorala co ndechsat immach (= casu accidit ut . . .), 76 . conid tairle co n-ebarthar mac ríg frim mac may it come to pass that, Ériu iv 24 . gé tharla gur fhōbair . . ., Fl. Earls 68 . dorala iar n-ég Gorthemuir . . . doronsat Saxain meabail for B., Todd Nenn. 102 .

IV Invites, summons (this sense may have arisen out of the meaning puts in cases where the vb. was folld. by co): gl. adsciscere, Ml. 25c13 , Sg. 6b18 , 16b8 , 61a7 ; arcessere, Sg. 184a2 ; citare, Ml. 3a1 ; exciere, 16c6 , 18d6 ; invitare, 29b1 , O'Mulc. 527 ; postulare, Corm. Y 77 . tocuiriur etrum indiu inna huli nert-so fri cech nert I summon today all those powers (put . . . between me and?), Hy. vi 48 ( Thes. ii 357 ). docuirethar cétna persan sin persana aili chucae takes other persons to it, Sg. 191a2 . docuiredar gōi, inairben fīr; tocuiredar ēcert, inarben cert, ZCP xii 364 . tócurid [in comdiu] dochum nimi chuci lucht na deirce, FA 1 (LU). tocuirid na sualchi, dichurid na dualchi, PH 5614 , cf. 4992 - 5 . intí is cendais . . . tócuired in fergach co mín (= revocet), 5829 . muna tocuirit fein chuca iat, Laws v 458 Comm. rotochuir an tír chucca, Hugh Roe 36 . rostochuir ┐ rostiomairg fine Gaoidil, Leb. Gab.(i) 234 . rotocuirisdair G. cuice dā druid dēg, Todd Nenn. 90 . romtochuirseat ina ndocum, CCath. 983 . tochuirter iatt gusin gcaislēn, Fl. Earls 70 . co tocuiredh Eoin . . . ó Ispís ad Bathmos, BB 10a4 . rotochuiredh do a brathair, LL 402b52 . rotocuiret dia indsaighidh a slōigh, 404b39 . rodocuirit (ro tochuiritt, v.l.) Dailcais uli cucu, Cog. 74 .

2 éis

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 éis or dil.ie/19846
Last Revised: 2013

n i, ī g s. perhaps in Traig Ési, Ériu i 118.35 . g p. perh. in: ainm don eclais-sin Aposania (no Appodonia) .i. costa, fo bith na folliucht (no na n-essi) batar inti, PH 6336 (here costa is an adj. from cos, and the reference is to the traces of the Archangel's feet, cf. 6330 - 1 ). Trace, track: es .i. integ...┐ slicht, O'Mulc. 437 . eiss...integ ┐ slicht, 442 . éis .i. lorg; do fhagbhadh éis a chos isin gcloich .i. lorg a chos, O'Cl. ACL iii 10.11 (= vestigia Trip. 19.3 ). forruim a choiss forsind leicc | maraith a és (a es, dia æs MSS.), Thes. ii 310 = Trip. 404.17 . nicon fess eng na eis dib track or trace of them IT i 143.27 . ata slicht a da chos and beos, is de ata Traig Ési la hUltu `the Strand of the Track' Ériu i 118.35 .

Most freq. in adverbial and prepositional phrases with ar, di, do, tar (dar):

ar é.¤

(1) after, in succession to; remaining after, waiting behind: (a) in bliadain ar eis na ronda sin the year after that division MacCarthy 304.3 ( BB 13a7 ). in bliadain ar eis rige do gabail do, 306.18 . bliadain ar es cesda Crist, 304 . 25 . ni himda aici fer a himcair...ara eis not many has [learning] to support her after him (i.e. after his death) AU 1345 . do anusdair E. ar eis Fergusa E. remained after F. had left ZCP viii 551.2 = dia éis, TBC-LL¹ 1845 . ro fhagaibh sé Sir H. ara eis, ZCP vi 42.16 . cia uand bias ar eis a chéli? (or D.) which of us will survive the other? YBL 126b7 . (b) bia-so ar m'eissi-sea .uii. mbliadain, or C., YBL 126b8 .

(2) for, instead of: (b) as-ren a fine aithgin ar a eisi, Laws iii 158.11 Comm.

co hé.¤ till the end of, till after (probably modelled on ar éis etc.): (a) gan longadh...go héis a saltrach till he had finished his psalter BNnÉ 279.32 .

di ¤ , do é.¤ As the two preps. fall together in unstressed position from an early period, it is usually difficult to decide which is intended. In similar contexts we find: dom héis-se, Wb. 29d9 and: dim(m)ǽs, Ml. 23d6 , 9 (see below).

(1) above, in the preceding context (see Celtica xviii 85-86 ): (a) di ess (gl. retro) Ml. 2c1 . di éis (gl. retro) BCr. 31b5 . in secunda coniugatione diar n-eis, Sg. 195a2 .

(2) after, later in time than, following, succeeding to; resulting from: (a) cen nech dimm æs dim chlaind frim foraithmet, Ml. 23d9 , cf. 23d6 . conid he as ardepscop L. o sein ille ┐ a chomarbba dia eis, Thes. ii 308.5 . RC xxiv 174.17 . ACL iii 5.12 . ni bí cland dia n-ǽs (gl. nullam successionem filiorum relinquentes) Ml. 57d6 . slucit ...cach anmain d'eis a céle one after another IT i 183.14 . a bhfuair mé | d'easláinte d'éis a chéile, Dán Dé xiii 3 = YBL 371a5 . ni raibh sinn...gan airdrígh d'éis a chéile without one high-king succeeding another TD 28.18 . tig tairsib d'éis aroile mentions them in turn 3.30 . regnauit ...di eis a athar reigned in succession to his father RC xvi 416.4 . in bliadain da es the following year BB 12a19 = MacCarthy 296.11 . d'éis chatha Chnúcha, ML 2.3 . d'éis tionnabhraidh, TD 24.22 . an choróin do-gheibh d'éis an bháis, TSh. 2785 . d'eis Meic Dé do chur docum báis, Maund. 10 . RC xxviii 310.10 . dá éis sin after that, afterwards TD 13.47 . TSh. 9448 . (b) ticfait dar timma... ┐ nis bia a ngrad oc Dia dia esi after that, thenceforth MacCarthy 50.22 . do imthigh sí úaidh da eisi sin thereupon Maund. 131 . Ériu ii 182.25 . After (the death, times of) a person: (a) dia n-éiss a cuirp chráibdig | i mmemraib óir, Fél. Prol. 79 . marait dia n-éis a scela, RC xxiii 304 § 2 . do thaoibh a chlú dá éis san tsaoghal, TSh. 4140 . go ndearnadh luaithreadh dhí...go nach fríoth a tuarasgbháil dá héis, 64 . (b) bid Mag da Gési co bráth | dia n-esi after them IT i 161.1 . dorat dia chloind dia éssi, MacCarthy 64.29 . PH 4246 . for ar clannaib diar n-éisi, 3285 .

(3) Of remaining after, left, waiting behind, surviving: (a) in tain ro n-anis-siu dom héis-se, Wb. 29d9 . dessid E. dia éis remained behind after him TBC-LL¹ 1845 . ni fedar cid ros fasto dom es, Aen. 621 . fosrácbus im thaig dim éis ZCP iv 44.7 . olc na druinge do bhí beó dá n-éis who survived them TSh. 5533 (= tar a n-éis, 5526 ).

(4) After the departure of, in the absence of: (a) assolgi A. iarum a bosān dia ēis A. opened his (Fraech's) purse when he had gone ZCP iv 39.25 (= RC xxiv 148.15 ). Thes. ii 340.27 . cach fidbad dara tictís...ba crích machairi da n-éis they left it a level country MU 14.29 = LL 264a1 . ni rabhat d'eis neirt may they never be without power Anecd. ii 33.12 . Duan. F. i 21.1 . Cend Febrat...atchíu... | d'éis na rígḟían, Metr. Dinds. iii 226.4 . corrach mh'intinn | d'éis na buidhne after (i.e. lacking) that company TD 25.34 . Cf. biaid Temair d'eis a fir, LL 149b37 , and: aighthe an tslúaigh mar gríos na gréine | an uair bhíos Eire da éis (v.l. héis) when (the sun) has left Ireland behind, i.e. is setting KMMisc. 172 § 22 . (b) dochuaid C... | do char T.... Aed dia éise T. gave her love to A. in his (C.'s) absence Metr. Dinds. iv. 110.28 . Hence instead of: (a) corragaibsi in cucnecht da hes took the churning in her stead Thes. ii 332.34 . Cf. (b) luid dia ésse | a ben... | do chomét búar, Metr. Dinds. iv 196.13 .

(5) in forming a participial phr.: (a) ealta...d'éis a n-ionnalta a hór flocks...bathed in gold TD 40.7 .

(6) occasionally after in the sense of notwithstanding, in spite of: (a) tiaghaid... | ...ar fhód mhearaighthe | d'éis a ndeimhnighthe dhoibh sain | sein-shlighthe Póil is Peadair, Dán Dé vi 4 = YBL 365b . d'éis ar chaitheadar riamh ruinn...cor lem anacal níor ál despite all they had lavished on me TD 3.17 .

tar (dar) é.¤

(1) behind: (a) fég...dar th'eis look behind thee IT i 222.29 . eirg a n-inad nderrit ┐ dún tar th'éis shut (the door) behind thee PH 7998 . ro hiadadh comhla an taiste tar a n-éis was shut behind them Hugh Roe² 5.4 (f. 2b) . geibis M. scíath díten dar éis fer nhErend covered their retreat TBC-LL¹ 6073 . CRR 52 . mar dubhart annso tar m'éis as I have said above Content. vi 57 . (b) Dia dam frim lorg (.i. dar m' ési), Thes. ii 350.30 . tú tar a n-éssi ocá n-imdegail, FB 10 . ní bendais na hurchuir re muintir C. acht is tar a n-eisi do tuitidis, CCath. 1870 .

(2) after, later in time than, succeeding to; resulting from: (a) bid hé N. bus rí tar eis a athar, RC xxiv 192 y ; 182.20 . aidchi ndomnaig ┐ dia domnaich tara heis on Saturday night and the Sunday following it Mon. Tall. § 45 . Tir Cannain...nis-tā dar éis a n-ecnaig, SR 4734 . naoi mbliadhna tar éis catha Sulcoide, Cog. 90.15 . tar éis gcodail (v.l. cho., co.), TD 11.6 . tar éis an bhaistidhe after baptism TSh. 3341 . tar éis áir...do tabairt ar M., RC xviii 164.9 . TD 8.31 . TSh. 2552 . tar eis mar = postquam: tar éis mar do iarr M. air after M. had asked him TSh. 1931 . (b) cách dar hési álaili, Wb. 13 a9 . ind aidchi dara heisi the following night Mon. Tall. § 9 . acht an rut bia tar éissi du airm ┐ do saigtige those that thou shalt have by virtue of thy weapons Trip. 152.4 . Hence according to (?): (b) dar eisi a cuinn do cech mnai follows her legal guardian, acts according to her reason? (cf. cond, Laws) Ériu ix 47.4 . After (the death, times of) a person: (a) ní maith lim ind áil (leg. ail) sin d'ácbail i nUltaib dar m'éis to leave that reproach behind me TBC-LL¹ 1761 (tar mh'és, St). (b) lécfet desmbirecht...calmachta dona moeth-oclachaib dar m'esi, PH 6560 . co fharcbatís dar a n-ési comartha suthain, 3236 .

(3) remaining after, surviving: (a) slán don fheadhain-sin tar mh'éis to that band (I leave) behind me Gleanings from Irish manuscripts 9.1 . m'fagbháil tar éis mo chompán that I should be left behind TD ii 248.32 . (b) bai ade and tar ési mBenigni tri fichtea bliadne , Thes. ii 238.17 ( Ardm. 17a2 ). noco bia na cein . . | sunn i pein dar m'ésse-se after I am gone SR 2044 .

(4) after the departure of, in the absence of: (a) cach sruth ┐ cach áth...dara tictís ba lecca lomma dar a n-éis they left them as dry stones MU 14.31 = LL 264a5 . robrisidh an baile tar eis na nGall after the foreigners (had quitted it) RC xviii 287x . co mbertais...corp Tit leo dar eis Ipomone when Hippomedon had gone TTebe 3468 . (b) dar a n-éssi ba cáep chró | in Lug ros gáet ac Ráith Chró L. was left all imbrued in gore after them Metr. Dinds. iv 216.15 . do chóidh...fó thuairim na nEtailleach tánaic dia thír dara ese who had come...in his absence AFM v 1750 w .

(5) for, instead of: (a) pars pro tota ....i. in rand dar eis na toiti, Auraic. 664 . co tici do chutrommæ do fácbáil dar th'éis, IT i 127.26 . Cf. techtugad indligtech do brith isin ferand .i. ba tar eis eochu cows instead of horses Laws iv 32. 10 Comm. , where the acc. may be due to confusion of the simple prep. tar with the phr. tar éis. (b) nipo accobor lassin feir suide et a cheile do thuidect dar a hési, Wb. 13a20 . olcc tar ési n-uilcc (gl. malum pro malo) Wb. 5d28 . du éric uilc tar ǽsi alaili, Ml. 127a1 . tar ǽsi (gl. pro) Ml. 47a3 . 60c1 . 88a1 , etc. ( tar æsi, 49d1 . 61d4 , etc.). tar essi, 109d8 . a thuidecht i cride tar ési Dǽ in place of God Wb. 22b5 . ma dudéll ní taibred ní tar a éssi do bochtaib, 22b7 . duberar tar ǽsi locht which is inflicted for faults Ml. 105d6 . a `speciosus' asrubartsom is dar esi indi as `gloriosus' `the word "speciosus" is for "gloriosus" ' Ml. 64d8 . ...indí as infimatis romboí apud veteres tar ési indí as infimas file hodie, Sg. 200b3 . dearb laiss is e A. nobertha i n-nem dar a éssi in his place MacCarthy 48.31 . ni fuil aisiuc na set...co tuctur seoit tar a n-esi in their stead Laws ii 304.7 Comm. da grad tar eise in aengraid bes airdiu two ranks in place of (i.e. equivalent to) one higher rank iii 142.1 . do-rónus doibh dua[i]n ...ni tardad dúas dara heisi in return for it ACL iii 296.45 . mad ech [rogata nech] da ech dara esi, Ériu vii 154.17 (cf. mad rogata nech cairich ceotheora cairich tar n-essi 154.16 . manibe ní aschomra [sic leg.] ind fognam dar essi, 154.20 .). occ eráil ghiall ┐ aittire oile dar a éisi in his stead Hugh Roe² 5.17 (f. 3a) . ní rochosna nech aile | ní dot anim tar t' ési no other can strive for aught for thy soul in thy stead Ériu i 201.9 .

fiche

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fiche or dil.ie/21983

Forms: fichet, fichit, fichtea, fichte, fichit, ḟichet, ḟichet, fichit, fichtib

nnt, m. g s. fichet, Ml. 2d2 . n p. fichit, Ardm. 18a2 ( Thes. ii 242.2 ). a p. fichtea, Ardm. 17a2 ( Thes. ii 238.17 ). fichte, Hy ii 40 . In Old and Middle Irish regularly followed by subst. in gp. In MSS freq. written .xx. A score, twenty: f.¤ .i. a uiginti , O'Mulc. 531 . fiche ar chet a hundred and twenty BCr. 41b2 . cach f.¤ inna lurg fo leith each score IT i 137.1 . f.¤ míled, Fél. Mar. 18 . cethir chét ... | f.¤ teoir [la teor, la teora v.l.] míli four hundred three thousand and twenty Sept. 1 . f.¤ acht sé bliadna ... ba rí E. E. was king for fourteen years LL 129a1 . f.¤ ┐ a .vii. twenty-seven 128b22 . f.¤ bliadna for a .vii. twenty-seven years 129b39 . 131a33 . fichi a cóic o ṡain ... | cosin mortlaith twenty-five [years] from that till the plague 131a48 . fichi acht a cethair sixteen 129a27 . dochoid N. éc ... | fichi cét i crich L. with twenty hundreds 127a15 . fichi bliadan ┐ chét (= 120) SR 5269 . mile, da chéd, fiche a hocht = AFM 1228 ad ann. (RIA 23P6). míle, cúicc céd, fiche [sic] = 1520 ib., ad ann. (23P7). (With ns. of subst. :) fiche bliadhain (: giallaibh), TD 32.29 . fiche fail twenty bracelets Keat. iii 2639 . a d s. ro fích Fergus fichit catha LL 23a10 . da deich ... | tiagait hisin certfichit, SR 746 . atusa sund fichit mbliadan , I have been here twenty years BDD 3 . a n-oen ar fichet [sic MS.] it tri secht són twenty-one Ml. 2d2 (cf. bliadain ar ḟichet twenty-one years LL 130b39 . 131a46 ). dlom díis ar fichit twenty-two Fél. Sept. 13 . dā staid ar fichit `twenty-two stadia' Ériu xi 104 § 3 . g s. fri ré ḟichet findbliadan, LL 129bz . dā lebur fichet twenty-two books Ml. 2d2 . in choiced fichet the twenty-fifth (ref. to uicessima quinta luna) BCr. 33b5 . cóic méich fichet twenty-five sacks LU 8126 ( FB 9 ). coic meic de[e]c ... la I. | a secht fichet la S., SR 2667 . a sé fichet do Lugaid twenty-six [years] LL 129a41 . a cethair fichet ... ┐ cóic mīle bliadan five thousand and twenty-four 130b34 . ōthā talmain co ēsca | sē mīle fichet ar chét, SR 107 . Sennar ... sechtmad mac fichet Seim twenty-seventh son 2755 . cōic paisse fichet ar chēt one hundred and twenty-five paces Ériu xi 104.4 . Calann Enair for Dardain ┐ .x. mad fichet furri, Ann. Conn. 1237 . tres fichet furri, 1250 . du. dorumalt Moisi ... dá ḟichet bliadna i nEgept, SR 4956 . dā ḟichet bliadan , LL 127b30 . pl. tri fichit sixty SR 5326 (: tricc). 5314 (: glic). se fichit bliadan ... saegul Moisi, 4965 . atát cóic fichit bargen ... and a hundred loaves LU 8125 ( FB 9 ). ocht fichid ban, TBC-I¹ 1371 . cu tubartadar ocht fichti cend dib 3070 . deich mnaa ┐ secht fichit (= 150) TBC-LL¹ 1358 . sē fichit ríg, LL 129b43 . tri fichit bliadan ... d'Oengus T. i Temraig, 129a5 . noí fichit cét ar [leg. a n-] ārim ḟichet cét LL 219b6 (= TTr. 174 ). das fuc ... na hocht fichtiu oss, TBC-LL¹ 546 . a ḟichdi bó scores of his cows IGT, Decl. ex. 1027 . mani bet fichtib nó tríchtaib in scores or thirties LU 5535 . domeltis oigidechta fichtib ┐ trichtaibh in twenties and thirties RC xxv 20.10 . ( LL 270b2 ), corresp. to : co fichtib laech no thictis, RC xxv 34.9 ( Rawl. 133b37 ). ro scáil a folt ... ima cenn ina hocht fichtib dual scattered her hair in eight score plaits Acall. 5992n . (ocht fichit, Laud). baiade and ... tri fichtea bliadne she dwelt there three score years Thes. ii 238.17 . Common in d p. in chevilles; fichtib ell, SR 1129 . f.¤ drong LU 3668 ( SCC 33 ). fichdib toebtholl, IT ii 183.235 .

1 fír

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 fír or dil.ie/22171
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: fira, fíri, fira, fír, ḟír, firithir, firium, fíream, fír, fir, fíre, brithemnachtae, fírmessa, fircarat, fír

I adj o-ā

(a) true, veracious , used as pred. with cop.; as attrib. usually in composition with noun, seldom following it. f.¤ ... a uero latine , Corm. Y 639 . gl. verus Ml. 24d16 . 60b11 . as f.¤ aní chanas, 24d14 . is fāss dúnni a pridchimme manid f.¤ , Wb. 13b14 . f.¤ inna rādisiu what thou sayest is true LU 8455 ( FB 31 ). dūs in f.¤ mar atbeire, SR 1268 . in fir a n-atfiadat?, CRR 29 . is f.¤, ol se, is e so Crist, PH 679 . ni f.¤ sin (contradicting a statement) 2715 . Absol. confirming a preceding fact or statement: f.¤, ar se, ingen fil and, LL 259b43 ( LMU 5 ). f.¤, ar in drai, RC xxiv 174.15 . f.¤ is munter Dé fogniat [sic leg.], Snedg. u. Mac R 9.21 = is derb, ar siad, is munter Dé, RC xxvi 136.27 . Adv.: co mbia co f.¤ esergi that there will truly be a resurrection PH 1074 . uere .i. co f.¤ , 7983 . atberim co fír fír frib ..., 5036 . go fíor, Duan. F. i 28.3 . pl. it na huili besgna ata fira , Thes. ii 7.26 . at fíra do briathra, PH 794 . IS F.¤he is right: olsodin nad f.¤ ndoib however in that they lie Ml. 16a10 . ba f.¤ ám do Ch. aní sin, TBC-LL¹ 5767 . 4692 . 5719 . fír dam, or A. ni fīr or L., LL 288b27 . ni f.¤ dún ar mbeith amlaid we err (in claiming) to be so PH 7945 . más f.¤ dhamhsa if I am not mistaken O'Dav. 1244 . IS F.¤ LIMM I deem it true, I believe: do retaib ata chosmaili fri f.¤ la doini ┐ bes ni bat fira la Dia, Ml. 51b8 . BID F.¤ it will prove true, come to pass: bid f.¤ a tairngire Wb. 2c19 . hóre bas f.¤ quod dicam , 17d20 . Cf. pret.: ba f.¤ son re cind in tres laí it came true ( happened ) LL 283a9 . Used idiomatically in assenting to a proposal or the reverse: cuir in da chend, a L., issin carpat ... Bid f.¤ for L. it shall be done LL 110b31 ( RC xiv 422 ). ní bá f.¤ sin that shall not be! LU 8199 ( FB 14 ). Mer. Uil. 46 . ni ba f.¤ ... Cet do rainn na mucce it shall not be that C. divide the pig ScM. 9 . ROP F.¤ may it come to pass Hy i 39 . corap f.¤ amal atrubrabar! PH 2774 . amen .i. rop f.¤ so be it 7981 . MAS Ḟ. (in later poetry) if it is true = `according to statement', `it is said': an séad, a Dhé, ina mbia ar mbríogh | más fíor is é bhus dia dhúnn, Dán Dé xxiii 11 . éantoirrcheas, más ḟíor, iaidséin, TD 26.7 . ionann ḟáisdine, más ḟíor, do mhac is d'adhbhar airdríogh, 21.31 . más ḟíor dá lán according to many 28.40 . fír dhe (cheville), Duan. F. 25.4 ; ii 68.10 . As attrib.: breth f.¤ , SR 3321 . dar mo bréthir ḟ.¤ , IT i 122.1 . g s. f. inna Trínóite fíri (fire v.l.), Hy ii 42 . Cf. foxal fainne fíre SR 3594 (but see fíre). pl. bretha fira , Ml. 89b14 . teora coibsen fira, IT iii 197.24 . tri bliadhna fira .xx. `righteous' (?) BB 50a24 ( MacCarthy 414 ). sgéla fíora, Duan. F. ii 2.3 . d s. as adv.: ind fír (gl. amen) Wb. 14c32 . ind ḟír (gl. vero) Sg. 106a5 . Equat. firithir lebor as true as LL 43b23 . Compar. ataa ani as firiu oldas a ndeda sa, Hib. Min. 10.348 . is firu damsa! ní firiu duidsiu! I am right! you are wrong! Ériu viii 157.15 . atberait aroli comboi ... ┐ is fíre són, LB 148a10 . superl. firium, Laws i 106.1 (?). fíremh, Ériu xiii 17.30 . Cf. fíream, Laws iv 34.1 .

(b) genuine: pleurisis fhíre ┐ pleurisis nach fír true pleurisy and spurious O'Gr. Cat. 188 § 45 .

II subst. n. later m. g s. cosmailius fír , Ml. 55d25 . arach fir , Cóic Con. 17.1 (other exx. below); later fíra, fíre.

(a) what is true; truth, right: gáo et f.¤ , Wb. 14c22 . f.¤ n-uile sicut dixi (gl. veritas facta est) 16b22 . f.¤ neich, 30d14 (= iustitia). fer nolabrad f.¤ ┐ no chairiged gó, PH 825 . tan renas ... a ḟir for in gae when he barters truth for falsehood (i.e. right for wrong, of a king) ACL iii 315.6 . f.¤ n-aignaid ┐ screbtra truth natural and revealed Laws v 430.23 . Ailbhe co ffīor `A. the truthful' Duan. F. i 6.3 . With poss. pron.: abbair a ḟ.¤ frind, LU 4544 . ráid a fh.¤ dūn tell us the truth about it PH 1063 . is é a ḟíor this is the truth of it Ir. Monthly 1928, 549 . isé a ḟíor is ní brēcc dhamh, ZCP viii 225.3 . sinagoga ... congregatio ... ed a f.¤ isin laitin `c.' is the right word for it in Latin 113 § 4 . ce raib se ina fh.¤ though it be true PH 7324 . In asseveration or adjuration: dar f.¤ ar cubais, TBC-LL¹ 110 . ar f.¤ do gascid, 4663 . for f.¤ do ḟlatha, LL 251a48 ( TBFr. § 23 ). for f.¤ th'ainich ┐ t'anma, LL 251b1 (ib.). Concrete: co n-indistar fir cacha ceatramhan until a truth (true story) be told for every quarter IT iii 196 § 40 . IAR F.¤ according to truth, really, actually: delb nad bí iar f.¤ (gl. imaginis) Ml. 91d1 . túarascbail ... inna n-airecht sin amal itát iar f.¤ as they are in reality LU 1997 ( FA 6 ). is iat sin na fírUlaid iar f.¤ , ZCP viii 326.9 . na hIúdaide cristaide ... na hIúdaide iar ḟír, LB 158b19 . isat cara iar ndreich ... cen cop ed iar f.¤ , PH 3100 . Cf. iar fíraib truly, really (?) LL 5b49 . tría fhíribh, Duan. F. i 88.13 (: ríghe).

(b) a pledge, guarantee: dobretha f.¤ fris .i. f.¤ ciche ┐ gruaide, nime ┐ talman, grēine ┐ ēsca, etc. Rawl. 132a31 ( Ériu xi 95 ). ro lasett each an ríg ... for f.¤ comairci Colmáin, BColm. 90.6 . adguiter f.¤ hOengasa [leg. nOen.] ... fris ┐ fir flatha na nDéisi, Ériu iii 140.170 . cf. la fior flatha frisa ngaibther, Ériu xiii 31.3 . da fir dhec flatha, below, end of (c). cach fír dar ná tecar slán `every pledge that is not transgressed with safety' Metr. Dinds. iii 6.65 . Cf. ferr fir fonaidm .i. na trebaire a pledge is better than a bond O'Curry 1756 ( 23 Q 6, 34b ) = O'Curry 511 (t. cen folad) (< H 3.18, 259 ).

(c) an attestation; a proof, test, ordeal: technical term in Law, one of the five `conara fugill' or recognized methods of procedure in pleading, see Cóic Con. p. 8 , 17ff . Here perh. i mmes fíra, Ml. 26c12 (see fíre). is ed so acarar [sic leg.] forin conair fugill is fir: cinta comraitti ┐ anfoit lanḟiachaig ┐ cach cin imna dir logad no trocaire, Cóic Con. 17 § 5 . uide īce in fira .i. in fir lai ┐ in fir Dé ┐ in fir cuir ┐ cunnartha ... in leth-fir testa ... in lan-fir teasta, O'Curry 333 (< H 3.18, 183 ). Cf. Cóic Con. 67 . mac mná dobheir fior i logh a ruice, Ériu xiii 31.28 . f.¤ nDé a religious ordeal or attestation: in inbaidh aititnither ... is fir nDé uadh ...; muna aititnighe ... is arra cuir ..., O'Curry 2003 Comm. (< H 4.22, 30 ). comadh ann robeth in fir dé so lais iar nemfadbail fire daoine, Laws iv 294.7 Comm. co dtisadh a bfir do cach iar bfir De (.i. na eclaise) ┐ duine (.i. na tuaithi), O'Curry 1607 (< 23 Q 6, 5a ). lia do fír fri ... aiṅcessa māra (.i. fris inni is anfis do neoch forna fagabthar breth acht fir ṅDe) thou shalt follow (the way of) ordeal in cases of, etc., Cóic Con. 16 § 3 . 37 § 50 . is cranncur fíre De docurethur ru, O'D. 900 . (< H 3.17 c. 644 ). f.¤ testa compurgation: O'Curry 2591 (< Eg. 88, 50b ), see Cóic Con. 67 . lucht fira compurgators: Cóic Con. 32 § 29 . in t-espuc, is greim cuicir gobas a lucht fira a leith re dainib ele, ┐ ni gabann acht greim aengraidh i leith ris fein, O'Curry 1058 (< H 3.18, 438a_b ). f.¤ dochum reilgi an attestation made in a churchyard Cóic Con. 64 § 14 . Ériu ix 114 . f.¤ n-airisme fri haltoir the test of standing at the altar Laws v 470.34 (see IT iii 192 ). f.¤ caire no crannchuir ordeal of the cauldron or of lot Laws iv 294.3 Comm. coiri fír .i. lestur ... fri dealochadh firindi ┐ góa, IT iii 191 § 21 . crand fīr `test-tree,' tree of ordeal Laws iv 146.27 ; a name for the aspen , Auraic. 1195 . tal no slisean seancraind, leasdar Baduirnd, trelia mothar no fir n-airisme fri haltoir, no fir fogearrta no comperta naime: ate ind sin fira ro suidistar Padraic do gleod fer nErend, Laws v 470 (see IT iii 188 , where three of these are included in the da fir dhec flatha `the twelve ordeals').

(d) right, due: ara tisad a f.¤ cach that everyone might `attain to his right' Laws i 152.1 . oc tacra a ḟír `arguing his right' Trip. 128.3 . is im fir ban ciato-imargaet roe `about the true right of women' [ = for a case (i.e. dispute) of women ?] Laws i 150.13 . Cf. fria hiomasdad a ffíor fri breith, Ériu xiii 34.7 (perh. belonging to c).

(e) various phrases: F.¤ CATHA `truth of battle,' a just cause in fight: risnā ragbad ríam ... f.¤c. nā fornirt [leg. fornert ?] comlaind, TBC-LL¹ 5083 (perhaps against whom neither equal nor superior numbers ever prevailed). co nā gabdais f.¤ c. fria n-athair that they might not have right on their side in opposing their father (of the three Finn Emna) Dinds. 140 , corresp. to: cumbad olc a f.¤ c. i n-agaid a n-ardḟlatha, Metr. Dinds. iv 44z . ba fearr a f.¤c. ┐ comlaind sin im a nduthaigh [sic leg.) ... innas im an ferand forgabala, Cog. 70.6 . táinig re síol bhflatha Fáil | gan ḟíor gcatha do chongbháil it turned out ill for ... that they had not right on their side TD 18.28 . éirghidh ar Ulltaibh, óir atá fíor gcatha agaibh chuca, Keat. ii 5643 . feirrde m'fhior chatha sa sin my cause of quarrel is the juster Content. xiv 4 . tré neimhḟíor gcatha in an unjust cause viii 24 . F.¤ FER fair play (in combat), single combat: acht cor damthar fir fer dam, ol se, atbér. is cóir f.¤ f. do chomollod ... ar ní f.¤ f. do slúag mór muinterda brisiud for óenfer, LU 9213 ( FB 94 ). nosgeodainseom huile ... uair rombrisiset fir fer fair, TBC-I¹ 809 (= LU 5284 ). rop áil damsa or L. conumrabad fir fer úaitsiu. cidón? or C. connachamthised úait acht oenlám. ar ni ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 122b5 ( RC iii 184 ). ni damar f.¤ f. dam na comlond, TBC-LL¹ 4706 . ní rodamhadh f.¤ fer ná comhlann fo coimhlíon dóibh acht ro chinn an t-iolar ar uathadh, AFM iv 996.14 . is and sin conbocht f.¤ f. fairseom ... día lotar in cóicfer cucaiseom, LU 6240 . dogniat aní sein ┐ dobreth a f.¤ f. fris, Ériu iii 137.50 (but Rawl. B 502, 132a31 has here: dobretha fir fris .i. fir ciche ┐ gruaide, etc., cited above under b). fior fer frisa ngaibhther, Ériu xiii 34.10 . Cf. muirbhfit ... iat i bhfir aeinḟir, RC xliii 24.9 . F.¤ FÉNE the truth (justice) of the F., itbath fir Fene, Laws i 150.17 . adbath fir Feiniu manipad cuicthi, 250y . F.¤ FLATHA the word of a prince; justice of a ruler: ní fíor flathu deit, a rí ..., a n-udbere thy sentence is unworthy of a just ruler RC xii 64.26 . co comet fir flatha .i. mess cacha bliadne , etc. (effects of just rule) xvi 280.7 . is tre ḟ.¤ flathemon cach recht rán ... cach tír toirthech, ZCP xi 81 §§ 12.14 . tré ḟíor ḟlatha ... tig ... iasg i n-inbhear, Content. vi 67 . asbertatar U. a mmarbad. ni thó, ar sisi, ar is coll fír f.¤ damsa the U. said that they should be killed. Nay, said she, for that is a violation of a prince's truth on my part RC xvi 281. 2 . F.¤ NGASCID fair fighting: ní f.¤ ṅg. ... comrac frimsa co n-oenláim, LL 116b39 ( RC viii 58 ). Cf. ní fír laechdachta dó tuidecht ar mo chendsa LU 6014 .

Compds.

A With subst. common as adj. prefix in sense

(a) veracious, true, just: ¤brithem a just judge Ml. 27c1 . dond ¤brithemain, 26c11 (gl. cognitori) Wb. 8d25 . ¤brithemnacht a just judgment: g s. ¤brithemnachtae (opp. to gūbrithemnacht) Ml. 103c2 . ¤breth id.: pl. -a, SR 8325 . ¤dliged just, true rule: fili ... nach oide fīrdhlighidh ZCP viii 208.22 . ¤dul: iar f. (: dīlgud) according to right procedure, as is meet SR 1607 . ¤mess true, righteous judgment: ind fírmessa (gl. aequitatis) Ml. 103d1 . ¤mod: fīrmod sōn, Corm. Y § 149 . firmodh son, YBL 245 a 54 (Immacallam In Dá Thúarad) , ZCP xxi 325 . ¤scél true account: ni innisim acht f., Acall. 1428 . Less freq. in later texts; cf. fírferg: rinn ar bhḟírḟeirge ` just wrath ' TD 3.12 .

(b) veritable, genuine, real (very common; cf. older Engl. use of very < Fr. vrai): ¤dia: conapad f. mac that the Son should not be very God Ml. 21c12 . Wb. 2d8 . fíordia ... fíordhuine very God ... very man ZCP viii 199.22 (but: in fírdía the true God , opp. to dee ` heathen gods ' PH 433 , 2347 ). ¤duine: ní for fírduine rolaset a ṅgona acht is for corthe cloche, Thes. ii 343y (Comm. on Hy v 66 ). amal fírdhuine like a veritable human being PH 5642 . ¤aingel: messimir inna fíraingliu `the very angels' Wb. 9c10 . ¤mac: f. aicnid ní a uccu `a very son of nature, not from adoption' 32b6 . conid f. Dé Ísu Crist, PH 2179 . ¤chlann: Eua ..., fotha febda fírclainne of genuine offspring (?) SR 1064 . ¤chorp: is a ḟirchurp a doenachta atracht Crist a bás the real body of His humanity PH 6743 . Cf. further: am fírisrahelte a true Israelite Wb. 23d30 . is iat sin na fírUlaid the genuine Ultonians Rawl. 156b46 , ZCP viii 326.9 . frisna ¤adnacla (gl. non in domibus sed in sepulcris) Ml. 83d3 . is ¤briathar Dé (gl. non ut verbum hominum sed ... verbum Dei) Wb. 24d22 . fíor-fhraochdacht genuine fury (= asperitatem veram) TSh. 8130 . in ¤gním the real action Sg. 139a3 . inna ¤neuturáldi the true neuters 140a6 . ¤chara a genuine friend: g p. na fircarat , CCath. 5562 . cf. fiórnámha `a veritable foe ' TD 13.8 . ¤chlérech a true cleric: las na firclerchiu, Mon. Tall. § 13 . ¤dia the real God PH 433 (see above). ¤flaith a true, rightful prince: issin t[ṡ]ossud na fírflatha, LU 10752 ( TE 11 ). cosin f. (i.e. God) SR 1812 . ¤ true King: isé in fír-rig (of God) PH 1808 . Passing into sense of exact: ¤chenn sróna the very tip ZCP iii 34.19 . co firc[h]leit[h]i sleibi Olimp the very summit CCath. 5629 . i ¤dorus Chilli M. right in front of Trip. 136.16 . gáeth ... ina ¤ētan right in their faces LU 2184 ( FA 26 ). hi firmedón na cuardae the very centre BDD 72 . ¤mhullach Sléibi Smóil the very top Acall. 3925 . i ffiorthaobh ratha Oiligh the very side of the fort Leb. Gab.(i) i. 180.18 (cf. a dorus assa firthoeb (of the Ark) SR 2468 , where pref. seems otiose). 'na firiarthur right at the west end SR 4256 . ¤iarthar in betha, TTr.² 40 . frisin n-eclais a ¤thuaid due north of the church SR 4440 . i ¤ichtur inn aigeoin the very bottom CCath. 1386 . (hence adj. ¤íchtarach: superl. don chuid is fíríochtaruidh don bholg the innermost parts Proverbs xxvi 22 ). for a fir-uachtur on its very top SR 4332 . i ffíorthosach na bliadhna, AFM vi 2096.4 . ó fhíorthús na n-aimsear from earliest times TSh. 2917 . Very common with abstracts = true, genuine or merely intens. downright, sheer: ¤aicned: bretha firaicnid `judgements of true nature' Laws i 16.10 . a fīraicned screptra ┐ chuibsi, Ériu i 214.6 . ¤athrige genuine repentance PH 2241 . ¤chaín true smoothness; gentleness , in phr. f.¤ fáilte a hearty welcome: IT i 120.32 . Acall. 5830 . Ériu iii 164.11 ; xi 195.35 . ZCP vi 31.15 . ¤deacht true Godhead Hy ii 42 . ¤déirc true charity: tobar ¤deirce, ZCP viii 199.21 . ¤féchain scrutinizing: aca firechain cona dligthech, etc. looking to see that it is lawfully ... Laws iv 20.27 Comm. , cf. aca ¤dechsain, 22.29 , ZCP viii 205.33 . ¤grád true love: idir an bhfíor-ghrádh ... ┐ an grádh tacair, TSh. 8953 . ¤ítu intense thirst: follscadh firiotan, Leb. Gab.(i) i 28.2 . ¤less real profit SR 322 . ¤róen a downright defeat SR 5092 . ¤thnúth ` deep envy ' Ériu iv 92 § 5 . Oft. apparently otiose and freq. used for sake of alliteration: togha fírbhech ár bfoghluim `of most genuine bees' O'Gr. Cat. 475.22 . ar a fad nó ar a ¤leithett, AFM vi 2082.1 . agá fforach ┐ acca ffírlenmhain, 2318.1 . cossmhailes foichedh -bheach, 2224.3 . an faircle ¤leac fionnaolta na feineistre [sic leg.], Hugh Roe 288.27 (f. 76a) . ag déanamh fíorluit is foghla, Keat. ii 3262 .

(c) forming real compds. in which the meaning of subst. is modified: f.¤chruithnecht selected (?) wheat LU 8121 . ¤íasc salmon: cora ḟiresc `a salmon-weir ' RC xxvi 136.23 . bratan fireisc, Lism. L. viii 18 . lethar fírésc `salmon skin' MacCongl. 89.9 = cris d'iucraibh fīréisc, 122.35 (see also u. -uisce). ¤lemnacht fresh milk LU 8120 ( FB 9 ). Acall. 829 . ¤thipra a spring LL 30a1 . ¤uisce fresh water (opp. to brine), spring water ZCP v 24.2 . CCath. 1742 . BColm. 52.11 . Fl. Earls 90.20 . Études Celt. i 86.16 . Proverbs xviii 4 . eisg firuisgi fresh-water fish Rosa Angl. 40z .

B With adj. as advbl. pref. in sense truly, genuinely, downright or merely intens. ¤amnas very keen SR 1830 . ¤cruind perfectly round 36 . ¤derb quite certain Wb. 12c12 . ¤doim ` really poor ' Mon. Tall. 46 . ¤éolach ` truly learned ' Ériu iv 144.8 . Oft. merely for alliteration (cf. A, b above); faideran ¤gorm, Acall. 367 . fomor ¤grán[d]a, 1884 . féige finn ¤ṡolus, LL 385c23 . In such adjs. as fírbrethach just in judgment ( Ériu i 122.9 . ZCP xi 96 § 55 . Cáin Ad. 21 ), ¤epertach truth-speaking ( PH 6499 . RC xxv 396.16 ), fír belongs to the noun fr. which the adj. is formed. ¤ferr truly the best: an agh dob fhírfhearr dar n-ealbhaidh, PBocht 4.9 . C With vb. (chiefly in poetry), intens. or merely otiose (met. gr.): rofirchrap, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 69 = IT iii 99 § 164 . ga file nach fiorchuala?, Top. Poems 24.12 ( Top. Poems² 224 ). cía lia fer le fír-gairthir `is rightly called' Metr. Dinds. iii 60 . fíreba[i]r (: fīnemain) will be quaffed (ibid.) ACL iii 238.23 . fírníamhfuid will purify Ezekiel xliii 26 . fírfoscaigfider, Rawl. 111b15 (gl. on: forbuascaigfider). mōr fiad resa fīrtheichet from which they flee in earnest Ériu vii 4.15 . ro fíorthiorchanadh lá fáidhibh was foretold truly AFM vi 2298.8 .

léir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. léir or dil.ie/29810

Forms: léra, lérscribnid

adj i (but see Murphy Lyrics 1 and 2 léir ) ? Pl. also léra: gidh mor a lochta léra, Duan. F. ii xlix 45 .

I

(a) In O. Ir. freq. used attributively: assiduous, earnest, careful, zealous : indithem leir ┐ menma adblam assiduous attention, Ml. 53c18 . léri gl. (inuentione malorum) diligentes, 88c6 . sóer .i. leir són gl. dilegens, 145c12 . industrius .i. l.¤ , Sg. 41a1 . caraimse fos . . . / oc mo lebran leir ingnu `with diligent science', Thes. ii 293.16 . áes atrige lere earnest(?), LU 2158 ( FA 23 ). eirgg dam ri toisc l.¤ co lúath urgent(?), LL 208b24 . irfhuacra l.¤ . . . fon uile doman, PH 456 . ernaigthe leri ┐ molta mora, 155 . ba leir .i. ba trebar, Lec. Gl. 79. Hence: l.¤ .i. treabhar (sic leg.). no éolach, O'Cl.

Freq. by transf. of books, chants, etc.: in lebrán l.¤ laindrech, Fél. Ep. 90 (`pious'). it lebránaib lérib, Prol. 310. tindscan lechsa léri `begin pious chants', Nov. 14. cona lóidib lérib, Prol. 334 . da cét slechtain . . . / la lebrán l.¤ don Choimdid, Ériu i 197 § 13b . litirdheacht leir ┐ rim, Auraic. 55.

(b) In verse used freq. for metrical reasons, meaning vague: Lucifur leir (:drochcēil), SR 849 . is mo cen in loingius leir, / do connarc a hetercéin, MR 46.9 . lasfaidh an lānḟairrgi / lānainfech lēir, ZCP viii 211 § 59 . do legadh linn 'san leirg lēir / trīcha cairp[th]ech, ML² 231 . Lorcán l.¤ tar firFodla, 23 E 26, 48.28 . mac Dé 'na bhreitheamh l.¤ lom, 23 G 24, 249.16 .

(c) Later much more commonly predic. with meaning visible, perceptible except in first ex. below: ba lēir Patraicc co mbebae `diligent', Thes. ii 314.6 ( Hy. ii 23 ) (gl. i crabud .i. ba feb ar crábud). connárbo l.¤ do neoch isin dúnud ┐ corbo léir dóibseom cách, LU 6405 . is l.¤ balath in conluain, Laws iv 122. 12 Comm . combat léiri lesbaire aeóir triana chend, TBC-LL¹ 1268 . in lā ō nab lēir feadha as findlinti, ACL iii 235 § 21 . ro tinoiled fuil in chatha isin ballan ┐ nir bo leir sin isin ballan beous `noticeable', Ériu v 118.60 . easbaidh carad is coigéile / ní l.¤ d'aon ar dheaghaidh Eoin felt by, Arch. Hib. i 98.z . nar l.¤ faighthe amoigh ó mnáibh so that the green was not visible on account of all the women on it, DDána 103.3 . uirre gan bhréig ní l.¤ locht, 51.1 . cairt nach l.¤ do léghadh, L. Cl. A. B. 237.11 . ceol na n-éan ní l.¤ 'san Mhárta, Keat. Poems 505 . an tan bhus léir dhamh do ghlóir-se (cum apparuerit), TSh. 10306.

Compar. leriu gl. industriior (sic), Sg. 41a2 . nách . . . líomhtha, ghéire, léire teangtha na bhfear ná ar tteangtha féin, Párl. na mB. 377 . Used for superl. in: slóg is léri rucad la rig riam .i. Goith ┐ Dalmáit . . . outstanding(?), striking(?), Alex. 100. With de: tuctha leo-sum a n-aes cíuil ┐ airfiti ┐ admolta combad leriti na hairgni, CRR 3.

II In adv. uses: is l.¤ dorigni indala lestar ` carefully ', Wb. 4c32 . is l.¤ do-rrími `it is industriously that thou recountest', Fél. Apr. 30 . secht mbeosgartha . . . / ler nos-luaigit liubuir libh, Laws ii 314.16 Comm . lē[i]r ra lēg . . . / suithe sechta, ACL iii 303 § 8 . feib leir dorigned . . . / atchuas do aírrig Egept, SR 3727 . coir ord ura dlige dia lentar leir, Laws i 266.4 .i. . . . ordu an uasil-dligidh do rer coir, mada lentar de co leir no co lór, 292.28 Comm . dlighidh leir lethchumal he is clearly entitled to(?), iv 348.17 (cf. teora leire lethcumala, 346.z ). piantar leir lām asidroille, i 12.1 Comm .

Equative used adverbially: is lerithir inso nonguidim-se dia . . . amal rotgád-sa `I beseech God for thee as urgently as . . ,' Wb. 27d19 (gl. precor multifarie). is lerigtir sin ron-gabsid occai, RC iii 346.21 `you are so determined about (finding) her', Aisl. Óeng. 12 .

In adv. phrase co ll.¤ , di l.¤ do l.¤

(a) carefully, diligently, assiduously : cid ecen áisndís do neuch as doruid co leir, Ml. 14d3 . in tan domberam ar menmain intiu co lleir gl. adcommodata aure, 21a8 . co raib indithem and co lleir, 67c12 . gudid dia di leir ┐ na carid hi far cridib, 68a15 . lilisiu iar línib / co ll.¤ donaib félib, Fél. Prol. 312 . túir la fége frithgnam / co ll.¤ ord na caiptel, 332 . maith lem . . . cé no slaiss co l.¤ give him a good drubbing, LU 6070 . ferthae a oígidecht co l.¤ amal na haidchi aili punctiliously, 11022 . iarfaigther co ll.¤ , 5993 . na téig a Brénaind . . . / conid arlasar do l.¤ , 3032 . saer lerlong .i. in saer doni cu ler no cu lor na longa, Laws v 104.3 Comm . dosroisechtsa co ll.¤ im bossán (of a ring), TBFr. 331 . oco cuinc[h]id duit do llēir, Fianaig. 14 § 31. dia mbo epscop . . . / geib do māmb do lēir, ACL iii 313 § 9 (colleir, v.l.).

(b) clearly : in tíí . . . nach dáll . . . .i. fhégas co ll.¤ . . . slige na sualach, PH 4672 . fria hetarchert co leir . . . do aicned cech retai `for penetrating clearly into the nature of . . .', 3975 .

(c) completely, entirely; used adjectivally all: ní mholaim dheit . . . / bheith éigcríonna id leanbh go l.¤ , DDána 97.40 . Imlech Iubhair do losccadh co l.¤ eittir daimhliacc ┐ cloictheach, AFM ii 874.12 . co rus dileghait uile do leir `entirely', AU i 532.6 (an. 1014). immáfoacht C. scéla di. Adfét dó ind ingen du l.¤ all, LU 10442 (H). Laighin uile do leir, AU i 532.2 (an. 1014). do thinōiledar Laigin co lēir, ML² 873. a scēla do lēir, ACL iii 5.8 . a maithi go lēir, ML² 101 . co ro bris na hídlu ┐ na altóri co l.¤ , PH 743 . a uile choibsen do lēir `his full confession', Fl. Earls 158.8 . oruibh go l.¤ , Párl. na mB. 354 .

III As subst. teacht l.¤ a dtionóil iar bhfagháil rabhaidh dhóibh, L. Cl. A. B. 42.30 (lér, v.l.). Cf. compds. below.

Compds. (freq. in alliteration). With substt. and vnn. ¤aisnéis: Lucás . . . fer na ler-aisneisen-si, PH 5636 . ¤choimét carefully preserving : na laīde da leirchomet (of a tale), LL 376a x . ¤chrech: gan déanamh léirchreach, gan maidhm, gan cháin, Keat. Poems 567 . ¤fhrital: léirfhriotal laoitheadh, Hackett xxxix 235 . ¤gním: adfed dia muindtir lergnima na bliadne beus amail cach faith, Dinds. 27. As vn. in Fáthliaig . . . ic lērgním in taige `setting in order the house', MacCongl. 91.15 . Attrib. g s. in tech lērgníma `well-appointed', 67.16 . ¤laíd: saigid lulgaigh lan-mesaig ar leir-laidh leirigter `for a clearly manifested laid' (apparently a legal maxim), Laws v 62.18 . ¤lí: amal badh rós léirlí a chinn, Comp. CC 101.10 (leirlighi a cenn, v.l.). ¤mes `act of closely considering, estimating', TSh. Gloss.; criticizing, calculating : léir-mheas do dhéanamh ar gach anfhochain, TSh. 7662 . lucht a léirmheasta, 5165 . ¤reic (2 reic): ag léir-reic locht a chomharsan, 9026 (`act of clearly stating, enumerating'). ¤scríbnid: Lucas lérscribnid , LB 185a39 . ¤scris annihilating : pláig . . . chum léirsgris do thabhairt ar an ccine daona, Párl. na mB. 1284 . ¤thacra: lertacra .i. tacra eisidhe do-gnither ara leithe ┐ ara léire ┐ ara chirt, Cóic Con. 60 § 144 . ¤thecosc: ár léirtheagasc féin duit, Keat. Poems 373 . ¤thinól complete muster: lin na tuaithi uili . . . a ler-tinol, Laws v 50. 4 Comm . rigraidh Laigen ┐ Osraigi cona lertinol, RC xviii 272.29 (Tig.). san bfaithchi lá an lérthinól, IGT Decl. ex. 931. ¤thúarascbáil: lerthuarascbail na cined-sin do faisnes, LB 150a55 .

With adjj. ¤chert: adv. an léigheann go léircheart do chárnuigh, Hackett xl 75 . ¤meinic (dvandva-compd.?) zealous and frequent : co coibsinuibh leirmincuip / do rēir carud naeimh, ACL iii 320 § 98.

With adjj. formed from nouns. ¤brígach of outstanding force(?): cach luíghe leirbríghach .i. cach aen brigus luighe co leir, O'Curry 2009 ( H 4.22, 33 ). ¤chíallach: dar le daoinibh léirchiallacha, Párl. na mB. 27 (`very sensible,' Gloss.).

With part. ¤thinóilte : go mbatar i n-aenmaighin . . . co lionmar leirthionoilte, Leb. Gab.(i) 246.10 . do ionntuígheadar Ulltaigh uile ┐ Laighnigh go léir-thionóilte forro, ML 62.25 . a dteacht léirthionóilte, L. Cl. A. B. 42.22 .

With verbs ¤chenglaid: fa a thuathaibh do iadh 'na fhéithleannaigh / gur léircheangail aniar go Cruachain gcraobhchollaigh, Aithd. D. 4.13 . ¤chrechaid lays waste: tond do leircreach tír thoraidh, ZCP ii 346.26 . ro leircreachadh Baile an Mhótaigh . . . seach gach mbaile, AFM vi 1936.10 . ¤goid (gataid): séideadh séitreach do ghaoith . . . / do léir-ghoid do théagar, Keat. Poems 554 . ¤indrid: ro creachadh ┐ ro lérindreadh an tír, AFM vi 1974. 22 . ¤loiscid: do dhóich sí na caóirigh . . . ┐ do lérloisg iad, Job i 16 . ¤lommaircid: gur milleadh ┐ gur lerlomairccedh leo, AFM iii 390.14 . ¤scrisaid: léir-sgriosfuidh sé a peacacha-san aiste amach, Isaiah xiii 9 . ¤theclammaid: ro leirtheglamadh lais an conranagair do sochraide, AFM v 1356.6 . ¤therbaid: ro leir-therbá Colum cille a soos . . . o cach duinne co Dia, RC xx 252 § 54.

1 leithet

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 leithet or dil.ie/29840
Last Revised: 2013

n Originally t n., Ériu xxxv 148 n. 27 . (cf. lethan, and GOI 167 ).

(a) breadth, width: i mbucai no lethit (gl. latitudinem), Sg. 3b13 . lethet a bél, Críth G. 571 . lethech . . . .i. ainm do cheneliu eisc . . . .i. ara lethet ┐ ara thanadetaid, Corm. Bodl. 12.5 . ceithri duirn a leithit, ZCP xiv 351.15 (= Laws ii 246.6 = lethat, O'Dav. 706 ). ag loige meich . . . airtem (a) l.¤ a crui iar n-airthur, ZCP xiv 348.2 ( Laws ii 238.14 ). ceitheora bairgena . . . da dorn a l.¤ ┐ dorn a tiget, ZCP xiv 356.8 ( Laws ii 254.8 ). mad cora . . . tri traigte a leithead, Laws v 112.1 . in talam cona fot ┐ a lethet, i 26.23 Comm . lethfat (sic) buna in litanain `the breadth', ii 232.23 Comm . Comgan ┐ Marcill / co llethet a llinde `the breadth of their wisdom', Fél. Oct. 13 . corann liath lethet baisi, Ériu ii 229.2 . dobeir Dia traig cacha bliadne fora lethet adds a foot to its breadth, RC ix 494.10 (ICM). dá chubat . . . / bid i llethet cech oen chláir, SR 4240 . lethet na criche, LL 6502. l.¤ da gabail bhadéin dit chrích, TBC-LL¹ 5997 . bradan . . . da dorn .x. na lethed, CS 316.3 . go bhfad ┐ go leithead an chuirp, TSh. 5757 . lethat Tūadmuman a tūaid, Ériu ii 50 § 3. téit i l.¤ multiplies, increases: Dái Galach . . . / do chuaid a chlann i lithed (:fichet), SG 333.20 (lethead, MS.). co ndeachatar a tren ┐ a treisi ┐ a l.¤ lanmhor, L. Chl. S. 2. Cf. cuirfidh sé iad a saibhrios ┐ a leathad feadh an tshaoghail, Beatha S. F. 736 .

(b) expanse, stretch(?): saibreochadsa tú . . . do lethadaibh móra ferainn, Fier. 16 (do lethet morferainn, v.l.).

In n. loc. síth Lethet Oidni, Imr. Brain 53.2 . do sruthair Lethet Oidni, z 0 (lethit, v.l.).

sárugud

Cite this: eDIL s.v. sárugud or dil.ie/36218

Forms: sárgud

u m. vn. of sáraigid. Somet. also sárgud (the usual form in early poetry).

I

(a) act of violating, outraging, flouting, disobeying : ni dhene sealbh sarugad violent seizure does not constitute possession (?), RC xliii 18.11 . brath ┐ saruigthi ┐ guin, Laws i 56.14 Comm . brúghadh, sārughudh, eigniughudh, dinge, linge, Eg. Gl. 56 .

(b) of persons: iss ed lóg [a] enech dia aír, dia díguin, dia esáin, dia shárug[ud] `dishonouring, iniuria ' (Gloss.), Críth G. 25 . díguin glossed sarugud, LU 1516 ( MU² 1014 ). i[s] s.¤ damsa trúag nó trén . . . do chuingid neich chuci `'tis an outrage to me if (anyone) . . . as aught of him', ZCP iii 216 § 30 ( LU 9710 ). do s.¤ Dé ┐ dáine `to outrage God and men', RC iv 250 § 16 ( LU 2379 ). is me targlaim na sluagu sair | lúag mo sharaigthe d'Ultaib in requital for my being insulted by the U., TBC-LL¹ 3223 = lūach mo sāraichthi, TBC-I¹ 2404 . is mor an dínsium ┐ in sárugud dos-bere foraind, PH 3912 . [i] n-éiric in grista truim .i. a saraigthe, Laws i 66.33 Comm . , glossing i ndigail a thromgreisi, 64.9 . dia leigi sarugad for a coinne `if he allow (his pledge) to be violated in his presence', v 170.2 Comm . is sarugud dun do dulasa i Mumain, RC xliii 20.2 . do indis . . . | a brāthir da tshārugudh that his brother had outraged him (Philip of Herod), Ériu iv 176 § 20 . beit . . . ag aithfer . . . for in Coimdhe gan a logad doibh . . . na saraigthi tucsat fair, RC xxviii 318 § 33 . do bhí Éabha . . . | ar tí shéana a sháraichthe about to deny that she had disobeyed him, DDána 5.24 . do shárughadh a n-aghaidh ar nDé lé pósadh ban coimhightheach, Nehemiah xiii 27 . With imm: Fergus do marbad Thraigthreóin . . . ┐ a brathar ┐ sargud Conchobair impu flouted C. concerning them, LL 261a9 = sarugud, IT i 76 § 16 . cen a sharugad imon mbec mbíd fil aici, FDG 127 ( MR 18.8 ). a brathair . . . do sharucchadh imon mbloidh mbicc tire i mboí, AFM vi 2260.z .

(c) in phr. tar s.¤ in spite of, in defiance of, against the wishes of: tar a saraghadh fein no a tuistin no a fine in spite of herself or her child or her tribe, Laws i 180.17 Comm . gl. toirched tar apud, 176.1 . dar fricur fine .i. dar sarugud fine, O'Dav. 911 . tuargaib Balam a guth ṅgluair | dara sargud in morslúaig, SR 4806 . dar sarugud a thusnigthe = invitis parentibus, Lat. Lives 87.5 . an macamh . . . do marbad tar sarugud . . . Airt (under whose protection he was), Ériu iii 160 § 13 . is dar sarugud Dé ┐ Patraic . . . da cech duine erfas a cheli . . . im sét, RC xii 432 § 31 . toirimt[h]echt domnaigh Dē dēin | . . . | is tar sārugud (leg. sārgud) in Choimdegh, Ériu iii 143 § 2 . in fer dobera gell tar sarugad `in despite', Laws v 180.14 Comm . tar sarugud Dé in violation of God's command, PH 8402 . comairce mís ┐ raithi ┐ bliadne aice sein . . . da gach duine dar sarugud bhfer nEirenn (of S. Finnchua), Lism. L. 2997 . Eochaid . . . do dallad . . . tar sárugudh na cleíreach, RC xviii 268.23 . M. . . . do ghabháil lá Gallaibh . . . tor sarúchcadh trí n-epscop `in violation of the guarantee of three bishops', AFM iii 160.2 .

Cf. do chaill sinn ar sáruighthe `bets (?)' (notes) (of a game of fidchell), LBranach 6777 .

(d) of a woman: in inuclund dlighus in oig ina sarugha[d], Laws i 132.18 Comm . dian tsarugh[ud] `forcible violation', iv 228.z . ro mídair . . . a sárgud (: thálgud) `to ravish her', Metr. Dinds. iv 24.16 . rob olc lé sárgud a sethar, LL 296a5 ( SG 361.y ). ni fhuair a slad na a saruccadh do dhenamh (of a woman travelling alone), Cog. 138.14 . do dighail a mna ┐ a saraighthe forro, RC xviii 193.7 . Fig.: éagnaighthe re Dia a dochar | mar tá sí ar n-a sárochadh (of Éire), A. Ó Dálaigh liii 11 .

(e) of commands, ordinances, etc.: cech smacht . . . ┐ cech recht no ortaigtheá ó feraib Herend . . . ní laimthea a sarugud, LU 4214 . mallachad luchta sáraigthe na n-aithned who transgress, PH 7305 . d'éis sháraighthe a aithne uainn, Aithd. D. 63.3 . aitheanta Dé do shárughadh, Donlevy 100.22 . na trí sáruighthe do ghníodhmaoid ar na trí reachtaibh, Eochairsg. 83.14 . ofráil sháruighthe `trespass-offering', Levit. vi 17 . lucht an tsáruighthe `the transgressors', Proverbs ii 22 .

(f) of sacred places, churches, etc. (cf. AFM v 1446 - 7 note): sarughadh domnaigh Phatraicc `profanation', AU i 206.y . iar sarugad termainn Tamlachtai Maeleruain d'uu Neill, 298.6 . Inis Cathaigh do sarughudh do Brían mac C. for Gallaib Luimnigh, RC xvii 339.21 . sárucchad a cheall, BNnÉ 261.6 . Note also: tiagait . . . do sharugud in tigi `to break the house', BDD 6 ( BDD² 87 ). bachall Issa do sarugud, RC xvii 367.27 . mo daig-ḟer . . . | ni laimed slúag a shargud (: brá-dub) `no host dared affront it' (a spear), Metr. Dinds. iv 334.72 .

(g) act of ravaging, laying waste; rapine : ? robōi cuit do maccaib C. ocont sharugud (of a battle), Mór M. 8 . gach gaid ┐ gach slad ┐ gach sarugud dognithi isin cathair, CCath. 54 . ? in neach nar bhreathnuigh cur sharachadh do bheith cudtruma re Dia = non rapinam arbitratus est esse se equalem Deo, ITS xxix 166.7 (46.28) . slad ┐ sárucchadh an tíre, AFM vi 2106.22 . da slad ┐ da sarughud (a country), Stair Erc. 1391 . in fairge aga sarachadh (the disciples) = invadere (Gloss.), Smaointe B. Chr. 2221 .

II

(a) overcoming, getting the better of: ba sárgad sáir-thrin . . . | bán-mac Máinchin `an over-match for a powerful third', Metr. Dinds. iii 464.3 . ni thallai do dainib im fer diib lin a sharaighthe ar nert `enough . . . to overpower him by force', Ériu ii 130.z . caislén I C. . . . do ghabáil lé hIarla Ch. . . . iarna shárugad fo a athair after it had prevailed (= held out) against his father, ALC ii 224.25 = iar ffeimdhedh a ghabhála dia athair, AFM v 1336.17 . bean sháruighthe [doirre Dé] (Mary), PBocht 9.5 . agá sárughadh ré hiodhbairt luach-mhóir an aifrinn do thréigean constraining them, TSh. 6050 .

(b) exceeding, excelling : ot chondcatar Laegaire cona druidib do sarughadh tria firta . . . i fiadnaisi fer n-Erend (i.e. by Patrick), Laws i 14.19 . toil ar n-aithreach | . . . | nach peacadh sinn dá sárachadh `to outdo our Fathers' fervour', Aithd. D. 89.28 . iarna sharugudh di i ngach egna for she had excelled him in every kind of wisdom, ZCP vi 24.11 . ní raibhe sáor a sáraighthe (Gobán), BNnÉ 233 § 148 . go bhfóirfidh sé mar leabhrán urnaighthe do'n mhuintir ag nach bhfuil a shárughadh who have nothing better, Donlevy iv 25 . dhá shárughadh a mbochtacht, Desid. 1334 . fithche bliadhain do shárughadh to be over twenty years of age, Donlevy xix 3 .

2 síd, síth

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 síd, síth or dil.ie/37442

Forms: sidi

n (cf. 1 síd?) s, n. Later u and o, m., and ā, f. IGT Decl. § 38.6 .

(a) peace, goodwill, peaceableness; a state of peace; a period of peace, a truce; terms of peace; peacemaking, pacification, conciliation : airde síde et cáinchomricc, Wb. 24b28 . cen sloglussu .i. cid cen na bec ndo s.¤ and `without truces i.e. even without a little of peace there', Ml. 51a5 . hi s.¤ gl. in multa requie, 53c15 . ar tuasulcud-ni á toiri ┐ tinnacul síde dún `the giving of peace to us', 105d10 . nacha sloglussu .i. nacha side són `i.e. any periods of peace' (gl. indutias), 111b19 . rīsam huili s.¤ (.i. celum) ind ríg `may we all reach the peace of the King', Thes. ii 304.9 ( Hy. i ) (sith, v.l.) (a play on the meanings of 1 síd and 2 síd, Éigse xvi 23 n. 9 ). síth iar sáeth, Thes. ii 332.1 ( Hy. v ). a n-ána for sruamannaib i sidh socomét in fosernaither flatha (leg. i sída sochomét fosernaiter flathib (Stokes) `for preservation of peace'), O'Dav. 1464 . breth .i. sith no cain, . . . pax uobis a laidin, sith no si[th]cain a gaoidheilg, 323 . drebraing iar cath chalad | issa s.¤ sóer subach, Fél. Ap. 2 . pōc quasi pāc, a páce, ar is airde sīda pax , Corm. Y 1057 . a maccu lēigind, lēgaid! | rob sēnuidh slondad sīdhe may you sign yourselves with the name of peace (?), 724 . lánaib . . . | do sidaib, do sonmigeib, SR 440 . a lánsíd a lánóentu, LU 2484 . slanti cen galar . . . s.¤ cen debaid, 2469 . lanṡíth i nHérinn i flaith Conaire, BDD² 229 . do-bér-sa cid aichni arin tí fhrecéras in fálti in ra s.¤ no in ra debech, MU² 827 . is Sencha macc Ailella ar s.¤ ┐ ar ṡo-berla, CRR 27 (cf. in cráeb sída, below). sith bliadne do Muirchertach . . . ┐ . . . do ri[g] Lochlann a truce, RC xviii 23.4 (Tig.). for cind rig int ṡída .i. Ísu Crist, LB 150b12 . cidh sídh bes in cech inadh bidh cocadh ann, CCath. 504 . a haithle a sídha ┐ a sádháilechta fada `after their peace and their long slothfulness', 586 . do c[h]uir an sīth a n-airdi . . . ┐ do innis dā allmarchaib cogad do beith oslaicthi acu re Conn made an end of peace, ML² 1026 . triasa fhúidbet s.¤ Dé ┐ a múinnterus peace with God, PH 6503 . doberim mo sh.¤ duib, ol Ísu; facbaim mo shíd ocaib, 6829 . sídh Eirionnaigh ní híarthuir `peace is sought with no Irishman', Studies 1919, 258 § 18 . grad fagla ┐ fuath do ṡith | múnadh gach adbair ardrigh, Irish Texts ii 25 § 2 . ná heirg i slánaib sídha (leg. sítha: cóigcrícha) `in ratifying of peace-compacts have no part', O'Gr. Cat. 412.1 . is díon ar urchraibh d'fhagháil | síodh Murchaidh Í Mhadadháin goodwill, DDána 85.51 . teachta síth, 68.22 . sioth do thabhairt dom thoil letting my will have its own way, 6.4 . ar fhuaim shídh do shaorchlannuibh `in reconciling nobles', Aithd. D. 41.13 . cóir nách comhaillid cath Saxan | síoth don fhoirinn fhadhálta `it is but fitting that the Saxon soldiery fulfil not terms of peace', TD 16.7 . fuaradar . . . | cairt a sídh, Dán Dé xiv 16 . na Tiabanda . . . i sidh in[a] cathrachaib comdaingnib `at peace', TTebe 1232 . bandei int shida .i. Pax, 4485 . bím-si . . . lán do shíoth, do shochroidheacht, ┐ do chiūnas, Desid. 984 . ní háil linn osadh ar bioth nō síoth do bheith againn réna naimhdibh, 942 . Attrib. gen.: ? cainsluag sidi, set rosaig, | mór mili . . ., SR 471 . críoch Mhumhan na séadmhúr sídh `of rich peaceful dwellings', Studies 1920, 97 § 1 .

do-gní s.¤ (occasionally cenglaid s.¤ ) makes peace : dorronad síid eter muntir nime et talman, Wb. 26d5 . doroni Find ┐ Goll s.¤ iar tain, LU 3212 (H). do dénam sída célci fris treacherous peace, 6147 . do-gní s.¤ eturru, BDD² 233 . do c[h]englatar a comroind ┐ a sīdh, ML² 982 . sidh mo dherc nocha denuim `I give my eyes no peace', Irish Texts ii 82 § 4 . síoth Laighean is Leithe Cuinn | 'n-ar fhás d'aimhréidhibh eadruinn | do-ní an lacha ó linn Muaidhe, Aithd. D. 18.17 . síodh ar gcean nó gur ceangladh, 64.4 . ní déantar gan díoth anma | síoth na gcéadfadh gcorpardha, PBocht 11.38 . gan mhearbhall gan fhíoch gan uaill | do shíoth go ndearnam fa dheoidh, Dán Dé xxvii 16 . do ba lántoil lé Cormac an tsíoth soin do dhéanamh, Keat. iii 3142 . cheangladar síoth ré Cormac, ii 5648 . go ndearna síth báitte coindel ris (`a peace so solemn that he who should violate it would incur excommunication', note), AFM iii 228.y .

in chráeb ṡída (the shaking of which caused men to cease from fighting): atraacht Sencha macc Ailella ┐ ra-chroth in craib sida ┐ ra-ansatar Ulaid, CRR 52 (cf. in craib Sencha, LU 8421 ( FB 29 , H)). atraacht Sencha iartain ┐ rochroth in cráeb sída ósna sluagaib combtar sídaig amal betis maic oen-athar, RC xiv 426 § 47 . craeb ṡída ┐ forṡidaigthi Fian Érenn, Acall. 6565 (v.l. p. 329.22 ). fer, cenn sída a peacemaker, a maintainer of peace : fer sitha Conaill is Eogain, AU ii 314.16 . ceann síodha na sé líne `the great pacifier of the Six Generations', Aithd. D. 67.3 .

ar s.¤ (folld. by gen. or by is = ocus), do sh.¤ (folld. by gen. or RE) at peace (with): ar síodh a bhiodhbhadh dá mbeam, Aithd. D. 84.4 . gan ghlún ó shin ar a shíoth, 100.32 . bean gá bhfuil chríoch ar gcoinne | do chuir ar a síoth sinne `has taken us under her peace', A. Ó Dálaigh vii 2 . gan í ar síoth is siad, PBocht 5.37 . do shíoth na n-aingeal eile | do bhaoi, 14.8 . bheith do shíoth ris gach aoin-neach, TSh. 9346 .

As quasi-vn. act of pacifying, keeping the peace : in tres fer ic sídh etarru, CCath. 100 . dorala ermor aireach . . . ag sith eitir Mac Cuill ┐ a braithre, Leb. Gab.(i) 244.8 . ro feimdetar fir Héren[n] a sid immon ríge, RC xx 140.23 ( ACC Pref . ).

(b) a peace-offering, compensation, atonement, indemnity; compact of peace ; in pl. peace-conditions: tuc Mac Murcadha .u. fichit uinge d'ór do ṡíth d'U Ruairc, RC xviii 274.15 (Tig.). tucc an ferann . . . dó, do shith ina diultadh o dorus a tighe as a peace-offering for having turned him away . . ., BNnÉ 225 § 124 . is hi comarli doronsat sith ┐ sosad re hUilliam . . . ┐ breth Rig Saxan risna sithaib-sin `as to the conditions of peace', Ann. Conn. 1224.13 . gi bé síodh bhus loinn latsa | do bhoing dhíom 'n-a ndubhartsa, Aithd. D. 40.19 . anam gach fhir 'na dhíoth dhó | gá síoth as mhó ro dhligh Dia, Dán Dé xxvi 27 . gá chaoineadh an gcéin do mhar | ní chuala gur choisg Peadar | go dtug sé síoth [leg. sh-] 'na shéana, xx 15 . mar shéala ar a shíodh compact of peace, xviii 28 . gidh mór beag dobhéaradh sibh | is síodh a chréacht don Choimdhidh an atonement for His wounds, vi 21 . is amhlaidh do críochnuigheadh an tsíoth soin eatorra `these were the terms in which this peace was concluded', Keat. iii 5114 . déana síoth dhuit féin agus don phobal `atonement', Levit. ix 7 . a s.¤ by the appeasing power of: a síoth umhla an éarlamha, PBocht 15.16 . fagh a síoth an uisge d'ól | mo chuidse dá fhíoch d'iompódh `win by that draught's appeasing power . . .', 20.38 .

(c) pardon, forgiveness : gabhar síodh ar son an pheacaidh, DDána 15.17 . síoth mo locht ná leig ar cairde, PBocht 9.24 . do bhir Críosd . . . | síoth dhamh ina ndearna mé, Dán Dé x 12 . síodh fan gcrann do chuaidh treimhit | fuair an Dall ó Dhoiminic, iv 9 . ghuidheas le síodh slaite Boirche `praying for the pardon of B.'s prince', Aithd. D. 25.18 .

(d) of natural phenomena, peace, quietness, stillness : is ann sin tāinic sīth na ndūl ┐ na n-aird-rennach dōib ┐ fuaradar gaoth co des . . . i n-a ndegaid, ML² 678 . an tsíon ón fhoighide as fhearr, | gloinide síodh is soineann, DDána 80.3 .

Compds. ¤athair: Senan saer sidathair silem soailche `peace-father', Lism. L. 341.21 . ¤barr the crown of peace (?): sithbarr ar síthaide | samrig (leg. samrí) ar samaigt[h]i, ZCP viii 205 § 29 . ¤chiúin peaceful and calm : ba shith-chiúin coibhsuidh na cuanta, ITS i 78.5 . ¤chráeb (cf. cráeb ṡída, above): re glór bhar síodhchraobh seanma, DDána 68.21 . ¤dénam: breis chothruim dó a foscadh 's a síthdhéanamh peacemaking, Hackett xlv 12 . ¤fhlaith peaceful kingdom or rule (especially of heaven): tūatha Hérenn tairchantais | dosnicfed sídḟlaith núae, Thes. ii 314.2 ( Hy. II ) (`prince of peace'). sidhflaith .i. nime, O'Curry 477 ( H 3.18, p. 249 ). luid hi sídḟlaith sóerdai, Fél. July 13 . go rísem an siothflaith saor | sósadh soinmeach na bfíornáomh, Irish Texts iii 78 § 242 . ¤fhocal intercession, mediation : díon dúin a síoth-fhocal sin, A. Ó Dálaigh xxvi 6 . ? ¤laithe day of peace : ba hed sīthlaithe fotae, Thes. ii 319.6 ( Hy. ii ), .i. laithe in sith, Thes. ii 319.33 . siothlaithe .i. laithe an tsiodha, no na siothchána, O'Cl. ¤maith npr. f. Sithmaith abatisa cluana Bairenn mortua est , AU i 248.14 ¤nem peaceful heaven : flaitheam suairc .uii. sidhnimi, BB 399a45 . ¤airer peaceful shore : dleaghar do ríghfhilidh súr gach síodhoirir, DDána 70.6 . ? ¤slicht ba lia biadh Eoghain eachtraidh | re seóladh ar sith-sleachtaibh `peaceful tribes', ML 10.6 = sīth-Grēgaib, ML² 131 .

soillse

Cite this: eDIL s.v. soillse or dil.ie/38344
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: soilse, soillsi

n , f. (solus) O.Ir. soilse.

(a) brightness, light : léos .i. soillsi, Corm. Y 827 . sūil quasi sol, ar is treithi atā soillsi do duine. suilsi ab eo quod est sūil, 1129 . lux .i. solsse, ZCP viii 173.18 . lumen .i. s.¤ , Ir. Gl. 998 . hóre ammi maicc lai et soilse, Wb. 25c6 . ó soilsi deachte Crist `by the brightness of Christ's Godhead', 26a17 . is dǽ int soilse `the light is God's', Ml. 140c5 . cia beith soilse isind lau ní soilse do neuch bís i mbrón, 108a11 . du deicsin soilse dǽ `to see the light of God', 56a17 . dond fritobairt maill fritataibret na dorche don ṡoilsi `from the slow opposition with which the darkness opposes itself to the light', Sg. 183b3 . co cenn blīadne bái soillse, Thes. ii 319.6 ( Hy. ii ). sossaid Aingel co soillsib, SR 533 . combad coitchenn a suillsi don tegluch, LU 9199 ( FB 92 ). ba hairecna . . . in tsuillse mór sin, BDD² 589 . ba lór suilse isind rígthaigh a cumtach fil forna tinnib, 772 . se sinistri . . . do thaithnemh soillsi treithib, Laws i 28 x Comm . ni sorche suilse ind ítharni, ZCP viii 175.19 . ní bhí s.¤ i dteinidh ifrinn, TSh. 6172 . a riochd aingil na soillsi, Desid. 4061 . athair na soillsedh, Mac Aingil 12.12 . re soillsi an lai, TTebe 3929 . lear soillsiodh saighnēan neimhneach 'the multitude of flashes of deadly lightning', Celtica xxvi 102 § 31 . Attrib. g s.: de lubib soillsi airthir bethad, TBC-LL¹ 3734 . sutrall soillsi a shining candle, Ériu i 39 § 8 .

(b) a light, lamp : comba soilse siu sicut Christus lux est , Wb. 22c3 . tarrastair int ṡoillsi dil (of the sun), SR 5109 . do chuir Murchadh s.¤ dá lasadh dhóibh, PCT 346 . do dhéana tú a seacht soillsibh sin `thou shalt make seven lamps thereof', Exodus xxv 37 . an té do rinne soillsighe móra (i.e. the heavenly bodies), Psalms cxxxvi 7 .

(c) Fig. light, illumination: a lumine ueritatis .i. ó soilsi etarcni dé, Wb. 1b18 . co tartad sollsi eolais ┐ irse do Thomas, PH 6771 . do thabhairt shoillsi don chuid dar ndúthaigh nách tuigeand theangtha eile, Desid. 23 . madtha soillsi fhiadhan ┐ tsencaidh agat, O'Curry 444 ( H 3.18, 238b ).

torad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. torad or dil.ie/43360

Forms: torith, t., torud, toirthi, toruid, toraid, toirthiú, toradh, taradh

n o, n. (Originally toreth, Ériu xii 215 ; cf. g s. torith, Mon. Tall. 159.16 ). n s. t.¤ ngelglas, Ériu ii 116 § 50 . n pl. torud, Ml. 46c8 . toirthi, 46c14 . Later forms: a pl. toruid, Ériu ii 118 § 54 . toraid, PH 7661 . toirthiú, Todd Nenn. 148.2 . toradh, taradh, IGT Decl. § 53.

I

(a) produce, increase: t.¤ a láam is hed dodtoisged, Wb. 9a6 . immdae .i. hi toirthib són, Ml. 37d22 . it hesidi torud bele, 46c8 . it hé in toirthi amal sodin, 46c14 . bátár mesaite a torthe, LU 4403 . ar tomailt torith na muindtiri `about eating the produce of the monastery,' Mon. Tall. 159.16 . dús ind gebad ní do th.¤ ionda cildi huadaib, 128.16 . ni corpat torud ind erlamai, 21 . rechtge fri tuar toraid `produce,' Críth G. 523 . tuc gach tír a th.¤ trom, ZCP viii 109.5 . co ndruni ┐ lamda ┐ lamthorud, LU 3910 ( SCC 42 ). ní búi ní ba terc dóib leesi di cach thorud eter biad ┐ etach ┐ indbass, LL 125b50 . ni chaithfem t.¤ in caitt (i.e. the fish it caught), LL 283a27 . in bech oc tecclamad a thoraid, Laws iv 164.9 . mo mac ... .i. t.¤ mo brónd, LB 141a10 . trian cach toraid do tir, Laws ii 362.22 . admestar triur asa tindremaib hi torath tecail, ZCP xiv 176.8 . ni rabe ... accese acht torud co lleith, Thes. ii 333.5 . roraind in torod ... letorud tra tuic si asin chulid, 20 . t.¤ cu leith maistertha, Lism. L. 1281 . tuc leathtorad maistirtha aniar, 1296 . t.¤ in oenmheich bracha `the produce of one measure of malt,' 1361 . Of fish: feda cin mes | muir can t.¤ , RC xii 110 § 167 . co tochrad a murthorud, MacCongl. 37.4 . toradh na Berba, Dinds. 36 . gu fégha tharadh in tráicht | béra ó bháirc a caladh chúairt, IGT Decl. ex. 1005 . dúntar coirthe chláir Ḟeóire | toirthi dháibh is doirseóire, ex. 1304 . ar isruithe beo bethu thortha, Laws iv 78.6 . .i. is uaisle iní dobeir beatha dona buaib isin géimre na iní do beir toru dóib isin tsamhradh, 80.1 Comm. seoid Ghréag ón domhan 'na dhál | na dtoradh chéad ag claochlódh `hundred-fold increase,' TD 13.41 . do gabhatur in palas cona torthaibh (tor, v.l.) co himlan, RC xix 152 § 133 . ag gabail creach ┐ turthedh (sic leg.) ┐ airgid, CF 119.

(b) result, profit: ise grethe cen torad do gni, Laws iv 36.5 . tir inid taidle muilenn, co tabair t.¤ , Laws iv 214.7 . do tairgetar in chóir sin ┐ cuir na mbarún le t.¤ do tabuirt uirre to give effect, Caithr. Thoirdh. 137.34 . ní tarodh gaoil do-gheibhthir, DDána 48.12 . fregra in mheic, maith a thoradh, O'Gr. Cat. 470.9. is mó a tharadh do chloinn Connla | Goill d'anadh re colbha cuain, Aithd. D. 26.28 . ar ghuth Muire a-tá toradh, 98.8 . ní fhuil taradh n-a dtuirim, Aithd. D. 6.50 . maithim ... énbhonn feasda dá thoradh ` payment ,' Studies 1918, 617 § 4 . d'éag a stór a dtreoir sa dturadh, Ó Bruad. il 178 v . ni dán gan turadh, 72 xlvii .

(c) In phr. do-beir t.¤ ar sets store by, heeds: ni tuc toradh ar minn da tuc dó he set no store by, Expugn. Hib. 69 . ní thug toradh na tarbha ar chomhrádh na caemrighna, Études Celt. i 79.23 . ní thug sisi toradh ar an tromfhala sin, 30 . da ttugadh th' athair aithne dhuit do bhíadh a n-aghuidh an mhaith ... na tabhair toradh uirri, Mac Aingil 275.16 .

(d) In phr. do thorud by the use of; as a result of: ni pu da thir ... a fuirec dorigne, acht do th.¤ a da lam ┐ a tharnguir, TBC-I¹ 489 . lenfaid clēirigh naemchell | adhaltras is écāir | nī fāghat dá taradh | ní asa faghat étáil, ZCP iii 31.34 . roimigh ... do thoradh a retha rindlūaith, vi 57.15 . di thorath inna bendachtan doratsat fir hErenn fair, viii 313.11 . tic Conall 'n-a rith roimhe ... co ndechaidh Conall uadha do thoradh a retha, RC xxix 219.y . is don Breas sin do bean Sreng mac Sengaind coiced Conacht do tharad chomroindi ar eicin, Lec. 188va13 . do brissidar (sic leg.) ... in lecht-sin iar trill do toradh namatais, Ann. Conn. 1244.5 . Lochlainn mac Conchobair do dallad doib iarom ┐ a ecc du thorad in dalta-sin, 1296.6 . ocus a brissed ass a haithle do thoradh na comairle, ALC ii 268.12 .

(e) In phrase ar thorad living by: se ar torad a lann 's a gha, Caithr. Thoirdh. 136.30 . cairt eile ní iarrfa sibh | acht tú ar thoradh do ghaisgidh, Aithd. D. 30.33 . olc an tslighe go Dia dhamh | bheith ar thoradh mo theangadh, DDána 57.16 . gé tú ar thoradh mo theangadh, 101.31 . Also by dint of (cf. (d)): ranic O. roime ... ar toradh a engnuma ┐ a eisimail, Celt. Rev. iv 18.1 . do cuaidh ar toradh a retha ass, RC xix 136.9 . dochuaid tarrsa ar tarad a lama laitiri, Ann. Conn. 1342.11 .

(f) fruit (of tree, etc.): ce t.¤ gl. fructum, Wb. 3b29 . primiti a clainde ┐ primite a torud, Ml. 99b5 . inna primiti inna torud, 123c8 . anmmann a toraid inna crannsin, Sg. 61b3 . ni don torud, 61b13 . torad ngelglas a t.¤ toisech, Ériu ii 116 § 50. intan is apuid a cetna t.¤ , ib. secht toruid docuiredar, 118 § 54. is as gabsat Albain | ardghlain ailes toirthiú, Todd Nenn. 148.2 . uair gerraid sí 'n-a cínd toraid ┐ guirt ┐ fínemain, PH 7661 . dorata in talam a thoirthi, Ériu iii 4.12 (YBL). cróeb co trí toirthib ina laim deis, iv 138.30 . itté trí toraid robádar fuirre, ib. ubla ┐ toirthi parrdhais nomelit, ZCP i 250 § 10 . torthae in tire, Stair Erc. 482 . a chroinn úir an taraidh thruim, A. Ó Dálaigh xii 7. fa thoirthibh na talmhan, TSh. 3442 . Crop of fruit: trí toirthi fair cecha bliadne .i. ubla ... ┐ cnōe ... ┐ derccain, Dinds. 160.

In phr. fo thorud bearing a crop of fruit: fo thorud cech degmoine, SR 4336 . úraigfes foa lantorud, 4486 . rígaball fó rīgthorad, TBC-I¹ 1954 . co mbet fo thorud, PH 1255.

g s. as adj. fruitful: in corp criad nī crand toraid, ACL iii 238 § 14 . bíadsum gach tonn toraidh, ZCP x 347 § 15 . gēigbheangān blāidh buantaruidh, xii 380 § 7 . craobh tharaidh do thairrngir tonn, SGS iv 140 § 11 . gan degfonn, gan chúil turaid `fruitful nook,' Caithr. Thoirdh. 136.26 .

Metaphorically: cen nách torud deg-gnima, PH 4920 . tabhradh Doiminic re ndul | dúinn toradh na dtrí slabhradh, Dán Dé iv 17 . trí toirthe na mídheamhna, Donlevy 452.10 .

tosach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tosach or dil.ie/41498

Forms: tosaig, tosaigh

n o, n. Later m., but d s. often tosaig. IGT Decl. § 55.

(a) beginning: ised inso t.¤ indala sailm, Ml. 27d2 . is dia as t.¤ , 85b15 . benedic a t.¤ benedic a diad, 120c5 . cid amal bid du thoschib, 129c12 . in creti dúnni at (sic leg.) tosge huilc dún ... amal rocretset ar n-aithir romdar tosge maith doib, Ml. 96b5 . is ed inso t.¤ preceptae iohain, Thes. i 486.30 . o thosuch bliadne , ii 18.38 . tucad a tosuch fo diu[d], Sg. 202b8 . hí tosug inna rainne, 213a10 . etir dered is tossach, SR 4832 . gan deiredh is gan tosach, ZCP viii 114 § 2 . na doíni atbathatar ó thossuch domuin, TBFr. 307 . is e tossach mortha anma M. ... in chuimleng ... dorigne, PH 6284 . t.¤ suirghi, IT i 125.7 . corob é ba rīg Con[n]acht ... ic tobairt thosaich na tāna for Ultaib, Ériu ii 184.1 . t.¤ rabhuidh rug a dealbh `his aspect became threatening,' iv 112.15 . Hence incipit, first line of poem: etir tosaichib na rann ┐ deridib na rann eile, Fél. 14.x . ba hiad so tossaighe na salm, BCC 214.16 . 'ag so bráighi dhuit, a Dhé' an t.¤ , IGT Decl. 5.28 .

(b) principle: is hegin tosaighi ┐ cuisi is airdi na mar adubramar do beth ag na gnimarthaib so, Mackinnon Cat. 39.2 . tri tosaidh na naduire .i. materiaformaprivacio , Nat. Lib. of Scotland MS. II p. 41 . o t.¤ inmhedhonach eigin bis comchoitchinn don gne uile, Nat. Lib. of Scotland MS. XII, iii Ib2 .

(c) precedence, first place: connar-leced t.¤ na toisigeacht dá stocaib croda, TTebe 2800 . no cu ruc A. t.¤ de `until A. had taken away the lead,' 2360 . t.¤ failte is fothraccaidh, BNnÉ 255.20 . t.¤ fothraiccthi re bfleidh | t.¤ cuirn, t.¤ cuiridh, ZCP viii 219 § 8 . ná geibh t.¤ leptha de | ret t'aes cumtha is comairle, SG 107.11 . congbhaid annos anallan | t.¤ éigse is ealadhan, Content. xxviii 3 . t.¤ uaim-se fhuair seisean, DDána 69.23 . toiseach i ttír bhiodhbhadh, Éigse iii 132.85 .

(d) van, battlefront: bēs adchotar nech aile | do, t.¤ na conaire, TBC-I¹ 235 . do ronsat na Cristaighi ceithre tosaig dibh fein cum in chatha `acies,' ITS xix 42.14 . dochuaid German féin hí t.¤ in chatha la Bretnu, Anecd. iii 68.16 . Muiredach robái i tossuch sluaig na nócc, Trip. 150.25 . for t.¤ a shlogaid, CCath. 6051 . ar t.¤ gacha coirigthi, RC xix 290 § 228 . ro choirigh t.¤ ┐ deredh ar a deglaochaib, Celt. Rev. ii 204 . do cured a ndered asa n-inad ┐ do mebaid da t.¤ , Ann. Conn. 1270.7 . robriseador fo thrí an glasslaith for th.¤ an tsluaig araill, AFM iii 356.8 .

(e) front part; Of a ship: ag accallaimh na sgūt ┐ na sgiam-t[h]osach, ML² 661 . téid i dt.¤ na luinge, TSh. 2639 . Of a horse: tuarccaib N. tossach aneich ... dorala foa etorra, AFM vi 2216.3 .

(f) g s. as adj. front, foremost: docunnaibh Sisian an leoman ... ar cois tosaigh `the front paw,' ZCP vi 293.25 . do thochuil in leoghan ... derc ... lena chosaibh trennertmura tosaigh, Études Celt. i 91.15 . ar gach taobh do chuirr thossaigh na luinge, AFM vi 1822.7 .

(g) With various prepp.

(i) ar t.¤ , ar tosaig first, at first: mad ar thosuch beid, Sg. 203a7 . is in faichte bes coir ar t.¤ , Laws ii 16.18 Comm. caidi a damna, trá, ar tosaig?, Ériu iv 220.28 . is é caislén an ghradha in fuath ar tosaigh, Stair Erc. 2244 . co tainic loisi de ar tosaigh, 2487 . gnáth ar tt.¤ ag teacht di | fuaradh carad fa chéili, Studies 1921 588 § 2 . mairg, a Dhé, thug ar tosaigh, Aithd. D. 12.12 . grádh don chóir thug ar dtosaigh (:air). DDána 7.29 . druim ar t.¤ tug re a chineadh, 15.9 . im Brí Léith ar fir-thossach, LL 163a35 .

(ii) i tosuch at first: is hed inso no chairigur i tossuch, Wb. 11d1 . isme féin asbiur i tossuch, 14c30 . hi tossuch, 5a11 . ceist cindus rombatur int psailm hi tosugh, Hib. Min. 7.208 . dús cia díb lasa ragtha i t.¤ , BDD² 426 . romlēicidsa com longes hi tossach, TBC-I¹ 1010 . teitsidi co lLáeg hi tossiuch, 1382 . srainis in milchu for in leomun ... i t.¤ , RC xxiv 174.9 . feraid tra imairig a tosuch comdar scitha ┐ dogniad cora fa dheoigh, vi 174.10 .

(iii) ó thosaig in the beginning: loise an tsaoghail mhóir-se a-muigh | is eadh tháirreas ó thosuigh, DDána 37.20 . ní huaibhse rug an nglaic ngloin | is ní dait tug ó thosoigh, Studies 1918, 282 § 15 .

? comēt mo broinn mbuilid | nār līntar cen mesair | co rop dēniu a tosaig | a bith isin tesaig, ZCP vi 259 § 7.

trí

Cite this: eDIL s.v. trí or dil.ie/41872
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: tri, trí, tre, tri, tri, trí, trí, tri, tri, trib, teoir, teora, teora, teoraib, teoraib, tri, trí, teora, teora, teora, trí, trib, i trí, teóra, trí

num. adj. three . Usually spelt tri in the O. Ir. Glosses, but trí when absolute (see GOI § 386 ). Archaic tre (Camb., etc.). Like does not prevent nasalisation of a following noun after pl. poss.: a tri nglantae their three cleanings, Corm. Bodl. 38.13 . See Ériu xi 148.9 .

I Attributive uses.

(a) Inflexion in O. Ir. Masc. nom. tri tuisil, Sg. 148b8 . tri tuimthea, Thes. i 495.5 . trí mís deacc, ii 33.18 . trí séoit, Críth G. 119 . acc. tri fichtea bliadne `for three score years,' Thes. ii 238.17 . na tri turcu, 293.4 . tri maccu, 303.2 . gen. delb tri tuisel, Sg. 148b8 . athair trī cethrur, Thes. ii 300.7 . Archaic: rath tre gním[e], Bürgschaft 28 § 76 a . dat. dia trib nōnbaruib, Corm. Y 1018 ( Anecd. iv 88.8 ). trib asaib, Críth G. 75 . co trib hettib, SR 2132 . Fem. nom. inna teoir ranna sa, Sg. 26b13 . teüir oenaidchi, Thes. ii 291.6 . teuir cleithna, 292.12 . teoir baí (teora, v.l.), Críth G. 383 . teoir fodlai, 446 . teor buidne, ACL iii 18.23 = téora buidne, Trip.² 769 . teor (leg. teora ?) menadcha, Mon. Tall. 158.1 . na teora persana, Wb. 9c30 . teora tonna, 27a14 . teora huara, Ml. 95d8 . teora cethramdin huare, BCr. 25c1 . teora bliadni, 32b6 . na teora litre so, Sg. 10a12 . teora greca, 148b12 . teora cnoe, Thes. ii 249.7 . teora mucca, 250.15 . ? teōra ingne, ACL iii 297 § 48. acc. teora lethindli, Thes. ii 239 6 . hi teora bríathra, Críth G. 40 . teora biadi, Mon. Tall. 129.8 . tar teora sealba, Laws iv 136.19 . teor (leg. teora ?) erca, ZCP iii 46 § 34. gen. inna teora liter, Sg. 7b9 . inna teora ṅguttae, 40b8 . rí teora túath, Críth G. 459 . dat. donaib teoraib personaib, Sg. 186a2 . dinaib teoraib trebaibsea, BDD² 108 . Neut. nom. and acc. (leniting): tri anman, Wb. 12a6 , 16a18 . inna tri anman hisiu, Ml. 121c16 . tri gné, BCr. 33a8 . na tri noiláithe, Sg. 116b1 . tri lida `three Lida,' Thes. ii 34.32 . ni cen tri chet `not without three hundred,' 291.12 . tresna thri grad, Hib. Min. 446 . trí thráth, Sc.M² 12 . Archaic: tre chenélae, Thes. ii 246.27 (Camb.). tre chenéle, 247.21 . tre chenél, 247.16 . ? tre blaī, ZCP xi 93 § 28. na trē nói n-ithe `the thrice nine eatings,' MacCongl. 75.18 . trē fretiuch, ZCP iii 453.23 . Hence leniting in Mod. Ir. when folld. by sg. noun: na trí chonnsuine dhég, IGT Introd. 1.14 . See § 18 . Note also: na tri druïd, Blathm. 63 . na trí maccáin maith-sin, Fél. Aug. 2 . na tri recte, Wb. 29a16 . See ITS Sub. xxvii § 6.2.

(b) In Mid. and Mod. Ir. trí and teora are used irrespective of gender. teora with neut.: teora búada, BDD² 115 . téora anmi, LU 3256 . teora thráth, DDána 30.19 . Less frequ. with masc.: teora catha, CRR 38.11 . trí with fem. : co trib delbaib, SR 4276 . tri leca, LU 2053 . Confusion is common in the phrase trí lá ┐ teora aidchi (correctly Sc.M² 4 , ACL iii 5.21 , ZCP xiv 356.3 , etc.): co cend teora laa ┐ t[e]ora [n]-aidche, TBC-LL¹ 2494 . seoladh teora lá ┐ teora aidhche, Ériu iii 158 § 12 . udi tri lá ┐ tri n-aidche, LU 8137 ( FB 10 ). ri hed na tri láá ┐ na trí n-aidche, TBC-LL¹ 2506.

(c) In Mod. Ir. the usual form passim is trí: na trí báis úd, TSh. 984 . trí sleagha, PBocht 20.10 . lá seanaidh na dtrí dteaghlach, 25.34 . See end of (a) supra.

(d) In compd. numerals: trí traigid .x. thirteen feet, Críth G. 103 . luid tri firu déc he went with thirteen men, BColm. 66.13 . Multiplying follg. num.: an oen ar fichit it tri secht són, Ml. 2d2 . tír trí .vii. cumal, Críth G. 172 . tri fichit fer, Thes. ii 242.2 . co trib cétaib, SR 6454 . na tri coicait duan, p. 114 (prose). do trib cethorchait aidchi `thrice forty nights,' Mon. Tall. 136.7 . trī chét bliadan, Sc.M² 5 . dochumlaisom ass ... tríb nónbaraib, TBFr. 367 . trī chōic bliadna , Arch. Hib. ii 94 § 30.

II Absolute uses.

(a) With prec. a: óin a ssessed dáu a trian a trí a lleth á sé `three its half,' Thes. ii 31.27 . a tri dib three of them, Hib. Min. 248 . bíit a trí ocá díunuch, Críth G. 309 . da fhiadain no a tri indruca, PH 3375 . dá uair nó a thrí, DDána 82.25 . húaire dofoxla ilgíallu, a dáu no a trí nó [a] cethair, Críth G. 460 . cis lir congellait for treisi? ... a tri, Laws i 230.4 . ca meid caithe fil a comicheas ?—a teora, iv 138.22 . With follg. rel. clause: ataat dano a tri aili todacrat do ríg, Críth G. 527 . aatat a tri noda icat, Laws i 50.28 .

(b) In adverbial phrases. (co) fo thrí thrice: fomlámas bádud fo thrí, Wb. 17d4 . fu thrí, Thes. ii 242.15 . co fo thrí, Críth G. 292 . fo thrí, SR 7723 . co fá thrí, LU 10767 . co bo thrí, RC viii 60.3 . i trí in three: co mmebaid hi trí, Thes. ii 346.5 . in lá do raind i trí, TBC-LL¹ 869.

III As substantive.

(a) is lour da preceptoir i n-aeclis no thríi, Wb. 13a9 . arna trí remeperthise, Ml. 65a11 (attrib. ?). a noi frisna tri `nine in addition to the three,' Sg. 197b6 . ní gnáth chomsuidigud i n-ainmnidib pronomen acht inna trí dombeir som, 201a5 .

(b) teóra as masc. noun folld. by gen. triad. IGT Decl. § 2 (39.27) . a chú ara tád teóra búadh, ex. 792 . cia don teora crann-sa an chroch, Dán Dé iii 27 . teóra ceardcha, Ir. Review 1913, 594 § 4 . Cf. teora póc, CRR 12.15 .

(c) trí m. the three at dice , IGT Decl. § 108 (?), § 112 .

In compds. tri— (see tréimse), trí— (Mod. See trí—aon), tre-, tré—, see separate articles. Note also tregort crann, trecrann cú, trecú marc, etc., ZCP v 184.y - z 0 .

2 úan

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 úan or dil.ie/42751

Forms: úa, uan, úan

n o, m. a lamb : úa, IGT, Decl. § 96 . uan (gl. agnus), Ir. Gl. 459 . n s. primiti .i. ... cach cet laegh, ┐ cach cet u.¤ , Laws i 52.7 Comm. u.¤ molt a wether lamb , iv 144.29 . u.¤ boinind a she-lamb , ib. 30 . u.¤ meich (.i. uan is fiu miach cruithnechta .i. is fiu screpall), v 84.20 ( 22 ). u.¤ firenn bliadne , SR 3901 . u.¤ firend bliadnaide, PH 5099 . a d s. frithalid in n-u.¤ cen locht | do idpairt in cach oenphort, SR 3905 . amail ata a nuan caorach na tri scriboll, Laws iii 372.24 . g s. gurab séimhe mar oileamhain feóil an uain ioná an mheannáin, TSh. 8955 . n a du. cach mil conbeirris dedi, .i. da uan iar cae, .i. an cura, Laws i 146.14 . n p. ní tíaghad oirc na huain a comingaire co lunasadh, iv 100.6 Comm. it loig, it úain co ndath, Imr. Brain § 38 . co táncatar ind úain co hopunn dochum a máthar, Trip.² 135 . Three Hom. 8.17 . a p. úan, Luke x 3 . g p. ingaire uan ocus laegh (to be taught to the sons of the `ócaire'), Laws ii 152.10 Comm. dia terpúd na n-úan, Three Hom. 8.19 . d p. datha na flesc cotagaib | hed nobid forsna huanaib, SR 2964 .

Of the Paschal lamb: nó-edpairtha ... in t-uan cáscda, PH 5071 . is and-sin doromaltatar in n-uan cáscdai, 5109 . Cf. 5080 . Ísu Crist ..., ro-remfhiugrad trias-in u.¤ cáscdhai, 5106 . iar tomailt ind uain chascdha, 5211 . an túan cásgdha, Matthew xxvi 19 . do chaitheamh an [úain] chasgdha xxvi 17 . an [túan] Cásg, Mark xiv 12 , 14 . Heb. xi 28 .

Fig., etc. Of Christ: do chaoi Peadar ... | fa pháis an Uain ainglidhe, Studies 1927, 89.26 . uan caorach gile, 1934, 436.22 . ac-so uan Dé, PH 3794 . LB 144b55 (= Agnus Dei). do ḟóir pubal na sé slúagh | mar rugadh úan Dé dá ndín, IGT, Decl. ex. 735 . canait ceol ... | i ndiaid ind Uain etrochtai, SR 600 , 602 . Uan Mhoire, Studies 1933, 311.32 . nocht do chíogh ar uan t'ochta (to Mary), A. Ó Dálaigh xix 11 . trēt na n-úan ... 'món Uan n-úag nemlochtaigthe, SR 592 . fuil in uain némlochtaig, PH 2399 . Of the soul: a Dhé Athar ... | uan dod thréad is eadh m'anam, Studies 1931, 80.1 . lasfail tret na n-úan, SR 591 . Of a lady: m'uan beag cáidh ..., Hackett xii 15 . In comparisons: fear dá charaid nach taise dhuit uan beag, Keat. Poems 1444 . mar úana a measg mhadra allta, Luke x 3 . In disparagement of a warrior: noco rucaimse cend úain bic don dúnud, LU 5755 (Nad Crandtail to Cú Ch.).

Compds.: ¤dalta: (of Christ) [a] uandalta Muire idir an laochraidh leomhanta, Studies 1932, 433 § 5 . ¤orc: rob é a huan-orc Rí na ríogh | cuanort ar a thí fa truagh, Dán Dé xxvi 8 .