Search Results

Your search returned 8 result(s).

airlaime

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airlaime or dil.ie/2165

Forms: herlaimhe

n , f. (airlam) IGT Abstr. Nouns § 86 .

(a) readiness, preparedness: is mór á erlamae inna celle sin as `great is the readiness of that sense from it' gl. promptu, Ml. 36c20 . ar irlami far cúrsagtha through readiness to reproach you, Wb. 26b23 . re hurloimhe . . . a nimbuailte, MR 268.6 . nī cōir do brithemain aurlama mbrethe over-readiness, ZCP xv 354 § 42 . In phrase i n-a.¤ in readiness: gach ní do beth i n-urrlaime acu, Aen. 785 . a n-errlaime athgona G., Grail 879 . baoi Ua M. . . . in erlaimhe for a ccind, AFM ii 936.9 . bátar i nerlaimhe do thecht ar Ua D., v 1352.4 .

(b) ripeness (of fruit etc.): érlama ar gurt, Ériu vii 223 § 32 . Cf. is do is ainm don torad ┐ dond errlaime asas donn iarraid, Laws i 36.10 Comm.

In n.pr. Mac na herlaimhe Úa Donnchadha, AFM ii 972.9 .

bél

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bél or dil.ie/5607
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: beoil, beóil, beolu, beula, beulu, belu, bélib, i mbeolu

n o, m. g s. beoil, Sg. 14a16 . n p. beóil, Wb. 7d9 . a p. beolu, Wb. 3b11 , beula (gl. ora), Ml. 19c9 . beulu, 35d22 . belu, Thes. ii 251. 16 . d p. bélib, Wb. 7d10 . b.¤ m., IGT Decl. § 61.

I

(a) In some exx. explicitly lip , in pl. lips, but here usually mouth: don b.¤ gl. labio, Ir. Gl. 107. Gild. Lor. 139 § 40. tri beulu dlútai gl. fixis labris (17), Sg. 6a18 . ni radi ní trí thalmaidchi, amal dundchuirethar inna beulu as it rises to his lips (`as he takes it into his lips'), Ml. 35d22 . anasberaid hó bélib `what ye utter with (your) lips', Wb. 7d10 . anasbérat mo beiúil, 12d12 . (of a hag) tacmaicced a b.¤ íchtarach coa glún, LU 6828 (BDD). i socraidi labrait biuil (: Iúil), 3875 ( SCC 38 ). niamdai a beóil partardeirg (partuingdeirg, v.l.) her crimson lips, IT i 69.8 . ( LMU 4 ). co ṅditned a srona ┐ a beolu `so that it protected his nostrils and his lips' (but perh. transl. nose . . . mouth), CCath. 5265. folcuit a n-aighti uile lena mbélaib úachtair upper lips, Maund. 176. beoil lethna thick lips, Marco P. 187. cúiseach bind asa bēalaibh `sweet piping from her lips', Ériu iv 174.15 . maille siabhradh beóil ( = labium . . . pervertatur), 23 K 42 , 54.14 . do scoltad an croimbeoil ┐ in béil iocht[a]ir of chapping of the upper and lower lip, O'Gr. Cat. 191.z . baile .i. maith . . . digbail dubha baile bel .i. is maith í o belaib no i mbel `from lips or in mouth', O'Dav. 224. (in application of an incantation) imbir in da mér . . . it bélaib, Thes. ii 249.11 . doberar in salann i mbelu `the salt is put into the mouth', 251.16 . asoilgg a bēolu . . . combo ecna a [g]inchrāes, TBC-I¹ 396. (of a witch) a beóil for leith a cind her mouth in the side of her head, BDD² 540 . gebid dano cenn in tarra ina béolu, Sc.M² 17.6 . do-lleblaing int éicne ara chend, ┐ gabsus inna béulu took it in its mouth, TBFr. 209. an tan immoro no berid an leg laun ina beolu `when he used to put the ladle full into his mouth', RC xii 86 § 91. nicon acca beolu eich / amal beolu ín liathainigh, IT iii 68.2 . inbat budig do bēoil do shainól ┐ do shainait, MacCongl. 77.4 . secht traigid eter a ó ┐ a beolo . . . ┐ secht n-artim inna bélaib, Ériu iv 26.9 , 10 . acht nad neibre dod belaib nama `although thou hast not said so by word of mouth', Laws iv 108.1 Comm. cuit mo b.¤ (term of endearment), LL 18576.

(b) mouth in sg.: sróin súil b.¤ , Ardm. 434a marg. (220va). i cinaid do laime, do sula, do thengad, do beil, Laws i 156.32 . issin ṁb. tacras sin in the mouth that asserts that, MU² 369. laech . . . belmar . . ., meit a beil beolu eich, TBC-LL¹ 5400 n.4 . fuil rochuiread tara bel ┐ dara sroin, TTebe 2414 . beiris i n-a bheōl . . . ar lampa airgit seized a silver lamp in its mouth, Fl. Earls 138.1 . Note also: na beula gl. ora, the mouths (?), Ml. 19c9 . Fig. gá tarbha an béal do bheith lais / 's an intinn in-a éagmhais, Dán Dé xxii 20 . an b.¤ dúnta as eadh budh ḟearr better be silent, IGT Decl. ex. 1285. Prov. is binn beál ó bheith iadhta, Dánfhocail 55 . By metonymy person : cerd cach ṁb. .i. eladu cech duni do ḟoglaim ar dáig forcitail caich (`art for every mouth', RC xxvi 22 § 62 ), LL 24410. crochadh ar bh.¤ na bréige! `perdition (lit. a hanging) to him who tells the lie' (Gloss.), LBranach 1072 . b.¤ na psalm (nickname of St. Fintan), Mart. Don. Mar. 27. Grigoir Béil óir `Gregory the golden-mouthed', BNnÉ 172 § 16 .

(c) In phrases: derg-mír i mbélaib lit. red (raw) morsel in (the) mouth apparently of property illegally acquired or attached: atait tri deirg-mireanda naidet usa a mbelaib cacha hecalsa (glossed: is indligthech do'n eclais a ngabail cuichi o belaib, 432.3 Comm. ), Laws v 430.22. at-ballat, ¤bailet (a) béoil with poss. or foll. subj. gen., see at-bail(l): co n-aplat a beoil i mmbron (leg. mbrōn ?) ┐ toirrsi `they perish', Ériu ii 114 § 38. Note also: bás fort béolu, Fing. R. 72 `death on your head!' RC xiii 378.11 .

(d) Of the mouth as the source of speech: iss ed bói i mbēlaib cáich this was the common talk, ZCP viii 317.26 . go rabhadar na lán béil ┐ buanteanga ag gach aon that they were a continual subject of conversation to everyone, RC xiv 28 § 6. lán beóil don ríoghfhuil Bhranoigh, LBranach 3581 . budh lán beoil an Brianachsoin, Studies 1925, 253 § 6 .

By extension word(s) ; subject of talk : fer na ropeccaig o bel na o gnim `in word or deed', Ériu v 20.2 . idna beoil integrity of speech, LL 3901. roiarfaided o Fiachroig Muillethan . . . dia belaib his advice was asked by F., ZCP xiv 156.14 . gurab mó do theagascdaois . . . ó theagasc beoil ioná ó scríbhinn by traditional instruction, Keat. ii 976. (explanation of the name of Eogan B.) b.¤ cach tuaithi ina thimchell `the mouth [i.e. the acclamation] of every country round about', SG 64.z . b.¤ cach flatha ina lenub / ar ó Fiachrach foltlebur, 65.2 . In phr. breth a b.¤ féin self-judgment, -doom: atetha breth do b.¤ (sic leg.) féin duit, RC xiv 430.8 . co tucsat Gaill breth a beoil fein d'O Neill, AU ii 270.8 . In adv. phrase ó óen-b.¤ unanimously: o aen bel, PH 7233. dh'aoinbheul, Luc. Fid. 2856. Legal. cor b.¤ , see 1 cor 12.

II Applied to various things resembling lips or mouth .

(a) edge, rim ; mouth of cavity, orifice, opening : b.¤ gaili, a mbél an gaile ( = orificium stomachi), RSláinte 3698. do fínégra ar b.¤ an gaile `on the pit of the stomach', O'Gr. Cat. 193.25 . b.¤ cridi (used as term of endearment): a bél mo chraidi, ACL iii 243 § 24. edge, opening of wounds: bador beoil na ccneth ag claoi a cheile, ZCP x 292.9 . a lomma cro ic teprisin dar belaib na n-alad batar fair, Grail 685 . rucc b.¤ na cneidhe chum a chéile ┐ ticc sele fuirre, ITS xvi 42.13 . Other applications: co fil āit a beōil isin c[h]loich fóss ann `the mark of its rim (i.e. of a bell) is still there in the stone', BColm. 64.9 . sileadh deór rúadh ar ruisgne / mur uisge a beól (mbéol v.l.) úar eisci like water out of a vessel (?), IGT Decl. ex. 1081. mé is b.¤ na cróine ar mo chind, ex. 81 . lase foruillecta beóil in chalich di mil, Wb. 7d9 . īadais indala sūil . . . asoilg alaile comba mor bēolu fidchōich as large as the orifice of a wooden bowl (?), TBC-I¹ 395. b.¤ dabcha ele 'na b.-si anúas (of one vat turned over another), BColm. 72.6 . (of a bag for chess-men) a ferbolc, is amra sceúil / de ór imdernta a beúil opening (`rim'), Fianaig. 14.22 . go bhfuilti claoidthe . . . a mbeul an tsaic (of opponents silenced in controversy), Luc. Fid. 4127. béil a ngunnadh `the muzzles of their guns', Rel. Celt. ii 194.11 . (of prongs of pincers) do briseadh teanncuir an ghobhann, ┐ an t-īarann dearg 'na beal `with the red-hot iron in its jaws', ZCP ii 562.30 . beola crot ┐ bolg ┐ buinne `mouths of harps and bags and pipes', RC xii 108 § 163. the eye of the upper millstone (Studies on Early Ireland 16 ) : iss e sin doberimsi a mbel in muilinn si, RC xiv 52 § 62. upper of shoe: bróg tar teach do teilgeadh leam . . . nar bhean tall a b.¤ fa a bonn `a shoe whose upper was detached from its sole was thrown at me' (Notes), Bard. Synt. Tr. 2.z.

(b) Further extended applications: mén mara .i. bel na mara, O'Cl. ( mēn .i. bēl, Corm. Y 948 ). fri beolu mara, Trip.² 1581 ( = in sinu maris, Lat. Lives 33 § 25 ). dá thraigid .x. lethet a b.¤ the width of its opening (an earthwork), Críth G. 571. (of Tara) deis fri Banba, b.¤ fri Bóin `her front towards the Boyne', Ériu iv 92 § 3. tir cen beula without entry, Corm. Y 674 ( Corm. 22 ). tir cin toin cin beolu bis itir da ferunn cin conair `ingress', Laws iv 158.14 Comm. cuiris comla dar a b.¤ (a well), Metr. Dinds. iii 326.19 . triall istech tar beolu na hecuilsi `threshold of the church', Marco P. 173. léigthear suas beoil na bruighne `portcullis', Aithd. D. 3.19 . siar go b.¤ na sráide `the entrance of the street', AFM ii 900.2. Of gunwale of a ship: chuir iad am beòil mhòr re chèile, SGS xviii 107.1 .

III In phrases with prepp.

(a) prepositional. With A: crithre sin a beól (mb. v.l.) bhruithne sparks from boiling heat (?), IGT Decl. ex. 1296.

With AR (FOR): huare romboi ar belaib tempuil `in front of the Temple', Ml. 48d8 . ar beolu diabuil `before the Devil', Wb. 3b11 . gontai Cūchulaind, co tabrad a marb ara (ar, LU) bēolu a brāthar, TBC-I¹ 1637. ar belaib ind ríg ( = in conspectu regis), Lat. Lives 10.8 . arbelaib (.i. a fiadnaise) fer nErenn, ACL iii 14 § 31. finta cia as toisech fodla ┐ ar a ndentar bélaib `before whom it is made', RC xiii 446 § 26. cathair . . . for bel ḟasaigh dhimhoir `at the edge of a great desert', Marco P. 20. dán bog ar bh.¤ na slighiodh `on the open road', Studies 1918, 617 § 5 .

Freq. of replacing in kingship, headship, etc. one who had the normal claim, before, in preference to, in place of : rogab F. righe ara belaib, RC xvii 233.32 (Tig.). gabais C. flaith ar belaib a athar, Ériu iii 142.4 . an crioch do ghabail for a belaibh `to snatch . . . the country away from him', Leb. Gab.(i) 226.5 . mar tugadh ceannas na slógh / ar bhéal Éibhir d'Éireamhón `to Ê. rather than to Ê.', Content. xvi 33. With verbs of coming, etc. do-tét indḟine ar beolu de(i)rbḟine `the ` indḟine' comes in front of (i.e. is preferred to) the `derbḟine', Ériu xvii 64 § 3 ( Laws iv 206.7 ). D. . . . do beith ag dol ar bélaibh a athar `attempted to depose', AFM vi 1891.1 . an tánaiste do theacht ar beulaibh mic tighearna an fhuinn `that the tanist takes precedence of', Keat. i 66.6 . dul fora mbelaibhsiomh `to anticipate them', Hugh Roe² 172.2 .

With FRI (RE) before, at, close to; on the point of : fri beolu báis on the point of death, Fél. 74.19 . cen bith ria mbeolu oc airiuc thuili dóib not to be close to them, Fing. R. 432. ag so anois an bás rem bhéal close to me, Dánta Gr. 63.15 . re béal a theachta don toigh `before its reception' (of the Blessed Eucharist), Dán Dé xviii 2 . cosg fiabhrasa re b.¤ mbáis, Studies 1919, 613 § 12 .

With I N- i mbeolu, i mbeól, i mb.¤ before : in bo boi 'na beola sin `that was in front of her', Dinds. 142.10 . a mbeol an dunaidh `in front of the fort', BNnÉ 187 § 27 . do-chífe bárc a mbeól chúain `in the harbour's mouth', Ériu ix 168 § 46. towards, to : do-bhir im béal teachtaire `He sends a messenger to fetch me', Aithd. D. 83.3 . sgath dealg 'na beol muna bheath `had not the thorn-points been in the way', 95.20 . over, across : seolais iarsin Brenainn . . . i mbéolu (a mbhél, v.l. , = for beluibh, Lism. L. 3590 ) in aiccéin iongantaigh, BNnÉ 97 § 5. Note also: ro herbad da oclach lais da chur i mbeolu na tuinne to cast it (an infant) upon the sea (?), LL 14623 ( ZCP xii 273.17 ). do chur a mb.¤ mara ┐ mor-fhairrge set adrift on the open sea, KMMisc. 313.13 . a mbēl na h-oibre at the beginning, ML² 1.15 . i mbeol airechtais at the very beginning of sovereignty (?), Ann. Conn. 1410.2 . ni ḟuil amuigh gidh seól síth / crích nach fuil a mbeól a bláith, IGT Decl. ex. 992 . i mbéal a tharbha do thoigheacht, Aithd. D. 25.4 .

With TAR: tar béolu out of : adre amach dar beolu in duin, Marco P. 23.

(b) Adverbial. With FOR (always with possessive) on the face, face downwards : for a mbeulu gl. prone, Ml. 131b6 . tairniud form béolu bend face downwards, LL 36766 = Goid. 180.10 = Fél.² cv 8. an corp bis ina rogad ar in talmain for a beolu, RC xv 491 § 31. tolduid iarum taurtaim fair fora beolu `a trance fell upon him, as he lay on his face', Mon. Tall. 155.15 . (of a collapsing house) amal ro clóenad a thech conda tarla for a lethbeólu uli, LU 8382 ( FB 25 ). (of a cup) rohimpa iarum Patraic in copan fora beolu upside down (?), Anecd. iii 35.9 . b.¤ ar b.¤ , ó bé(o)l go b.¤ face to face : truagh gan sinne bel ar bel, TTebe xv 7 (scribe's note). (of a bird-decoration) ealta 's a mbeoil béal ar bhéal, Aithd. D. 9.7 . ag labhairt libh beul ar bheul (os ad os, 3 Joh. 14 ), Eochairsg. 15.30 . go labradh se riss ó b.¤ go b.¤ `face to face', ZCP xi 118.2 ( BCC 236 ). meic ollamhan Innsi Fáil / . . . / god choimhreic ó bheól go b.¤ `repeating thee from mouth to mouth' (i.e. the contents of a manuscript Gaelic Miscellany), Studies 1919, 440 § 12 . adeirid o bheol go beul they say so currently, Luc. Fid. 4088.

With IAR N- iar mbélaib (contrasted with iar cúlaib): i ngilfine iar mbelaib, amuil atá athair ┐ mac ┐ ua ┐ iarmua ┐ innua co cuicer; ┐ geilfini iar culaib .i. brathair thathar, ┐ mac co cuicer beos `in the direct line', Laws ii 160.z Comm.

(c) In fig. phrase do-ní a b.¤ re turns to, seeks help from : do-ghén . . . mo bh.¤ ré seabhcaibh Saxan `I will turn my face to', Studies 1924, 242 § 11 .

Note also: muna thí dhíom bas rem béal unless I can keep a guard on my lips, Dán Dé ix 4 . a-tá 'gan chol bas rem béal `raises its hand against me', xxiii 31 . In nn. loc. see Hog. Onom.

Compds. With nouns. ¤braise: feib atféd mo bhélbraisi `eloquence', Leb. Cert.² 164 § 9. ¤deirge: beildeirge redness of lips, Prolegomena 43 § 26 . ¤étan: (of a charioteer) dara béletan mouth and forehead (?), LL 24905. ¤mod manner of speaking (?): caistidh ria bēlmod, ACL iii 307 § 28 ( Measgra Uí Chl. 153 ). ¤proicept traditional teaching, tradition : bēalphroceapta nó teagusg bheōil na n-absttal, Mac Aingil 5949 . béulphroicheapta asbaltha ┐ eagalsa, Desid. 4942. With vnn. ¤chengal: ar mbélcengal a mbeochréchtadh when their fresh wounds had been sewn up, Caithr. Thoirdh. 124.7 . ¤tuidme: fiacuil .i. fia figo . . . fiacuil didiu bēl-t. fastening for the mouth, O'Mulc. 507.

With adjj. ¤balb: do piastaibh bel-balba `dumb-mouthed', Ériu iii 164 § 20. ¤binn: longphort . . . bíthe bēilbhinn melodious (?), Butler Poems 556 and n. ¤blasta of excellent sound : (of `Gaedelg,' the language) in berla b.¤ bind, LL 17716. B. blaith belblasta well-spoken (of a hand-maid), BB 237a2 . ¤buide yellow-lipped : (of a famine-stricken appearance) ina n-ímágib b.¤ nochtḟiaclacha, LB 154b61 . In n. pr.: Eochaid Bēlbuidi, ZCP viii 274.1 . ¤chamm crooked-mouthed : la hUnchi mbrúachda mb.¤(-mall, v.l.), Metr. Dinds. iii 98.6 . ¤cherr: in senBodb Barchi b.¤ `wry-mouthed', Metr. Dinds. iv 338.20 . ¤chert: mo dhaltán búilid béilchert `right-spoken', SG 190.7 . ¤chorcra crimson, red-lipped : belchorcra banamla detgela, TTebe 730 . ¤chráibhthech hypocritical : Content. vi 270. ¤chumang narrow-mouthed, having a narrow opening, entry : a crocan (leg. corcán ?) belchumang narrow-necked, Lia Fáil iii 122.20 ( 23 P 10 ³, 11b7 ). ar na bernadhaibh bélchumhgaibh, AFM v 164.22 . ¤derg red-lipped, red-mouthed (in good and bad sense): buriud berna Baidbi béldergi, LL 10872 ( = TBC-LL¹ 4024 ). na brithemain bēilderga `red-mouthed brehons' ( = severe in judgement ?), Ériu iii 30 § 7. cáinead in barrchais béilderg `the curly-headed red-lipped fellow', iv 216.20 . F. file m. Oengusa Bēlde[i]rg, ZCP viii 326.1 . ¤dub black-mouthed : comairge b.¤ becenech `a black-mouthed guarantor of small honour', Tec. Corm. § 33.2 . a curaig blaithe belduba `black-prowed', Ériu viii 10.36 . sgéala libh go báirc mbéalduibh `tidings to your black-decked barque', RC xlix 173 § 32. ¤ḟairsi(u)ng wide-mouthed, having a wide entrance : .l. bléide buabaill belḟairsiuṅg, LL 7292. ro cóirged bruidin brotla bélfairsing `wide-doored', Fianaig. 70.31 . ¤ḟota long-lipped : D. b.¤ , LL 354c64 . a mbíala belfhoda `wide-edged', Hugh Roe² 174.24 . ¤ginach: na trī badhbha bēl-ginacha three witches with gaping mouths, ML² 1585. ¤glicc: mo bhreath bheilghlic gan bhine `my skilled oral judgement', Keat. ii 1287. ¤lethan broad-doored : ós bruidin béllethoin, SG 230.24 . ¤lúath hasty of speech : 'ná bheith baoth beul-luath aig teagasg cách, De Imit. 13.24 . ¤maith: C. b.¤ `C. Fair-lips', Metr. Dinds. iii 324.11 . ¤mall slow of speech : la hU. mbruachdha mbelmhall, BB 365b37 . ¤remor thick-lipped, big-mouthed : belremur bolcsuilech, LU 8516 ( FB 37 ). badhbh béil-reamhar, TSh. 6623. ¤ṡalach foul-mouthed : Badb birach belsalach, RC xxiv 52.1 . ¤scaílte wide open; split open ; scattered : i mbrudin bronnḟarsing bélscailti, RC xiv 414 § 28. ina mbuidhnib bega bélsgāilte, Fianaig. 54.4 . (of a cast-up ship) go ndéantar blogha béal-sgaoilte dhi, TSh. 735. ¤tais with soft, moist lips : an chuideachta chuanna bhuadhach bheóltais (of fair women), Hackett xxvi 57 . ¤tana: go mbiailibh blathsnaoighte b.¤ `thin-edged battle-axes', AFM vi 2126.25 . ¤tirim: bérla breganta beoiltirm (spoken) with a dry mouth, O'Gr. Cat. 518.30. ¤trúag: na bid fri baisi ṁbeltrúaig poor-mouthed (?), SR 3890.

See béillic, bélaites, bélscál, bélscálán, bélscáth.

betham, bethem

Cite this: eDIL s.v. betham, bethem or dil.ie/5785
Last Revised: 2013

n n m. (biad) steward (?) UR 32 , Sprache xliii 186-87 : cain briugaid, brithemain, bethamain (MS. bethemuin) `declare the hospitaller, judge, steward´ Ériu xl 16 § 17 . ceile briughuid, | bethemuin, goibnenn, UR 29.26 . See also 1 bethamain.

breithem

Cite this: eDIL s.v. breithem or dil.ie/6699
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: brithem, breitheamh, breitheam, brithemnu

n n, m., later also o, m. O. Ir. brithem (breth). breitheamh, m., IGT Decl. § 51.

Judge (gl. iudex, arbiter in Wb., Ml. breitheam gl. arbiter, Ir. Gl. 366 ). Lit. `maker of judgments', Lat. iuris consultus, Críth G. p. 79 , and in legal texts usu. in the wider sense of jurist, (`brehon' in the published Laws), whose functions could include that of adjudicating . See also Binchy, Ériu xviii 45. In religious literature, frequently of God or Christ : atá brithem and cenutsu .i. deus gl. omnes enim stabimus ante tribunal Dei, Wb. 6b25 . ní áis æccalsa ata brithemin lib, 9c7 . fírbrithem gl. Dominus, 8d25 . brithem . . . .i. Crist gl. Deus iudicabit, 9c2 . in aimsir inna mbritheman, Ml. 104a8 . brithem firianamam gl. arbiter . . . æquissimus, 94b6 . 92a15 . dond fírbrithemain gl. cognitori, 26c11 . fírbrithem gl. iudicem, 27c1 . suide bri[th]emon gl. tribunal ( Acts xxv 10 ), Thes. i 498.17 . aimser breitiman, Hib. Min. 4.5 . in brithem firén (viz. God), LU 1999 ( FA 6 ). tri brithemain ind rig sin, 7630 (BDD). a brithemnu (v p.), LL 36440 ( RC xxi 380.12 ). hi cathair bretheman `in the judge's seat', Ériu iv 128.15 . dul doib co cend n-athchomairc Muman co brithem Caisil, iii 140.6 . Daniel fáith . . . brethem cundail na senoire = iudicem . . . senum, PH 5587. doïb bas brithem dia brātha (i.e. Pátraic), ACL iii 303 § 3. do bretheamh choitcenn roæntuighseatt eatarra C. `that C. should be arbitrator between them', Lism. L. 2532. breitheamh breabóideach, TSh. 6787. b.¤ aislingthi ` interpreter of dreams (of Maelcaba Cleirech)', MR 10.5 . ollam britheman, LL 3722.

In legal texts: atáa mí (sc. mí sílta) nád n-imthet rí acht cethrur . . . rí ┐ brithem ┐ dias i manchuini, Críth G. 537. i faitche . . . breitheamun aird, Laws ii 16.12 . ni breitheamh nach Seanchaidh, ┐ ni Seanchaid nach bretheamh i mBreathaibh Nimeadh .i. leabhar deridh ṡaothair na Seanchadh ┐ na mbretheamhan bheos, MS. Mat. 575. 17 - 20 , Ériu xiii 7 n.1 . a reir brithemon, Laws iv 212.3 . daernemed tra, saeir . . . ┐ legi ┐ breitemain, v 90.20 . foirbeir saeiri breathemain ┐ sair corigi biatad da fear deg, ┐ cug seoit dec i n-a diri, 30 `the franchise of jurists . . . increases etc.', PRIA xxxvi (C) 277 § 37 . dú imbet coir fechamain fri athcomarc a brethe don b.¤ where there are competent parties to question the judge on his judgment (Thurn.), Cóic Con. 57 § 133. breitem teora mbret .i. bret feni ┐ breth filed ┐ breath berla bain `a brehon of three judgments' (has increase of refection and díre), Laws v 92.16 . breitheam tri mberla, coimdiri do fri hoiri tuise, 100.16 . secht mbreitheamain nad fuigliter la Feine seven jurists to whom a case is not brought in Irish law, 352.17 . ni hed dlegur don breitheamuin a radh i ndlegur no na dlegur in cin, ii 52.20 Comm. a nord mbretheman `in the Brehon code', iii 30.z. oc dun breitheaman na tuaiti `the Brehon of the territory', iv 106.2 Comm. Note also: mac breitheman tuaithe `a lay brehon', AFM v 1710.8 .

Compd. ceann brughadh is breitheamhmaicne, DDána 89.13 .

clithemail

Cite this: eDIL s.v. clithemail or dil.ie/9519

adj i (clith ?) hidden; secret(?): Ohel, Abía, . . . / nibat c.¤ 'mo scél, / brithemain mac n-Israhél, SR 5515 .

1 fír

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 fír or dil.ie/22171
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: fira, fíri, fira, fír, ḟír, firithir, firium, fíream, fír, fir, fíre, brithemnachtae, fírmessa, fircarat, fír

I adj o-ā

(a) true, veracious , used as pred. with cop.; as attrib. usually in composition with noun, seldom following it. f.¤ ... a uero latine , Corm. Y 639 . gl. verus Ml. 24d16 . 60b11 . as f.¤ aní chanas, 24d14 . is fāss dúnni a pridchimme manid f.¤ , Wb. 13b14 . f.¤ inna rādisiu what thou sayest is true LU 8455 ( FB 31 ). dūs in f.¤ mar atbeire, SR 1268 . in fir a n-atfiadat?, CRR 29 . is f.¤, ol se, is e so Crist, PH 679 . ni f.¤ sin (contradicting a statement) 2715 . Absol. confirming a preceding fact or statement: f.¤, ar se, ingen fil and, LL 259b43 ( LMU 5 ). f.¤, ar in drai, RC xxiv 174.15 . f.¤ is munter Dé fogniat [sic leg.], Snedg. u. Mac R 9.21 = is derb, ar siad, is munter Dé, RC xxvi 136.27 . Adv.: co mbia co f.¤ esergi that there will truly be a resurrection PH 1074 . uere .i. co f.¤ , 7983 . atberim co fír fír frib ..., 5036 . go fíor, Duan. F. i 28.3 . pl. it na huili besgna ata fira , Thes. ii 7.26 . at fíra do briathra, PH 794 . IS F.¤he is right: olsodin nad f.¤ ndoib however in that they lie Ml. 16a10 . ba f.¤ ám do Ch. aní sin, TBC-LL¹ 5767 . 4692 . 5719 . fír dam, or A. ni fīr or L., LL 288b27 . ni f.¤ dún ar mbeith amlaid we err (in claiming) to be so PH 7945 . más f.¤ dhamhsa if I am not mistaken O'Dav. 1244 . IS F.¤ LIMM I deem it true, I believe: do retaib ata chosmaili fri f.¤ la doini ┐ bes ni bat fira la Dia, Ml. 51b8 . BID F.¤ it will prove true, come to pass: bid f.¤ a tairngire Wb. 2c19 . hóre bas f.¤ quod dicam , 17d20 . Cf. pret.: ba f.¤ son re cind in tres laí it came true ( happened ) LL 283a9 . Used idiomatically in assenting to a proposal or the reverse: cuir in da chend, a L., issin carpat ... Bid f.¤ for L. it shall be done LL 110b31 ( RC xiv 422 ). ní bá f.¤ sin that shall not be! LU 8199 ( FB 14 ). Mer. Uil. 46 . ni ba f.¤ ... Cet do rainn na mucce it shall not be that C. divide the pig ScM. 9 . ROP F.¤ may it come to pass Hy i 39 . corap f.¤ amal atrubrabar! PH 2774 . amen .i. rop f.¤ so be it 7981 . MAS Ḟ. (in later poetry) if it is true = `according to statement', `it is said': an séad, a Dhé, ina mbia ar mbríogh | más fíor is é bhus dia dhúnn, Dán Dé xxiii 11 . éantoirrcheas, más ḟíor, iaidséin, TD 26.7 . ionann ḟáisdine, más ḟíor, do mhac is d'adhbhar airdríogh, 21.31 . más ḟíor dá lán according to many 28.40 . fír dhe (cheville), Duan. F. 25.4 ; ii 68.10 . As attrib.: breth f.¤ , SR 3321 . dar mo bréthir ḟ.¤ , IT i 122.1 . g s. f. inna Trínóite fíri (fire v.l.), Hy ii 42 . Cf. foxal fainne fíre SR 3594 (but see fíre). pl. bretha fira , Ml. 89b14 . teora coibsen fira, IT iii 197.24 . tri bliadhna fira .xx. `righteous' (?) BB 50a24 ( MacCarthy 414 ). sgéla fíora, Duan. F. ii 2.3 . d s. as adv.: ind fír (gl. amen) Wb. 14c32 . ind ḟír (gl. vero) Sg. 106a5 . Equat. firithir lebor as true as LL 43b23 . Compar. ataa ani as firiu oldas a ndeda sa, Hib. Min. 10.348 . is firu damsa! ní firiu duidsiu! I am right! you are wrong! Ériu viii 157.15 . atberait aroli comboi ... ┐ is fíre són, LB 148a10 . superl. firium, Laws i 106.1 (?). fíremh, Ériu xiii 17.30 . Cf. fíream, Laws iv 34.1 .

(b) genuine: pleurisis fhíre ┐ pleurisis nach fír true pleurisy and spurious O'Gr. Cat. 188 § 45 .

II subst. n. later m. g s. cosmailius fír , Ml. 55d25 . arach fir , Cóic Con. 17.1 (other exx. below); later fíra, fíre.

(a) what is true; truth, right: gáo et f.¤ , Wb. 14c22 . f.¤ n-uile sicut dixi (gl. veritas facta est) 16b22 . f.¤ neich, 30d14 (= iustitia). fer nolabrad f.¤ ┐ no chairiged gó, PH 825 . tan renas ... a ḟir for in gae when he barters truth for falsehood (i.e. right for wrong, of a king) ACL iii 315.6 . f.¤ n-aignaid ┐ screbtra truth natural and revealed Laws v 430.23 . Ailbhe co ffīor `A. the truthful' Duan. F. i 6.3 . With poss. pron.: abbair a ḟ.¤ frind, LU 4544 . ráid a fh.¤ dūn tell us the truth about it PH 1063 . is é a ḟíor this is the truth of it Ir. Monthly 1928, 549 . isé a ḟíor is ní brēcc dhamh, ZCP viii 225.3 . sinagoga ... congregatio ... ed a f.¤ isin laitin `c.' is the right word for it in Latin 113 § 4 . ce raib se ina fh.¤ though it be true PH 7324 . In asseveration or adjuration: dar f.¤ ar cubais, TBC-LL¹ 110 . ar f.¤ do gascid, 4663 . for f.¤ do ḟlatha, LL 251a48 ( TBFr. § 23 ). for f.¤ th'ainich ┐ t'anma, LL 251b1 (ib.). Concrete: co n-indistar fir cacha ceatramhan until a truth (true story) be told for every quarter IT iii 196 § 40 . IAR F.¤ according to truth, really, actually: delb nad bí iar f.¤ (gl. imaginis) Ml. 91d1 . túarascbail ... inna n-airecht sin amal itát iar f.¤ as they are in reality LU 1997 ( FA 6 ). is iat sin na fírUlaid iar f.¤ , ZCP viii 326.9 . na hIúdaide cristaide ... na hIúdaide iar ḟír, LB 158b19 . isat cara iar ndreich ... cen cop ed iar f.¤ , PH 3100 . Cf. iar fíraib truly, really (?) LL 5b49 . tría fhíribh, Duan. F. i 88.13 (: ríghe).

(b) a pledge, guarantee: dobretha f.¤ fris .i. f.¤ ciche ┐ gruaide, nime ┐ talman, grēine ┐ ēsca, etc. Rawl. 132a31 ( Ériu xi 95 ). ro lasett each an ríg ... for f.¤ comairci Colmáin, BColm. 90.6 . adguiter f.¤ hOengasa [leg. nOen.] ... fris ┐ fir flatha na nDéisi, Ériu iii 140.170 . cf. la fior flatha frisa ngaibther, Ériu xiii 31.3 . da fir dhec flatha, below, end of (c). cach fír dar ná tecar slán `every pledge that is not transgressed with safety' Metr. Dinds. iii 6.65 . Cf. ferr fir fonaidm .i. na trebaire a pledge is better than a bond O'Curry 1756 ( 23 Q 6, 34b ) = O'Curry 511 (t. cen folad) (< H 3.18, 259 ).

(c) an attestation; a proof, test, ordeal: technical term in Law, one of the five `conara fugill' or recognized methods of procedure in pleading, see Cóic Con. p. 8 , 17ff . Here perh. i mmes fíra, Ml. 26c12 (see fíre). is ed so acarar [sic leg.] forin conair fugill is fir: cinta comraitti ┐ anfoit lanḟiachaig ┐ cach cin imna dir logad no trocaire, Cóic Con. 17 § 5 . uide īce in fira .i. in fir lai ┐ in fir Dé ┐ in fir cuir ┐ cunnartha ... in leth-fir testa ... in lan-fir teasta, O'Curry 333 (< H 3.18, 183 ). Cf. Cóic Con. 67 . mac mná dobheir fior i logh a ruice, Ériu xiii 31.28 . f.¤ nDé a religious ordeal or attestation: in inbaidh aititnither ... is fir nDé uadh ...; muna aititnighe ... is arra cuir ..., O'Curry 2003 Comm. (< H 4.22, 30 ). comadh ann robeth in fir dé so lais iar nemfadbail fire daoine, Laws iv 294.7 Comm. co dtisadh a bfir do cach iar bfir De (.i. na eclaise) ┐ duine (.i. na tuaithi), O'Curry 1607 (< 23 Q 6, 5a ). lia do fír fri ... aiṅcessa māra (.i. fris inni is anfis do neoch forna fagabthar breth acht fir ṅDe) thou shalt follow (the way of) ordeal in cases of, etc., Cóic Con. 16 § 3 . 37 § 50 . is cranncur fíre De docurethur ru, O'D. 900 . (< H 3.17 c. 644 ). f.¤ testa compurgation: O'Curry 2591 (< Eg. 88, 50b ), see Cóic Con. 67 . lucht fira compurgators: Cóic Con. 32 § 29 . in t-espuc, is greim cuicir gobas a lucht fira a leith re dainib ele, ┐ ni gabann acht greim aengraidh i leith ris fein, O'Curry 1058 (< H 3.18, 438a_b ). f.¤ dochum reilgi an attestation made in a churchyard Cóic Con. 64 § 14 . Ériu ix 114 . f.¤ n-airisme fri haltoir the test of standing at the altar Laws v 470.34 (see IT iii 192 ). f.¤ caire no crannchuir ordeal of the cauldron or of lot Laws iv 294.3 Comm. coiri fír .i. lestur ... fri dealochadh firindi ┐ góa, IT iii 191 § 21 . crand fīr `test-tree,' tree of ordeal Laws iv 146.27 ; a name for the aspen , Auraic. 1195 . tal no slisean seancraind, leasdar Baduirnd, trelia mothar no fir n-airisme fri haltoir, no fir fogearrta no comperta naime: ate ind sin fira ro suidistar Padraic do gleod fer nErend, Laws v 470 (see IT iii 188 , where three of these are included in the da fir dhec flatha `the twelve ordeals').

(d) right, due: ara tisad a f.¤ cach that everyone might `attain to his right' Laws i 152.1 . oc tacra a ḟír `arguing his right' Trip. 128.3 . is im fir ban ciato-imargaet roe `about the true right of women' [ = for a case (i.e. dispute) of women ?] Laws i 150.13 . Cf. fria hiomasdad a ffíor fri breith, Ériu xiii 34.7 (perh. belonging to c).

(e) various phrases: F.¤ CATHA `truth of battle,' a just cause in fight: risnā ragbad ríam ... f.¤c. nā fornirt [leg. fornert ?] comlaind, TBC-LL¹ 5083 (perhaps against whom neither equal nor superior numbers ever prevailed). co nā gabdais f.¤ c. fria n-athair that they might not have right on their side in opposing their father (of the three Finn Emna) Dinds. 140 , corresp. to: cumbad olc a f.¤ c. i n-agaid a n-ardḟlatha, Metr. Dinds. iv 44z . ba fearr a f.¤c. ┐ comlaind sin im a nduthaigh [sic leg.) ... innas im an ferand forgabala, Cog. 70.6 . táinig re síol bhflatha Fáil | gan ḟíor gcatha do chongbháil it turned out ill for ... that they had not right on their side TD 18.28 . éirghidh ar Ulltaibh, óir atá fíor gcatha agaibh chuca, Keat. ii 5643 . feirrde m'fhior chatha sa sin my cause of quarrel is the juster Content. xiv 4 . tré neimhḟíor gcatha in an unjust cause viii 24 . F.¤ FER fair play (in combat), single combat: acht cor damthar fir fer dam, ol se, atbér. is cóir f.¤ f. do chomollod ... ar ní f.¤ f. do slúag mór muinterda brisiud for óenfer, LU 9213 ( FB 94 ). nosgeodainseom huile ... uair rombrisiset fir fer fair, TBC-I¹ 809 (= LU 5284 ). rop áil damsa or L. conumrabad fir fer úaitsiu. cidón? or C. connachamthised úait acht oenlám. ar ni ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 122b5 ( RC iii 184 ). ni damar f.¤ f. dam na comlond, TBC-LL¹ 4706 . ní rodamhadh f.¤ fer ná comhlann fo coimhlíon dóibh acht ro chinn an t-iolar ar uathadh, AFM iv 996.14 . is and sin conbocht f.¤ f. fairseom ... día lotar in cóicfer cucaiseom, LU 6240 . dogniat aní sein ┐ dobreth a f.¤ f. fris, Ériu iii 137.50 (but Rawl. B 502, 132a31 has here: dobretha fir fris .i. fir ciche ┐ gruaide, etc., cited above under b). fior fer frisa ngaibhther, Ériu xiii 34.10 . Cf. muirbhfit ... iat i bhfir aeinḟir, RC xliii 24.9 . F.¤ FÉNE the truth (justice) of the F., itbath fir Fene, Laws i 150.17 . adbath fir Feiniu manipad cuicthi, 250y . F.¤ FLATHA the word of a prince; justice of a ruler: ní fíor flathu deit, a rí ..., a n-udbere thy sentence is unworthy of a just ruler RC xii 64.26 . co comet fir flatha .i. mess cacha bliadne, etc. (effects of just rule) xvi 280.7 . is tre ḟ.¤ flathemon cach recht rán ... cach tír toirthech, ZCP xi 81 §§ 12.14 . tré ḟíor ḟlatha ... tig ... iasg i n-inbhear, Content. vi 67 . asbertatar U. a mmarbad. ni thó, ar sisi, ar is coll fír f.¤ damsa the U. said that they should be killed. Nay, said she, for that is a violation of a prince's truth on my part RC xvi 281. 2 . F.¤ NGASCID fair fighting: ní f.¤ ṅg. ... comrac frimsa co n-oenláim, LL 116b39 ( RC viii 58 ). Cf. ní fír laechdachta dó tuidecht ar mo chendsa LU 6014 .

Compds.

A With subst. common as adj. prefix in sense

(a) veracious, true, just: ¤brithem a just judge Ml. 27c1 . dond ¤ brithemain , 26c11 (gl. cognitori) Wb. 8d25 . ¤brithemnacht a just judgment: g s. ¤brithemnachtae (opp. to gūbrithemnacht) Ml. 103c2 . ¤breth id.: pl. -a, SR 8325 . ¤dliged just, true rule: fili ... nach oide fīrdhlighidh ZCP viii 208.22 . ¤dul: iar f. (: dīlgud) according to right procedure, as is meet SR 1607 . ¤mess true, righteous judgment: ind fírmessa (gl. aequitatis) Ml. 103d1 . ¤mod: fīrmod sōn, Corm. Y § 149 . firmodh son, YBL 245 a 54 (Immacallam In Dá Thúarad) , ZCP xxi 325 . ¤scél true account: ni innisim acht f., Acall. 1428 . Less freq. in later texts; cf. fírferg: rinn ar bhḟírḟeirge ` just wrath ' TD 3.12 .

(b) veritable, genuine, real (very common; cf. older Engl. use of very < Fr. vrai): ¤dia: conapad f. mac that the Son should not be very God Ml. 21c12 . Wb. 2d8 . fíordia ... fíordhuine very God ... very man ZCP viii 199.22 (but: in fírdía the true God , opp. to dee ` heathen gods ' PH 433 , 2347 ). ¤duine: ní for fírduine rolaset a ṅgona acht is for corthe cloche, Thes. ii 343y (Comm. on Hy v 66 ). amal fírdhuine like a veritable human being PH 5642 . ¤aingel: messimir inna fíraingliu `the very angels' Wb. 9c10 . ¤mac: f. aicnid ní a uccu `a very son of nature, not from adoption' 32b6 . conid f. Dé Ísu Crist, PH 2179 . ¤chlann: Eua ..., fotha febda fírclainne of genuine offspring (?) SR 1064 . ¤chorp: is a ḟirchurp a doenachta atracht Crist a bás the real body of His humanity PH 6743 . Cf. further: am fírisrahelte a true Israelite Wb. 23d30 . is iat sin na fírUlaid the genuine Ultonians Rawl. 156b46 , ZCP viii 326.9 . frisna ¤adnacla (gl. non in domibus sed in sepulcris) Ml. 83d3 . is ¤briathar Dé (gl. non ut verbum hominum sed ... verbum Dei) Wb. 24d22 . fíor-fhraochdacht genuine fury (= asperitatem veram) TSh. 8130 . in ¤gním the real action Sg. 139a3 . inna ¤neuturáldi the true neuters 140a6 . ¤chara a genuine friend: g p. na fircarat , CCath. 5562 . cf. fiórnámha `a veritable foe ' TD 13.8 . ¤chlérech a true cleric: las na firclerchiu, Mon. Tall. § 13 . ¤dia the real God PH 433 (see above). ¤flaith a true, rightful prince: issin t[ṡ]ossud na fírflatha, LU 10752 ( TE 11 ). cosin f. (i.e. God) SR 1812 . ¤ true King: isé in fír-rig (of God) PH 1808 . Passing into sense of exact: ¤chenn sróna the very tip ZCP iii 34.19 . co firc[h]leit[h]i sleibi Olimp the very summit CCath. 5629 . i ¤dorus Chilli M. right in front of Trip. 136.16 . gáeth ... ina ¤ētan right in their faces LU 2184 ( FA 26 ). hi firmedón na cuardae the very centre BDD 72 . ¤mhullach Sléibi Smóil the very top Acall. 3925 . i ffiorthaobh ratha Oiligh the very side of the fort Leb. Gab.(i) i. 180.18 (cf. a dorus assa firthoeb (of the Ark) SR 2468 , where pref. seems otiose). 'na firiarthur right at the west end SR 4256 . ¤iarthar in betha, TTr.² 40 . frisin n-eclais a ¤thuaid due north of the church SR 4440 . i ¤ichtur inn aigeoin the very bottom CCath. 1386 . (hence adj. ¤íchtarach: superl. don chuid is fíríochtaruidh don bholg the innermost parts Proverbs xxvi 22 ). for a fir-uachtur on its very top SR 4332 . i ffíorthosach na bliadhna, AFM vi 2096.4 . ó fhíorthús na n-aimsear from earliest times TSh. 2917 . Very common with abstracts = true, genuine or merely intens. downright, sheer: ¤aicned: bretha firaicnid `judgements of true nature' Laws i 16.10 . a fīraicned screptra ┐ chuibsi, Ériu i 214.6 . ¤athrige genuine repentance PH 2241 . ¤chaín true smoothness; gentleness , in phr. f.¤ fáilte a hearty welcome: IT i 120.32 . Acall. 5830 . Ériu iii 164.11 ; xi 195.35 . ZCP vi 31.15 . ¤deacht true Godhead Hy ii 42 . ¤déirc true charity: tobar ¤deirce, ZCP viii 199.21 . ¤féchain scrutinizing: aca firechain cona dligthech, etc. looking to see that it is lawfully ... Laws iv 20.27 Comm. , cf. aca ¤dechsain, 22.29 , ZCP viii 205.33 . ¤grád true love: idir an bhfíor-ghrádh ... ┐ an grádh tacair, TSh. 8953 . ¤ítu intense thirst: follscadh firiotan, Leb. Gab.(i) i 28.2 . ¤less real profit SR 322 . ¤róen a downright defeat SR 5092 . ¤thnúth ` deep envy ' Ériu iv 92 § 5 . Oft. apparently otiose and freq. used for sake of alliteration: togha fírbhech ár bfoghluim `of most genuine bees' O'Gr. Cat. 475.22 . ar a fad nó ar a ¤leithett, AFM vi 2082.1 . agá fforach ┐ acca ffírlenmhain, 2318.1 . cossmhailes foichedh -bheach, 2224.3 . an faircle ¤leac fionnaolta na feineistre [sic leg.], Hugh Roe 288.27 (f. 76a) . ag déanamh fíorluit is foghla, Keat. ii 3262 .

(c) forming real compds. in which the meaning of subst. is modified: f.¤chruithnecht selected (?) wheat LU 8121 . ¤íasc salmon: cora ḟiresc `a salmon-weir ' RC xxvi 136.23 . bratan fireisc, Lism. L. viii 18 . lethar fírésc `salmon skin' MacCongl. 89.9 = cris d'iucraibh fīréisc, 122.35 (see also u. -uisce). ¤lemnacht fresh milk LU 8120 ( FB 9 ). Acall. 829 . ¤thipra a spring LL 30a1 . ¤uisce fresh water (opp. to brine), spring water ZCP v 24.2 . CCath. 1742 . BColm. 52.11 . Fl. Earls 90.20 . Études Celt. i 86.16 . Proverbs xviii 4 . eisg firuisgi fresh-water fish Rosa Angl. 40z .

B With adj. as advbl. pref. in sense truly, genuinely, downright or merely intens. ¤amnas very keen SR 1830 . ¤cruind perfectly round 36 . ¤derb quite certain Wb. 12c12 . ¤doim ` really poor ' Mon. Tall. 46 . ¤éolach ` truly learned ' Ériu iv 144.8 . Oft. merely for alliteration (cf. A, b above); faideran ¤gorm, Acall. 367 . fomor ¤grán[d]a, 1884 . féige finn ¤ṡolus, LL 385c23 . In such adjs. as fírbrethach just in judgment ( Ériu i 122.9 . ZCP xi 96 § 55 . Cáin Ad. 21 ), ¤epertach truth-speaking ( PH 6499 . RC xxv 396.16 ), fír belongs to the noun fr. which the adj. is formed. ¤ferr truly the best: an agh dob fhírfhearr dar n-ealbhaidh, PBocht 4.9 . C With vb. (chiefly in poetry), intens. or merely otiose (met. gr.): rofirchrap, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 69 = IT iii 99 § 164 . ga file nach fiorchuala?, Top. Poems 24.12 ( Top. Poems² 224 ). cía lia fer le fír-gairthir `is rightly called' Metr. Dinds. iii 60 . fíreba[i]r (: fīnemain) will be quaffed (ibid.) ACL iii 238.23 . fírníamhfuid will purify Ezekiel xliii 26 . fírfoscaigfider, Rawl. 111b15 (gl. on: forbuascaigfider). mōr fiad resa fīrtheichet from which they flee in earnest Ériu vii 4.15 . ro fíorthiorchanadh lá fáidhibh was foretold truly AFM vi 2298.8 .

folud

Cite this: eDIL s.v. folud or dil.ie/23188
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: folad, -aid, folad, foluth, folad, folid, folaid, foluid, folaith, folith, folaid, folaidh, folta, ḟolad, n-ilḟolod, fola, folaid, ḟolaid, foladh, folta, fol-, folaid

n folad, -aid (later also fola, see below) o, n. later m., somet. f., see below. For suggested etym. see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 39 ; Zupitza, KZ xxxv 267 ff ., Thurn., GOI § 104 . n s. (with art.) a folad , Sg. 27a8 , cf. Ml. 25c8 , cited below. a s. a foluth , 39b8 . a folad , 9a14 ; b4 . g s. folid, Wb. 32b3 . Sg. 138a5 . ind folaid , Ml. 22d9 . in foluid , 74d4 . folaith, Sg. 27b9 . Bürgschaft 29 § 78 . folith, Mon. Tall. § 86 . n p. folaid, Laws iii 54.3 ( SM Facs. 52a ), Laws v 54.3 ( BB 341.44 = folaidh, YBL 197a34 . a p. folta, Laws v 430.3 . Bürgschaft I § 55 ; 63 . g p. fri slond n-ilḟolad Sg. 28b22 = n-ilḟolod, 72b1 . In later lang. often treated as fem.: n s. fola, d s. folaid (see ZCP xv 325 ; xvi 220 , and cf. 2 fola). n du. dí ḟolaid , PH 1766 .

According to Charles-Edwards, in the Irish law of contract the sense is (a) wealth , (b) goods and services owed in virtue of a contract, (c) consideration , (d) the relationship of each party to a contract. Both folud and frithfolud can also mean obligations arising from an offence, FS Jenkins 346-47 . See Cáin Ad. 28 § 43 , Stud. Hib. xvi 27-31 . (a) substance, material (`folad can hardly be rendered by a single word. It denotes that which constitutes the essence of a thing; in the case of words, the idea they denote; in contracts, the objects or liabilities to which they refer; in the case of lords and clients the essence of their relationship , the correct discharge of their reciprocal obligations,' Thurneysen, ZCP xiv 374 . See also MacNeill, cited below under (d). In Wb and Ml used to translate Lat. substantia in sense substance nature, essence (both of material and immaterial things): a folud inna doinachtae Ml. 25c8 . du f.¤ nephchumscaigthiu `to an unchangeable substance' 110d16 . dochum ind folaid tanaidi inna anmae 22d9 . assin f.¤ appriscc inna colno, Wb. 9c10 . atat dí ḟolaid ann .i. folad duine ┐ folad diabuil, LB 174a13 ( PH 1766 ). is aenḟoladh ┐ aenadbar dūn uili, Alex. 877 . aondía ┐ aonḟoladh ZCP viii 204.27 (cf. Iosa Criosd ... as folaigh n-aonaonta, Ériu xiii 18.27 ). i meit ... a folaid ┐ a n-aicnid dilis, LU 2562 ( RC xxv 238 ). diabul ... cid ina ḟolaid diles no araile fuath tarmchruta, RC ii 398.2 ( Lat. Lives 97 ; `in propria substantia'). amal bedis esrainti din folaid corptai, BB 498b37 (of the Brahmans, = erranta ind fola , Alex. 923 . erandai indo fola, Anecd. v 5 ). In material sense: dus imbi maith a f.¤ (of testing malt) Laws ii 242.18 Comm. ( SM Facs. 29b ). púdar ... arna cumusc re fliche .. a foladh thsiltech `to liquid consistence' O'Gr. Cat. 242.18 . feoil .. aga mbia f.¤ tiugh, Rosa Angl. 42 . Cf. foladh `the thickness or thinness of meat or drink ' hence the expression foladh ieamhair et foladh séimh in old physic books, ' P. O'C. a f.¤ imarcach na lennand, Rosa Angl. 42.25 . a f.¤ na bincindi `in the substance of the brain' 226.15 . In loose sense: gearr go bhfuair [lucht na Traoi] folaidh a n-uilc `the result of their wrong-doing' TD 18.22 (cf. 2 fola). tarngaire cen folta promises without performances ZCP iii 25.20 = fotla, v.l. folta, Ériu vii 138 . Cf. under (c) below.

(b) in Sg used to transl. Lat. substantia = substance, signification (the notion which a word, esp. a noun, stands for, see Thes. ii 61 n .): gl. significatio 39b8 . mani decamar sainfolad cacha rainne, 26b9 . a f.¤ ┐ in chiall (= vis et significatio) 27a8 . issed a f.¤ cétnae sluinditae it is the same substance which they express 9b5 . ni inchoisig in son a f.¤ cétne .. iar ndígbail in tinfith (gl. ut si auferatur [aspiratio] significationis vim minuat prorsus) 9a16 . hercheilīuth folaith definition of substance (function of a noun) 27b9 . a f.¤ foṡuidigther fond ṡun the substance put under the word (the notion expressed by the sound) 73b3 . ar chuit folid .. ar chuit suin, 138a5 . Oppd. to accidentia `accidents' 189b10 .

(c) substance, property, wealth (common meaning in lit. (the exx. are not always easy to distinguish from those under d) : cid doratais ina tindscra? mo delg bec, or D. Is bec ind ḟola, or cach, YBL 118a14 ( RIA MSS. Ser. i 174 ). tecmalla A. a folud ┐ a inmass issin less, LL 118a3 ( Irish Texts i 34 ). cen dān cen folad (ḟolad, folaid v.l.), ZCP iii 449.20 (.i. cen inme R). trian a folith do fodail do bochtaib, Mon. Tall. § 86 . missi ac crábud 'sa comaid, | tussu ic éirge ra folaid, LL 300b17 ( SG 371.16 . perh. 2 fola: rising with a grudge, in anger ?). cisne folaid tra rotbiat-sa uainne ? (= what return shall we make you), Anecd. i 41.22 . co foltaib máine ┐ tíre, 42.4 . Cf. as i falaidh bia do ann | nem is talamh uaidh da chiond, ZCP x 24.7 . folaid cruidh no bethamnais, Laws ii 338.25 Comm. ( SM Facs. 38b : fol-. The text is: nach an be do ḟolaid cena, where Thurn. reads ... be doḟolaid, ZCP xiv 392 ). bid commaithi a folaid fri himscarad doib (of separation of wedded couple) Laws ii 388 ( SM Facs. 43b ; Stud. in E. Ir. Law 54 ). tecor folad mbritheman, CIH ii 402.7 . .i. da tecarthar ni da folud cruid on brithemain , CIH ii 402.12 . aisecc a ḟola ┐ a dhuithche dá gach aon, AFM vi 2334z (`his blood and territory' O'Don.). ag buain a bhfola ┐ a bhfearainn díbh go foiréigneach, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 177.22 ( Caithr. Thoirdh. 2.32 ). Esp. of cattle and stock (cf. foladha .i. spréidh no áirnéis cattle P. O'C. ): folod sechta lais—.vii. mbaí ... | .vii. muca ..., .vii. caírig ..., Críth G. 89 (= Laws iv 304 ). cf. Críth G. 432 . soīre ecalsi Dé cona muintir ... ┐ a n-ule folud beudu ┐ marbdu, Cáin Ad. 34 . dlighidh ... bōthar do uisge, cona ḟolaidh, Ériu xiii 33.21 . can tucsaid a folaidh (= folad, LU 5793 ) whence have you brought the kine ? TBC-I¹ 1321 (= can doberid in n-alaid ?, TBC-LL¹ 2030 ). can tucsait hi foluidh cruidh, TBC(C) 613 . a mbad seisc dind ḟolud the cows that were without milk TBC-I¹ 1128 (= LU 5608 ). berar 'n-as blichta dond alaid dó those of the cows that are in milk TBC-LL¹ 1695 = don folaidh St. co foladaib ┐ indilib Cuailṅgi, TBC-I¹ 902 (= folodaib, LU 5378 ). co n-acotar in tain folaid issan gort, ZCP iii 228 § 3 . foladh bó dicitur , Cóir Anm. 108 (fanciful derivation of sobriquet Finnolaidh), cf. oladh ainm do bhoin, Keat. ii 3680 . Cf. mad cētchin [cech cin; eccin MSS] dono a foluth no dona muccaib ..., Cáin Ad. 42 .

(d) in Laws, the pl. folaid is `a frequent term for the means, material or otherwise, by which a person sustains his functions or liabilities' (MacNeill, MacNeill, Law of status 275 n. 2 , cf. Thurn., cited above): a teasband de foltaib caich, teasbaid dia cataid, Laws v 70.9 (`what is wanting from each man's means is wanting from his dignity' MacNeill op. cit. MacNeill, Law of status 275 ). ar indí crenas in fer túaithe dia dagḟoltaibh hi túaith co n-árimther inna grá[d] téchtu i mbí i túaith, Críth G. 2 ( Laws iv 298 ) i.e. the member of a tuath purchases by his means his due rank in the tuath. Cf. ma ḟoi bera f.¤ (MS. foled) a thige co mbi f.¤ mbóairech should the property of his house increase until it becomes [equal to] the property of a boaire Críth G. 81 ( Laws iv 304.3 ).

(e) in Laws also used to denote, of contracts, the objects or undertakings to which they refer; of lords and clients, that which constitutes their mutual relation, their correct conduct towards each other in their respective capacities , Thurneysen ZCP xiv 374 ; Cf. Stud. in E. Ir. Law 110 . Similarly of the `fine' towards its members: ni coir nach cor cen lanfolad .i. folad lanloigi, 23 Q 6, 34b ( O'Curry 1757 ). cach cor cunu foltuib, cach fola(i)dh cunu frithfolai `an jedem Vertrag mit seinen Objekten, an jedem Objekt mit seinen Gegenwerten' ZCP xiv 373 § 36 ( Laws ii 286 ). cach fola (.i. in set turclaidhe) SM Facs. 34a . na folada chuir ┐ conartha, H 3.18, 482b y Comm . ( O'Curry 1208 ). is dileas cor cid gan folaid, 23 P 3, 23 (21)b . cor comair is ruidles ... ┐ dligthir a folaid o dib leithib, ZCP xiii 21.24 ( Bürgschaft § 19 ). Cf. do fet focra folad .i. as remtechtai lium foccra ... do tabairt fair anas fola athgabhala do gabhail de 23 P 3 ( O'Curry 1874 ). ite folaid fír flaitheman ... for a tuatha the obligations which a just ruler has to his people Laws iv 334.10 = Críth G. 525 (`the sustaining means of a true ruler over his tuatha' Mac Neill, MacNeill, Law of status 303 , does not suit the context). Cf. nenaisc Corpre ... for Dergthene ... folta dar esi flatha, Ériu vi 149.61 (see ZCP xi 32 ). is da foltaib fine gaire cach fir fine fogne fine ina foltaib coiraib. folaid cōre fri fine cen ni cria neach acht ni ria, etc. `proper duties towards' Laws iii 54.3 ( SM Facs. 52a ). tir do beir i coibche mna ... nad urnaigead a folta coire Laws v 510.6 . ni saigh naidhm folta for feichemain, ZCP xiii 22.18 (see transl. and comm. Bürgschaft § 27 ). iccaidtar frisin flaith ... ma beith ina foltaib coirib if he has duly performed his obligations as chief Laws ii 326.3 ( ZCP xiv 388 ). ma fris-rognaither flaith foltaib `if the [proper] services have been rendered to the chief' Laws ii 318.9 ( ZCP xiv 385 ; cf. the note on flaith foltaib' xvi 210 ). mad maithi a folaid (.i. im lubair ┐ im tech n-aidhedh ┐ im fochled ngrad) Laws v 54.3 ( BB 341a44 ). is óg lōg ainech cech grāid ... mani aurcriat a folaid `the honorprice of every grade ... is perfect, unless their qualifications diminish' [i.e. by dishonorable acts on their part] Laws iv 318.20 ( Críth G. 303 ). gabait ma folta condoragbu a frith[ḟ]olta [they] `affect his property till his counter-qualifications are regained' Laws v 178.15 Comm. (see frithfolud). ni théid ḟoluigh na friothfolaigh cāin n-einech, Ériu xiii 14.14 . filidh ad-ógha [leg. = ada ógha ?] fireona folaidh, 18.8 . óighe a bḟolagh ib. 3 . (of bards :) ... go tabair saoire dhoibh la. honngus, ┐ a ffolta ar chena, 44.4 . mád ógha a bfolaidh fria tuaith, ┐ eagluis 32.19 . fosernar saorḟolta, 22.28 . mac go sesaibh saorfolta ib. 27 . tir aduberar do eaclais ... nad oide folta ata cōire fri hubairt (.i. nocu comoigenn-si na folaid is cōir dī risin tī tuc udbairt), Laws v 430.3 (10) . Cf. folta coire; folta techta, Stud. in E. Ir. Law 110 ( Laws v 510 ). ce cuintestar lánḟolaigh gusna filedhaibh. ni mó dleghar dhoibh ionas dona gradhoibh eagalsa ┐ dona gradhaibh flatha ┐ dona Fénibh ..., Ériu xiii 19.11 . tar flatha firḟolta, ZCP xi 95 § 47 . conóiged dliged téchta cech ḟir ... foltaib fíraib do thúathaib ata lais cintaib láime (duty of a king) Tec. Corm. § 2.24 . ni ba ri ri gan folaidh, Ériu xiii 31.14 . trebairi cen folad, O'Curry 511 ( H 3.18, 259 ). folaid [folta v.l.] chutrummae equal objects (in a contract i.e. adequate consideration on each side, oppd. to `diubart' Tec. Corm. § 3.32 ). Cf. bid cert im chotomus folad, Cóic Con. 19 § 11 = 50 § 100 . nach forbech bis la ríg Ciarraige do righ Locha Léin fācabar la Ciarraigi ┐ la rig ┐ is hoén inna foltaib ō rīg Locha L. (i.e. the king of L.L. is under the same obligations towards the king of C. ?) ZCP viii 316.15 . intan nomber ri C. a giall do rí[g] Locha L. dober dano rí Locha L. a giall do rí[g] C. fria folta tecti, 316.17 . mad togu .. la C. a ndul co rig L. conaimsa folaith doib .i. rechtaire huadaib la rig L. ┐ iiii lanamna, etc. if the C. prefer to join the king of L. considerations have been established for them, viz. etc. ib. 316.8 . Cf. flaith na folad, Metr. Dinds. iii 102 (v 256) . Of an article borrowed for a definite period: mana tairi dia ind laithe airchinn sin atrire cen folaid n-airligthe, Laws v 370.14 Comm. f.¤ lóige price equivalent, price ; f.¤ cinad what is payable in reparation for crimes (of trespass etc.): ni tabur caithe tire ... ar do-baidet a fochraic a folta (duine ro recustar fearand ann sin ┐ is i fola loigi do-ratadh do dia chind, beith fo cintaib ┐ ... dibaigid in decreic loigi do-ratadh dia chind in folad cinad dleagar de), ZCP xvi 220 . Cf. nirbo ferr ind fola oldas fochraic in tire, Caratnia § 16 . fer bis fri folta chinaid fine who is liable for the crime-reparations of a `fine' Laws ii 126.13 Comm. (- fol- H 3.18, 378a ). in fil folta innā sesed in feichem for araile ... ? fil ēcin. caide ? ni anse : toing do Dia, etc., Bürgschaft I § 55 ; similarly § 56 .

(f) equivalent, consideration; reason, cause: a sense arising out of preceding (cf. 2 fola) : int slabra dobeir don mac tar folaid (fol- MS.) na gaire do denam `in consideration of his doing the duties of maintaining the old' Laws ii 364.21 Comm. (expl. of `macslabra gaire,' cf. is ruidles .. macslabra dar folaid, iii 310.7 , and see iii 54 cited above under e). Here, perh.: ar Christ coem tar folaid immeasurably noble Fél. Ap. 10 (p. 471) . is cath écoir duitsiu in cath sin do thabairt do rig Muman i folaid a ingine is marb accut, Acall. 3019 . raghaidh láoidh na haghuidh uaim | a bfalaidh áoir I Annlúain, Book of O'Conor Don 13a . ro hainmniged son dono cid asa lucc cetharda (a folad cethardai, Harl.) for a fourfold reason Hib. Min. 14.459 .

In: di chumoil dí chos ar formteacht ┐ folad, H 3.18, 17a ( Laws iv 362.3 : `two cumhals for the leg, for walking and supporting' the correct reading is evidently `folach' or `fulach,' which is translated). ? fir foluith (in list of persons who become accessories to crime) ZCP xii 361.25 ( H 3.18, 8a ); leg. fola as in Irish Texts iv. 15 § 9 , § 10 ?

See anfolad, (anblod), frithfolud, mifolad, and cf. 2 fola.

senchaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. senchaid or dil.ie/37122
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: senchaide, senchaid, senchaide, senchada, senchaid, senchaide, senchaidiu, sencaidaib, senchad, sencaid, senchad, senchae, senchaid, seanchaidh, tseanchaidh, tseanchadh, seanchaidhe

n i, m. Later also senchaide. n s. in senchaid , LU 3062 . senchaide, PH 6946 . g s. senchada, ZCP iv 237 § 3 . d s senchaid, TBC-LL¹ p. 911 n. 3 . n p. senchaide, Laws v 360.7 Comm . a p. senchaidiu, Anecd. ii 73.11 v.l. d p. sencaidaib, Laws i 34.16 Comm . The follg. forms, g s. senchad, BDD² 997 . n p. sencaid, LU 3475 ( SCC 25 ). g p. senchad, SR 1059 , may, perhaps, derive from senchae declined as a t- stem, which may have been the oldest form, with senchaid, orig. d s., forming new nom. seanchaidh m. g s. an tseanchaidh , an tseanchadh , n p. na seanchaidhe , IGT Decl. § 52 .

a reciter of lore; a historian : ní aisnébet sin ná seanchaid dul damsa ónd orguin, BDD² 720 . is disi rochet in s.¤ na runnu-sa, LU 3062 . a s.¤ Cairthede, 11040 . noi mís lána . . . | o rohet Adam anmain | iar sliucht sruithi senchad slán | co rodelbad a banscal, SR 1059 . co n-epert . . . `Senchaidhe suidhighet . . . sreatha fían fianeirghe fechat coir coicerta iar cintaib cnedh', Anecd. ii 73.11 . cia no beth sencus aile and oc na sencaidaib, Laws i 34.16 Comm . senchaide ┐ brithemain ┐ echlacha, RC xiv 414.1 . im dá ṡ.¤ na tána, TBC-LL¹ 1576 . do Aed . . . do phrims.¤ Laigen ar gaes ┐ eolas ┐ trebaire lebur, p. 911 n. 3 . mad iar n-Iosifio primshenchaide na n-Ebraide, PH 6946 . atberait na senchaidi go ro dithaigset gaill a muintir, Cog. 62.4 . oir dlighidh seanchaidh seneolus . . . d'aisneis, MR 96.6 . tré ainbhfios na seanchadh, Keat. i 84.19 . seanchaidhe Éireann áille, | . . . | atáid san bhaile an bhuidhean, | caidhe sráid na seanchuidheadh, Ériu v 58 § 85 = sráid na seanchoidhedh, IGT Decl. ex. 1323 . créd rádh na senchadh mur sin | gu sengfadh ó chlár Chaisil, ex. 1331 . sgél leam dhá dheimhneaghadh dhuibh | ga ferr seinleabhar seanchaidh, ex. 1324 . do bhí Iehosaphat . . . na sheanchuigh, 2 Samuel viii 16 . sencaidh gach fer forba nó ferainn everyone who owns a patrimony or estate is a historian, has a memory for the past (a proverb), BNnÉ 248 § 201 . In phr. suí senchada a very learned historian : is and is súii hsenchada in tan léghas léirghnimo Innsi Héibir, ZCP iv 237 § 3 . ní dligh . . . cuairt in file nó in tsúi tsencotha na fiasara adha . . . na rígh, ib. n. 5 ( Eg. 1782, 36b1 ). The s.¤ was an important witness esp. in disputes as to land (cf. Cóic Con. p. 10 ): adeir . . . cur ob lia dfiadhnaib ┐ do tsenchaidhib ina taeb fein, O'D. 1961 ( Eg. 90, fo. 7, p. 2, col. a ). mása tuinighe ┐ senchaidhe con dara de ┐ fiadhain ┐ sencaidhe oc araile, is do tsenchaidhe na tuinighe légur, 1957 ( Eg. 90, fo. 7 ). nocho fuach[t]naighthi comruc a re . . . im in ni ro bethaigdais fiadain ┐ sencaidhi, acht im in ni na bethaighdais fiadain na senchaidhe, Laws v 302.27 Comm . toinges for an ceile ni na bethaiget fiadain na senchaide, 360.7 Comm .