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1 acht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 acht or dil.ie/200
Last Revised: 2019

(freq. act in O. Ir. glosses). See GOI § 908 . Later ach.

I As prep. with accus. (see Ériu xvii 79 , ZCP xxv 237 , Ériu lx 137-42 )

(a) save, except (lit. outside, Thurn.): cách act tiamthe `every one save Timothy', Wb. 23d5 . bacc de echaib a.¤ serrchu, Laws ii 118.9 . a.¤ cuit naige fine, iv 194.26 . roslechtsat do Patric a.¤ cóicḟir all except five bowed to P., Trip.² 1652 . fiche a.¤ sé bliadna i.e. 14 years, LL 15069 . ar di-legad síl Dubthaig Daīl ... acht claind Moathaire 'for [all] the descendants of Dubthach the Beetle were destroyed ... except for the kindred of Mothaire', Aided Echach 96 §4 (g) (h) . di-legath síl Dubthig Dōeltengath and act cethra conchuiriu, Aided Echach 94 § 1​ . achd ré n-aithrighe d'fhagháil save that there was time for repentance, DDána 64.9 .

(b) More freq. after neg. vb. as in: act aní ropridchussa dúib (nothing) save gl. nihil . . . sapietis, Wb. 20b4 . nand asse díchenglad cor mbél . . . inge (acht, MS) nóe curu it is not proper to dissolve contracts . . . except for nine contracts . . . Ériu xvii 66 §§ 4 , 5 .

(c) Hence in sense of Engl. only, merely , etc. (cf. Fr. ne . . . que): ar ni arilsem-ni act dígail for we have deserved only punishment, Wb. 20d14 . ni bí nach dethiden foir act fognam do día his only care is to serve God, 10b9 . ni gessid . . . act búaid precepte, 26a34 . nicon chloor act for caínscél, 23b41 . connaccon bet a.¤ degnimai less so that he may have only good works, Ml. 129a9 . ní rádat som a.¤ bréic ┐ togaís they speak only lies and deceit, 31a18 . in tan nád techtat a.¤ oin aimsir `when they have only one time', Sg. 5a10 . nī fūar a ssēt a.¤ Maire `I have found not her like save Mary', Thes. ii 349.4 (Hy. v). a.¤ fo thri nico rotroisci M. `that M. never fasted but thrice', Mon. Tall. 157.5 (§ 72) muna bed a.¤ don dornsann ní himtecar la suidaib, Laws iv 158.5 . nach ístais biad . . . a.¤ biad Conchobair, IT i 75.15 . conna-ruc a.¤ oīnchois ūaim, Sc.M² 12 . ni boi arm la Hiruath . ... a.¤ bocṡlaitt moir, PH 850 (a.¤ bocslat mor, v.l., ZCP xiv 147.7 ). na déantar lámh dhearg a.¤let none but her be outlawed(?) Dán Dé ix 9 . nach fuil a.¤ talam ┐ luaith san cholainn daonna nothing but earth and ashes, TSh. 432 . gan a.¤ mac tíre 'na sesamh rena brollach only a wolf standing at her breast (instead of her own calf), BNnÉ 164 § 34 . Note also: dearna a láimhe a.¤ a lámh oile / clár do b'áilne snoidhe sain, DDána 32.22 , where a neg. is implied (see notes).

(d) With emphasising nammá, amáin: a.¤ comparit neutair nammá gl. non inuenitur nisi neutri generis, Sg. 41a8 . act seircc ndée tantum (= nammá) gl. non quaerit quae sua sunt, Wb. 12c2 . a.¤ nammá renders Lat. nisi forte, 9d21 , 12c32 . a.¤ éolas nammá, TBFr. 392 . ní thérna díb a.¤ oenchóicer namá, BDD² 1494 . teach . . . cen dorus . . . a.¤ seinistir ┐ forleas namá a house without any door but a window and skylight only, 81 . a.¤ dá angel amáin ní bátar and, LL 291a3 . ní bhí a.¤ an moladh amháin / ní don domhan a.¤ díoláimh `save praise alone', TD 31.8 . a.¤ trōcaire Dé amhāin, Fl. Earls 134.20 .

(e) So also with follg. mad (cf. acht má as conjunction infra): a.¤ mad a claind `unless it be her (own) children' (gl. docere autem mulieri non permitto), Wb. 28b13 . ni ruc . . . claind . . . a.¤ mad óeningin, IT i 130.14 . nád aithgainethar . . . a.¤ mad indred n-indligthech, Críth G. 564 . noco ria nech dib ar éc . . . a.¤ mad Essu ┐ Caleb, SR 4732 . a.¤ mad aenfer, Anecd. i 63 § 115 . indis dam firindi, riam nucha n-ebartais a.¤ mad guth ceart, Fen. 156.21 . ni bhíodh neach aga ghoire a.¤ madh na hoighe allaid `save only the deer', ZCP i 64 § 57 .

(f) Hence in adv. phrase a.¤ (mad) becc lit. except (but only) a little, hence almost: combo marb a.¤ bec until he was almost dead, LU 3290 ( SCC 8 ). a mboi de ór . . . oca a.¤ becc almost all the gold they had, PH 999 . fāsughudh C. . . . a.¤ becc `almost total devastation', RC xvii 384.23 (Tig.). corloiscit cella fer Midhi a.¤ mad becc, 389.7 .

II As conjunction

(a) In sense save only that, except that (folld. by nasalising rel. clause in O.Ir., see GOI § 503 ) (freq. with nammá): ro legsat canóin amal rundalégsam-ni a.¤ ronda-sáibset-som tantum `they have read the Scripture text as we have read it save only that they have perverted it', Ml. 24d24 . accobor la mmenmuin maid do imradud act nandléicci concupiscentia carnalis , Wb. 3d13 . Borg Emna ro tetha / a.¤ mairte a clocha `save that its stones remain', Fél. Prol. 194 . is bēlra dligthech concanat, a.¤ nat aithgnet cluasa dōine, Ériu ii 118 § 54 . a.¤ nach deachaidh tar muir Manann, riámh ní rosgabh rí ba fearr, Keat. ii 5755 . So also in the following (where rel. not marked): haue a.¤ ro noebad / do Dunlang `a grandson, save that he has been hallowed, of D.', Fél. April 11 . manid caindleóracht in tige as ail duit do chosnamh a.¤ namá bid mó bas loscud don tig oldás bas suillse don tegluch except that the house is more likely to catch fire than its inmates to get light, LU 9197 ( FB 92 ). conrotacht . . . a tech . . . fo chosmailius na Cráebrúadi . . . a.¤ nammá ro derscaigestar a tech so . . . do thigib inna hamsiri, 8046 ( FB 1 ). coro ṡollsigset in catraig na dluma derga . . . a.¤ ni loisctís nech nama without however burning anyone, LB 152b41 .

(b) With má, mani, cé (see Vendryes, Ériu xvi 21f. ). With má except if, unless: act ma chotchela gl. numquid Israhel non cognouit, Wb. 5a9 . act massu made in chretem rochretsid gl. nisi frustra credidistis, 13a34 . act mad melltach lassin fer `unless it be agreeable to the husband', 9d17 . act mad óentu dúib occa gl. ex consensu, 9d22 . tír Cannain . . . / nista . . . / a.¤ ma rannait . . . / for meic iar for n-adnacul unless your sons divide it SR 4735 . ní dligther fothud a thige do neoch . . . a.¤ ma ḟrisnasar a ḟlaith, Críth G. 79 . nocho chumcaid-si imchaisin Críst a.¤ ma blasti bás ar thús, Trip.² 1147 . ní talla a léni de a.¤ mad fria huaim `he may not take off his shirt except it be to stitch it', Ériu vii 140 . Note also: a.¤ má dothísad Arddrí secht nime dó ní reg-sa, Trip.² 1354 .

(c) With mani except if . . . not. So in some early exx., but later = a.¤ má or mani: a.¤ manidchomalnid a rropridchad dúib gl. nisi forte reprobi estis (you show that God is in you except you fulfil not what has been preached to you, Wb. 18b7 . ni ba messi dogena a.¤ manimléicther ind it is not I who will do it unless I am not allowed in i.e. provided I am not forbidden to enter, RC xxv 26.9 . noco mberthar uaimse ait na halma ass (leg. a.¤ Vendryes, loc. cit.) manip aúrderg limsa, LU 5029 (TBC) unless I do not consider them visible i.e. worthy of being seen (Vendryes). a.¤ minab edrud ┐ grian, `provided it be not between thee and the sun', Ériu viii 122.28 . In follg. exx. = a.¤ má, a.¤ mani: ni segar baithis acht menip dóig bes marb in gein unless the child seems likely to die, Ériu ii 208 § 32 . fotdáilfind i n-ilpartib . . . a.¤ manibad F. were it not for F. LU 5673 (TBC). ?is mesi . . . dliges a caurathmir a.¤ mani brister anfír form unless I am treated unfairly, LU 8986 ( FB 74 ). ni raga ass . . . a.¤ manit ainge ben unless a woman protect you, 3352 ( SCC 14 ). ní maith duit imthecht t'oenur a.¤ mani[d] dáil fir no thēig, Fing. R. 91 . acht mana maidi in talam found unless the ground breaks under us, TBC-I¹ 3577 = mono thaeth (muna maidhi, muna maoighthfe v.ll.), TBC-LL¹ 5975 . ni ra cotail C. risin re sin, a.¤ mani chotlad fithisin ṁbic . . . C. did not sleep during that time except for a little while, 2473 = a.¤ mad mani chotlad, LU 6338 . nach fer gentor a.¤ mona bentar a cend de unless his head is cut off, RC xii 88 § 99 . a.¤ mana bera lat in topur so `unless you take away this well', Lism. L. 4669 . a.¤ muna faghbam ní dar cobair orra sin ní bia duine a mbethaid unless we can find something to protect us from them there will not be a person alive, Acall. 6174 . ní dénann urchóitt do neach acht mona derna nech urcóit di, Maund. 33 . nad ḟetar-sa . . . act manip íat in Galían, CRR 11 . a.¤ munab í M. th' iarraidh, Eachtra Uill. 4300 .

(d) With cia even though, even if: act ci nip lour `even though it be not sufficient', Wb. 11d15 . nach facamur riamh roimhi, / a.¤ gér cian ar comnoide though long has been our sojourn, Ériu iv 114.32 . tu easbal dob annsa leis /. . ./ a.¤ ger ionmhuin gach easbal, Dán Dé i 9 . ba menmarc leis co mberadh buaidh a.¤ ge bhadar ced fan fer `he wished to defeat them even though they were a hundred to one', Stair Erc. 1471 . acht gidh mór do maith doronuis co ró-so, ZCP vi 67.8 . for imegla a bhāssaigthe a.¤ ge ro baoi i n-a Pāpa, Fl. Earls 206.20 . a.¤ gér laoch mear even though he was a swift warrior, LBranach 7210 . Samson, a.¤ gér chalma a neart, Éigse iv 188.71 .

(e) In conditional sense if only, provided that (folld. in O. Ir. by perfective subj. except where an impossible condition is implied, see GOI § 904 ): bíth and beos acht ropo i tuil dée `let him still abide therein provided it be in God's will', Wb. 10a25 . act ní arbarat biuth inna túari provided they eat not the foods, 10c1 . bid maith mo menmese act rocloor for cáinscéilsi `my mind will be glad provided I hear good news of you', 23d2 . atá comeisseírge act rocretem oipred dæ, 27a15 . ni imned lim act rop Crist pridches, 23b24 . buí cara damsa isin tírsea . . . a.¤ rofeasmais conair dá thig if only we knew the way to his house, BDD² 262 . a.¤ rop coir ní gellas, Críth G. 505 . a.¤ ropom airdric-se (ropa airdercsa LU), maith lim cen co bend buan acht oenlaa, TBC-I¹ 571 . ata lasna tuati beith lór dóib do ascnam nime acht doratat ní dona hanmchairtib (sic leg.) `the lay folk deem it enough to win a place in heaven if only they have given something to their confessors', Mon. Tall. 141.16 (§ 35) . doémat na trī sailm-sea . . . acht rogabthar gach dīa, ZCP iii 30.23 . With non-perfective vb.: a.¤ ni bed úall and `if only there were no pride in it', Wb. 10b27 . nico mórbrig laisim and a.¤ ní cometestar dond accobar `he counts it no great matter provided there be no yielding to desire', Mon. Tall. 152.7 (§ 63) . a.¤ com-messind-se mo maccu nī diṅgentais do chride chrád if only I were able to control my sons, Fing. R. 498 . Note also: noco nindligthech do gin co tuca abad acht techtugad do breith `provided that he has brought the means of taking possession', Laws iv 4.15 .

(f) Similarly with follg. co n-: ríge láech nErend . . . dait . . . a.¤ co nderna mo chomarlisea provided thou do, LU 8114 ( FB 8 ). a.¤ cor damthar fír fer dam ol sé atbér, 9213 (94) . a.¤ co rabat glinni mo diṅgbála ria provided there are sureties to satisfy me, MU² 64 . a.¤ co nde[r]nat maith / flaith uaidib co bráth, Trip.² 1798 . cretfemit do Christ a.¤ co ro-fhindamm a nert, PH 345 . nis-fil do plāig . . . for bith nachus-bera sin for cūlu, a.¤ corup léir guidter Dia occai, RC xii 430 § 21 . With non-perfective vb.: asbert . . . nod lemad a mbrethugud a.¤ co ndaimtis nammá fora breith, LU 9012 ( FB 76 ). dá fessed a.¤ combad fer ulcach nod ngonad no mairfedsom he ind (mixed constr.) 6110 (TBC). cuma a dteasda uan dom aois / gan suan feasda a.¤ go bhféadmaois, Dán Dé xvii 5 . a cōir féine a.¤ go bhfagha / ni dóigh Éire i n-aontamha, TD 24.1 . Hence as soon as: act arroilgither ind epistilse dúibsi berthir úaib Laudocensibus gl. et cum lecta fuerit apud vos aepistola [haec] facite ut et in L. aeclesia legatur, Wb. 27d13 . aiggelat sa hé a.¤ co roisc int oirned as soon as the ordination is ended, RC xlii 134 § 9 . acht co ndernair hoc rechtair romhat dochum an prainntighe, RC xxvi 374.1 . With non-perfective vb.: ragat a.¤ co fiasur in n-airm atá I will go as soon as I know where he is, LU 3373 ( SCC 17 ). bérthar cainnli duit acht co tumthar, Lism. L. 1996 .

(g) In adversative sense but: énirt a cocubussom . . . act nosnerta in sonirt, Wb. 10c3 . coir irnigde tra inso act ní chumcamni, 4a27 . robatar leosom eter desciplu . . . act dorigénsat in descipuil dechor etarru, 7d10 . cenél Maicc Ercae as tressam . . . a.¤ nochon follamnaiget amal ardrígu, Trip.² 1064 . lánsíth i nHérinn . . . a.¤ buí imneissi chatha iter dá Chorpre, BDD² 230 .

(h) Often introducing a positive clause oppd. to a preceding neg. one or vice versa: ni imdibe dualche . . . act is imdibe colno, Wb. 21b11 . conibé eter in peccato act co beid in pænitentia , 9b2 . ní bo ar seirc móidme act conrobad torbe dúibsi triit, 17a13 . ní dron act is diuit et is glé, 17b4 . ni ar Abracham . . . a.¤ is diar foirbthetuni, 2d2 . ni delb ad-rorsat act is cosmulius delbe, 1b19 . ba torad saithir dúun . . . act ní bad nertad na mbraithre, 10c21 . is hé láech is áildem . . . a.¤ níba s[h]uthain, TBFr. 5 . ni hainfis a.¤ día necar doniam indnos it is not in ignorance, but to set them forth that we proceed in this way, Mon. Tall. 154.27 (§ 66) . co rrabe . . . cen dig cen biad, a.¤ 'co immorchor ón taíb co araile, Sc.M² 3 . In sense at all events, however: mór di ḟertaib . . . doróne . . . acht aisnédfimne úaiti do ilib díb, Trip.² 110 . nī himda persa . . . is fessach crēd . . . in bāss geipit, acht nī thernoighit tar aiss amach go bráth, Fl. Earls 70.31 . Note also: munup do saighe selbha a.¤ for ecin `unless he seizes land by force only', Laws iv 26.16 Comm. nídnanaid a crothad nach a flescad a.¤ a nidi `it is no protection to shake or beat it, but only to wash it', Mon. Tall. 155.2 (67) . ná dearbh as a.¤ go hairech, Content. vi 27 .

(i) On cases where the prec. neg. sentence contains a word meaning only: ni hed a méit nonchretidsi act fodaimid fochidi airi `not only do ye believe it but ye endure sufferings therefor', Wb. 23c7 . nípat hé . . . nammá beite isind inducbáil sin a.¤ bieit cit geinti, 4c40 . nirbo chuit eperte tantum act robatar cid ferte dia imthrenugud, 24c5 . ni namá na duile aicside do chumscugud . . . a.¤ ro-chumscaigit gráda nime, PH 152 .

(j) In the idiom a.¤ ní . . . ní not only not . . . but not (cf. sech): a.¤ ní ructaisseom airesom ní rucadsom foraibsom not only could they not get away from him but he could not catch up with them, BDD² 300 and note. a.¤ nis leicim nis étaim, TBC-LL¹ 2334 (= sech LU). a.¤ ni trebad ni coimge, Metr. Dinds. iv 332.36 . a.¤ ni gonab-sa ni gonfa-sa mo moindter-sa, Ériu v 32.23 . a.¤ ní mó a cách ní lugu `not only is it not increasing but it is not less', Otia ii 81.2 . In positive constr.: acht ba dimdach ba debthach, SR 5688 . atbert in drui: a.¤ saerfaithir do mathair doberthar duit na bú as well as freeing your mother the cows will be given to you, IT i 40.x . Note also: a.¤ ní buaid a denam imbáruch is mó is dimbúaid a denam innocht, TBC-LL¹ 1866 .

(k) With cia: cindas rainnfither in mucc . . . cīa indas . . . a.¤ a-rann ar chomramaib in what other way, Sc.M² § 6 . cid, ol si, acht maillechut-sa tú co sír, PH 8262 . Introducing a phrase: cid fil ann didiu (sic leg.) a.¤ amal itcualae, PH 834 . cid fil ann immorro acht ni dechaidh aonnech ina ndocum, Stair Erc. 449 . Note also: aní ná roich lám, cid a.¤, / is écen dam a dúthracht, LU 3935 (`yet' SCC § 44 ).

(l) As quasi-conjunction in idioms with cen (gan): gan é a.¤ i naois ōiglenaib `seeing he was but of young child's age', O'Gr. Cat. 381.13 . gan lios . . . a.¤ lán do dhoire dharach, TD 28.7 . gan duine a.¤ ag dol ar séad, Dán Dé ix 34 . gan duine . . . do dol faoi . . . acht le custam do dhīol `that no one should go under it without paying custom', Fl. Earls 90.4 . brugh. loch. Lugh inand ghabhaid a.¤ gan illradh ag Lugh, IGT Decl. p. 81 § 29 . Note also: ní fuil mac Gaoidhil ná Goill / a.¤ lán dá éanghrádh uile, TD 17.57 . ní bhí leó a urdail a.¤ d'ór /. . ./ cinn a bhfagha suaine a sleagh / nó truaille tana dtroigheadh `they have not so much as the heads of their javelins . . . but is gold', 9.29 .

In introductory phrases: a.¤ chena is alaind cech nderg, LU 3914 ( SCC 43 ). gabhuis Columcille in salm . . . acht cena ni rolegh-som acht aibghiter namá cosin, Lism. L. 823 . a.¤ nammá atáa mí nád n-imthet rí a.¤ cethrur however there is a month when a king goes about accompanied by four only, Críth G. 535 . acht atá ní chena, bar F., is fiach fola ┐ feola dó-som é, TBC-LL¹ 2989 . See also cena. cid (trá) a.¤, cid fil and (trá) a.¤ etc., see trá II(b). a.¤ (mad) énní however, nevertheless, at all events: achtmadh enní, do marbhadh ceithre fir décc [dibh], AFM v 1328.4 . acht aenni, do bitis debtha dermara eturro, Ann. Conn. 1315.4 . acht aen ni . . . bemitt ar aenconair, 1315.8 .

III As subst. ise cuit in achta ann this is the function of the word `acht' in that passage, O'D. 745 (H 3.17 col. 541) (possibly to be referred to 2 acht).

3 acht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 3 acht or dil.ie/202
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: eacht, echd

n stipulation, condition (specialisation of 1 acht? Cf. also 6 acht). Frequ. in phrase atá a.¤ (le) as a gloss on 1 a.: ata a.¤ and gurab gan dena neich is urrcuillte isin riaghail so Patraicc glossing a.¤ is gin coll cana Patraic do berar, Laws iii 388.4 Comm. a.¤ nad sui for culud . . . .i. achtaigim no ta a.¤ lium ann co na himpatur hí for culud . . ., 78.8 Comm. a.¤ arcuirethar anadh for athgabáil .i. ata a.¤ lium ann chena go . . .. O'Dav. 132 . ata a.¤ leam and cheana ┐ is ed robo em airechtain la sen, Auraic. 505, 2973 . as é a.¤ ar a b-fuilit siat d'á tabairt dóib this is the condition on which they are to surrender it to them, Hy Maine 160.y . ar an a.¤-sa ón uairsi amach / bead gan chéile gan chumthach, KMMisc. 244.17 . do fhaomhus a taphairt dó ar a.¤ fana fagháil slan . . . arís, Feis Tighe Chonáin 717 . le comhall . . . bhar ndísle le a achta feasta `for your fidelity to his injunctions'. Maguires of F. 64 . a.¤ na suadh dá leantar leis `if he would but keep the law of seers', Ó Bruad. ii 238.4 . Later also spelled eacht, echd: eacht 'a term or condition, an act or deed', P. O'C. gur chuir fuireann leo go hÉirinn...ar eacht go mbeidís... umhal dó, Keat. ii 1139, ii 5010 . tug E. ar na heachtaibh sin triúr ban dóibh 'upon those conditions', Keat. ii 1791 . ar gceangal ar na heachtaibh sin dóibh, Keat. iii 5024 . do cheannaidh [Críost] sin[n]...ar an echd ┐ ar an cconndar do thug- air Dia, Luc. Fid. 232.16 . gur chuir comhairle S. d'eacht ┐ d'forcongra ar an Iustís...an Rúta do thabhairt..., AFM v 1818 x . do bhí dh'eacht ar ó nE...deaghmholta cháigh do cheannuch, TD 31.12, cf. 9.17 . gach lánamhain díobh do roicheadh i n-eachtaibh ┐ i gconnarthaibh a chéile 'into treaty and contract', Keat. ii 3846 . do-rinne mé eacht rem ṡúilibh 'covenant', Job xxxi 1 . Cf. IGT Decl. § 95. ex. 1703 .

adlaic

Cite this: eDIL s.v. adlaic or dil.ie/479

Forms: ad(a)ilc, a(i)l(l)ic, álic

adj i. Also ad(a)ilc, a(i)l(l)ic, álic. desirable, agreeable; needful: tuä intan bas n-a.¤ `silence when it is necessary', Ériu ii 64 § 4 . gach aidhme ba hadhailg ind eallma las an luing everything that was necessary, Hugh Roe 6.13 (fo. 1b) . buí idh . . . fri a tarraing chuca . . . an tan badh adhlaic, AFM vi 1898.6 . In attrib. use: a dlighedh adhluig, Laws i 254.20 Comm. (etymol. gloss on adilce. Cf. a dliged aidalic glossing aidilgne, iii 40.28, 42.12 Comm. ). ollamuin aidilge, O'D. 2215 (Nero A vii 148a) = ollamuin aidhilgne, ib. traighlethan adluigh dealbh[dh]a / Rathbuidhe tuir thrénTemhra, Geneal. Tracts i 17.9 . In phrases is a.¤ DO, LA: cid is ailicc dúib húam `what do ye desire from me?', Ériu iv 140.5 . robo a.¤ dó a aithi do P. aní dorigne fria fer comtha, Trip.² 541 . sec[h]ip rēt bas maith lasin filid ┐ bas a.¤ dó d'foillsiugad, Corm. Y 756 . ( bud á.¤ , Corm. 25.27 ). Fand ic dul la Manannán mac Lir ar nocorb álic duitsiu hí because she is not pleasing to you, LU 4020 ( SCC § 47 ). masat seoit rig . . . ad (adat, ata, v.ll.) adhailge (aidilci v.l.) daib, Anecd. ii 53.3 . nach nī is a.¤ ┐ is laind la duine, Corm. Y 1201 . masa a.¤ lib chena , LU 1566 . déna . . . amal as a.¤ let fessin, 8831 ( FB § 62 ).

Compar. alcu dún (ba cora duinne v.l.) fuligud ┐ fordergad for nech we prefer, LL 8073 (TBC). áillcge dit inda midól / . . . / tú it luing . . ., Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1912 xxv 439 § 9 ( LL 369 marg. inf. ). bes ailciu arailiu, Laws iii 42.12 Comm.

n As subst. desire, necessity; necessary thing: donrimmart gorta . . . / . . . / fri ar n-a.¤ uaig . . . to supply all our need, SR 3487 . dénad a.¤ (adoilcc v.l.) cech lobair `the need of every sick person` (rule for religious life), Ériu iii 96 § 2 . nícon ticfa ri moín no a.¤ . . . in sét connegar and (nicontarrtar fri main na torad(h) na a.¤ v.l.) by wish or desire, TBFr. 308 . aire ard oll airbrech ernes cach nolla.¤ / do buidnib balc Banba who grantest every large desire, Bruchst. i 24.7 ( IT iii 57.5 ). adhailg (aid(a)ilc v.ll.) fir urgnama .i. coire i.e. a cauldron is a necessity for a man who prepares food, Anecd.. ii 52.8 . ic imluadh a n-adhelge . . . ┐ a n-arm catha moving what was necessary for them, CCath. 4644 . a ffurtain do bhiúdh ┐ da gach naidhilcc aca, AFM v 1496.10 . = adhailcce, 1550.11 . ?róimh aoibhinn ar n-adhlaicne (: aicme), Studies 1920, 566 § 4 (perh. form of adailcne, see aidilccne). adhailg .i. mian, O'Cl. aidilg .i. mian .i. dliged, O'Curry 1970 (H. 4. 22, p. 15). = aidilg .i. main dligid, 569 (H 3.18, 284). In pejorative sense, demand(?), improper desire(?): con innisenn dó cen len / adlaice macc n-Israhél, SR 4608 = adlaice ┐ indliged mac nI., LB 122a36 . adlaici ┐ eccora inndligeda mac nI., BB 243a10 . ní hadlicgi álsidi / a ḟasnís do ócaib Ulad (ni hadlaic ailseda, St.) it is not a necessity of shame(?), TBC-LL¹ 4768 ( LL 11488 ).

4 ainmide

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 4 ainmide or dil.ie/1463

adj (ainim?): ni renar nach ainim .i. aen dam no aen capall ┐ do neoch bes ainmid[e] doib chena defective(?), Laws ii 360.22 Comm. Cf. Stud. in E. Ir. Law p. 25 = domainech, O'D. 300 ( H 3.17, 235 ).

airchoimted

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airchoimted or dil.ie/1736
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: airchoitmed

vn. of ar-coimtimm, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 512 . Later also airchoitmed. act of excusing, excuse: ni tellfea doib irchoimted in hora iudicii , Wb. 26a23 . inn erchoimded gl. apologiam, Tur. 82 . ní damdatar erchoimded they suffered (i.e. would take) no excuse, Trip.² 2383 . cid ara cuirther do trise ina lesa so? co tardad neach [cach] urcomded de, Laws i 236.10 . d'erchuitmed a chinad le[s]-sium = quasi excusationem habeat, PH 5165 . robói . . . oc erchoitmiud (erchoitmedmiud, MS.) na tánaic . . . ar ro boi a tromgalar, TTr.² 809 . Erchoitmed ingine Gulidi, title of a story, Hib. Min. p. 65 . ier ttabairt a choipsen go huilidhi gan urchuidmedh fon doman, Fl. Earls 154.22 . As comic n.pr.: frisrogart Aurchuitmhe (Aurchoimned v.l.) mac Sodethbir . . . co n-erbuirt sidhe ac urchuitmhe (aurcomdet, aurchuidbeth v.ll.) assa leith, Anecd. ii 68.2 . ? ag urchuitmhe (oc aurchoim, oca hurcoim v.l.) ar Themraig, 53.z. urchuidmheadh .i. diúltadh no leithsgéal, O'Cl. Cf. auráin .i. aurcomndeth, O'Curry 123 ( H 3.18, 75a ). tícht co P. do erchoitmed fris to make excuses for him to P., Trip.² 2173 . ba h-irchuitbed fri foigdech 'making excuses to a beggar', MacCongl.² 27.854 = aerchuidmeadh fri foigeach, BB 66b37 = airchisecht fri f., Triads 83 . bai . . . B. . . . ic erchoitmhedh frisna cléirchibh expostulating with, Lism. L. p. 224 n. 2 . ? aurcoimde . . . im biadh, ┐ cidh adhaltras no techt for coibdelaigh do cach aon chena is inann ┐ in teisinnracas mbreithre, O'Curry 1947 ( 23 Q 6, 50 b ). cethardha foloing imarbas . . . slatratu ┐ urcoimded, Laws iii 92.12 . ? cedfaidh cach nurcoimdedh uadha som, iv 356. 18, 21 .

airlithir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airlithir or dil.ie/2222
Last Revised: 2019

v (cf. 1 airle)

(a) advises, counsels: is he nodairlestar ar a gais it was he gave advice on account of his wisdom, Ériu iii 140.158 (= conid he roscobair tria gaes, Cymmr. xiv 116 § 17 ). dilmuin do boethuib nad nairliut gaith fools whom the wise do not advise are exempt, Laws ii 82.7 = na nairliter, O'Curry 684 (H. 3.18 p. 333). Cf. airlethfimne na hóga .i. do ghéunam leathnughadh no comhairliughadh ar na laochaibh, O'Cl. (airle). With prep. DO: is and airlestar Eithne . . . dia haitib dul doib . . . advised her fosterers, Ériu iii 140.156 (= dobreth E. iarsin comairle dia meithre, Cymmr. xiv 116 § 17 ). ? táet Lugaid chuci or Ailill ┐ ara n-airlathar dó in n-ingin and let him advise him [to accept] the girl(?), LU 5864 = taet L. chuci or siat, ┐ aranarlathar, ZCP ix 154.22 (see ad-gládathar).

(b) consults, asks advice of: airliter cumni cóich comarbai cré, LU 3474 ( SCC² § 25 `let memories be consulted to learn to which heir the land belongs'). collaa dún . . . issa ndúnad co n-airlither (.i. co n-iarfaigea) Lugaid mac Nóiss, 5991 ( TBC-I¹ 1523 ). is imbe rotairles sech na ridiribh eile, Grail 2846 . deliberates, considers: mani airlestar, TBC-I¹ 74 (`if heed is not taken of him', Faraday 5 ).

(c) takes a resolution, resolves, determines: roairlesatar Connachta . . . techtaireda ūaidib, TBC-I¹ 3098 . ? In cheville: arnamāirech doibh / for muir miadh (= mad?) airleth (: bairgedh), ZCP x 344 § 12 . tiucfa la Flann Cinach / a coimpert madh airledh (: bairgen) well has it been decided(?), § 21 . ro-airliset īerom Connachtae i comairle cid di-gēndais 'the Connachtmen then decided in council what they should do', BDC 122.282 .

(d) looks after, sees to: arndip maith nairlethar a muintir `that he care well for his household', Wb. 28b32 . nipa díless duit an í hi tái mani cáinairlither gl. si permanseris in bonitate, 5b38 . Note also: airlethar no móras gl. sed quem Dominus commendat, 17b22 (wrong interpretation of commendat?).

(e) arranges, regulates: arlifimni na hócu chena conná gébat forsin tslóg (of the Galióin), LU 4648 ( TBC-I¹ 187 ). ? dia ard airlathar / aingel indrechta, 1156 (ACC). is and ro airled ri ┐ aithech here (i.e. in the Senchas Mór) was fixed (the difference between) king and serf, ZCP xvi 175 § 2 ( Laws i 40 ). is and ro-airled dire cáich fo miad, § 3 (ib.). is i Senchas Mor ro-airletha na cetheora cána, 176 § 6 . it teora eirce airliter, Laws iii 26.17 .i. erluaidhter na teora eirce, 25 Comm. slicht eitgedh airligter, 536.3 .i. eraluaiter aisneis na eirci, z Comm. ? ni ragaid mani deib cumachtachaib / arlidir crib coternam, LL 1620 = manab dib cumachta clanntar / crib airlither cat .i. munab cumachtach sibh ar erluadh no ar urfoichill catha do cor co crib no . . . biodh urfoichill chatha co luath libh, Leb. Gab.(i) 254.7 = ni raghadh muna deibh clandtar cirb airligther cath, BB 40a54 . prescribes, decrees: bailechro a n-ifernd ro-n-airlestar Dia fri pianadh na pecdhach `which God has designed', Ériu ii 132 § 108 . nad inand airlither Dīa do gach dāen, Anecd. v 23.2 .

Note also: conidnarlaid (.i. co roairlestar) síth iar sáeth, Thes. ii 332.17 .

áis

Cite this: eDIL s.v. áis or dil.ie/2468

Forms: óis, áise

n Also óis. g s. áise. See Celtica vi 62 - 3 . free-will, consent: masa targud eicne . . . ma targud aisi, Laws iii 114.23 Comm. na tarta oircne i ṅdail na in á.¤ na i comáin . . . do Ghaedelu, Thr. Ir. Gl. 30.4 . = i n-áil nó a n-ascaid, Corm. Y 883 . ceannach an nighei-sin ar nimh / tabhair oram ar éigin / ná heirg i gceann áise a Eoin / gá fearr m'áisse ná m'aindeoin do not consult my wishes (a plea for intercession), Dán Dé i 5 . triallais in ben forecin fairsim uair forḟemid ais (the wife of Potiphar), LB 115b11 (= f. reme, Celtica iv 14.z ; f. hi chena , YBL 286b4 , but foremidh he chena , 63b29 , BB 237b43 ). maith a n-aís, olc a n-écen, BCC 284.z . Eire d'fhaicsin re ar n-ais ┐ re ar n-órdúghadh féin at our will and dis- position, ML 78.2 . d'eagla an bháis do bhí 'n-a dháil / achd gér bh'í a á.¤ a fhagháil, PBocht xxiii 10 . nách gabhann á.¤ gan éigean, Measgra D. 26.63 . ais .i. deoin, O'Cl.

In phr. ar á.¤ willingly (opposed to ar éicin unwillingly, see éicen): ceni thaisid ar ois daregaid ar ecin, Ml. 33b15 . ar oas, Ml. 83b15 . Saxain náró trebat Héirinn ar áiss nach ar éicin, Trip.² 1336 . daig cen co tucthá ar aís dobértha ar écin, TBC-LL¹ 132 . do chuinchid I. ar écin húair na hétar ar oais no ar charatradh, TTr.² 306 . noch an ar ais ro fríth an fear `the man's death was not cheaply obtained', ML 22.1 . cosnadh ar éiccin no ar á.¤ let him contest at all costs, Ériu iv 228 § 57 . mairg do raghadh uadh ar á.¤ , Dán Dé xxvi 42 . d'á.¤ willingly: in phoc ais acht mas d'ais on tuccadh pocc di, O'D. 2367 ( Rawl. B 506, 43 ). d'éigin nó d'á.¤ , Dán Dé ix 6 . ní fhuigheadh acht dá á.¤ é, xxiii 21 . dober lium d'ais nō d'ēcin ē, ZCP vi 47.19 . d'á.¤ an chaoimhniadh chomhachtaigh, Ó Bruad. iii 88 xix . Cf. also ní h-ás duit a n-aeninad, `thou shalt have no ease', De Contemptu 2390 (saer, v.l.) Leg. as (prep.)?

amein

Cite this: eDIL s.v. amein or dil.ie/3125
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: ameind, amin, ammin, amnin, amne, am(e)in(n), imne, aidche

adv also ameind, amin, ammin, amnin, amne, etc. Stressed on second syll., see GOI p. 30 . No rhyming ex. with the form am(e)in(n). imne: aidche, SR 6179 ; amné has long final vowel Ériu liii 138-39: sē: am-nē, Ir. Gosp. Thom. 94 § 18 . imnē: dē, Ériu ii 56 § 14 . amné, SR 5801, 6207 , TE 158.5 , 176.17 . ( am + sin, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 188 . See also Pokorny, ZCP xix 176 and Thurn.'s remarks, GOI p. 570 . Vendr. Lex.).

(a) thus, in that way, in accordance with what has already been said: darigni amin `made it thus', Sg. 31b22 . ? masu ed amin, 192b7 . cia beimmi amin nach ré, Thes. ii 294.1 . forriuth a n-enech ┐ a n-inechgreso amin, IT i 141.27 . co rochindsead úada amne, Ériu iv 156.3 . bid ammin co cend mbliadna, Ériu viii 156.10 . cid amein biaid comét huaim-se and though it be so (= even so), Trip.² 1363 . ? bad fert Scéne ba amne so will it be (.i. conice so), LL 1543 . Cf. fa amne it was thus, Ériu iv 178.20 . co ro loitedh an tír eatorra imáseach amne, AFM iii 284.22 . a dál fu diud / bith amin ní líach, Trip.² 2477 .

Brought forward with copula in emphatic construction: hóre is amne atáa gl. síc et uos, Wb. 12d7 . is amne atáa gl. ideo enim et tributa praestatis, 6a19 . [mass]u amnin ataam, 13c12 . hóre is amne dognither, 9c14 . is amne asruluús airi gl. sic effugi, 17d16 . mad amne (madmne, MS) labrar, 12c36 . is ámin tra as cert in testimin so, Ml. 62c7 . is amne as coir a lathar gl. sic uult accipi (i.e. in this particular sense), 114a9 . ol is amein attáa, Wb. 32a6 . conadh amhein ba forlann somh ┐ ua N. daén aonta in that way, AFM v 1766.18 . Hence ol is a.¤ since it is so, therefore , Wb. 6c8 , 13a13 (`for it is thus').

With follg. explanatory phrase (late use, cf. 1 amlaid): is amne fuaratar Becan ic figi chasil, LL 358 marg. l. 26 . bá imne tangattar lá borrfadh bríghe, AFM v 1766.z . E. . . . as amne fuair aoidhedh, bheith i mbraighdenus, etc., 1576.23 . as amne battar side fora chionn ina ccodailtighibh gan ḟaitces . . ., 1852.17 . With ocus and phrase: bá imne baoí an caislén hisin ┐ lethanchlais . . . ina uirthimcheall, vi 1896.6 .

Apparently reinforcing adverbs of direction and place: L. . . . fil os adart na himda thall amne oc urgartigud a aiti yonder there, LU 3462 ( SCC 24 ). ced leth atá Emain ? Fathúaid amne to the north there, 4865 (TBC). airm itaat Partraigi . . . ra C. na ríg aniardess amne, TBC-LL¹ 624 . ataat da port mathi frind aness amne, LL 271a5 . Etain indiu sund amne, LU 10670 ( Ériu xii 158 § 23 ). a ḟir ucut án amne, LL 275a11 .

(b) Less explicitly so, accordingly, then (often as mere expletive): cen comrac dó fri mna imne (:aidchi), SR 6179 . maccáem tuchtach amne co ngaisciud do íd . . . atotchomnaic all you are is, etc., LU 5657 . regmai ámin, TBFr. 415 . dobér indass fair . . . amim (sic) at all events(?), LU 4866 = amne, TBC-LL¹ 885 . cingsiu amend dia congno well then, step, etc. LU 5182 (TBC). m'aenurān im'airiclān, m'aenurān imne `all alone thus', Ériu ii 56 § 14 . na secht tinne se amne .i. na se tinni argait ité sé lathe . . ., LL 281b21 . oc na cliathaib sin amne / i n-athaib Elga áine, 20636 . cia cocert robói etroib-si arraír ? Ised so amne ro imraidsem cia cumachta is moo . . . well, this is what we discussed, 282b12 . ullmhaigit na hapstail amne dia lāmhoip badhdēin croch `accordingly', Fl. Earls 112.16 .

Hence as interjection introducing a sentence: amein, ol in gillæ, oc saigid dit acallma Senchāin, Corm. Y 1059 ( Anecd. iv 93 ). amein a Cu Ch. . . . dochóid do gal ┐ do gaisced, LU 8878 ( FB 67 ). amain, or Eochaid, nīcon fil for menmain damsa sin uile, Ériu viii 156.22 . In combination with other particles: amen chena, ni mar gach ní etc., MR 262.24 . maith amin well then, TBC-LL¹ 1837 . maith ameind, IT iii 201 § 68 . amein ane fota cotanac, LL 278b14 . In greeting or question and answer: dotháet Cuillius co Ailill. ameind or Ailill. amne dano or Cuillius undar dait sund comartha, LU 5407 = ameind . . . amne dino, TBC-I¹ 929 . amin . . . amné eim, Ériu xii 176.17 (TE2). maith sin a chlerech arse. amin ar Moling, LL 284a50 . cinnas, ar seseom, do M. ? amein, or in macclērech, KMMisc. 210.10 . tusa dono can asa tanagais ? as in t-shliab amne, Ériu viii 24.9 .

In chevilles: co fargaib and ed imne / secht fichit londláth gaile, TFerbe 881 . seol amne, BB 54b5 . fath amne, CRR 5 .

angnás

Cite this: eDIL s.v. angnás or dil.ie/3638

n (gnás) unwonted proceeding: da saoiledh aoinnech gomadh anghnás súd, ní h-edh chena , Geneal. Tracts i 30.11 .

at-etha

Cite this: eDIL s.v. at-etha or dil.ie/4593
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: ad-etha, adetha, atnethat, at etha, atethsa, atetha, atetha, atethaid, atethur, attethatar, atethaind, atet[h]ad, atethaidís, atethfat, ad-eath, adethad, at-etha, aided

v (* ad-eth-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 514 ). Properly ad-etha, but us. with mid. Ir. form of preverb (hardly with permanent inf. pron. as suggested by Zimmer KZ xxx 73 ). Indic. and subj. stems identical and freq. with force of a fut. or quasi-ipv., the impf. having that of a condit. (See Thurneysen, ZCP xxii 19 - 20 ).

Indic. pres. 3 s. adetha, Ml. 48d1 . 3 pl. atnethat, LU 5200 . ? Ipv. 2 s. (with inf. pron.) at etha, Blathm. 551 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. atethsa, Vita Br. 25 . 2 s. atetha, IT i 124 § 10 . 3 s. atetha, TBC-LL¹ 1789 . 2 pl. atethaid, LU 9710 . Pass. sg. atethur, RC xxv 35 § 9 . Pl. attethatar, TBC-LL¹ 5239 . Subj. impf. 1 s. atethaind, Ériu xii 178 § 9 (TE). 3 s. atet[h]ad, Laws i 250.20 . 3 pl. atethaidís, LL 12764 .

Fut. 3 pl. atethfat, LL 400b29 ( TTr.² 326 ).

Pret. 3 s. ad-eath, Leb. Gab.(i) 168.17 . Pass. sg. adethad, Trip.² 2901 . Forms cited above as s-pret. of ad-reith may in fact be perf. of at-etha. Cf. Thes. ii 47.25 cited below under (a).

Vn. aided?

Cf. ethaid.

(a) goes towards, attacks, seizes, takes: adetha ┐ loscaid cech rét frissa-comraic gl. flammam autem ab effectu operis, Ml. 48d1 . adreth (adrech v.l.) gl. corripuit, Thes. ii 47.25 . atnethat láith gaile Emna, LU 5200 (TBC). Dauid cen bini adreth buáid, SR 5877 . focherdat . . . na trualli ┐ na claidbiu ina ndíaíd ┐ atethat na trualli conda samaiget impu, LU 7310 . atetha íach etera da cholptha, LL 14094 . ateta a gaisced `he takes his weapons', Ériu xii 184 § 15 (TE). tonindnaig . . . leithi in chon dó . . . adetha Cu. iarom assa láim, LL 13890 . atometha lat . . . dianom riri Eochaid `thou mayest take me if E. sell me', Ériu xii 184 § 14 (TE). atetha a tuarascbáil leiss co h-airm i mbái Conchobor `he brings their description with him', CRR 27 . adreith laiss . . . muince ordhai, Anecd. i 57.54 .

(b) finds, obtains, gets: bes atetha a n-adcobrai, IT i 124 § 10 . atethaind ní bad maith lat chena acht is bairnech mo menma frit `I would have wrought something else to please thee', Ériu xii 178 § 9 (TE). dia mbetís eter biu ┐ marbu Ulaid i n-oenbali atethaidís leór a llessaigthi . . . limsa they would find sufficient to maintain them, LL 12764 . mad mo cheile no beth and atet[h]ad anad foraib, Laws i 250.20 . Frequ. in sense gets (payment, gift, satisfaction, etc.): rega ass ar in clam ateth-sa boin im mbaliu aili I will get a cow, Vita Br. 25 . atethaid a innili oca thig ye will receive his gifts at his house(?), LU 9710 . atetha lóg a iasachta, TBC-LL¹ 105 corres- ponding to do-geubair-si, TBC St. 102 . ? eirggi guin ┐ gabail / attetha as cech anáil, TBC-LL¹ 3041 . atetha-som (do geba som v.l.) na comai sin he shall have his terms, 1789 . atetha a Cruachain crúadchosc, 535 = iteta i Cr. a cosg, TBC St. 444 . ateatha Eirinn in mac sin, Anecd. ii 1.11 = gébaid, Airne F. 16 . mad áil duitsiu atetha sin, Ériu iv 142 § 19 . tuc dam indara mac ┐ beir huaim indara n-ingin . . . atetha anisin, ar Feidelm thou shalt have that, ZCP ii 134 § 4 (`take that'). atetha breth do bél féin duit. Ni géb mo breth féin ar Cu C., LL 13002 . attetha cinaid inna slūag thou shalt pay for everyone's sin, ACL iii 318 § 68 = asrire cinaid inna sluag, LB 261a70 .

(c) With écc, etc.: Oirbsen a ainm, iar cced cath, / ecc ad eath (.i. fuair), Leb. Gab.(i) 168.17 . ? bit ili athet[hat ?] martrai, ba dirsun do feraib hĒrend, ZCP xiii 379.5 ; xx 225.2 (Baile in Scáil).

attá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. attá or dil.ie/4927
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: attá, Fil, fil, faeilfit, fil, fil, atóo, attó, attóo, ató, -táu, -ttóo, -tó, atái, atái, -tái, adta, ata, at, atáa, attáa, ataa, att, -tá, -ta, -táa, -dathar, ataam, attaam, ataid, ataaith, ataaid, ataad, -taid, ataat, ataat, -tat, -taat, tathum, tathut, táithi, táthus, táthunn, taithiunn, tathuib, tás, fil, fil, feil, fel, fail, fil, file, fel, fele, feil, fail, biuu, -bíu, -bí, biith, biid, bíid, -bii, -bí, robīi, -rubi, -rubai, -ruba, bíis, biís, bis, bís, bithir, bither, -bither, -rubthar, bímmi, -biam, bimme, biit, bíit, robiat, -biat, -bíat, -rubat, bíte, -bíinn, -biinn, -bíid, -bíth, -bid, -bith, bithe, -bímmis, -bitis, -bítis, b, bíth, bíith, bíid, biid, bíd, bithom, biid, bith, biat, beo, beu, -béo, bee, b, -bee, robhe, beith, beid, bed, beth, -b, -bée, bethum-sa, rob, robe, rubé, rob, robbé, -roib, bess, bes, bethir, bether, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -bem, -robam, beithe, bethe, -beith, -beid, -robith, beit, rubet, be(i)t, -bet, -robat, bete, -beind, -beinn, -betha, nobed, nobeth, -bed, -beth, -robad, -rabad, -bethe, -bemmis, -beimmis, -bemis, -bethe, -betis, -[ro]ibtis, bia, bie, bieid, bied, -bia, -bia, -bia, -bía, bethiumm, bethib, bias, bies, beithir, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -biam, -piam, bethe, bethi, -bied, -bieid, biet, bieit, biet, -biat, -bíet, bete, beite, nombeinn, nobiad, -bíad, nobemmis, nobetis, b, -bá, bói, bái, -bói, boie, boithius, boíthi, baísu, both(a)e, botha, -both(a), bamar, bámar, -baid, bātir, -batar, batar, rob, -roba, -raba, rob, robói, rambái, robui, -robae, -robe, -rabae, romboth, rombod, -rabad, robámmar, -robammar, rubaid, -robaid, robatar, robbátar, -rabatar, -robatar, -rabtar, buith, buithi, atáu, atú, itu, it, atú, ataim, -t, -tái, -toi, taoi, -t, atá, attá, ata, at, atáthar, dáthar, atass, -das, itám, tám, ataum, ataim, atamaoit, atámaoid, atám, -taum, -dtám, atathai, atathi, atáithi, -táithi, -dathai, -taidh, itāt, atáit, ataut, táid, -táit, itat, atat, fil, -fhile, -fhuile, -fuili, -ḟoili, -ḟuile, fail, fail, fuil, -fail, -fuil, -uil, -ḟil, -ḟuil, -ḟoil, fil, fail, fail, filter, -fuiltear, fuilemm, -failmet, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, -bhḟuilti, failet, filet, fuilet, -failet, -filet, -fileat, -fuilet, -fuilid, failet, failet, fuilet, filet, bim, bím, -bím, -ruibim, -bi, bíd, bíd, -bí, -bíonn, -bind, bídh, -b, bither, -bithar, bímit, bídmaid, bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, bíth, bīd, -bíat, -bít, -bíd, bit, bít, bhínn, nobīth, robíth, bhíodh, bhíoth, bithi, -bithi, bithea, naboitis, nobīdis, beitis, bitis, bhítís, bhídís, bír, b, bīdh, bíodh, bíoth, bíom, bíthe, bídh, bidhí, bíod, ber, uér, beor, bheith, bur, -rabor, -rabhus, rabasa, bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, bé, beir, -rab(a)i, -rabha, -rabhair, -mbéis, -beis(se), -rabais, beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, beth, -b, -raib, -rab, -raibhe, rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, bess, beas, bethur, beme, bemmit, bemait, -bém, -beam, -ruibem, -rabum, bheam, rabham, bethi, rabthai, beit, -bet, -beat, -rabat, -rabut, -rabhait, -rabhaid, -rabheid, beinn, rabainn, beithi, beithe, bethe, beitheá, beith, nobith, mbeadh, -mbeath, -rabad, -bethe, -bette, rabtha, mbiadh, nobeitis, nobeidis, mbeith, bíat, biat, biad, bhead, bed, bét, bett, -biu, -bhiú, biad, -bi, bía, biae, biaidh, bía, -bía, bethair, bied, biaid, biáid, -bia, bíes, bés, bes, bess, bhias, biass, beither, beithir, bemit, bemait, -bem(ni, beimíd, -biam, -biaim(ne), -ben, bethi, beitte, bete, -bed, biait, biat, beit, beiti, beti, betit, beidid, -bīat, beidíd, beid, -bíad, no-béind, dobeind, do beinn, -beinn, bheitheá, biadh, -bied, bífad, rot-fiadh, biath, bhiadh, bethe, bheidīs, ro-bádus, bhádhus, bhí, -rabus, -rabhas, -rabadhus, bá, -raba, bádhus, -rabadhas, basa, bhádhuis, bhí, -rabadais, -rabhais, bhádhuis, -rabhadhuis, bae, bóe, baei, búi, -bae, -buí, robai, robae, robói, bí, robuidh, bí, bhói, bhaoi, -rubai, -roibe, -roibi, -roba, -raba, -raibhe, -rabha, -robha, bí, -raibi, baí, -rabha, -rabhustair, boí, bāi, būi, bae, buí, baí, boí, both, rombatha, robās, rombas, robás, -rabus, rabas, -bádus, -bás, bás, bas, -rabas, bas, bhás, bāmur, bámar, bhámair, -rabamar, robabair, -babhair, robadbair, bhábhair, -rabhuir, -rabhabhair, bādar, -bátir, badar, bádar, bídur, -rabadar, -rabhadair, baisit, -rabhsad, bátar, bátar, bheith, beitte

(ad-tá) subst. vb. is . The distinction betw. subst. vb. and copula is in the first place syntactical, and cases are found where there is no distinction of form. Cf. the type, common in ACC: boe sab he was a leader, ACC 26 . See further below, and the discussion by Bergin, Ériu xii 208 - 211 (cia taísiu, cia bé, etc.), who refers to cases like: is uera pictura ro bai sin, Thes. ii 6.32 as emphatic. See also Ériu xvi 46 , GOI 475 . For nimtha laám, Wb. 12a21 , nímptha fírion, 8d24 (copula ?) see GOI 487 . Note also the form of the pron. in (later): matait tall iat, Laws iv 86.8 Comm. , atá ar conair é, ACL iii 216.z . bí N. eices cecinit, RC xvii 175.14 is perh. a mistake. In follg. use of subst. vb. perh. due to infl. of Latin: mar nobéind athair doib = pater eram pauperum, PH 6107 . ata in innsci ordugud etc. = oratio est. . ., Auraic. 591 .

Apart from the ordinary indic. pres. all forms of subst. vb. are from a root beginning with b-. In indic. pres. the stem tá (in absol. position attá) is used in non-rel. sentences without conj. particle, after conj. particles with inf. pron. dat. and when the conj. particle consists of a preposition and rel. (s)a n-. Absolute inflexion of tá- is found in oldaas, indaas, etc. than (is), in meaning is angry, and with follg. suff. pron. The uninflected form fil (with accus.) is used after conj. particles where no dat. inf. pron. is present, in leniting rel. clauses and often in answers to questions containing subst. vb., and in archaic texts in absol. position in meaning there is . For fuller details see GOI 476 - 483 and exx. below. See also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 419 ff. , Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899, 1 - 82 , Ó Máille, Ériu vi 1 ff. , Études Celt. xxxiv 143-44 . Forms of gaibid, do-coissin, díchsnigidir and 1 ad-cumaing also have the force of the subst. vb. in certain uses, see separate entries.

Note further that attá is usual after hóre (see Wb. 19a19 , 22d14 and compare GOI § 781 ) and occurs later after amal ( LU 7072 , Laws iii 90.18 ). Fil is somet. found in sense there is in mid. Ir.: fail crois d'ór in cach dorus, SR 361 . TBC-I¹ 2561 . Note also: fil derg it is red, Marco P. 173 .

The use of accus. after fil continues into the classical period, see IGT Introd. § 129 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 92 - 93 . A few exx. of forms other than fil with accus. occur: ni raibi deilb, TTr.² 1664 , ní raibi . . . mhnái, 370 , ní bhiadh mnaoi, Ó Bruad. ii 252.z (with assonance). Note also with inf. pron. rosṁbai inna tass, SR 5107 . ? nim tha maith . . . do chath fri firu, LU 3343 ( SCC 13 ). From the mid. Ir. period on fil takes personal endings except in 3 s., and occurs occasionally as an independent verb: faeilfit (fut. 3 pl. absol.), Caithr. Thoirdh. 120.26 . In rel. function attá is found side by side with fil from an early period: is heiside attá hi S., Trip.² 534 , a lucht atá istig, RC vii 298.131 , the form fil finally disappearing in this use.

In mid. Ir. fil occurs for earlier -tá with dat. inf. pron.: nichar fail tlacht, SR 1560 , ni-s-fil biad, PH 1310 . Also in rel. clause after prep.: bale hi fail, LU 7516 , fors fil, Imr. Brain 43 (see also Strachan, Stories fr. Táin 3rd ed. p. 1 note).

The consuet. pres. 1 s. conj. -bíu has in classical Ir. the force of a future: biad ní biú, IGT Verbs § 7 , see also TBC-LL¹ 882 , Acall. 6179 , Duan. F. i 43.4 .

Early forms (for fuller lists see Strachan loc. cit.). Indic. pres. 1 s. atóo, Wb. 12a21 . attó, 21c19 . attóo, 26d8 . ató, 26d17 . -táu, 32a10 , -ttóo, 17d24 , -tó, Ml. 92b8 . 2 s. atái, Wb. 5b27 . atái, Ml. 110d15 (sic MS, see Ériu xiv 30 ). -tái, 5b38 . 3 s. adta, Laws v 390.10 (see ZCP xxv 247 ). ata, Wb. 13c26 , at, 27a11 , atáa, 6a19 , attáa, 32a6 , ataa, 26b31 , att, 4b11 . -tá, 31c7 , -ta, 2b12 , -táa, 13a35 . Impers. -dathar (see GOI 477 - 478 ), Wb. 21c9 . 1 pl. ataam, Wb. 15a13 , attaam, 32a28 . 2 pl. ataid, Wb. 4a4 , ataaith, 20b16 , ataaid, 23c28 , ataad, 22d14 . -taid, 19d26 . 3 pl. ataat (trisyll.), Blathm. 471 . ataat, Ml. 55d11 , 37a10 . -tat, 42b10 . -taat, Sg. 71b3 .

With suff. pron. tathum, Metr. Dinds. iv 284.3 . tathut, Fél. July 24 . táithi (tathai, v.l.), Críth G. 197 . táthus, Fél. Feb. 5 . táthunn, Prol. 217. taithiunn, Thes. ii 293.19 . tathuib, Rawl. 88b51 .

For rel. s. without preverb (taas, tás) see atás, indaas, 4 ol.

The form fil, etc. As conj. form: fil, Wb. 16b9 , Ml. 92a8 , Sg. 193b7 . feil, Wb. 24c4 . Ml. 60b2 . fel, Wb. 3c38 , Ml. 27d10 . fail, 44b10-11 , Sg. 32a1 . As rel.: fil, Ml. 121c8 , file Wb. 23a5 , Ml. 51d11 , Sg. 151b7 . fel, Wb. 4c1 , fele, Ml. 93c7 . feil, Wb. 33b18 . fail, BCr. 18c4 .

Consuet. pres. 1 s. biuu, Wb. 16d8 . -bíu, 20a3 . 2 s. -bí, Ml. 135d1 . ACL iii 312 § 4 . 3 s. biith, Wb. 29a26 . biid, 4d33 . bíid, Sg. 150b4 . -bii, Wb. 28b25 , -bí, Ml. 103c3 . With ro: robīi, TBC-I¹ 1730 . -rubi, Wb. 11c17 , -rubai, Ml. 20d4 , Sg. 7b3 . -ruba, 3b28 . Rel. bíis, Wb. 13a12 . biís, 28b28 . bis, Ml. 61a33 . bís, Sg. 140b2 . Impers. bithir, Ml. 56b15 . rel. bither, 108b4 , -bither, 100c21 . -rubthar, cited GOI § 784 . OIPG 69 . 1 pl. bímmi, Ml. 15a4 . -biam, Wb. 16a8 . Rel. bimme, Wb. 12c11 . 3 pl. biit, Wb. 29a28 . bíit, Sg. 217a1 . robiat, 138a5 . -biat, Ml. 59d7 . -bíat, Sg. 148a4 . -rubat, 138a5 . Rel. bíte, Wb. 9d28 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. -bíinn, Ml. 108b1 , -biinn, 58d9 . 3 s. -bíid, LU 5080 (see Ériu xvii 121 ), -bíth, Sg. 148b6 . -bid, Ml. 33a5 . -bith, Vita Br. 12 . Impers. no bithe , CCath. 3971 . 1 pl. -bímmis, cited GOI § 785 . 3 pl. -bitis, Ml. 86d6 . -bítis, Sg. 5a15 .

Ipv. 2 s. b, TBC-I¹ 2391 . 3 s. bíth, Wb. 10a8 , 25 , bíith, 8d9 , bíid, 5d33 , biid, Ml. 74d3 . bíd, Wb. 3a14 . With suff. pron. bithom, Fél. Ep. 404 n.17 . 2 pl. biid, Wb. 23c11a . bith, 22b26 . 3 pl. biat, Ml. 51d13 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. beo, Wb. 23b41 . beu, Ml. 53b8 . -béo, Fél. Prol. 273 . 2 s. bee, cited OIPG 70 and see GOI 482 . b, ZCP viii 311.z (see xxiv 122 ). -bee (perh. absol.), ZCP vii 494 (Enchir. Aug.). -bē, Fing. R. 82 . With ro: robhe (restored as ro-bé), Blathm. 92 § 9 . 3 s. beith, Ml. 108a11 . beid, Wb. 14c23 . bed, 3c10 . beth, Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr. Hom.). -bǽ, Wb. 22b14 . -b, Sg. 29b14 . -bée, Wb. 12c43 . With suff. pron. bethum-sa, Fél. Ep. 384 n.14 . With ro: rob, Wb. 5d30 , robe, 18c4 , rubé, Ml. 20d4 , rob, Wb. 28a23 , robbé, Sg. 169a1 . -roib, Wb. 16c24 , Ml. 118c5 . Rel. bess, Wb. 5d14 . bes, Ml. 77d3 . Impers. bethir, Wb. 5d33 . rel. bether, Ml. 107d8 . -bether, Wb. 10a18 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 31c11 . beimmi, 19a16 . -bem, 24a10 . -robam, 26c10 . 2 pl. beithe, Wb. 18b16 . bethe, 24b13 . -beith, Ml. 46a10 . -beid, Wb. 27c9 . With ro: -robith, Wb. 26a28 . 3 pl. beit, Wb. 10b5 . rubet, 26a23 . ro be(i)t , Vita Br. 35 . -bet, Wb. 9d27 . -robat, 11d9 . Rel. bete, Wb. 10c22 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -beind, TBC-I¹ 1856 . -beinn cited GOI § 787 . 2 s. -betha, Wb. 4c24 . 3 s. nobed, Wb. 3b10 . nobeth, Ml. 27b1 . -bed, Wb. 9d1 . -beth, Ml. 88b15 . -robad, Wb. 17a13 . -rabad, 34a4 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . 1 pl. -bemmis, Wb. 9a3 . -beimmis, 29d23 . -bemis, Vita Br. 23 . 2 pl. -bethe, Wb. 9c20 . 3 pl. -betis, Sg. 138a9 . -[ro]ibtis, Wb. 28a1 .

Fut. 1 s. bia, Ml. 137b7 . 2 s. bie, cited GOI § 788 , OIPG 70 . 3 s. bieid, Wb. 4d6 . bied, 14c1 . -bia, 5d35 . -bia (disyll.), Blathm. 572 . -bia and -bía, GOI § 788 . With suff. pron. bethiumm. Ériu xiii 20.6 . bethib, ZCP viii 316.5 (see xxix 174 ). Rel. bias, Wb. 23b38 . bies, Ériu iii 102 § 32 . Impers. beithir, TBFr. 248 . -bether, MacCongl. 61.4 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 9c10 . beimmi, 21b7 . -biam, 15a1 . -piam, 30b17 . 2 pl. bethe, cited GOI § 788 . bethi, Trip.² 1589 . -bied, Wb. 9a21 . -bieid, 26d26 . 3 pl. biet (disyll.), Blathm. 472 . bieit, Wb. 4c40 . biet, 9d27 , Sg. 198b6 (also bíet, GOI § 788 ). -biat, 9c28 . -bíet, 40b14 . Rel. bete, Wb. 13c26 . beite, 4c40 .

Condit. 1 s. nombeinn, Ml. 59a22 . 3 s. nobiad, Ml. 32d5 . -bíad, Wb. 9d1 . 1 pl. nobemmis, Ml. 134b3 . 3 pl. nobetis, Ml. 100c7 .

Pret. 1 s. b, LU 9407 . 2 s. -bá, cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 , see perf. 2 s. below. 3 s. bói, Wb. 31c18 . bái, 27a16 . -bói, 17d17 , Ml. 78a4 . Rel. boie, Thes. ii 242.11 (Ardm.). boīe (MS. ba), Ériu xvi 46.10 (see n. 0 and Celtica vi 223 ). boíë (MS. baoí), Ériu xxvi 67, 85 . Cf. cech nóeb bói, fil, bías, Fél. Ep. 289 (where six sylls. required). With suff. pron. boithus, IT i 137.8 = boithius, 21 . boíthi, Sc.M² 3 . ? baísu, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 37.5 . Impers. *both(a)e, postulated GOI § 789 , botha, TBC-I¹ 1572 . -both(a), Vita Br. 33 . 1 pl. bamar, SR 1558 . bámar, 3286 , Imr. Brain i 48.5 . 2 pl. -baid (baïd ?), cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 . 3 pl. bātir, TBC-I¹ 217 . -batar, Ml. 55c2 . Rel. batar, Ml. 123b5 . See GOI § 789 .

Perf. 1 s. rob, Wb. 28a9 . -roba, Ml. 44c4 . -raba, TBC-I¹ 3068 . 2 s. rob, LL 14442 . 3 s. robói, Wb. 5c10 . rambái, 2c13 . robui, Ml. 93c3 . -robae, Ml. 41a5 , -robe, Wb. 18d7 , -rabae, Ml. 28d3 . Impers. romboth, Wb. 19a9 . rombod, 5b31 . -rabad, Ériu iv 146.4 . 1 pl. robámmar, Wb. 20d12 . -robammar, Ml. 105b16 . 2 pl. rubaid, Wb. 3b19 . -robaid, Ml. 46a8 . 3 pl. robatar, Wb. 24c5 . robbátar, Sg. 57b1 . -rabatar, Ml. 100c11 . -robatar, Sg. 45b1 . -rabtar, Ml. 37a16 .

Vn. buith.

Vbl. of necess. buithi.

Later forms (see also Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish, Ériu vi 1 ff. ; Mulchrone, Verbalformen der Vita Tripartita, ZCP xvi 440 ; Falconer, Verbal System of LU Táin, Ériu xvii 116 ; Strachan, Verbal System of SR, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1895, 1 - 76 ; O Daly, Verbal System of LL Táin, Ériu xiv 80 ; Mac Eoin, Verbalsystem von Togail Troi, ZCP xxviii 125 ; Sommerfelt, Le système verbal dans In Cath Catharda, RC xxxviii 41 ; Nuner, Verbal System of the Agallamh na Senórach, ZCP xxvii 272 ; PH Glossary; Lloyd, Impersonal passive forms of the Irish substantive verb, Ériu i 49 ff. ; TD Introd. lxxv ; IGT Verbs § 7 ).

Indic. pres. 1 s. atáu, Trip.² 1412 . atú, 2578 . itu, SR 1187 . it, TBC-LL¹ 434 . atú, IGT Verbs § 7 . ataim, Fier. 14 . -t, Acall. 4516 . 2 s. -tái, SR 3102 . -toi, TBC-I¹ 937 . taoi, TD 15.48 . cia doaisiu mac?, RC xxvi 30 § 128 . 3 s. -t, Trip.² 744 . atá, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. attá, Trip.² 534 , ata, SR 7708 etc., at, Acall. 429 . Impers. atáthar, TBC-LL¹ 3316 . dáthar (: máthar), IGT Verbs ex. 99 . atass, Ériu iv 114 § 17 (:as). -das (: as), IGT Verbs ex. 104 . 1 pl. itám, SR 1727 . tám, 3493 . ataum, PH 1556 . ataim, TBC-LL¹ 874 . atamaoit, TBC St. 121 . atámaoid, atám, IGT Verbs § 7 . -taum, PH 1506 . -dtám (: ár), IGT Verbs ex. 111 . 2 pl. atathai, PH 2734 . atathi, 597 . atáithi (: fáithi), IGT Verbs ex. 105 . -táithi (: sáithi), ex. 96 . -dathai, Alex. 190 . -taidh, Ériu ii 118 § 53 . 3 pl. itāt, TBC-I¹ 3132 . atáit, CCath. 1215 . ataut, PH 1064 . táid, TD 8.5 . -táit, CCath. 1701 . Rel. itat, Trip.² 882 , atat, SR 7949 . For later forms in meaning than (is) see atás, indaas, 4 ol. See also II (d) below and daas.

The form fil. 1 s. ni ḟuilim, ni ḟoilim, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. -fhile, PH 8116 . -fhuile, 3335 , -fuili, Acall. 3217 . -ḟoili, -ḟuile, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. fail, TBC-I¹ 60 , SR 353 etc. ro fail , TBC-LL¹ 263 , fuil, 3072 . -fail, Trip.² 2764 , -fuil, 872 , -uil, PH 3181 , -ḟil, Acall. 3709 . -ḟuil, -ḟoil, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. fil, Trip.² 842 , fail, SR 392 , no fail , 933 . With impers. ending: filter, MacCongl. 31.25 . -fuiltear, TD 2.42 . 1 pl. ra fuilemm , TBC-LL¹ 2971 . -failmet, SR 6320 , -ḟuilmíd, Acall. 5101 . -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. -bhḟuilti, Acall. 962 . 3 pl. failet, SR 345 . filet, 477 . fuilet, TBC-LL¹ 4739 . -failet, Trip.² 1119 . -filet, TBC-I¹ 1848 , -fileat, CCath. 1270 . -fuilet, 427 . -fuilid, TD 7.23 . Rel. failet, SR 400 . ra failet , TBC-LL¹ 5225 . fuilet, 4709 . filet, PH 435 . See also do-fil.

Consuet. pres. 1 s. bim, PH 6393 . bím, -bím, IGT Verbs § 7 . ? -ruibim, SG 373.29 . 2 s. -bi, SR 2035 . bí, ní bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bíd, TBC-I¹ 1453 (LU). biid, SR 4537 . bíd, 4588 . -bí, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bíonn, TD 22.12 . -bind, RC xlix 37.13 . bídh, -b, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bither, PH 7441 . -bithar, Laws iv 234.2 Comm. 1 pl. bímit, Acall. 886 . bídmaid, 5481 . bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bíth, Acall. 6139 . 3 pl. bīd, TBC-I¹ 1075 (bít, LU). -bíat, TTr.² 330 . -bít, PH 4189 , -bíd, TD 5.5 . Rel. bit (= bíït), SR 7259 . bít, TBC-LL¹ 1320 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. do bhínn , TD 23.7 . 3 s. nobīth, TBC-I¹ 593 (nobíid, LU cited above). robíth, TBC-I¹ 1903 (LU). do bhíodh , TD 14.23 . do bhíoth , 26.12 . Impers. bithi, Auraic. 5286 = -bithi, RC xx 150.y (ACC Pref.). no bithea , Acall. 156 . 3 pl. naboitis, TBC-I¹ 855 LU (nobitís, Y). nobīdis, 3621 (Y). bítís, 1898 (LU). no beitis , LL 407a27 . ro bitis , PH 1957 . do bhítís , Acall. 830 . do bhídís , TD 15.18 . Rel. tri cnuasa bítís ann, Acall. 455 .

Ipv. 1 s. bír (: gním), IGT Verbs ex. 94 . 2 s. b, Parrth. Anma 3871 . 3 s. bīdh, ZCP vi 271.z . bíodh, TD 16.2 . bíoth, 17.1 . 1 pl. bíom, Dán Dé xiv 17 . 2 pl. bíthe (: -chíthe), IGT Verbs ex. 95 . bídh, ex. 109 . bidhí, Luc. Fid. 3430 . 3 pl. bíod, TD 16.19 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. ber, SG 172.15 . uér, Ériu ii 92.9 . beor, v 222.46 . bheith mé, TD 8.9 . -ra bur , TBC-LL¹ 1112 . -rabor, ZCP xii 401.30 . ? -rabhus, ZCP v 523.27 = rabasa, Ériu xii 144.12 (TE). -rabar, ZCP iii 32.37 . bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bé, SR 1607 . beir, BNnÉ 288.29 . Acall. 592 . -rab(a)i, BDD² p. 80 . -rabha, Irish Texts iv 75 § 16 . -rabhair, Fing. R. p. 13 note 86 . -mbéis (: Céis), IGT Verbs ex. 100 . -beis(se) (: meise), Dán Dé xiv 20 . -rabais, Fing. R. 86 , BDD² 363 (see ZCP xxvii 75-8 ). beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. beth, TBC-I¹ 270 (beith, v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 101 . -b, TBC-I¹ 1671 . -raib, Trip.² 2753 . -rab, TBC-I¹ 1430 . -raibhe, Parrth. Anma 2616 . rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bess, TBC-I¹ 1104 (beis, Y). beas, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bethur, Laws ii 36.20 Comm. 1 pl. beme, Snedg. u. Mac R 9.14 . bemmit, TBC-LL¹ 2137 . bemait, Acall. 5478 . -bém, CCath. 1124 . -beam (: leam), Dán Dé xii 10 . -ruibem, SR 5540 . -rabum, PH 7899 . bheam, rabham, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 1233 . rabthai, PH 1977 . 3 pl. beit, Trip.² 1653 . -bet, TBC-I¹ 1053 . -beat, Lism. L. 4702 . -rabat, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. -rabut, PH 994 . -rabhait, BNnÉ 269.4 . -rabhaid, Parrth. Anma 2836 . -rabheid, RC xxix 136 § 51 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. do beinn , do rabainn , IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. no beithi , Trip.² 2972 . no beithe , 2983 = no bethe , Trip. 252.21 . do beitheá , TD 1.44 . 3 s. no beith , Trip.² 2967 . nobith, TBC-I¹ 3543 . dá mbeadh , TD 29.6 . -mbeath, IGT Verbs ex. 97 . -rabad, RC iii 184.24 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . -bette, Metr. Dinds. iii 382.19 . rabtha, TBC-LL¹ (C) 1675 . 1 pl. dá mbiadh sinn, TD 28.25 . 3 pl. nobeitis, SR 7855 . nobeidis, TBC-I¹ 3557 . dá mbeith siad, TD 26.36 .

Fut. (see Bergin, Ériu ii 46-8 ) 1 s. bíat, TTr.² 89 . biat, PH 1244 . biad (bíatt v.l.), CCath. 5137 . bhead, Parrth. Anma 6378 . bed, ZCP vi 41.10 . bét, 69.2 . bett, BNnÉ 52 § 42 . -biu, TBC-LL¹ 882 . -bhiú, Dán Dé xiv 20 . biad, -bi, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bía, Trip.² 1593 . biae, SR 1599 . -bíai, BNnÉ 291 § 2 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . bía, -bía, IGT Verbs § 7 . bethair, ZCP ii 225.4 . 3 s. bied, LU 10362 . biaid, Trip.² 1071 . biáid, TBC-I¹ 169 (LU). biaidh, -bia, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bíes, Trip.² 2671 . bés, CCath. 300 , bes, 657 . bess, PH 4666 . bhias, TD 3.50 . do biass , L. Chl. S. 1 . Impers. beither, Acall. 5259 . beithir, ZCP x 415.11 . 1 pl. bemit, LU 9753 , PH 1501 . bemait, CCath. 1467 . -bem(ni, LU 9753 . beimíd, -biam, IGT Verbs § 7 . -biaim(ne) (: siairni), ex. 108 . ? -ben, BCC 396.19 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 3083 . beitte (: eiti) (beththi, bete v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 102 . -bed, Trip.² 1590 . 3 pl. biait, Trip.² 2665 , TBC-I¹ 2057 (beite, LU). biat, Trip.² 1288 . beit, TBC-I¹ 80 . beiti, TBC-I¹ 2078 . beti, SR 8157 . betit, SR 853 . TBC-LL¹ 246 , TTr.² 760 . beidid, ZCP x 338 § 1 . -bīat, TBC-I¹ 1132 . beidíd síad, BCC 290.12 . beid, -bíad, IGT Verbs § 7 .

Condit. 1 s. no-béind, PH 6107 . dobeind, 7489 . do beinn, -beinn, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. do bheitheá , TD 19.13 . 3 s. no biadh , CCath. 3754 . -bied, TBC-I¹ 504 . ro bífad , TBC-LL¹ 5112 . rot-fiadh, IT iii 320.4 ( Cóir Anm. 70 ). do biath (: sgiath), IGT Verbs ex. 97 . do bhiadh , TD 2.54 . Impers. no bethe , TTr.² 533 . 3 pl. do bheidīs , Parrth. Anma 5227 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. ro-bádus, PH 699 . do bhádhus , TD 23.6 . do bhí mé, 5 . -rabus, Acall. 7913 . -rabhas, 1584 . -rabadhus, 356 . do bá , -raba; do bádhus , -rabadhas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do basa ( : bádusa; proscribed form), ex. 103 . 2 s. ro bhádhuis , CCath. 553 . do bhí tú, TD 28.6 . -rabadais, PH 3725. 8121 . -rabhais, Acall. 123 . do bhádhuis , -rabhadhuis, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bae, SR 7608 . bóe, 6265 . baei, BDD² 127 . búi, CCath. 95 . -bae, SR 4975 . -buí, Trip.² 1505 . robai, SR 2229 , robae, 2262 . robói, PH 2572 . ro bí , CCath. 1302 . robuidh, Ériu iii 198 § 22 . do bí , CCath. 278 . do bhói , Acall. 58 . do bhaoi (: draoi), Dán Dé xii 22 . -rubai, SR 1241 . -roibe, BDD² 498 , -roibi, 1393 . -roba, 251 . -raba, 1533 . -raibhe, TD 2.25 . -rabha, 8.36 . -robha, 1 . do bí , -raibi, do baí , -rabha, IGT Verbs § 7 . With depon. ending -rabhustair, BNnÉ 322 § 31 . Rel. boí, Trip.² 626 . bāi, TBC-I¹ 1277 . būi, 630 . ro bae , Trip.² 288 . ro buí , BDD² 287 . ro baí , 1451 . ro boí , 1517 . Impers. both, Trip.² 2264 . rombatha, Ériu ii 20 § 3 (-a added later). -rabad, iv 146.4. robās, TBC-I¹ 2147 . rombas, SR 7564 , robás, TTr.² 151 . -rabus, Trip.² 54 . rabas, Laws iv 212.22 Comm. , -bádus, MacCongl. 43.22 . -bás, 61.3 . do bás , do bas , -rabas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do bas (: as), ex. 98 . do bhás (: fhás), Dán Dé xxvi 9 . 1 pl. bāmur, TBC-I¹ 399 . do bámar , Acall. 1283 . do bhámair (: Ádhaimh), Dán Dé xv 17 . -rabamar, TBC-I¹ 2495 . 2 pl. robabair, Anecd. ii 14.9 . -babhair, Blathm. 23 (see notes ). robadbair, TBC-I¹ 2502 . do bhábhair , TD 22a.1 . -rabhuir, Acall. 114 . -rabhabhair, TD 22a.2 . 3 pl. bādar, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bátir, TTr.² 1308 . ro badar , CCath. 573 n. ro bádar , Acall. 75 . do bídur , 5942 . -rabadar, TBC-I¹ 3108 . -rabhadair, TD 26.10 . ro baisit , O'Dav. 728 . -rabhsad, TD 16.21 . Rel. bátar, Trip.² 591 . BDD² 505 . ro bátar , 543 . Vn. an bheith , IGT Verbs § 7 . Vbl. of necess. beitte, TD 28.30 .

Cf. cenmothá, íarmothá, óthá.

Used in meaning is in a large variety of contexts. Normally replaced by copula (see 1 is) in certain fixed syntactical patterns (classification, identification, etc.), and when used in these cases exceptional (see above and II below).

I Expressing existence.

(a) Used absolutely is, exists, there is, etc.: ata in coimdiu gl. Dominus in cælo sedis eius, Ml. 30b27 . nabad hed a méit nádmbǽ `let it not be only that it is not' gl. nec nominetur in uobís, Wb. 22b14 . ní fil aimsir nad mbed ref. to fuit et est semper, Ml. 17a15 . ní torménmar-ni ara mbetis in gnimai sin gl. præter spem nostram, etc., 115b1 . ni fil chumtubairt gl. indubitabilia, etc., Sg. 154b2 . ma nubed `if it existed', 31b21 . ro baoi siomh re tuisdinsiú `he existed', Blathm. 632 . as e as soithcerndomh fil, 773 . ma rombe is maith if it is, it is well, Laws iv 2.14 Comm. ni rabi uair . . . nad ro bai `there was no hour . . . that He existed not', Ériu ii 106 § 16 . a cin for athair .i. uair na bí mac, Laws iv 240.16 Comm. Columb [ro]baoi, Columb bīaas, ZCP viii 198 § 20 . tar ēis a mic . . . / nī raba acht dā aenbliadain `was alive only two years', Ériu iii 198 § 24 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be by saying there is a covenant though there is not, Laws iv 52.30 Comm. ni tha . . . ní a ngeimre in winter there is nothing, 90.1 (with petrified inf. pron. 3 s. n. in dat. sense?). ní bía terca bíd there will not be a scarcity of food, BColm. 52.5 . bid dno maith, ┐ ni bi derrscugud de `yet there is good, and nothing to surpass it', Auraic. 703 . is tré ómun bíid serc, Ériu i 195.1 . céin beti neóil im gréin ngil, Metr. Dinds. ii 38.z . i céin raibh nemh is talamh as long as . . . endure, BNnÉ 314 § 8 . bai cocad mor etarro, RC xxiv 186 § 19 . In phrase (acht) atá ní (chena) but, moreover, see 1 ní (e).

In periphrasis when emphasis on some element other than the verb is required: bieid nach dréct diib hícfider, Wb. 4d6 . bieid bes ferr de, 32a13 . do budh cusmail rit co robuis uair ecin, ┐ co n[d]ingenta rét feramail `that thou wert once such an one that thou couldst . . .', ZCP vi 87.13 . ba-sa tan / nī folabrainn ilach gamh, Ériu ii 95 § 3 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud, Ériu xvii 68 § 9 ( Laws iv 210 ). Note further: atāit teora brīathra / ata lōgmaire for nim, ZCP vii 312 § 25 .

With words expressing time: bieid aimser nad creitfider, Wb. 28c14 . aidchi robuī `one night', Ériu ii 222.25 . fecht robai `once', Mon. Tall. 147.2 (§ 52) . biaidh uair 's . . . a time will come when, Dán Dé vii 31 .

Introducing a statement: cia beith ara rogba bóairechas riasíu ropo chúairddulchach though it be that he assume, Críth G. 67 . dá mbeith fós go mbiadh an Fhraingc comh líonmhar ┐ adeir seisean `granted that', Keat. ii 933 . má tá go seachnoid síol Éibhir . . ., TD 29.7 . ci(d), gi(d) bé whatever, whoever (see Ériu xii 210 ): ria flaithaib, .i. rias na flaithib, cibe flaithe iat `whatever chieftains they be', Laws iv 154.17 . gidh bé lá cheannghar an chairt, Dán Dé xiv 17 . cidh bé do bhean díbh an dúthaigh, DDána 26.1 . bíd (ipv. 3 s.) co n- although: admhuim . . . mo pheactha . . . bīodh gomadh é mo mhīan a bhfolach though I should wish to hide them, Parrth. Anma 4625 . bīodh nach gcaoifithea go spesialta fá gach peacadh though you might not weep specially for each sin, Mac Aingil 235 . bíth gur gheallas . . . though I promised, Ó Bruad. ii 212 § xiv . In constr. manibed x ní bíad y were it not for x y would not be, see má II (b).

(b) The subst. vb. is usual with predicates consisting of adverbial phrases of all kinds (prep. and noun, adjj. and nouns used adverbially, etc.) and thus enters into a large and varied corpus of idioms. A select list follows. Reference should in all cases also be made to the nouns, adjj., adverbs and prepositions concerned.

With CO: atáthar sund chucut your adversary is approaching, LL 10300 ( TBC-LL¹ 3316 ).

With CO N-: atúsa com thegluch there is myself and my household troop, TBC-LL¹ 437 .

With DI: im chaingin robui de muintir Tamlachti friss `about a business that arose between the monastery of Tallaght and him', Mon. Tall. 157.7 (§ 72) . masu de chlaind Echdach aird / atāi, ZCP xi 108 § 1 . ní bia debaid . . . de, Ériu iv 108 § 69 . Of materials: an crann dobí na sesam ... dobí sé do cepresus was a (lit. of) cupressus, Maund. 9 . In phrase a.¤ di such is: roboi du meit a pecthae `so great were their sins', Ml. 98c6 . má beth tra do hūaite ind āessa gráid `if the ordained folk be too few', Ériu i 220 § 13 .

With DO: biid do anmmaim cathrach `(Samnis) is as the name of the city', Sg. 104b5 . nád robatar suin do ṡlund in dúildetad inchoisget `there were not words (enough) to signify . . .', 45b1 . manusbeth tenga dia relad `if (the sun) had a tongue', Ériu ii 126 § 81 . ata eric a fogla do dul a ruradh o duine, Laws iv 50.5 Comm. Expressing possession, etc.: con roib core dúib fri cách so that you may be at peace with all men, Wb. 26b30 . in fochricc file do i nnim, 29b29 . cach ngrád asid n-ísliu bíid dó i céilsini, Críth G. 374 . robi timna in ríg don Comdhe, RC xviii 182.5 . nico mbái dó acht bás there was nothing for him but death, Vita Br. 32 . fecht robúi damsae domchaomnacuir `once it happened to me', Mon. Tall. 144.7 (§ 45) . atá damhsa ris an dáimh / gan ísliughadh neith dá gcáil it is my duty in regard to the sages not to belittle . . ., Content. xiv 8 .

With FOR (later AR): as ṅdath glas roboi forsind sl[é]ib the mountain was green, Ml. 84d4 . cech dath is maith ré neach bid forro, RC vi 183.9 . cēin beó ar in mbith mbuide, Ériu ii 92.16 . nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí / ōtú ar sīth mo Rīgh amuigh since I am outside the palace of my king(?), ZCP vii 301 § 10 . scríbend menmman .i. robbói for a inndṡliucht-som `it had been in his mind', Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent, Ériu vi 115 § 6 . a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though I greatly desire to do so, Dán Dé xix 6 .

With FRI: nobiad fri femen `it would be (used) with the feminine', Sg. 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them', 215a5 . ni humhal robabair rim cen erghe rónn you were not submissive to me, Anecd. ii 14.9 . ba [mait]h ro mboth friu they were well treated, TBFr. 145 . is throit ra bass risin fer út that man was quickly dispatched, TBC-LL¹ 2986 ( LL 10035 ).

With I: is hi tuaisciurt slebe sióin ata in chathir, Ml. 67d8 . ataam ar ndiis i cuimriug, Wb. 32a28 . is and . . . bieid finis, 13b29 . is sunt bia-sa i n-eilithri, Ml. 137b7 . nach dú i mbí isnaib salmaib iustitia, 109a2 . bēti a scēla illāidib, ZCP iii 37.32 . dēna torba airm i mbī, vii 311 § 9 . ro-bas i lurg an madma la clannaibh Néill the Clanna N. pursued the rout, xiv 234.16 . adh bes fiu da trian na samuisce atá isín focreic, issed ata isin fogail doníther ris na ferandaib cétna i fuacht an geimridh `a calf which is worth two thirds of the `samhaisc'-heifer which is paid for the rent, it is it that is paid for the trespass', Laws iv 92.16 Comm. cínta do niad na cethra . . . leth a mbia ina nairlim isedh bias ina tairsci `half of that fine which lies for their `airlim'-trespass . . .', 74.8 Comm. cod a midídar ruire trachta ┐ raite? Nin; co rabadar ocht nurcora dec and do fhleascach, 138.4 Comm. ní bhíadh na ghoin é d'oighedh / toil Dé muna deónaighedh His wound would not be enough to cause His death, IGT Decl. ex. 378 . Common in form with suff. pron. 3 s. n. ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre if there be anyone, etc., Wb. 13a4 . ar atá brithem and cenut-su `a judge is there apart from thee', 6b25 . ataat alaaili interiecta and it coitchena do cach ceniul, Sg. 10a1 . attaad teora bliadna and. Niconcomracamar díoblíonaib `it is three years since we two had intercourse', Mon. Tall. 134.26 (§ 21) . For phr. cid fil and trá see trá. In idiom tá sé i n-a fhear he is a man (see Dillon, ZCP xvii 307 ff. ): is amlaid . . . atá in rigsudi sin inna chathaír chumtachta, LU 2005 ( FA 7 ). cidead bes ina bibdaid `even though he be a caitiff', Ériu v 22.20 . gu raibhe 'na cholum ghel, Acall. 1080 . ce raib se i n-a fhír, PH 7324 . do bí 'n-a mnaí grádaig ac Find, Acall. 2018 . do rígh gion go rabhthá id mhac, DDána 91.15 . Note also: tuc . . . aithne gurbh e righ Eirenn do bí ann that it was in fact the king, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 .

With IMM: ni baitir, ni loisctir cein beit immo `he is not drowned or burnt as long as they are on him', RC vi 183.8 .

With LA: gan bheith le Dia is ann bhus aithreach if we are not on God's side, Dán Dé x 27 . Expressing possession and related ideas: is lib atá a rogu, Wb. 9a23 . is derb lium attá latsu gl. certus sum autem quod et in té, 29d14 . ainmm ninchoisc cenéuil issed file la laitnóri, Sg. 30b8 . is airi nobíth digaimm leo ante ρ. sin, 9b10 . ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter,' Mon. Tall. 151.13 (§ 62) . is dé atá lem, fobíth, etc. this is why I think so (of an assertion), TTr.² 343 . itá a rīgan la cach ríg sund, TBC-I¹ 190 . fail leis secht nimi, SR 629 . ar ní ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 14150 .

With ó: báoi alaile anchoire antuaid o sláne `there was a certain anchorite from Slane in the North', Mon. Tall. 159.8 (§ 77) . cech lennánacht fil isin domvn is úadhi atá originates with her, TTr.² 370 . Bressal Ó Tressaig ō' tāit / Hī Tressaig `. . . from whom are sprung', Ériu ii 50 § 7 . ni fil[et] o neoch ┐ ni filter uaidibh `they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them', Auraic. 1507 .

With OC: ar notéighed dīa sathairn init co mbídh oc Cnocc Droma Coblai, ZCP viii 106.29 = Trip.² 2858 . ma no bith . . . mo c[h]laideb acom if I had my sword, TBC-I¹ 3543 . co rabat aidmi oc cech altōir . . ., Ériu i 219 § 9 . in ti ac na biat ba, Laws iv 36.10 Comm. in fhil biad ocaib sund? PH 6709 . ná raibh agad ar n-éra `refuse me not', Studies 1918, 99 § 16 . In impers. constr. cindas atathar occat? how are affairs with thee? RC xxvi 368.9 . a.¤ y oc x x has the power to do y: ní bhía . . . ag boigṡín / mo chor tar creich Phádraigín, Ériu ix 163 § 7 .

With adverbs and adv. phrases: céin bett abus `while they are here below', BColm. 98.28 . ní rubai nach cruth ailiu `it cannot be otherwise', Sg. 7b3 . ataat ám in chrut sin, 140b1 . hóre nád robe Tit ar mo chiunn, Wb. 14d29 . na muindtire bís id choimidecht `of the monks that live with thee', Mon. Tall. 128.8 (§ 3) . dá rabh mé ar éanmhagh is í, Dán Dé ix 12 . is bether go hīsiul de, ZCP x 51.6 . bidh co mín michuir ret c[h]airdibh, vi 272 § 3 . is samlaid insin robói a flaithemnacht indibsi, Ml. 18a8 . nī hamlaid beitid na nāimh . . ., ZCP xiii 9.26 . dobadus co subhach rompa, KMMisc. 319.27 . léig mar atāit tall, ZCP viii 202.4 . trath atusa sund, TBC-LL¹ 2379 . ionmhuin uan nar fhás ó mhnaoi / do bhás go truagh ar a thí, Dán Dé xxvi 9 . Note also: dá mbem a-moigh `if we win forth', Ériu ix 162 § 2 . With interrogatives: ceth leth atā E., TBC-I¹ 376 . can ata? whence is it? Hib. Min. 8.270 . cāit atā do t[h]igerna?, TBC-I¹ 789 . ciatā inso?, ZCP viii 311.13 . a Findtain, arse, ┐ Éri cía gabad ca rabad inde? `where have things been therein?' Ériu iv 146 § 23 .

(c) Used with inf. and suff. pron. to express possession. With inf. pron.: rosmbia a lóg `they shall have payment for it', Wb. 5d35 . ind indocbál no-b-tá in futuro, 14c16 . ro-n-da-biad cech maith, Ml. 33b13 . rombia-sa la dia . . . a day will come for me when, Vita Br. 12 . roborbē (roburbe v.l.) which is yours, Cáin Ad. 27 . nīmthat asnai I have no ribs, TBC-I¹ 2871 . gell cóic sét di neoch rodmbí `of whatever he has', Críth G. 283 and n. uair nach tá tír dia fhulung fri re napuidh because he has no land to support him (?), Laws iv 30.19 Comm. rom be nem may I have heaven, Snedg. u. Mac R 14 § 76 . Femen intan rombai rí . . . when it had a king, RC xvii 148.19 . cia luag nomtha?, SR 1165 . rombí lethbairgen, Anecd. i 73 § 211 . atbert Cathair nimthasa ní dhuit I have nothing to give you, LL 386b22 . Note also: nintha do imtecht liumm `I have (lit. we have) no news', RC xiii 222.20 . With cumang (or similar word) and prep. DO has the power to: nímtha cumachtæ ṅdo, Ml. 140b7 . ní-s-ta som . . . cumang domm orcuin-se, 60d3 . nísmbói didiu do chumacc a mmbo do imain they hadn't the strength to, Vita Br. 24 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech cumang rotbé (rodbe, rotbia, v.ll.) dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204 § 22 . nícom thása cumang dia tabair[t], TBFr. 302 . apraind nachimbai-si nert do theacht cucu alas that I had not strength . . ., TBC-I¹ 3439 . Used independently is able: nīmt[h]a a dechmad d'indisin / nech doní do maith `I cannot tell a tithe of all the good he does', BColm. 70.6 . nimta-sa sin . . . uair da caithius mo dan re sciathaib Ulad I cannot do that . . ., Ériu v 72.8 . Note also: ango dano for Ingcél adfía basa lecht bas briscium `peradventure I shall be the frailest corpse', BDD 102h ( RC xxii 211 ) = at-mbia basa lecht bas brisceam, BDD² 716 (leg. ro-t-bia?).

With suffixed pron. taithiunn . . . / ni fris tarddam ar n-áthius `we have . . . something to which to apply our acuteness', Thes. ii 293.19 . táithi caire umai he has a bronze cauldron, Críth G. 197 . tathum rūn, TBC-I¹ 848 . bethib sūirsi lim-sa dano ye will enjoy freedom with me, ZCP viii 316.5 . tathat lim logh do áes, logh do sinnsire thou hast with me = I accord thee, xii 365.13 . baíthium anfud mílach mend, LU 3018 . tathuib comram, Rawl. 88b51 . tathum o día praind, Anecd. i 64 § 120 . tāthud ochtar la suidiu / airm hi fail a crōlighe `thou wilt find eight men . . .', Fianaig. 12 § 16 . tathai eolus maith, ZCP vii 310 § 1 . tatos subhae `they have happiness', Blathm. 82 . Pleonastically: tathai erouidh . . . bithbron `Herod . . . has eternal sorrow', 83 .

(d) In nasalising rel. clauses to denote has something the matter, is ailing: ced das in ben maith? `what ails the good woman?', Thes. ii 329.48 . cidh tás do sūil, a clērich? what is the matter with your eye? RC xxvii 280 § 35 . Oengus mac in Dagdai hisiurcc di bliadan. Cid tas or Bodb, RC iii 345.9 . ra[fh]etur sa . . . an daas ind ingen what is wrong with the girl, Vita Br. 5 . ni fetarsa cid no-tó I do not know what is the matter with me, ZCP viii 176.5 . cid no-taí? Sc.M² 3 . roḟetarsa a n-attath[a]i. Ni taam ni or Cano, Anecd. i 9.25 ( SCano 293 ). cid tāthaí, a maccu? . . . oc imresain atām . . ., Ériu viii 157.16 . ni confetatarsin cid rombui hissennath, RC iii 344.10 . dia ḟis cid robái (rombui, v.l.) grían to find out what was the matter with the sun, Ériu iv 140.13 .

With prep. DO feels (inimically) towards, is angry with, worries: propter incredulitatem fracti sunt .i. cani airi .i. badochu lem són is [hed] romboth doib that is the fault found with them, Wb. 5b31 . cren dímsa m'ingin . . . Cid dathir di? . . . Is dichmarcach what cause of annoyance has she given? Vita Br. 13 . fiarfaig Conchobar scēla dō. —Cidh tāi di ṡodain? ol Bricriu why do you bother with it? ZCP v 502.15 . cadai-siu duind?, TTebe 424 . In good sense treats in a special manner: ca tāthar dúin do domnach des / sech gach laithi lāndiles? `why do we hold Sunday above . . .?' Ériu iii 143 § 7 . With added prep.: cidh 'ma bfuile dam? ZCP x 10.11 . ná bí réd chathrachaibh dhúinn `talk not to us of your forts', Content. vi 31 . See further s.v. daas. Frequ. in class. verse in phrase gá dtá, dás (acht) what is the use? in short. Either gá dtá or gá tá may be used to suit alliteration, see Ir. Syll. Poetry 86 . fogus orchra don éigsi / gá ttás cur ré coiméidsi `how can she be saved?' Studies 1923, 421 § 1 . gá dás luadh imdheachta an ḟir? `what need to recount', TD 13.40 . gá dás mé dá mīrbuile / acht sé d'fás ó ÓghMuire, IGT Decl. ex. 200 . gá dtám? —acht torchuir bu dheas in short, TD 3.10 . With follg. prep.: gá dtám ris . . . / acht meise féin foidhidneach, TD 3.41 . ga dtú ris, a rí L.? / ort chuirim mo chomuirghe, 30.12 . ní bhiú ris acht, Dán Dé vi 31 . ní fhuilim dó, xi 30 .

(e) With words indicating number, quantity in sense of accompanied by, having: bí[i]th a th[a]urchreicc cóic ṡétaib, Críth G. 71 . baei Conairi a ceithri cairpthig il-Lifiu, BDD 12 (a cethror cairpdech, v.l.). itó-sa lín do gona, TBC-LL¹ 434 . denam d'ḟiadach na muice in lín Feinde atámait, Acall. 2223 . atáthaoi líon a n-ithte, Keat. iii 4439 . atú-sa caegait fer, MR 248.17 . Later: bed-sa ┐ mili ridiri maraen rium ad diaig, ZCP vi 41.9 .

II Expressing state, condition, kind, etc. with pred. consisting of noun, pron. or adj. (usage more usual with copula, see introd. section above).

(a) With noun pred.: boe sab suithe cech dind, ACC 26 ( RC xx 168 ). boe saegul sneid, 24 . boe dind oc libur leigdocht, 27 . biait betha airchind they will be chieftains of the world, Rawl. 125b9 . With subj. standing between the vb. and pred.: atá dia atach ṅ-dún-ni ais dethrebo God is a refuge to us the people of the two tribes, Ml. 66d1 . bói Fíachnae Lurga athair Mongáin, Imr. Brain 42.1 . Cf. Sg. 20b3 .

(b) With adj. pred.: boe seim sáth, ACC 25 . biat slana, SR 4167 (copula?). feib atam nocht, 1347 (copula?). bía slan, LU 3344 ( SCC 13 ). Cf. habe . . . (.i. sana sis .i. slán bee), Enchir. Aug. 82a ( ZCP vii 484 ). dlegar doibsium na be lobtaigh cor ( ar dlegar doibsium na bed lobthaig cor, O'Dav. 1191 ) (Atk. in Glossary emends to be[t]), Laws iv 54.10. atámait ainmfesach, RC xxiv 371.7 . bítíss meth (leg. methi, ed.) occ tinntúd, IT iii 235.z . co filim garbliath i rricht, LU 1272 . ro boísium imnedach i tossuch a bethad, LL 7305 . ro-bádus-[s]a dronnach, PH 2788 . céin beorsa beó as long as I am alive, Ériu v 222.46 . is follus co fuilti eaclach, Fier. 69 . maith dīghōltar ant andlocht / bethar taoblom tarrnocht trūagh folk will be, ZCP xii 395.23 . With subj. betw. vb. and pred.: is trissa ndede sin biid duine slán et fírian, Wb. 4d33 . amal mbís tegdís fás [amm]edón ┐ scópthe gl. sicut domus uacans et scopata, Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485.23 ). arrobói a rígthech lán de rígaib, Imr. Brain 1 . amal no beithi féin béo and, Trip.² 2972 . co mbatar na hádnaicti óbéla, PH 676 . bis an puls tonnmur lethan, Rosa Angl. 272.8 . oir dobi se crodha do laim ┐ mor do mét, Fier. 2 .

(c) With part. as pred. Immediately follg. vb. (see GOI 475-6 ; OIPG 147 ): amal nombemmis érchóilti gl. tanquam morti destinatos, Wb. 9a3 . biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg `be ye opened before your king' (of doors), Ml. 46a7 . co rabais (rabhdais, v.l.) marbtha mudaigthi, TTebe 854 . With subj. standing between vb. and pred.: ataat mesai Dǽ nephchomtetarrachti the judgements of God are incomprehensible, Ml. 55d11 . céin nombetis inna saigtea tuidmithi inna feuil `as long as the arrows were fixed in his flesh', Ml. 58a9 . órobatar ind liss dúntai, Imr. Brain 1 . co ra-bi in uli demnaigecht fomamaigthi dó, PH 2796 .

(d) In sentences where the vb. stands in a nasalising rel. clause and refers to a pred. expressed in the principal clause: is faittech rond-boi som, Ml. 21d4 . ni ba cian mbias in pecthach, 56c22 . fer . . . nadip romar bed a sommæ a man . . . whose wealth should not be too great, Thes. ii 241.9 . is-gáibthech atátur i-sin-magh sin, RC xxiv 378.12 . is trog robas isin chotlad sin, Ériu v 34.z . ní cás duid madh diomdhach raibh / grása Dé . . ., Dán Dé xix 22 . [is] slán do bhaoi an brat-sain, xii 22 .

(e) In the type of sentence where the description constitutes an independent sentence with copula: ego sum uermis et non homo .i. atāim-si conad cruim mē ┐ nāch duine, Corm. Y 211 . ro boi Victor co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic, ACL iii 10 § 8 = Trip.² 217 . unus non est . . . .i. nochon fhil int aen co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, Auraic. 689 . dom dóigh . . . robadhuis uair ecin ┐ roba díl anora tú `it seems to me . . . that there was once a time when thou wert worthy of honour', ZCP vi 99.5 .

cáttu

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cáttu or dil.ie/8395
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: cátaid, cattaid, cátai

n t, m. (cáid). n s. cátaid, Aen. 812 . With f. adj. a s. cattaid moir, PH 691 . cátai móir, RC xxv 28 n.13 (see O'Brien, Celtica ii 346 ). dignity, honour, esteem; value ; sanctity (?): cataidh .i. eneaclann no uaisle, O'Cl. ro bámarni . . . co cátaid acut (Emir to Cú Chulainn), LU 3917 ( SCC 43 ). fobithin in chatudh robui forsint sabbait `on account of the honour paid to the sabbath', Mon. Tall. 156.15 . co cátu ríg `with due respect for a king', Tec. Corm. 2.20 . lat chátaid it chrí chena `with honour from thee', Metr. Dinds. iii 178.151 . glōir is cāta is caondūthracht / . . . / do Rīg nime `glory and honour', Ériu iv 120.5 . ar do cátaidh ag Dia dil / na faccaibh do mhallachtain, Anecd. ii 37 § 4 . michata cuirp, catu do anmain, Hib. Min. 41.25 . dober cátuidh da gach cloind `nobility', Fen. 240.w . gu cataidh (-igh, MS) ┐ gu n-ordan, Lism. L. 1765 . for cech noen mórfas cadus ┐ cháttaid (sic leg. for cháthaid) na hedpartu `respect and veneration for this grant', Misc. Arch. Soc. 132.4 . ro hadhnacht . . . go n-onóir, ┐ cátaidh (of nobleman), AFM iii 102.13 . cró cadat ┐ caradraidh `a covenant of honour and friendship', RC xxix 138 § 58 .

Legal: [inti] is mo cata dignity , Laws ii 280.15 Comm. ara cata[i]d, na [a] saoire, 18.15 Comm. a tesband de foltaib caich, tesbaid dia cataid, v 70.9 .i. . . . a leth eneclann uadh ar a scath, 13 Comm. ? cátaidh gach fis. Ériu xiii 52.2 = cataig caich `dignities of everyone', O'Dav. 347 . in brethem . . . a catadh . . . fo cataigh rig lais imbi i comriar, O'Curry 276 ( H 3.18, 151 ). i n-airechus ┐ foirbiata ┐ cattu, 833 ( 381 ). duine saer i n-a cataid coir ar secht cumalaib ┐ a n-a micataid ar cumail with his full legal standing(?), Laws v 392.20 Comm. bo ina cataid coir ar uingi, O'Curry 2306 ( Eg. 88, 23 (24)a ). oland in-a cataid coir `proper value', Laws v 80.25 Comm. ? To this: immarcraid catat uil aran olainn 'over-valuation (?) of the wool' Bretha 30 § 13.11 .

cen

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cen or dil.ie/8581
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: cin, can, gen, gin, gan, chen, cen suidib, cen(a)e, cena, cenut, c(h)enae, cenuib, cenaib, c(h)ene, c(h)ena(e), ceni, cheana, cenae, cenco

later cin, can, gen, gin, gan (usual modern form). Prep. with accus., leniting. See GOI 111 , 273 , 501 . chen, Sg. 75a1 , 78b2 , 147b3 (so also chen(a)e (see below) regularly in Sg. as against c- in Wb. and Ml., see Thes. ii 154 ). With dat. cen suidib, Ml. 20d3 , and cf. cenaib with 3 pl. suff. pron. below. With accus. in class. lang.: a bheith gan bhú (: chlú), O'R. Poems 252 . In later Vn. constructions of the type: gan an bás . . . do dhol, TSh. 2703 takes noun in nom. (`takes art. + noun in the form of nom., as verbs do', TSh. Gloss.). See TD 3.15 and note. Duan. F. iii s.v. gan.

For usage of late MSS. in matter of follg. lenition see Aithd. D. s.v. gan. cuiridh `gan' séimhioghadh, gion go ttuigthear do gháoidheilg ┐ gion go habuirthear (sic) d'ogham é, IGT Introd. § 7 . In class. lang. does not prefix t to ṡ, §§ 67 , 70 . Note alliteration in: mé gan ṡeise ó ṡain a-nall, DDána 77.3 , gan ḟolta gan imreasainn, 70.16 .

With suff. pron. in O.Ir. only (apart from 3 s. cen(a)e, cena, for which see below), and rare even here with no forms occurring for 1 s. and pl. 2 s. cenut, Wb. 6b25 . 3 s. m. and n. c(h)enae. 2 pl. cenuib, Wb. 9c2 . 3 pl. cenaib, Ml. 20d4 . Later with follg. indep. pron. (in 3 pers. é, í, iat).

Orig. on this side of (see GOI 501 , Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 197 ), hence apart from, besides etc. (see I(a) and III below). The usual meaning at all stages of the language is without, deprived of, not having, -less. Freq. with follg. Vn. with which, in its verbal function, it serves as neg. particle (see II).

I

(a) apart from, besides, except : atá brithem and cenutsu gl. omnes enim stabimus ante tribunal Dei, Wb. 6b25 . atá brithem lasuidib cenuib-si gl. Deus iudicabit, 9c2 . tāthut bith[ḟ]laith . . . / cen a tír i fail do rúaim apart from, Hail Brigit 26 . cé atchetha óinchairptech / . . . / fil mór d'echaib . . . / cen suidi (-e, v.l.) nad aicci-siu besides him, Imr. Brain 39 . ni ettis nech cena domanches except in the case of, LU 3488 ( SCC 26 ). i n-atconnarc . . . / bes atcoad cena slúag in the absence of his army(?), 3323 ( SCC 11 ). cen airitin a cobsen `short of receiving his confession', Mon. Tall. 147.30 .

(b) without, not having, -less (of things, objects, persons): buith cenchlaind, Ml. 23d12 . buith cen chomaccomla, 28d6 . buid cen sétchi, Wb. 10a17 . cen intertpersin, Sg. 161a4 . ni farcbad nech cen dire la Fēne, BCrólige 56 . ro sai cen usci `returned without water', RC xxiv 198.11 . nī anab gan é fēin, Fianaig. 80.4 . bheith don Bhanbha gan bhuachail, TD 10.19 . cin cennaib, cin tsúilib, Maund. 174 .

(c) With noun as in (b) and follg. prep. indicating position, accompaniment, possession: cennech n indib són `without anyone in them', Ml. 131d7 . cenchaille fora ciunn, Wb. 11c9 . cengutai ṅetarru, Sg. 7a4 . cen chonsin re n-os , 105b5 . cenbriathra leo, 215a6 . cona rabi aithles . . . cen mac i n-inad a athar, MU² 133 . gan cheó ortha acht aghaidh each, TD 11.12 .

(d) With abstracts (incl. vnn.): cennach n-astud, Ml. 15a15 . cen fodrúbu gl. sine deflexionum moris, 22a6 . cennach n-indlach gl. sine ulla interruptione, 32a1 . centosach cenforcenn, 110d15 . cen chumsanad gl. sine intermisione, Wb. 25c23 . trechosc conacarbi cenchinta, 27c6 . cen ḟortacht indanmma aili (with subj. gen.), Sg. 30a2 . eitir codlad ┐ cen cotlatt `whether he be asleep or awake', Mon. Tall. 152.4 . dia lleictir can imcoimet `if (such women) be let go without guarding', BCrólige 37 . In sense of unimpaired by, untroubled by etc. see LU 2294 - 99 ( FA 35 ). cen nach tairmesc netir, Hib. Min. 9.279 . bás . . . cen bethaid, PH 4320 . tilid Éirinn gan ainimh, TD 10.11 . 'n-a adhbar rīg gan [fh]resabra, ML² 30 . gan í without it (umhla), RSClára 158a . gan iad, 104b . gan amhrus undoubtedly , Párl. na mB. 6 . gan mhoill immediately , 164 .

(e) With fis: cen fius scél uáibsi `without tidings from you', Wb. 25a5 . cenfius dúib, 25c4 . cen ḟis cen airḟis, Anecd. i 3.8 ( SCano 50 ). cen a fis doibsom `without their knowledge', Mon. Tall. 146.31 . gan fhios do féin unknown to himself, unwittingly , Párl. na mB. 1385 . gurab gan fhios do ionnsuidh Samson na Filistínigh unexpectedly , TSh. 767 .

(f) Freq. in verse in chevilles and quasi-adj. phrases: ind fir cen uaill, Blathm. 13 . slóig Íssu cen escur, Fél. Prol. 63 . regmi cen nach díchiul, 291 . ceithre fedha, fāth gin gheis . . . , ZCP viii 107.10 . slōg ōss a ucht cen nach socht, 108.15 .

(g) With abstr. and follg. preposition: cen fortacht nachaili oco, Ml. 53a9 . cenfochraic n dam gl. infructuosse, 91b5 . cenchol, fair, 93d1 . nā bī gan gart at gnīomh nglē, ZCP viii 109.9 . cen smacht ríg forro, LU 3441 ( SCC 21 ). ó dho bhí tuigse . . . ag an duine . . . ┐ gan í anois aige, TSh. 2909 . dia mbeth gan do righe la C. acht na nai righa . . . `if C. had no realm save . . . ', ZCP i 402.19 .

II In a variety of constructions with vnn.

(a) With Vn. with verbal force, the whole phrase having the value of an adj. or adv.: nísechmalfam ní and centadal, Ml. 25a3 . canim[ebol] lib ambuid [li]b cenprecept doib ref. to ignorantiam enim Dei quidam habent, Wb. 13c17 . it cairigthi inmaicsi et intuistidi cendethidin dissi `when they do not take care of her', 28d22 . cen tairmthecht opersin dialaili gl. intransitiuum, Sg. 189a7 . uar rombi ind fit . . . cin cumscugud, Mon. Tall. 147.14 . téora bliadna doib . . . cen teacht as, Anecd. i 11.24 ( SCano 356 ). fada an treimhse ataid re a chois / gan tocht dá dtíribh, TD 4.38 . soinend no doinend na haimsire do bidh gan techt, BCC 416.18 . fá h-ár gan áireamh it was a slaughter incalculable, ML 130.24 .

(b) With Vn. and obj. gen.: cenaéitsecht gl. non . . . audire, Ml. 21b11 . batrom foraib són centíchtain átíre fadesin they were distressed at not reaching their own land, 34d12 . cen foraithmet ananmae . . . dam gl. ut etiam uocabula eorum obliuioni tradam, 37c13 . cen a chomallad gl. sub Lege (fuerunt), 76a15 . cid atobaich cendílgud cech ancridi gl. quare non magis iniuriam accipistis? Wb. 9c20 . cena aetarcne riam gl. sine praeiudicio, 29a20 . cenacomol naich aili do gl. `ipse' quoque in tertia persona per se, Sg. 197b17 . cen imcabáil . . . cum nobis do epirt, 203a8 . cia beith cen (gin, MS) gabáil n-orbai, Críth G. 69 . cen a coisecrad `without being reconsecrated', Mon. Tall. 153.15 . ō ro-gabus gāi im láim nad-raba cen guin duini I have never failed to slay a man, Sc.M² 16 . bi gan a thabairt do not swear it (an oath), PH 7343 . gan oba gliadh, TD 26.40 .

(c) With follg. noun or pron. and prep. DO with Vn. (for case of noun in later lang. see above): foilsigthi feisin cen ainm dothórmuch fris `without the addition of a noun to it', Sg. 211a8 . ma ro látar ce[n] ní do ḟacbáil leo, Ériu xvii 66 § 4 . afuine . . . / cenachnáma dobrissiud, SR 3904 . in fer nār c[h]otail énoidchi ríam gan maithes Gall da innluccud da dúintib, ZCP viii 111.13 . ata recht ocaind .i. cen luige do thabairt, PH 2684 . can T. . . . do thegmail dó, TTebe 987 . gan é d'áireamh oramsa, TD 14.9 . Similarly, without vn.: trágh. ráth . . . , inann ┐ so sís acht gan so sís do bainindscne except that the following are not feminine, IGT Decl. § 38 . gan mé aniogh san mhín mhaighrigh since I am not(?), Studies 1921, 568 § 23 . With follg. acht in sense of except that, only , etc.: gan acht coibhche . . . do dháil di `provided he gave her a marriage-portion', Keat. ii 4642 . gan é acht i naois óiglenaib still of tender years, O'Gr. Cat. 381.13 . gan acht neart aoidheadh orra, Content. xxx 26 . do-ghéubha tú sail ad tshúil féin 's gan achd brodh a súil Pharaon only a mote, Mac Aingil 904 .

In a number of exx. in the early lang., and with increasing frequency in the later, the clause introduced by cen assumes the character of a nominal clause functioning as the subject or object of a verb, as a case governed by a preposition, and occasionally even as a genitive depending on a noun. For class. lang. see the analysis in TSh. s.v. gan.

(d) As subject of a verb: isingir lem cenchretim dúib, Wb. 4b28 . isaithiss doibsom cid anísiu .i. cenprecept dondaís anfiss their failure to preach . . . discredits them, 13b11 . cen buith i bar ṅgnáissi / is mór fodom-glúassi, Fél. Ep. 375 . ba imned la F. cen acallaim na ingine F. was anxious to speak with the girl, TBFr. 155 . fonascar fair can tudecht, LU 5943 . mad dia m-beith at cumang, a ben, ol C., in ghein fil fat bruindi gan a breith có abhárach, RC vi 175 § 55 . ba dogessib conculainn cenadall fulachta diachathim, iii 176.17 . ba col cen a choemna not to protect him, Gorm. March 15 . ata is-in recht cen mnái do gabail i fhiadnaise, PH 2794 . nár dhamhsa gan dol red chois, TD 14.32 . an cóir gan síodh d'fhagháil uadh? Aithd. D. 63.5 . is truag duind gan E. acar n-imdidin, Stair Erc. 745 .

(e) As object: fobithin adrimet som deit su armelacht cen arṅ ditin ni `not to protect us', Ml. 129d22 . madh ro achtaigh cín ar, ┐ rohairedh, Laws iv 132.25 . fonaiscid C. forrosom cen curadmir do chosnam, LU 9025 ( FB 77 ). na lécob d'Ultaib cen taidecht lim, MU² 182 . foracaib . . . can a n-uilc do dígail dóib, LU 3117 (see Duan. F. iii 8 - 9 ). cid fodera . . . cen Crist do-t furtacht-su?, PH 738 . asbert an file fris cen ní don bradan do tomailt, RC v 201.23 . gan chrích Néill fút ná fulaing, TD 6.16 . do cheannuigh Dia . . . / gan mo bheith i mbrugh Ifeirn, Dán Dé v 45 . mar do chonn-cadar cliatha na Cruithnigh gan iad féin líon cathuighthe ris that they were not strong enough to fight him, Keat. ii 1779 . orduighmid . . . gan labhairt dona Sethrachaibh `that the Sisters keepe silence', RSClára 102b .

(f) With vbs. of forgetting, preventing , etc. the prep. merely reinforces the meaning of the main verb: arnabé anfochell leu cenatlugud buide diasoirad so that they may not neglect to return thanks, Ml. 117b7 . cenasechim gl. uestigia relinquere, Sg. 30a20 . rothairmisc . . . in scel sin fa P. . . . gan sid re brathair, TTebe 2767 . a Bhē-binn, bean ar do mac / gan mhnāi trīallfas dó tochmarc, ZCP xiii 167.1 . léigfeamaoid dínn . . . gan teacht tarsa, TSh. 294 `which we shall avoid treating of', Gloss. tug i ndearmad gan maith na n-Éireannach do mhaoidheamh he has forgotten to, Keat. i 56.25 . nīr dhermait . . . in doirseóir gan in custam d'iarraidh ┐ d'fagáil `the keeper did not neglect demanding and receiving it', Fl. Earls 90.5 . Cf. Ml. 25a3 cited under (a).

(g) As case governed by prep.: tré gan rabhadh do chur dho through failing to warn him, Content. xvi 71 . fá gan fearthuinn do dheanadh, Donlevy 440.30 . déinig faire . . . chum gan tuitim a ttemptásion so as not to enter into temptation, Párl. na mB. 789 . maille ré gan é d'fhaigsin, TSh. 6387 .

(h) As gen.: d'easbaidh gan an creideamh do bheith aca because they have no faith, TSh. 4784 (where gan merely reinforces meaning of easbhaidh). The phrase introduced by gan is technically gen. also in: rún do ghlacadh gan tuitim to resolve not to fall, Donlevy 448.19 .

III With suff. pron. 3 s. m. n. c(h)ene, c(h)ena(e), ceni, cheana (usual mod. form). On O.Ir. cene, cenae see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 346 . In class. verse may be stressed or unstressed, Aithd. D. 25.19n.

(a) In more or less literal sense in addition to it, without him or it, besides, apart from this. As shown by occas. exx. of cenae referring to f. or pl. nouns the word had even in O.Ir. begun to have the force of an indep. adv. besides, in addition, moreover, anyway . In literal sense: huare is lán chiall indib chenae gl. uerba non egent casu, Sg. 140b3 . ní laimtis cena they dared not omit to do it, Sc.M² 20 , cf. ní étaim-sea chena I cannot help it (gan a dheanamh, v.l.), TBC-LL¹ 6080 . cía nocarainn cách chenae besides him, Liad. and Cuir. 24.21 . nícon bíad cenae, 24 `without him . . . it will not live', Murphy Lyrics 35.10 . ceni beth nach aili isin tig cenae acht hé a oenur, BDD² 1086 `any other save he', Gloss. ní fuil aurlabraidi . . . leo chenae besides him, MU² 986 .

(b) In more general sense: cenitormastar homéit istrom cenae ho aicniud in any case, Ml. 20a20 . bamór fechtae cenae `there were many times besides', 39a3 . legi enim Dei non est subiecta (of sapientia carnis) .i. atá dethiden fuiri cene `besides', Wb. 3d34 . barafie dúib darígente cene cenimmormus nachmór, 11d5 . apronomen asberr eiusdem ┐ cach pronomen dono chene `besides', Sg. 203b1 . os me chene am faelid `I too', Thes. ii 293.25 . at-béla chenaeo (sic), BDD² 1438 `in any case', Gloss. sáeilim nem cena I am looking forward to heaven as it is, BColm. 68.22 .

Following f. and pl. nouns: ni reccar ales dano epistle uáibsi arrofitemmar cene `without it' (ref. to epistil, f.), Wb. 15a5 . runsluinfemni didiu cene fanisin (ref. to epistolis), 15a4 . etar fileda ┐ áis ṅdénma sairse chenae `and other artists', Sg. 212a11 . atethatár eóin damsa chena other birds will be caught for me, LU 3276 ( SCC 7 ). ní lamhat eonu na fiadhmhilu cena beth for an sliab sin `nor other wild animals', ZCP i 254.6 .

(c) Hence of actions and states of being already, previously : nírecat . . . les tintuda . . . ataat iltintudai leu cene, Ml. 3a14 . tanice-side céne `He hath come already', Wb. 4d26 . adib eolaig and cene, 33c19 . ar biid iouis cene nominatiuo , Sg. 99a3 . ar ní thucad dó chena hí, LU 3168 . ag feoilgherradh in ridiri ata marbh chena , Stair Erc. 758 . cheana `alwaies' (= hitherto, Ed.), RSClára 81a . ? Cf. cheana no archeana .i. o sin amach, O'Cl.

(d) More vaguely as adv. of asseveration moreover, indeed, of a truth, then, so (see PH, TSh.): ni réid chene, Sg. 238b1 . saībse, céni, i m-bith chē, Imr. Brain 45 `moreover', Murphy Lyrics 39.13 . ní boí isin bith frisa samailte chena there was indeed nothing with which it could be compared, LU 3378 ( SCC 16 ). ceist cena . . . cid as áil dúib?, MU² 332 . ó racuala in maith cena, cid ar ná cechlaind in saith?, Airne F. 237 . cia airm itá do thigerna-su chena ale?, TBC-LL¹ 1418 . ní fitir in challech nach do fhoigdi chena tánic in giIla that it was not simply to beg the servant came, Ériu i 132.81 . leicem as ar n imram . . . acht in chonair beras ar curach sind cheana, YBL 87a44 . nocha lám chena ná cos / do géba, O'Gr. Cat. 367.17 . an chloch cheana . . . on the other hand, TSh. 64 . gidhedh chena , BCC 124.30 . With ocus at beg. of sentence: ┐ chena bid lat ┐ lad chlaind co brath in rigi, RC xxiv 200.14 . ┐ cena ni . . . , TTebe 4293 . V. freq. with prec. acht: acht chena is . . . , LU 3914 ( SCC 43 ). acht chena ro-diultais etc., PH 601 . acht cheana do ghabhadar etc., Párl. na mB. 3947 . acht atā ni cena moreover, ZCP viii 111.14 .

Cf. archena, olchena.

IV Freq. with follg. co as conjunction without that, though . . . not, in some uses replacing O.Ir. ceni. Not found in O. Ir. glosses. See Phil. Soc. Trans. 290 § 56 . cenco is perh. rather to be explained from *ceni-co, O'Rahilly, Celtica ix 113 - 34 . In class. Ir. gion etc. go (see DDána), which appar. no longer felt as containing the prep. cen (gan). Form somet. influenced by cían (céin), q.v.

(a) without that, apart from the case that, because of the fact that not (with indic. and subj.): bid messu dúib . . . céin co tísaid lim it will be the worse for you if you do not come with me, LU 8082 ( FB 6 ). ní eicsind uile cenco cumhsanaind icca aisneis ria mbrath I could not relate it all short of keeping at it till doomsday, Ériu ii 136 § 120 . gén cu taibre ar hanmuin / let a talmain nisbera short of giving it (worldly goods?) for your soul, 228.17 . cumma lem etir / cen co tīas ilLaighnib I care not at all if I go not into L., ZCP viii 110.8 . cóir, cen co beth biad ocut `right then is it that food should fail thee', PH 1312 . nír bó toil do A. sin, gen gur triall la hI. do Roimh A. was unwilling not to go with I. to Rome, BNnÉ 4.25 .

Usually though . . . not.

(b) With indic. Rare in older lang.: cenco n-acatár though they did not see (her), LU 10010 . cín co fetar cia tu though I don't know who you are, RC v 200 § 15 . achd gin gur fheith iad, DDána 3.29 . comhla gen go bī (sic leg.) rem baeis, ACL iii 236 § 9 . gion gur chomhmaoidh sin though she boasted not of it, Dán Dé ii 5 . gion go ttuigthear do gháoidheilg ┐ gion go habuirthear d'ogham é, IGT Introd. 5.1 . gin co fuil, CF² 585 . cin co híbhitt na Serrisdínig fín, Maund. 61 . gin cur chaith . . . caithfet-sa `though no one has eaten', Ériu iii 158 § 10 . génco faicidhisi é, RC xxiv 371.26 . gion go ffaicfit mo chorp . . . docífitt m'fiorta ┐ mo miorbuile, BNnÉ 267 § 235 (fut. replacing subj.?). Cf. gion go bhfaicfear (-cthear, v.l. ). Dán Dé v 35 .

(c) With subj.: acht ropom airdricse, maith lim cen co bend būan acht ōenlāa even though I should live only one day, TBC-I¹ 572 . cen cop mōr mo thuasa, Mór M. 6 . cen co pat comṡáeglaig, Airne F. 19 . cenco n-essara though you eat not, Sc.M² 3 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be saying untruthfully that it is . . . , Laws iv 52.30 . cian combat lia iar n-umir though they be not more in number, Rawl. 70b22 . ra raidsebair cenco tucaind ar áis doberaind ar écin that I would take it willy-nilly, LL 7685 ( TBC-LL¹ 150 ). cia fogabad cenco fagbad whether he got it or not, 7328 . cen co dernad, CRR 18 . cinco dernadais na Masilecdha do maith . . . acht . . . if the M. did no other good than . . . , CCath. 1751 . gion go dtí riomsa . . . / Dia do dhearmad, Dán Dé xxv 9 . do rígh gion go rabhtha id mhac even wert thou not a king's son, DDána 91.15 .

Occas. with loss of negative sense: gion go mbiadh gnúis gheanamhail . . . ag fear na ceilge though the deceiver should have. . . , TSh. 8965 (see Vocab.). atá ár sáith d'íoc againn gin gurab deired dúinn féin taréis na deithbire so `though immediately upon termination of this quarrel we ourselves too made an end', Caithr. Thoirdh. 119.24 .

clocás

Cite this: eDIL s.v. clocás or dil.ie/9547

n (cloc + cás) belfry : tor álainn mur clogcás aran táob tíar di `a fair tower for bells' (of a church), Maund. 69 . a cur docum na mainisdrech . . . ┐ iad féin do dhul don chlogáss. Acht chena nír bho díon dóibh, ALC ii 386.16 . clogāis ┐ ballaidhi na Rōmha, Fl. Earls 168.2 . i mbairr cloccais Cuinnche, AFM v 1818. 16 . do bhris gach mainistir bheannaithe . . . / clogás, cloigtheacha, Five Pol. Poems 94.234 .

con-sín(i)

Cite this: eDIL s.v. con-sín(i) or dil.ie/12313

Forms: con-sníther

v (sínid): consinter chena . . . im thráth turcbāla grēne fighting takes place (?), TBC-I¹ 3440 (or leg. con-sníther ?). C. consine fris fights against him(?), Ériu ii 5.19 (B. na f.). is fris chomshínter na rig the kings are referred to him (for the purpose of dating), LB 149a19 .

crí

Cite this: eDIL s.v. crí or dil.ie/12895
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n indecl. f. i corpchrí adglain 'in very pure bodily form' Celtica xx 187 . For gender cf. isī in crī fotbrēna, ACL iii 311 § 4 (is aigi nobreána, v.l. isa cion ron brena, AFM ii 618.12 ). body, flesh , used almost exclusively in verse, in prose replaced by corp: inrí doruasat cechcri, SR 7871 . cia rosdechraig innacri distinguished them in form, 7877 . feib ro mairn a chrotha c.¤ `shapely form', Metr. Dinds. iii 450.19 . hi colla c.¤ `in carnal shape', AFM ii 616.19 . na huile anmand rothecht c.¤ ┐ bethaid, MacCarthy 50.1 . calma a c.¤ ` form ', CRR 19 . do ch.¤ churad, LL 17124 . Crist conic mo ch.¤ , 39038 ( SG 386.13 ). is let mo ch.¤ is let mo chorp, ZCP i 497.8 . cloidem orduirrn for a cri `body', Aen. 1933 . Of leaving the body, dying: ria ndul am (= óm) chri, LL 374b37 . intan noscairiub frim ch.¤ , ZCP vii 308.28 .

V. freq. with prep. IN-: a rigdorais . . . triasar chin i c.¤ / . . . Isu was born in the flesh, Ir. Lit. 96.y . Crist, ro-chés i c.¤ , Metr. Dinds. i 26.185 . ? im noin goet a chorp hi c.¤ `in the side', KMMisc. 150.50 . ? cóigear gan chreideamh i gc.¤ `in their hearts', Keat. ii 2468 . Hence i c.¤ in the flesh, alive : nifail hic.¤ . . . / acht mad inrí, SR 311 . cach lá i tú i c.¤ , LU 9957 . ní ḟail do chreitim it ch.¤ `in thy . . . lifetime', Metr. Dinds. iii 182.199 . lat chátaid it ch.¤ (chli, v.l.) chena `all thy days', 178.151 . ni thanic rí bad chommaith i c.¤ ri C., was never born, LL 6511 ( RC xxxvi 264 ).

Compd. oc clerib cridochtaib, LU 674 ( ACC 30 ).

1 cumang

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cumang or dil.ie/13814
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Forms: cumacc, cumoc, cumhag, cumhang

o (see GOI 448 ) vn. of con-icc. Also cumacc (ibid. 354 ), and later co-. cumoc, YBL 180a21 (= c.¤ , RC vi 175.54 ). d. pl. cumgaib, UR 36.11 . cumhag, cumhang m., IGT Decl. § 17 (71.19) . Verbs § 53 .

Power, ability, strength : cumhang .i. neart no cumhachta, O'Cl. iarsinchumung bess lib, Wb. 16c19 . asririusa moch.¤ darfar cenn gl. superimpendar ipse pro animabus uestris, 18a14 . ba hénirt ar c.¤ , Fél. Ep. 9 . nísmbói . . . do chumacc a mmbo do imain, Vita Br. 24 . bidh fann a c.¤ , ZCP viii 110.11 . co ructha a eich hi cumugg la C. were taken in charge, Trip.² 1665 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech c.¤ rotbé dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204.12 . dollotar do imbert a cumaiṅg frisin slōg, TBC-I¹ 2195 . dobérmais ar cumaṅg ica thessarggain, LL 36680 . budh calma a c.¤ san / bud caol a[r] cumaing-ne, ZCP viii 207. 13 - 14 . a chumhang gidh cia do-bheir / do-gheibh Dia ar ubhall nó ar uibh whoever gives what he can, DDána 42.36 = IGT Verbs ex. 466 . ic techt i ngábudh dar cend cumaing in a superhuman effort (?), TTr.² 1367 = ZCP xxx 69.1367 . ni ragar neach tara c.¤ `no one is fined beyond his power', Laws v 466.23 . ? issedh mesraigus breithem a cumach (sic) do gill do cach, iv 36.21 Comm. nad inarban iar fis, focumac `having power to do so', iii 8.z .i. fo c.¤ iar mbeth a fesa aice, 10.8 Comm. ní ba sindadh nó aoradh fogniset, acht(?) gut prut fo comung, H 3.18, 755.1 . don ch.¤ conicc `to the extent of his power', Ériu iii 106.1 . co cumunc cecha mnā chena `with whatever every other woman is able to give', Cáin Ad. 23 .

Attrib. g s. fer comaic móir, LU 7578 (BDD). co clú chumaiṅg Delga osin dind, LL 16748 . ba cemmend cumaiṅg, LL 746 = comaind, BB 28b40 . With follg. obj. gen.: gan c.¤ treabhtha, BNnÉ 294.16 . L. . . . ina cc.¤ catha `in battle array', Cog. 214.w . ni linne acumacc `we have no power over her', RC iii 346.8 . cumhang molta mhóir `the power to praise', Dán Dé xxix 27 .

In various constructions with copula and subst. vb.: ma beid hibar cumung gl. si potest fieri quod ex uobis est, Wb. 5d32 . ni fuil i c.¤ . . . do duine it is not in man's power, Laud 610, 12b cited Plummer MS. notes = i comand, PH 97 . cona baoi ina cc.¤ soadh for cúlaibh, Hugh Roe² 156.3 . ni bái c.¤ la M. dó, BNnÉ 294.17 . atá dhá cheird ar mo chumhang I am master of two trades, Bard. P. 17.31 . nímbái c.¤ cena I . . . was unable, Imr. Brain ii 291.1 . dober índi iscumung do / bó, IT iii 18.20 . ro thionóil sidhe ina mbaoí ina cumhang `all the forces under his command', AFM vi 1876.1 . níta cumacc do cháingním `it is not able to do well', Wb. 4a6 . nim thā cumac día aisnéis, LU 9234 . níp thá cumac dó, 1471 (MU). ní bái a c.¤ dó, BNnÉ 10.16 . ? nir chumhang air .i. nir bhó chumhachtach é, O'Cl. ? is trúag mo chumaṅg -sa rib, TFerbe 607 . ní fil c.¤ i n-a n-anmannaib ocaind, PH 2055 . ? Predic. g s. in mheit as cumhuing leo do freasdul, Marco P. 36 . ní chumuing la Caracorum bar congbail `it is not possible for C. to contain you', 28 . ós tú an rí as cumhaing dá clódh `able to control her', Aithd. D. 81.10 . ? Hence adv.: in t-í dogéna cech maith co cumaing, PH 8089 .

Gramm. function, force : innandobriathar asanairberar cumaṅg ainmmde `a nominal force', Sg. 39a26 . cumaṅg nominisuerbi `power', 148b5 . caite deochair eter a c.¤ ┐ a nert? A c.¤ . . . Intan gabaid guth a n-ænur (of letters), Auraic. 965 - 6 . lanchumang i fedaibh, ┐ c.¤ a forfedaibh, ┐ egumang a muitibh, 1209 . dobeir c.¤ fedha forin son, 436 . c.¤ i forfedaib, 5456 .

2 dál

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 dál or dil.ie/14345
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: dálae, dála, dáil, dáil, dála, dálaib, dáil

n ā, f. g s. dálae, dála. a s. dáil. d s. dáil. pl. nom. acc. dála. d p. dálaib.—n s. later dáil.

I

(a) A meeting with (fri): bái oc frithairi na aidchi contuli tráth a dála, IT i 126. 19 . ticc iarum in ingen assa dáil, ib. 11 . ní arnicc Ailill a dáil, ib. 127. 18 . noco dernad ríu mo dál, ib. 224. 20 . Aas and nobidh a dalsom fri Creid, Anecd. i 14. 25 . dál itir Aedh ┐ Cathal, AU i 194. 2 . is truag in dál, TBC-LL¹ 4098 . dursan do dál dédenach, ib. 4036 (but dál, 3512 is probably the vn. of the preceding radáled). dálas dáil, Fianaig. 10. 5 . fil mo dáilse (mo dálsa l. 3 ) fris innocht, Hib. Min. 77. 21 . docein doroacht do dáil, Fianaig. 10 , 11 . inna cóic dáloi a ricfom .i. dál fri cneid dál fri bás dál fri muintir nDé dál fri demno dál fri hesérgi allaithiu brathæ, ZCP iii 455. 2 . atá ar ndal go ríg na roth, ib. vii 304. 12 . druim re deman dál re Dia, ACL iii 306. 10 . dail fria cnes fria caemchichi, LL 179 a 40 . dogén airius dála frib ann, PH 3008 . dál báis a meeting with death (cf. IV): co rosfargbais i ndáil báis, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 20. 8 . darsin ndáil i tiagsa .i. dál báis, RC xiii 387 . ria ndul i ndáil báis, MacCongl. 29. 26 ; 81. 11 . conid foichlidhi do cachæn in dal derb ┐ an dal inderb... .i. dail bais, Ériu v 120. 1 . dál éco ( = W. dadyl angheu) id. dochta do neoch dálas dáil facbas dáil néco fri láim, Fianaig. 10. 5 . Cf. da ttecmadh éc dála dam is ar méd grádha Gaoidheal, Reeves Ad. 288. 3 . Without qualifier: hi llaithiu dāla, Rawl. B 502 124 b 55 = ina ló dála, Fing. R. 261 . dál fo demi, v. 1 deime below.

(b) a hostile meeting, an encounter: tiagam issin dail sea do chosnam ind ḟir sea, TBC-LL¹ 3258 . techt i ndáil ailt Ulad is dal dia mbia pudar, ib. 3271 . ratfíat láich rat láma noco raga ar dála, ib. 3053 . dian a buille dond a dál, Metr. Dinds. ii 16. 4 . ... in debhaid dál adcíu, ACL iii 297. 1 (cf. bág atchíu, 294. 19 ), cf. 297. 7 . cia robói do dál ri nech robí do dál dedenach, TFerbe 453 . meni thæth...lemsa man dailse, CRR 8. 14 . gair ri dogur dál ri dimbuaid, ib. 44. 22 . LL 195 a 39 , 43 . ropsat liri a ndála ropsat láma trena, ib. 46 a 19 . gan dáil gan glíaid ZCP viii 229 st 7 . dáil glecach gonach, Cog. 158. 4 . dál díbeirge, Lec. 353 b 24 . druideamaoid na choinne san dáil, Oss. i 128. 3 . is nach cuibhe dhuit gan seasamh le Daolchiabh a ndáil, ib. iv 154. 28 . dob iomdha buille ┐ béim san dáil, Stowe-MS F iv a, p. 78. 6 . gur bhain lena chloidhiomh san treas deich ndála asa chorp caoindheas, ib. 9 . dál-ingabáil avoiding of battle MR 294. 17 .

prep do dáil towards, against : ná toraig dot dáil in bé thondgel, LL 147 a 6 . eirc...┐ finnta latt cid thacras Déicc diar ndáil, PH 1042 .

prep i ndáil n- (acc.) towards (cf. i comdáil n-, i coinne): co ti a ndrong im dhail sea, Gorm. Aug. 19 . totáisiu imbarach im dailsi, IT i 126. 17 (cf. l. 2 ). do fóidiudsiu im dailse, ib. 126. 25 . cía so thú dodeochaid im dáil, 127. 20 . dul it dail, 128. 1 . tinóilid a slóghu libh im dáil-si. CCath. 1358 . intan ba mithigh do dul ina dáil, IT 126. 6 . luid ina dailseom, 126. 20 (cf. l. 7 ). tráth a dála totaet Étáin ina dáil , 127. 16 . tic ina dáil, 127. 2 . ní bá rí noco tí nar ndáil, LU 119 b 11 . ní thíset nar ndáil, LL 308 b 1 . is mochergech in læch radáil nar ṅdáil, TBC-LL¹ 3296 . in fer thic it dail, ib. 3075 . techt i ndáil, ib. 3270 . tancatar...i ndáil in chatha to the battle TTr. 1841 . tair im dáil, Ériu v 223. 69 . rachaid misi a ndáil éga, Anecd. i 39. 17 . gan ergi ina dail, Fen. 234. 14 . Danuib ria [n]dess sair na dail (sc. the river Don), Rawl. 78 b 19 . tuic inní atá id dál, SG i 18. 40 . dul i ndail chuirp Christ, PH 5340 . ní doilge leiss dul na dáil andás i ndáil cech bíid chena , ib. 5348 . manip amlaid tiasum i ndáil na hédparta mori se, ib. 5349 . ar eagla feirge chur na ndáil, Oss. iii 282. 7 . rochuimhnigheas ar theacht am dháil, ib. 248. 11 . an dís úd ag teacht na ndáil, iv 96. 2 ; 254. 2 . asa dtigeadh nach iad na dháil, 126. 12 . tionól do bhuidhean ad dháil, 68. 2 . ag triall na dháil, 250. 7 .— triallaidh im dháilse na huile ṡanntuigheas me, TSh. 52. 7 (similarly 245. 18 ). tiocfad id dháil, ib. 4. 34 ; 74. 13 . fógair dhain teacht id dháil arna huisgib, 60. 24 . ag teacht na dháil, 66. 35 ; cf. 248. 21 . rachad i ndáil mathar féin, 244. 17 . gurab gan ḟios tiocfas i ndáil an duine, 74. 12 ; 74. 14 ; cf. 90. 7 , 192. 29 , 206. 2 , 244. 17 .

prep i ndáil (dat.) near, along with (cf. II), cf. i comdáil. Mod. i ndáil le near, Aran and W. Conn. ( GJ xxxii 128 ); in mod. MSS sometimes a ná le. im dhail ad dirim, Gorm. March 22 . Petar Subhne Seuer...co deghmin nar ndailne, ib. Jan. 11 . Perpetuus Cathub...nar ndailne, ib. Apr. 8 . sciath rígh Teabhtha seo na dáil together with it ZCP viii. 227 . im dáil: Fionn san ḟiann gan stad am dháil, Oss. iii 290. 16 . dá mairfeadh Conán am dháil, iv 22. 27 ( am chomhdháil, vi 14. 22 ). iv 80. 3 . it dáil: an bhfuil Fionn san ḟiann ad dháil, iii 248. 27 . ó tá truagh as taise ad dháil, iii 274. 27 . beidh ad dháil Aodh Beag, iv 74. 3 ; vi 26. 15 . (in)na dáil: rochuir chugam an tṡáith aráin as deoch na dháil and a drink together with it iii 278. 24 . is leor do ṡeanoir an phian mar atá as gan tuilleadh na dáil without adding to it iii 286. 3 . dothriall annsúd aran bhféinn Oscur as Aodh na dháil, iv 82. 18 . gan sluagh ná tóir na dháil, iv 120. 3 . ní iarann (sc. Dia) tóir catha go deó na dháil, iv 122. 22 . (in)nár ndáil: san ḟiann uile nár ndáil go dlúth, vi 10. 2 . dḟág sinn uile faoi gheasaibh na dtuile nár ndáil, vi 48. 10 . (in)na ndáil: gan teirce a bhfonn na ndáil, iv 140. 36 .

prep imm dáil n- around, near, along with: beit mom dáil cen dimbaig Cionia chaid, Gorm. Apr. 3 . beit móm dáil in dremsa, ib. Apr. 27 .

prep ó dáil away from: an ḟiann óm dháil ar cheal the fiann being gone from me Oss. iii 276. 2 .

II A meeting, conference, assembly, convention; a legal meeting, court . Often connected with 1 airecht, comthinól, 1 oenach, terchomrac, tochomrac. For -dál as a collective suffix see ban-dál. dál .i. airecht ut est robbé uas bar ndálaib ( = Fél. Ep. 63 ), O'Dav. 644 . dál as chomtig fri dáma, Thes. ii 329. 1 . Frequent in the Laws: caite dail? ní adgelltar .i. in leth ingellus neach dul ┐ muna dech biaid smacht urcraidi dala uad ... mada ndech noco nuil smacht urcraidi dala uad, Laws iii 330. 1 . fuírech i ndail i mbi ri, ii 128. 19 . do les dala nó airechta, ii 214. 17 . teora tomaltu ata córai do ríg fora tuaitha oenach ┐ dal do cundrech ┐ tocomrac do chrich, iv 332. 17 . co dail críchi búi la tri cenéla saera a territorial meeting i 78. 17 . athgabáil dechmaide fil...im cach ndail críche, i 192. 11 . im lot do aibinne .i. do suide dala thy convention seat i 170. 15 (cf. dál-ṡuide below). má teccmai líth laithe nó dail no thochomracc tuaithe, v 396. 21 (gl. l. 25 : dail .i. oenaigh). fri gell fri dail fri dígail, ii 268. 16 . bla dúnad dal, iii 240. 22 (cf. is immi conéirgitis fri dala ┐ dúnada RC xiii 373. 4 ). dal .i. in dal ima comtinoilter ann, Laws 25 Comm. . timtach fir is gnáth a ndáil, v 238. 19 ( .i. a ndail aonaig, ib. 242. 17 Comm. ). iar tiachtain dóib don dail ropritchad soscéla Críst dóib, i 14. 15 .— is fairsing a ṅdálsom, Fél. Oct. 28 . attecham na hóga doairset ar ṅdála, ib. Sept. 20 . robrúithea i ndálaib, ib. Prol. 33 . it ruama co ndálaib co cétaib co mílib, ib. 211 . noddlomaim fíad dálaib before assemblies, i.e. openly ib. 133 . robbe uas bar ṅdálaib, ib. Ep. 63 . addreset na degḟir...mor ndalaib, Gorm. Apr. 22 . is iatso ríg bátar isin dail sin, IT i 212. 26 . rohordaigeadh smachta ┐ rechta ┐ dligheadha... isin dail sin, ib. iii 198. 22 . Feis Temrach...┐ fir nÉrenn isin dail sin uili, ib. 198. 25 . nach dal ┐ nach oirecht con-rísar la túathu ┐ rígu, Ériu ii 210. 5 . terchomrac dagdaoine dala menci, Tec. Corm. 3 . fá ma nadhmolad fiad righaibh isnaib dálaib, ACL iii 294. 4 . ó dosnectar ina ndalaib, ib. 298. 3 , cf. ib. 294. 24 . is ferr (var. lect. maith) cech dal dia tic síd, LL 147 b 26 . (fir Hérend) i noenbaile ┐ i noendáil ┐ i noentochim, TBC-LL¹ 820 . intan nothéigmis don dáil, Festschr. Stokes 3. 12 . i ndálaib ┐ airechtaib ┐ i comthinoltaib læch ┐ clérech, FA 31 . isé dano (forcetul) nopridchad i mmórdáil fer nÉrend, ib. 32 . Ériu co nimad ndála (g s. or of 4 dál RC xxxvii 14 ) FDG 532 . dochumm na dála, Three Hom. 60. 14 . boi dail (sic) mor la Bretnu...luidsom don dail, Lism. L. 48. 3 . ocht neascoib deg ar tri cetaib isin dail sin, MacCarthy 284. 19 . egnaidh Insi Fáil do díth a dáil nGaeidheal, AFM ii 602. 12 . cen luige do thabairt fo dáil ar domun, PH 2684 . amal dogniat inna brécaire i ndálaib ┐ i ndairechtaib, ib. 5947 (cf. 6055 ).

aes dála advocates : mná nád éta urlabra .i. ná fuair aes dala, Laws v 252. 26 .

dál brátho, in dál mór the last judgment : bid mou a onóir i ndail bratha, PH 1601 . is imalle ticfat i ndáil brátha, ib. 1652 . co nérius fén...i mórdáil lai brátha, ib. 3444 . bidat marthanaig...co mórdáil bratha, FA 6 . co tí in dál már, ACL iii 313. 17 .

III A law-case, a cause, case; a dispute, controversy (W. dadl debate, dispute): dal .i. caingin ut est dal dia ngetar a mbrugh .i. is caingin dia ngetar, O'Dav. 586 . ó bus tar muir ticfa dacra a dala a roga brethemon i nÉirinn dó, Laws i 6 22 . isé is fiadh naise imna dálaib ima fuiglither he is witness in the cases which are decided H 3. 17, O'D. 580 . aes dála advocates , see II. dala ile fri aes cerd, RC xxvi 40. 1 . is amnus dam beith isin dail sin itir dia ┐ duine, Laws i 6. 25 . imodcuiri fein it [d]alaibh act for thyself in thy causes IT iii 200. 29 . is mór nodcuiri ┐ nodgabai féin id dhalaib, ib. 201. 1 . nír bo chucumsa robo chóir dál inna caurath sin do thabairt, FB 56 . bretha córa for cach dáil ised dlegair do cach ríg, Rawl. 158. 9 . gan dáil gan gliaid gan gaisgead, ZCP viii 229 . na tagra a dáil co fergach, ZCP vi 271. 24 . dál do gleod to settle a controversy, decide. bid aingcess la hUltu in dal so do gleod FB 16 . ní gleter dála lasna Déisi acht ind aidchi, Trip. 208. 23 . noglédís dála, Leb. Cert. 6 . ar ndemnigud a ndála ┐ ar cinniud a caratraid, TTr. 1764 . court : cuisnit .i. cosnait .i. cosnam dala no cos na dála forsa nairisethair in dálaige, Corm. s.v. cuisnit .

IV

(a) A judgment, decree, sentence, award, ordinance, law , decision ( legid dam-sa ar dail, Fen. 182.8 . ná bi ic hildalaib, SR 1698 . Cf. is mor dogni d'imrateib, 1694) : dáil .i. dlighedh. gach uile dail tobhaigh is maortigherna, H 3.17 , p. 167 . ni techtat for dail is for dail a ndligid ( .i. is for dail na haili ata doib ani dlegait, 146. 11 ), Laws i 144. 22 . Similarly 146. 10 . dál Dé, SR 3891 . do ḟochmarc a dhála imon caingin sin, IT iii 200. 27 . ná rop guach do dál, LL 148 a 30 (= KMMisc. 260 st 6 ). ná rop dál co nattail, ib. 147 a 53 . conid sí dál forsṅdesid, ib. 163 a 45 . iar ndáil dligid, ib. 163 b 2 (= Todd Lect. vii 4. 28 ). ma daime dáil ṅdligid dún, ib. 209 a 53 . corbom etal risin dáil, ib. 374 c 19 . roptis fíra mo dála, ib. 307 b 28 . ní theilgset dáil ná dliged, 10 b 18 . rachunig ba fír in dál: a ainm arin cnocc comlán, Metr. Dinds. ii 72. 11 . meni digius guigfitir dala fer ┐ fírfaitir briathra ban, TBC-LL¹ 560 . in dáil adcluine así in cóir, Acall. 599 . da tísadh fo breith dála, ib. 2384 . is ann cachain in dail nasdadha do Gaidelaib, RC xii 116 . fuirech re dál rígh nime, ZCP vii 301 . mesrugud for dalaib Dé ní tarda nech for bith cé, ib. vii 307. 12 . i tucsin dála na ndéi ┐ derritiusa nimi robui sen, CCath. 998 . in cogar dorigneabair léigid damsa ar dáil, Fen. 182. 8 .—Prov. ferr dála ina deabaid, ZCP vi 260. 18 . dál báis sentence of death (cf. I above). tucsat dal (dail LL 299 b 45 ) báis ( dáil mbáis, CS 26. 10 ) forsin ríg, LU 118 b 35 ( Trip. 566. 25 ). tucsat na dúle dáil báis do Loegaire, LL 299 b 40 .—Here also: dal a talione .i. o eruic ...dal didiu arindi asrenar do cach iarna ngním, O'Mulc. 291 .

(b) an agreement, a contract, covenant; espousals; betrothal: dála gl. ceart daingin orra, Eg. Gl. 243 . dála .i. mionna, O'Cl. naidm a cor ┐ a ndála, TBC-LL¹ 2249 (YBL). dúle Dé darstánic dáil, Bor. 40 . dosgní didiu Concobur a dail (betrothal) le Subaltaine, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 43 § 6 . na deun banais iar ndáil o thús corghais go mioncháisg, Donlevy 116. 14 (with solemnity Donl.; with solemnity or public proclamation, as of marriage Dinneen s.v. dáil ; with this meaning still in use in Donegal).—Cf. athair dála he that delivers the bride or bridegroom to be married P. O'C. , the bridegroom's man O'Br. dáil statute, treaty, contract, covenant, alliance P. O'C.

V (a) A case, matter, affair, state, condition, circumstance : in dail eile fores é a leth acobar a geill aga fuasluga, Laws i 282. 27 . rofitir Ádam a dáil, SR 2029 . ba aingcess laiss in dál dodfánic, FB 58 . inniss dam gach dal ret leass co nderntar lim do leges, IT i 123. 16 . dal bróin is milti do Moen, LL 33 a 32 . sírechtach dál in bith cé, Ériu v 211. 5 . scarad friu bid dál éicne, ib. 210. 1 . ingnad dal (cheville) RC xiii 74. 3 . dál cen séna (chev.), ACL iii 295. 15 . dál arcanai (cf. mod arcanai, 298. 5 ), ib. 297. 11 . dál nad bine, ib. 15 . is dál deimin, ib. 28 . conad hé a saebforcetul sin fodera dósum dúscad cacha drochdála MR 166. 23 . innsaigeas hua Ainmirech im dáil nach dlig, ib. 158. 6 . ór thaitnid frim do dhála the manner of thee (O'Gr.), Acall. 645 . rob olc a ndála ┐ robuaildis mná, Anecd. i 46. 16 (D). in dails[e] ga trialltar lib, Fen. 350. 17 . uair is minic fásus irchóit desnadudh ┐ dimḟuirech na ndál nurlumh dogrés from delaying and procrastinating things always prepared CCath. 551 . do rédugad ┐ dordugad dhál eglasdacdha, ALC i 262. 29 . ná len don dáil fora tái do not persist in the course you are pursuing Aen. 580 . iar ccríochnucchadh a dhál ndoṁanda don iarla having settled his worldly affairs AFM vi 2234. 30 . iar ccor dal niomdha na leith having brought many other charges against him ib. 2142. 21 . gan dáil a rochtain for ccúlaibh without knowing whether they should ever return ib. 2358 , cf. mar nách biadh dáil imthechta aca, Celt. Rev. iv 206 . dobeir (cuirid) for dáil mbicc he makes little account of: doradsom for dáil mbicc ┐ for neiṁní fuighle na nuasal AFM vi 2124. 25 . rogabsom for neiṁsnim do denam de ┐ ica chur for dail mbicc ┐ for neimfni to treat it as a small matter CCath. 5014 . — tuc a ḟis lat gach dál fora mbiat, Marco P. 97 . iseadh is dáil dona mnáib this is the way with women Keat. ii 5323 . an fíreolas atá aga seanchadhaibh ar dhálaibh a sean, ib. i 104. 12 . dáil na foirne áitigheas í (sc. in críoch), ib. i 2. 4 . da madh linn gach ní ar domhan...folamh ár ndáil fa dheireadh, TSh. 167. 8 . do bhrígh gurab ionann bhur ndál, 105. 14 . ní thuigid ...gurab ionann dál don duine ┐ don ghort bheantar, 73. 24 ; similarly 4. 7 ; 4. 15 ; 7. 21 ; 21. 32 ; 65. 14 . dáil an pheacaidh, ib. 260. 8 . is iontuigthe gurab saobh an dáil don druing, 130. 11 . nó fós dáil na speile ag buain an ḟeoir, 73. 26 . ni hiongnadh an cholann do bheith tréith ré méid a duaidh ┐ a doghrainge óna dálaibh sin for these reasons 82. 24 . is minic ṁothuighmid duadh na dála sin ag buain rinn féin, 84. 18 . don druing rér bhean dochar na dála so, 152. 5 . gan anacal air ná dáil chabhra na chionn, 31. 25 . ionnus nach bí dáil chabhra na chionn, 254. 28 . dál nóentuma lot of virginity Metr. Dinds. ii 58. 12 . Probably here: intan rosiacht cusna dála dédenchu do when his last hour had come PH 6602 (but cf. deden-dal the last tryst); cf. s.v. déidenach, dídenach. Personified: slán riot a Ḟinn...slán riot a ṡárdháil na gcríoch, Oss. iii 256. 7 .

don dáil sin by this occurrence, on that account ML 8. 28 .

ó nach dáil innach dáil in any way: is nemphní ┐ is nemada lind tregdad in talman ó n.d. (o nach nd. R), Alex. 859 . ní chuindig nech fortacht o [a]raile innach dail (o nach mudh R), Alex. 845 . i ndeired na dála at the end, finally , a common modern idiom. Trí Préach. 7 . Páidín 15. 22 .

(b) circumstance, event, adventure, course, story : tánac dia innisin duitsiu mo dala chucutsu siar, LU 41 a 1 . is fuilled nága dála in da ingen, LL 297 b 3 . admaim ar in rechtaire a dhala in chlaidib the story of the sword IT iii 201. 28 . oca iarfaigid cindus douicemni dála geni Críst, LB 139 a 8 . Crístt mac Muire mó gach dáil (d sg.) ZCP vii 303. 19 . roinnis Fionn dóib dáil an echtra sin, Tor. Dh. Oss. p. 206 .

prep fo dáil, fo dála as regards, concerning : rochuir techta uadha go Cormac fo dháil na corma, ITS vii 61. 33 . fáitsine do dénam don ríg fo dala a ingeni, ML 154. 11 .

prep im dáil, im dála: dochuatar i comairle im dáil Stephain LB 229 b 7 . innis daṁ an ḟírinne um dáil an ṁacaoiṁ ITS v 164. 6 . nimdana...imma dala mo degríg, SR 2070 . is de bói in comthinól sin occo im dála na creitmi, LU 117 b 23 . nuchumtha ní rádim de im dala mic Deichtire, TBC-LL¹ 801 , 1484 . gnísit comuirle im dalai and óglaich, RC xii 80. 9 . um dala reatha na gréne, ib. xiv 365 . dorala do Andromacha aslinge dúaigh do ascain im dala a fir, TTr.² 1128 . mina abarthi fír frium im dála in chroind roḟalchubar, LB 232 a 22 . ata ingantus...acainde imat dalasu cindus rucad tu asin carcair, ib. 224 a 58 . indisidh in scél cétna im dála in claidib, IT iii 201. 30 . asin libar rosscríb imm dála na caingene fuil acaib, PH 21 . amal roscrib...imm dalai paisi ┐ césta himáigine Crist, ib. 28 . inní rofaillsig Dia dam im dála chuirp Stepháin, ib. 1487 .

Often only dála: dala immorro Eochada, IT i 122. 11 (= TE 8 , Eg.). dála na dá bhanchaointe, TBC-LL¹ p. 879 n. dála Ḟinn dobhér sgeula ós árd, Tor. Dh. Oss. p. 66 . dála an abbadh, TSh. 140. 1 . dála ríogh na Sorcha, ITS x 82. 5 ; 110. 8 , cf. ib. 76. 30 ; 84. 11 ; 88. 1 ; 92. 15 ; 114. 21 ; 170. 28 . Keat. ii 47 , 253 , 363 , 1262 , 3098 , 6071 , &c.

do dálaib: bae in rí fo glámaib gné: do dálaib a aislingthe, SR 3278 . do dalaib ind escra sin, ib. 3580 , is derb ní tuilter do de: do dálaib na comrainne, LL 14 b 14 (= do dhaltaib, BB 42 a 26 ).

VI Astrol. a conjunction : dail go soirb re seachtmad, MS. Mat. 72 .

PERS. Gilla na nóg mac Dál-re-dochair, ALC 1281 . LOC.: Cnoc na Dála, Dinds. 132 . Cnoc Dála, Sliab Dála, P. O'C.

COMPS. generally = meeting, assembly .

(a) attáil another meeting, another decision, ban-dál, dam-dál, deden-dál, deg-dál, dóer-dál, droch-dál, écen-dál, gó-dál, grían-dál, min-dál, mór-dál, olc-dál, ríg-dál, ro-dál, tiug-dál;

(b) dál-luc, dál-ṡuide, dál-tech, q.v.—MOD. dáil, g s. dála. i ndáil towards. dála as regards. dálta, dáltha mar just as.

1 damnad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 damnad or dil.ie/14523
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: dambnad, dampnad, damnaṁ, damanto, damnadh, damanta

n u, m., also, after Latin model, written dambnad, dampnad; damnaṁ ( Lib. Flav. ii 13 b 2 . 3 ; 16 b 2 . 5 ). gen. damanto, -a. vn. of 1 damnaid. damning, condemning; damnation, condemnation .

(a) generally a condemning, punishing : athrigad rig ronertmar ┐ a ndámnad ┐ a marbad, Alex. 1038 . is fris (i.e. frissin ríg talmanda) ro herbad o Dia damnad cáich ina chinaid amail bás techta, PH 4081 .

(b) especially in the theological sense condemning to eternal punishment (opp. to togu; to slánugud, Lib. Flav. ii 13 b 2 . 9 . do thṡlánugud nó da dhamnadh duine ar nég, ib. 13 b 2 . 3 ; 13 b 2 . 12 f.b. ). togu indala nai per misericordiam damnad alaili per debitum judicium, Wb. 4 c 3 . iarna ndamnad, SR 4025 . dia ngabtha (sc. in biait) erum do léir ni beind nach céin i ndamnad, LL 286 a 25 . damnad cach eirse cach huilc is lattsu iar fír the damnation of every heresy ACL iii 313. 13 . anaic sinn arár ndamnadh, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 382. 3 . for damnad ┐ timorcain na ndrochdaine PH 4204 (cf. LB 38 a 3 f.b. ). do dampnad ┐ do díchor herissi Airr ad damnationem Arrianae haereseos, ib. 5004 . baile i mbia feochracht na ṅdemna oc pianad ┐ dampnad na nécraibthech, ib. 5017 . nách dlegar don eclais oman Dé do beth forri dia pianad nó dia damnad, 3492 . láifither (in ḟoirend sin) iar mbás i ḟúdomuin niffirn dia pianad ┐ dia ndampnad tria bithu sír, 5930 . oirchis dínn ria namsir ar ṅdamunta ar atám chena i pé[i]n, 2204 . do bhrígh go norduigheann Dia dhúinn fá phéin dhamunta bheith uṁal dar naoṁṁáthair, Donlevy 114. 14 . creud fár cúis damanta dhóibh é, ib. 254. 15 . faoi chóir dhamanta under pain of damnation, ib. 396. 11 . is iontuigthe a ṁéad do dhochar ┐ do dhamnadh don drung &c. , TSh. 130. 17 . an drong... bhíos arna ndamnadh sna hionadaibh pianaṁla, ib. 133. 26 .

MOD. damnadh, gen. damanta.

dán

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dán or dil.ie/14559
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: dáno, dánu, dánou, dána, dáin, dána, dánai, dána, dánta, dánae, dána, dán, dánai, ndán, dán, dánae

n u, m. g s. dáno, dánu, dánou, dána; mod. also dáin. n du. dá dána , LL 99 a 29 . n pl. dánai, dána (both in Wb); mod. also dánta. g pl. dánae, dána and once dán (supported by the metre) SR 7212 . —Dim. dánán ( ZCP x 370 ), q.v.

I A gift, bestowal, endowment, present , translating Lat. donum, donatio and glossed by ascid, tindnacol, tidlaic, bronntanas. dán do thabairt (do thindnacul, do dáil, do ḟodáil) do to bestow upon. Dán in sense I is not found in the Laws; the legal terms for gift are tidnacol, 2 aiscid.

(a) in a material sense. dán .i. tidhnacul, Stowe Gl. 311 . dán airgid .i. maoin no aisgid airgid a gift of silver O'Cl. P. O'C. alali caillech dobert dán ṁbec disi hi rusc who gave her a little present (of fruit) in a basket Lism. L. 326. 14 , cf. Todd Lect. v 75. 7 . na draid tancatar do adrad Críst co ndánaib examla, PH 7113 . nothictis mic Israel co ndánaib ┐ dliged ┐ idpartaib don eclais sin in choimdhed, LB 122 a 24 . dánai na hecailse gifts given to the Church, its goods : airchinnig bíte ós inchaib martra nannaeb for dánaib ┐ dechmadaib na hecailsi, FA § 25 .

(b) in a spiritual sense.

(α) a gift from man to God, a spiritual offering; often in connection with idpart or dependent on adopair: na trí dána édbras ind eclais do Chríst .i. óige ┐ aithrigi ┐ lánamnus dligthech, PH 7082 . cura edpram dó na dána logmara sa .i. deigimrád ┐ deigbriathra ┐ deiggnim, ib. 7115 . co nérnend na dána trédai iris frescisciu ┐ déircc do Dia, ib. 7093 .

(β) a divine gift to man from God or the Holy Ghost, a Christian virtue looked upon as an emanation from the Holy Ghost , usually plural dánai. donationes secundum gratiam differentes: is sain dán cáich, Wb. 5 d 5 , 7 . sechiphé dán tra doberthar do neuch bad fri cumtach necolso immabera, ib. 13 a 3 (the same thought is expressed Wb. 22 a 11 : in aedificationem corporis Christi (i.e. the Church): is hed dothéit de tre ilar na ndáne). gratia habundans propter multos: mrechtrad inna ndáne tindnagtar do chách, ib. 15 c 2 . nítat ildáni do oenfiur et ní oen dán do sochuidi, ib. 21 a 16 . na decad in dán doradad dó fessin acht dán á cheli, ib. 23 c 16 . acht rocretea deacht Críst bit less ind huili dáni et na huili timne, ib. 27 b 15 . ni riat na dánu diadi aran indeb domunde, ib. 28 c 2 . fortgellam Dia dana (: slána) De we declare by God God's gifts SR 3611 . dán buidech briathar dimbrass a grateful gift is speech without boasting Ériu ii 63 st 3 . i coṅdiulg cech dána rothídnaic Dia do sruthib fetarlaice is dermáir in tidnacul tuc indiú dona hapstalu PH 5450 . in spirut noem inṡorchaidius ┐ ḟoillsigius dána ┐ derritus inna ṅgním ṅdiada, ib. 8082 ; cf. in spirut noeb ...roinṡorched dána ┐ derritiusa na ndliged ndiada don eclais, FA § 1 LB (which seems to correspond to the passage `arfuirid derritussa ┐ fochraice écsamla nimi dona bennachtnachaib' in the LU version). rodánaigthe a dánaib Dé tria secht fáthaib fáthsine, ZCP iii 21. 42 . duine co ndán ndligthech ṅDé, MacCarthy 40. 17 . dánai in spirto nóib the gifts of the Holy Ghost: doadbadar sunt ata nili dána in spirto et as nóindæ in spirut, Wb. 12 a 11 ( 1 Corinth. xii 11 ; cf. PH 5491 infra ). tairchella híc huili dánu in spirito, ib. 12 b 33 . tre thindnacul inna ndánæ in spirito do chách, ib. 21 c 2 . isé in spirut noeb sin ḟódlas a dhána dilsi do chách, PH 5491 ( 1 Corinth. xii 11 ). dána examla in spiruta noíb do thidnocul don eclais, ib. 5571 . They are seven: uair is secht ṅdána airegda airmither don spirut noem, ib. 8028 . hí figuir .vii. ṅdana spiritus sancti, Thes. ii 254. 9 . secht ndána in spiratu naoiṁ, O'Don. Suppl. 615 ( = secht tidluice i. s. n., 23 Q 1, p. 24 b 6 ). Their names are wisdom, intellect, counsel, vigour, knowledge, piety and fear of God: ecna intliucht comarle nert fis gaire gúr omon Fiadat for bith ché secht ndána Dé dún ZCP v 499 (stanza 4) .

(γ) in a special sense, a natural endowment, faculty, ability or talent, ingenium . fear creanus ... dliged ... dia tallaind tidnaic Dia do .i. isé Dia dotidnaic na dána sin do, Laws v 20. 13 , 25 .

II Skill in applying the principles of a special science; science; skill applied to the material or subject-matter of art; artistic faculty, art; especially the poetic faculty; the art of poetry . It translates Lat. ars. Synonyms elada, elatha, 1 fis, sous, airchetal. proficiebam in iudaismo, gl. ropsa airchinnech isin dán sin I have been a leader in that science Wb. 18 c 15 . is ecen do neuch fosisedar dán inna grammatic cotinola inna huili doilbthi, Thes. ii 6. 13 b 1 . badar liubair cacha dana issinn aracal irraibe Colum Cille books of every science Fél. 198 n 2 . ni bói dán aile innte acht legend ┐ scribend nammá quia ars ibi exceptis scriptoribus nulla habebatur Lat. Lives 92. 14 . Lochru ┐ Lucat Mael ithé...roptar auctair in dána sin inna sæbfáthsine inventores doni illius (sc. the druidical art), ib. 2. 6 . ocht ṅdalta do æs in dána druidechta na farrad, TBC-LL¹ 1071 . bar sciam ┐ bar ndán (v.l. náni) la Fiachra, RC xxiv 194. 10 . tria dan ┐ fisidecht a athar, ib. vi 178 l. 132 (v.l. from YBL). dénaid bhar ndána (i.e. music and dance)... Adubradar na mná nách dignidis dán go feastais a dtuarustol, Ériu iv 178. 16 , 18 . is dom sous matchous: a ndorigénai (sc. Brigit) do maith .i. is dom dán .i. is dom filidecht, Thes. ii 337. 21 . bretheam ...co ndán duis dfilidecht aigi a brehon with the skill of a `dos' in poetry Laws v. 92. 2 . aes cach dána núi cen inandus (sic leg.) na nastib, LL 197 a 9 ( Metr. Dinds. iii 180. 168 ). mac ind ḟiled cosin dán let the poet's son take to poetry ib. 148 a 11 . filid oldam anroth clí cano doss mac már...morsesser dian dan the seven who practise poetry ZCP v 499 st 7 (the bárd áine does not: ní fil dán lais, IT iii 5. 11 , 24. 10 . ní tuiremar dán lais, ib. iii 28 ). is oendán tegait .i. bairdne, IT iii 24. 18 , cf. ib. 6. 10 . i n(d)airib dána (sic leg.) in oakwoods of poetry ib. iii 106. 10 . dligid dan dúscad dligid fis foillsigud (sic YBL) MR 94. 16 . Gilla Aengussa O Cluman ollam Condacht re dán, RC xviii 165. 9 . beanuimsi fós (says Marvan to the sgeulees) a hucht mu dhia bar ndán díbh uili gan énrand do dhénumb ó so amach acht aenduan namá I deprive you all of your poetic faculty Oss. v 102. 18 . Ecna mac na trí ṅdea ṅdána, RC xxvi 30 , 139 . áes dána people of art ZCP x 370 , After Rome 34 , esp. poets (cf. IV): is annsin doeirgheadar aos dána an rígh do ghabháil a nduan ┐ a ndán do chách, Atlantis iv 198. 15 . re haes dána dénta duán, Acall. 587 . dá tí dano aes dána sin crích...corop siat a duana saṁ ┐ a dréchta gabtair ar tús i nEmain, TBC-LL¹ 1154 . oes dana Uladh im Fercertne sin, ib. 5466 . filid ┐ aes dána ┐ aes glamtha gruaidi, ib. p. 441 n. 1 . aos dána in ríg co rinnib, O'Mulc. 830 d . Also áes dán: file bard dúanaire áos dán, Eg. Gl. 350 . Cf. SR 7212 . fer dána (cf. IV)

a poet ZCP x 370 . a chlaidib ríg...fogéba duit thḟer dána tigerna do diṅgbála RC xx 12. st 19 .

atbertatar a chliar risin fer ṅdána...massed bar in file, &c. , Bor. § 132. 3 . Cú Condacht ó Dálaigh in fer dána is ḟerr dobai, RC xviii 157. 24 .

In a figurative sense in the phrases dán ecnai, d.¤ forbai, d.¤ laechdacht: maith dán egna ferr dán forba doiligh dán laech[d]acht...mairg dianad dán laech[d]acht, ZCP vi 261. 30 ; cf. LL 346 a 40 . dán ecna dogní ríg do bhocht the art of wisdom makes a king of a pauper LL 346 a 35 .—PERS.: Dán mac Osmenta Poetry, son of Scrutiny RC xxvi 30. 130 .

III A poem, song, verse, rhyme . dán an ode, poem, lay, song or ditty; hymn. gen. dáin or dána, P. O'C. adrad maicc dé dán búada, Thes. ii 349. 7 . baudar amra [a] dana, Laws i 22 , 28 . i nduais filed....i. logh ar admolad uair ni dlegar dib dan do chennoch, ib. v 129. 1 . érned ar cach ṅdán as dír ┐ is dliged do reicc, LL 215 a 22 . cid i ndeochraigetar (sc. na baird)...i ndánaib ┐ grádaib ┐ anmandnuibb in poems, grades and names IT iii 5. 5 ; 24. 7 . na soerbaird cid nosdeochraigethar i ngradaib. ní hansa asa ṅdánaib forberat, ib. 6. 2 ; 24. 11 . Cid nosdeachraigetar ┐ nosæntaighedar ina ndánaib, ib. 24. 17 . do ghabháil a nduan ┐ a ndán do chách, Atlantis iv 198. 16 . dia seichmis cech dia do dán, ZCP vi 266 st 8 . dá mbeirthea dán lat, ib viii 109. 26 . is fírdliged deit dan mic rigfiled Ruirend, MacCarthy 132 iii a . dagaiste in dána, IT iii 106. 2 . is iat sin ardaiste in dána, ib. 27 . reacfad feasda dán re dia, 23 D 13 , p. 25. 1 . Further examples Exodus xv 2 . Deuteronomy xxxi 19 . 2 Samuel xxii 1 . 1 Kings iv 32 . Job xxxv 10 . dán do chumtach to compose a poem: conutaing duine dán, H 3.18, 53 b . conrotacht dan duib, TBC-LL¹ 1707 Y. dánta diaghachta psalms Donlevy 454. 17 . i ndán in verse : aithghiorra an teagaisg chríosduighe a ndán, ib. v 7 ; cf. lii 18 ; 487. 2 . dán dírech the name of a metrical system used by the Irish: asé dochúm na duanta senchasa so i ndán díreach, AFM v 2320. 5 . dán d., Rel. Celt. ii 297 . 34 . O'Molloy 144 .

IV An industrial pursuit of a skilled nature; a craft, trade, business, office, calling, profession . Sometimes hardly distinguishable from II. Glossed by tidnaiced, Laws v 14. 23 , 26 , ib. 90. 26 ; translating Lat. professio, Sg. 33 a 25 , ars Todd Lect. v 92 , Sg. 156 b 4 , and often used synonymously with cerdd ( Laws i 14. 25 ; Thes. ii 293. 15 ; RC xxvi 21 ff .) and eladu ( Laws v 98 pass.). is ionann dán ┐ ceard, Keat. 666 . dán .i. ceárd, P. O'C. —dán do aittreb to hold or possess a profession (Sg). dán do aurfognom ( RC xii 78. 13 ), d.¤ do frithgnom ( Ml. 37 b 12 ; RC xii 76. 2 ), d.¤ do dénom ( Wb. 27 d 10 , Laws pass. ) to practise a profession. dánae do chongbáil ( Laws v 104 ; RC xii 78 ) to keep up or practise several professions (only pl. dánae). dán do ḟoglaim to learn a profession ( Ml. 37 b 12 ; Laws). dúlchinne or lóg in dáno ( Laws pass. ; ACL iii 227. 29 ) the pay of the profession.

The various dánae were divided into prímdánae (dagdánae) and fodánae (drochdána); compare Laws and LL 215 a 20 : lucht cech dána eter prímdán ┐ ḟodán. The latter class included according to Laws v 108. 20ff . the aes ciúil ┐ oirfidid oilchena monaig ┐ araid ┐ luamain ┐ comail ┐ daime ┐ creccoire ┐ cleasamnaig ┐ fuirseóire ┐ brugedóire ┐ fodána olcheana...nísta saíre cena foleith. While the aes ciúil thus are graded with jugglers and buffoons, an exception is made for the harpers, the cruittiri: cruit isé aendán ciúil indsein dliges saíre, ib. 106. 27 . All who practise a profession are daernemed-persons with the exception of the filid ( Laws v 14 ff ), because they serve saernemed-persons and receive payment from them. `Every profession has its nemed' (cach dán a nemed) and `Every profession has its emoluments' (cach dán a duilgine) says the Alphabet of Cuigne mac Emoin ( ACL iii 226. 14 ; 227. 29 ). Highest among the aes dáno rank the saír `carpenters,' gobainn `smiths,' umaidi `braziers,' cerdda `gold-smiths,' legi `doctors,' breithemain `brehons,' and druid `druids' ( Laws v 90. 19 ). Other professionals mentioned in the Laws are the ailtiri (probably a subdivision of saír), cairemain `shoemakers, leathern-bottle makers,' círmairi `combers,' geibich `cloth-figurers,' iascairi `fishermen,' nascairi `chain-makers,' rindaigi `engravers,' tornóiri `turners,' tuathait `shield-coverers,' v. Laws v 106 ff . To these may be added from other texts the senchaidi `historians,' the grammarians, the chess-players, the lucht cumachtai `folk of might' (including the corrguinig, tuathaig `sorcerers,' ammaiti `wizards'), the araid `charioteers,' selgairi `hunters,' deogbairi `cupbearers,' &c., cf. RC xii 76 ff . 88 ff . But farmers of land exercise no dán; in the Tecosca Cormaic LL 375 c 20 dán is used in opposition to orbae 'inherited property'.

The Laws make a distinction between dánae inunna the various branches or subdivisions of one and the same profession, and dánae écsamlai different professions, as is evident from the following passages: cethri dána inunda aigi he has four parallel professions (viz. the building of sea-ships, barques, canoes and vessels), v 104. 7 . fer congeb trede .i. trí dána inanna aigi .i. durtech ┐ muilinn ┐ ibroracht, v 104. 21 . fer congeb dede .i. fer congbus dá dán examla .i. goibnecht ┐ cerdacht smithwork and goldwork v 104. 18 . fer congeb ceatharda .i. cethra dána éxamla .i. goibnecht ┐ cerdacht ailtirecht ┐ gebidecht smithwork and goldwork, carpentry and cloth-figuring ib. v 104. 30 . dia mbeth dána éxamla aice beith eneclann cacha dána dib, H 3.18 , p. 126 . O'D. Suppl.

Salutat uos Lucas medicus, gl. dicit híc ainm dáno dorigéni i tossug, Wb. 27 d 10 . alia a professionibus .i. hua ḟóisitnib inna ṅdáne frisgniat ┐ ataimet, Sg. 33 a 25 . ut mechannicus .i. arindí atreba in dán sin. ind ḟiss asberar michanicé , ib. 33 a 26 , 27 . grammaticus .i. airindí atreba in dán inna litredachte, ib. 33 a 28 . dual dán, Laws v 104 . artium vero nomina .i. dana .i. anmman araḟóimtar di danaib ut doctor de doctrina , Sg. 156 b 4 . quos multa peritia facit ab eiusdem artis consortibus eminere .i. sainred neulais leu isin dan frisgníat sech cách fodglein olchene, Ml. 37 b 12 . cechtar nathar fria saindan, bíth a menmasam fri seilgg mu menma céin im saincheirdd, Thes. ii 293. 14 . maith la cechtar nár a dán, ib. 294. 2 . isé a prímdán budein filidecht, Laws v 12. 17 . is saer cid cách creanus a suíre dia dán, iv 14. 28 . in cách...cendaigis saeiri dó dun dán bís aigi amail atá in gaba, v 14. 30 ; cf. ib. 20. 14 , 22 , 33 . is feardi in fear sin na dána sin do cindemain aigi that man is the better of those professions having fallen to his lot, v 20. 28 . cethri ba do ar gach ndán four cows for each profession, v 104. 8 . in dán is uaisli dib, ib. 104. 22 . dá prímdán do beith aigi i fotha .i. clochsairsi ┐ crannsairsi ┐ in dana dan as uaisli dib do beith aigi i fotha .i. damliag ┐ duirrtech, v 92. 2 f.b. fégad arna dánaib eile, v 94. 3 . in dúil chinntech doberar dontí aca ndéntar in dán .i. lóg in dána, v 266. 12 . seisid doben allógh gacha dána dib, ib. 94. 4 . Cf. sesid do asna dánaib eli, v 104. 25 . saer daer dagdána dáig fogniat ┐ fogníter free, unfree are the good arts, because they serve and are served, v 96. 10 , 13 . in oiret bes (sc. in dalta) ica ḟoglaim .i. ic dénum a dána dligthig (apparently = while he is learning his lawful profession, though dán do dénum usually means to exercise a profession), v 96. 24 . a étail dána uile...┐ cédtuilleam a dána the entire profits of his profession and the first earnings of his profession, v 96. 28 . dia congba dá dán díb if he unites (keeps up) two of these arts, v 106. 8 , 15 . ni ḟuil nach ní doib ara ndán nothing is due to them in right of their profession, v 106. 25 . ma feraind fuair ara dán hé, ib. iii 50. 3 . ara dhán no ara leginn no ara filidecht, ib. 50. 6 . mad étail brethemnasa no filidechta no nach dána olcena, iii 50. 4 . a dualgus a dána in right of his profession, v 108. 16 , 17 , 36 . nach dán asrubartamar dliges saire, v 108. 1 . gan a dán, 108. 2 , 7 . intí aca mbia aendán the person who has one profession, v 108. 13 . intí ca mbed dána ilarda, ib. 14 . ildána (n pl.), ib. 16 . damad hé dán dliged na fine if it was the lawful profession of the tribe, iii 50. 10 .

cipe dán ara corat[h]ar neuch láiṁ ised as dech dó foss occa, Mon. Tall. 159. 6 . cid hé mo dán though that be my craft FB § 92 , cf. Strachan ZCP iii 422 . ni hé mo dan dogrés atát dána lim chena , FB § 93 . a gillai forcitail (a mmo sruith) cia dán dognísiu, RC xxvi 20 § 54 , 22 § 70 . oc dénum a dána, H 3.17 , col. 175 . cia dan frisag[n]eie al sei ar ni teid nech cin dan i Temruig, RC xii 76. 2 (compare ní théiged [don fleid i.e. fleid Temrach]...duine cen dán, Ériu iv 124. 12 ). abair ... an fil les oeinfer codogabai ina danu sæ ule, ib. 78. 9 . na huili dano arufognot det muntir si atát les ule a oenor conedh fer cacha danai ule ei, ib. 78. 13 . bo suí cach dáno é, ib. 78. 24 . ruaicill Lug cach ar uair dib fria ndanoib, ib. 92. 13 . bid furside cech dán, ib. xxvi 36 § 185 . fer sotal im gáis im dán im thocad, Tec. Corm. § 32 . romeasc cách ar dan a chéle IT iii 187 § 7 (= MS. Mat. 511. 24 . BB 261 a 25 ). ro hordaigheadh cách díb fora dhan díleas, ib. ferr dán orbba a trade or profession is better than inheritance LL 345 c 20 . rofiadaiged ar grádaib ┐ dánaib ┐ dligedaib, &c. TBC-LL¹ 997 . rocóraidhid iarum cách fo grádaib ┐ i ndanaib ┐ i ndligemnus, Ériu v 234. 9 . na hollumain ┐ anis deach fri cech ndán olchena, FDG 25 . an dán cétna dóib sund, BColm. 20. 23 . dober Colmán dó hi fus in dán cena cétna, ib. 74. 23 . Here also O'Mulc. 222 : cerd graece cires .i. manus unde cernach .i. buaidh lám dicitur. ar cach dán dogniat lámae is cerd dongairther .i. lámdae because every craft, exercised by the hands, is called `cerd.'

dán ciúil the profession of the `áes ciúil.' cruit isé aendán ciúil indsein dliges sairi, Laws v 106. 27 . aes dáno (pl. aesa dána, FB § 12 ) .i. in lucht aca mbí in dán, Laws v 98. 6 . The practisers of a profession, people of any trade or art (other than farmers of land) = aes cerdd, Laws iv 316. 25 , aes tidnaicthe, ib. v 14. 23 , 26 , aes eladan, v 90. 28 , though v 98. 11 a distinction is made between `aes dána' and áes borbeladan 'workers in unskilled professions'. Opp. aes trebtha, Cóir Anm. § 149 . tarrcomlad cach aes dána la hÉrind co tarfen cách a cheird fia[d] Patraic, Laws i 14. 25 . aithgabáil cach aes (sic) dána, ii 118. 21 . breithem bes tualaing fuigell frisind aes ndána, v 98. 1 . duilgine cach aesa dána adroilli duilgine, v 264. 15 . formna láth ngaili Ulad arcena ┐ a maccæm ┐ a næsa dána, FB § 12 (p. 258. 13) . rofáid C. filedu ┐ áes dána ┐ drúdi Ulad dia saigid... rotriall som dano in næs ndána do marbad, SCC § 48 . aragarud...oes danu Erionn, RC xii 84 § 85 . degníth lesin oes ndanou indsen, ib. § 86 . den oes dana, ib. § 124 . do ḟiledaib ┐ aes dána, TBC-LL¹ 2708 . aes cacha dáno, Laws v 14. 18 . rodeiligsid arís æs cacha dána fria aroili, IT iii 187 § 7 ( MS. Mat. 511. 26 ) aes cacha dáno olchenae 'any other professionals': daerneimead imorro aes gacha dána olchena, Laws v 14. 17 . daernemed tra saeir ┐ gobaind ┐ umaide ┐ cerda ┐ legi ┐ breithemain ┐ druid ┐ aes cacha dána olchena, ib. v 90. 21 (gl. .i. lucht cacho tidnaicthi uili cena ┐ na fodhán). iter eclais ┐ tuaith ┐ aos gacho dána olchena, ZCP viii 111. 21 . doescarṡluag ┐ oes dímain ┐ oes cecha dána olchena, LB 116 a 27 , cf. di daoscarsluag ┐ daos cecha dánæ olchenæ, RC xii 104. 2 . cóicedaig Érenn...┐ a rígu ┐ a toísig ┐ a nócthigernn ┐ a namsaid ┐ oes cacha dána gnáthaig ┐ ingnáthaig olchena FDG 158 . aes dánae, aes dán (pl.) = aes dáno; cf. dér as g pl. Fél. Epil. 400 . cen aes ṅdán, SR 7212 , cf. aos dán poets Eg. Gl. 350 . ceth ind táos dánae ol Máolrúin in gobui[n]d ind tsáoir ┐ reliqui , Mon. Tall. 135. 30 . For the use of the pl. compare the synonymous áes cerdd. fer dáno a member of the aes dáno, a professional man: mad fer dána, Laws iii 48. 18 ; in a spec. sense a poet, v. II. Idiomatically in asseverations: dar mo dán by my craft (profession): d. m. d. is luag noragad duid ar sin do dénum, Anecd. i 46. 6 . Cf. fo mo cheirdd, LU 75 b 30 ( TBC-I¹ 1685 ).

V A craftsman : cach dán dogní aicdi flatha nó ecalsa 'every craftsman who manufactures articles for a lord or a churchman', Críth G. 486 , Ériu lxvi 2 . cruit, is ē āendān cīuil ind sein dliges saīri 'a harpist, that is the only skilled musician who can claim independent status', CIH v 1616.31 , Ériu lxvi 2 . sāer dāer dagdāna 'good craftsmen are [at once] noble and base', CIH v 1613.22 , Ériu lxvi 2 . cis lir fodlai for soírneimthib? ... a cethair - ecnae, eclais, flaith, fili; it é doírnemid dánae olchenae 'how many divisions are there of noble privileged ones? ... four, ecclesiastical scholar, churchman, lord, poet; the remaining craftsmen are base privileged ones', Ériu xl 8 § 1 .

VI A profession as represented by its practisers collectively; the members of a trade as a body. cach dán dogní aicdi flatha no ecalsa all craftsmen who make the manufactures of a chief or a church Laws iv 332. 1 . dán cimbeda probably= captives, prisoners (if not corrupt for damna cimbeda, see damnae I (b)): gabtar na fir ┐ ná gontar iter dáig nimmó ná dán cimbeda rothoegat, TBC-LL¹ 5120 . That the sense is a concrete one and Windisch's translation wrong is proved by TBC-LL¹ 5122 : Conchobar gan a guin do gabáil ┐ dán cimbeda do dénam dona deich cét ar ḟichit cét bátar na ḟarrad.

VII An occupation, function, business; an allotted task . dán .i. obair, Lec. Gl. 446 , Stowe Gl. 59 , 330 . cumal .i. ben bís oc bleth brón ar isé dán na mban ṅdáer riasiu darónta na muilind for this was the business of bondwomen Corm. s.v. cumal ; Zeuss² 245 . trí dána dobertsat slóg na Galia fair úir do tarradh ┐ muighi a fedhaib ┐ scáileadh murgabla srotha Ligir three tasks the people of G. imposed upon him RC xv 434. 26 , where dán= obair, l. 29 below (┐ adaigestar obair naile do thabairt fair). tri dán tucsat for R., LL 196 a 36 . olc or sí do dan bith oc buadred na Hérenn LU 53 b 8 (Tuc. Ind. na nD.). trí eoin aregda isin chathair ...┐ a menma ina ndúlemain tria bithu issé sin a ndan FA § 7 . bid hé mo dán iter drungu démnu...beth icot mallachad sa, PH 8263 . Hardly in Mon. Tall. 133. 10 : asrubart M. nibu móo dan lais arrobúi isind tsaltir nuli; the translation given seems impossible.

VIII To give in payment; a payment (cf. dawn bwyd payments in kind in the Welsh Laws). dan .i. ic ut est co hiar nde mis rodantar frit no r[o]dana .i. cidh riut icar cidh tu icas, O'Dav. 693 . So in Alexander 382 : rotustuillset fo chísaib ┐ bés ┐ dán ┐ dliged dóib, if it is complete (the line ends with fo chísaib ┐; something might have been dropped at the beginning of the new line). It recalls the passage TBC-LL¹ 997 , containing dán in the sense of profession : rofiadaiged ar grádaib ┐ dánaib ┐ dligedaib ┐ uaslecht ┐ cáinbésaib.

IX PHRASES.

(a) is dán do: bá dán dosom intan ba holc a menma noslocad indala súil conna roched corr inna cind it was his custom (?) SCC § 5 . ar is do is dán tidhnocol for to him `belongs to make presents (O'Don.) Leb. Cert. 192. 14 . gottí an tairrngeartaigh dar dhán sí asa hairmbertaibh diompádh who is allotted to Tadhg O'Huiginn (R.I.A. 23 L 17 , f. 576 § 12 )=dá mbed i ndán. Cf. VIII (b).

(b) i ndán (do) destined to, in store for; espec. destined by fate, fated, allotted ; phonetically i nán. Synon. i cinniud, i tairngiriu.—Only in connection with atá or dorala. The phrase does not appear in the Glosses, and the earliest instances collected here are taken from the YBL and the LB. Dán used independently in the sense fate, destiny , is not common in Irish, though this meaning is frequently given by modern lexicographers (dán .i. cineaṁain P. O'C. , cf. Coneys, O'R., Dinneen ). A late instance is quoted VIII (a). It occurs, however, in spoken Gaelic: is duilich cur an aghaidh dàin to oppose fate is difficult ( Macd. Gael. Dict. i 310 a ); but as a rule in Gaelic also it depends on i n- (ma tha e 'n dàn dhoṁ a bhi beò). robai i ndán ┐ i tairngire in aided úd diar mbreith doréir faistine in druad was fated and foretold RC xxiv 280 § 19 (YBL). aspert in sruith [fri]usuṁ imthecht uair ní hannsut boi i ndan [do]ibh eserghi, ib. xiv 58 § 72 (Book of Fermoy; v.l. nách ann rocinnedh doib a neiséirge). mata a ndán duit, ib. xxiii 420. 28 (YBL; compare l. 24 : do bi i tairngiri dam). ma rocollit riam a gessi rocollit innocht .i. boi a ndán a coll for their breaking was fated MacCongl. 15. 13 (LB). na nethe aurdhalta bis a cinded ┐ a ndan doib, Fen. 38. 17 . ag déunaṁ réiṁḟiadhnuise airna neithib dobhí a ndán do Chríosd dḟulang, RC vii 359. 10 ( 1 Peter 11 ). noco tí an ridiri da fuil a ndán an pócc do thabairt, ZCP ii 24. 28 . ca fis nach da cloidhem féin atá a ndán a marbadh ib. vi 103. 7 ; 'who knows that it is not his own sword that is destined to kill him' x 371 . cip hé for talmain...dia da (leg. dia d[t]a) i nndán a fúaslocod (sc. inna cest), ib. iv 234.1 f.b. , RC xxxvii 18 . a beith i ndán dam bás dagbáil in lá dá gebthasu bás, Cog. 172. 8 . ní fhuil a ndán do bás dḟaghail nó go mbuailtear trí buillidhe don luirgḟearrsaid atá aige air, Oss. iii 120. 6 . fothrugadh luaidhe ar do chind sa óir dobhi a n[d]an do thiachtain annso, Ériu iii 164. 3 f.b. dobhaoi a ndán...tocht do ṡluaigh go hiathṁaigh (sic leg.) nAdhair, Hugh Roe 198. 17 . gach ainiarsma da mbí i ndán dó féin ó thosach a gheineaṁna go síorraidhe tre ṡaoghal na saoghal, TSh. 72. 18 . Further instances Acall. 6876 . Miscell. Celt. Soc. 150. 23 . SG 65. 45 ; 234. 5 . RC xiii 222. 39 . Aen. 84 , 93 . Gadelica ii 93 . 8. OCL 6 . BS § 76. 2 .—The following examples do not involve the sense of fate or destiny: na cóicedaig archena do ṡuidiugad amail robuí a ndán do chách, FDG 203 . do Luaighni atá i ndán in tres, Fianaig. 68. 11 . dobhraith cách uili den láiṁ (leg. d'ēnláimh) go bfuil caphair a ndán dí, Ériu vi 128. 6 f.b. , ZCP x 371 tárla a ndán di teagṁáil aran gcuid don ṁachaire noch fa le Boas it was her hap Ruth ii 3 .

(c) beith doendán i cenn oppose together, be on the same side against; the same as beith doenláim i cenn, as is evident from the passage LB 140 a 15 : co ndernsat caratrad do beth doeṅdán i cend Aristobuil...o rabtar oentadaig dénlaim i cend A. &c. Developed from sense IV.

MOD. dán (Connaught also nán, nnán, abstracted from i ndán), gen. dáin (dána obs.), n pl. dáin and dánta, d pl. usually dánaibh, a song. fear dáin a poet : is mór an fear dáin docheapadh é (Kerry). i ndán (with tá) fated, in store ; also able to: níl tú i ndán anacht id ṡuidhe ( Finck ii 99. 6 ); cf. Acall. 2396 : ní raibhi a ndán dúinne a marbad we could not kill it (sc. the monster). In the sense of I-II, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII (a) and (c), dán is now obsolete, and in the sense of III words like amrán, dúan, laíd are now more usual.

Compd.: ós cech dándíne drong trén 'over every gifted host of strong bands', SR (Greene) 6703 .

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