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Cite this: eDIL s.v. arrae or
Last Revised: 2013


Forms: arra

io, n. Later also with dental infl. arra m. IGT Decl. § 2 . Vn. of ar-ren. For form and meaning see Binchy, Ériu xix p. 51 - 53 .

(a) act of paying something on behalf of another or in place of something else; payment: trī dīrna do argat a.¤ ar teorae ferbai fīrae, Corm. Y 585 `three stone(?) of silver [as] compensation for three white cows', Binchy loc. cit. (cf. Corm. Y 811 and Ériu xiii 48.28 ). ? in trin don arra uil isin coirpdire, Laws i 250.4 Comm. arra .i. er a luagh .i. luach bess mó, O'Dav. 29 . a.¤ .i. eric, 80 . arra .i. luach . . . ┐ adeir a Trecin (leg. Trecheng) Breth: . . . dul do chennach cen airrchi, Ériu xiii 62 § 7 ( Triads 74 ). a.¤ .i. íc, ut est i Cath Mhaighi Tuiredh, ni rabadar fir Erenn ac a.¤ in chísa géin ro mhair Lugh, § 8. tancus o righ R. . . . do cuingidh arrad co S. Doraidh S. . . . nach biath fo chis do righ talmanda, Lism. L. 2088 . a.¤ .i. fiacha, ut est; gabtar a.¤ do lámhaibh feicheman, Ériu xiii 62 § 9 . ? a naradhaibh a ghaisgidhe, RC x 338.17 ( airigidh, TBC-LL¹ 3155 ) = ina airigid gaiseid, 337.x (see 1 airigid).

(b) object or class of objects which has been stipulated for in `consideration' of a contract or in settlement of a debt: a meic ara feiser fiachu masria, aen arra i leth cumail, Laws iii 150.12 . ruidles eneclainni do rigaib in taen arra airgid, 150.y Comm. in set ro recfadh duine ┐ ni fagabar in tarra ro gellastair da cinn, a seoit d'aisic do, O'Curry 279 ( H 3.18, 151 ). da trian d'arraib and ┐ aen trian d'anarraib, O'Curry 904 ( H 3.18, 401 ). In phrase fo-reith arra anarra `a non-`a.¤' represents (i.e. may be substituted for) an `a.¤'' (Binchy loc. cit.), see anarra. arra .i. geall, ut dicitur: isé arra ro ghabhus frim fíachaibh .i. lógh secht cumal do mairbhdílib, Ériu xiii 62 § 6 . mo c[h]orn ōir . . . / timnaim, ga hūaisle arra / do shaoradh m'anma ar olcaibh, RC xxxvii 352 § 5 . Hence of valuable objects in general chattels, ware, merchandise (see 2 errad): trí mairg déag do dháilis damh / re taobh t'éadaigh is t'arradh `small wares' (recompense to a poet), Magauran 2389 . brēc a māini 'sa medha / brēc a ōr 'sa arrada, ACL iii 239 § 17 . gidh bé arra iarroid soin / do-bearar leis do láthoir `whatever article the buyers ask', Aithd. D. 46.17 . tusa fear iarrtha ar n-arra `thou art the seeker of our wares', 19 . bhar gcuirn bláithe is bhar mbrannaimh / cuimhnighthior do chéadarraibh, DDána 74.48 . foireann brannaimh bile bhadhba / d'arraibh tighe in Daghdha dōibh from the valuables, O'R. Poems 3597 . dob é in droch-arra 'ar ndéchoin `how paltry when one had inspected him his value was', O'Gr. Cat. 440.6 . ní reacfa tú í ar énchor ar airgiod, ní dhéna tú arradh dhi (of the captive concubine who is sent away) `merchandise', Deuteronomy xxi 14 . Cf. mar nach fúaras arruid ar fhís 'as I found no substitute for [the] vision' Ériu xxi 116 § 4 .

(c) In legal contexts of the number of oath-helpers required by a person who was debarred from leading proof himself (also a.¤ cuir): caide cor? tricha fear; caide a.¤ cuir? coic fir dec, O'Curry 347 ( H 3.18, 192a ). is e méd an arra cuir .i. is e dligar lanarra na heisinnraice do reir coir: tri fichit fer do martra .i. diablad lanarra na heisinnraice this is the amount of the `a.¤ cuir' i.e. this is what is required, a full `a.¤' of `unworthiness' according to legality, sixty men to swear at the grave of a martyr i.e. the doubling of the full `a.¤' of `unworthiness', Cóic Con. 67.27 . airi forgill medonach no aire forgill is taire air[e] forgill in lethḟira in letharra, in lanfira ┐ in lanarra i.e. the middle a.¤ f. compensates by oath in the full a.¤ and half a.¤ , 38 § 52. is iat na tri arra antesta i.e. these are the three whose oath compensates for one disqualified from testifying, 40.2 . arra cuir o mnai eisinnric, Laws v 454.15 Comm. ma étged no anfes lethfiach ind ┐ arra cuir as n-étged ┐ as n-anfes, Cáin Ad. 35 . ma isli boaire is arra cuir aire; ma boaire do fine nach aile a luighi nama. O'Curry 2591 ( Eg. 88, 50 (51)b ). in lethfir testa ┐ in letharra antesta, 333 (H 3.18, 183). is arra cuir o antest ┐ fir testa o teist, 2003 (H 4.22, 30). is e lan arra na cairdi dias, Laws iii 134.10 Comm. a sena . . . é féin co lucht a leitharra, 108.23 Comm. a sena . . . go lucht a lanfira no a leithfira, ma inraic, no cu lucht a lanarra no a letharra mas eisinnraic, O'D. 2330 ( Rawl. B 506, 35c ). ? Hence: arra .i. tuarusdal ut est sena in arra .i. an tuarusdail, O'Curry 570 ( H 3.18, 284 ). testaigidh in esindraic a ruib co lucht a lanarrad no letharrad . . . masa tuarustal doniat, denat co lucht a fira for robaib na indraici ┐ co lucht a tuarastail, O'Curry 346 ( H 3.18, 191 c).

(d) In ecclesiastical contexts penitential commutation (substitution of a shorter and usually more intensive discipline for the normal penance prescribed by canonical or monastic rules): dona harraib ind so, title of a tract, Ériu xix 58 . a.¤ n-aill tri coicat cach læa, 58 § 2. arre ndubthroischthe, 60 § 11. iss ed . . . a n-arre tri coicait salm, 64 § 25. iss edh cethardae . . . ara ndentar na a.¤ , 58 § 6. ata dechor . . . etar na arre, 60 § 7. is a.¤ secht ṅoiffernn i.e. to recite the whole poem is equivalent in merit to hearing Mass seven times, Fél. Ep. 177 . is a.¤ trí tredan, 186 . arre troisccthe la diarmait da fítt chert chutrume . . . ┐ inddala hí do tabirt do día. Araile do tomailt fadein `as an equivalent for fasting D. used to allow two exactly equal rations to be made, and one of these to be given to God; the other he was to eat himself', Mon. Tall. 161.8 (§ 80) . dí biait déc arra na tri coicat, LB 10a40 `twelve recitations (of psalm cxix = cxviii) are a substitute for one recitation of the whole Psalter', Plummer MS notes. dub-throscuth inna medon nó arra troiscthe. Maith o duthracht etraid is bliadain pendite nó arre, Ériu vii 144 § 27 . nī fil do pecdaib nā hīcat na harra-sa (of prescribed penitential psalms), ZCP iii 30.28 . Of vicarious atonement (see Binchy loc. cit. p. 56 ): arra tessairgne anma a ifurn, Ériu xix 58 § 1 . doessairc anmandæ a iffurnd cach arra dona airraib-se, § 4.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. athchor or
Last Revised: 2013


o, [m.] vn. of ad-cuirethar. Lit. act of throwing back, but freq. with force of ath- very much reduced.

(a) act of giving back, returning, restoring: is mesech a athcur cib cuin ro-cara, ZCP xvi 211.33 = is meisech athcu[i]r, xv 246 § 5 . ni astaither in saorrath cin athchur, Laws ii 216.23 Comm. diablad fria n-athchur (of stock), v 222.x Comm. cuic seoit ┐ athchur sunn uile san athgabail, 254.13 Comm.

(b) With FOR act of returning to, restoring to: ind praind sin do adcor forsind comdid `to cast that meal back upon the Lord', Mon. Tall. 148.25 (§ 58) (perh. in physical sense to vomit). ma ta aice nech for a derndta athcur, dena (of a wife), Laws v 144.16 Comm. no co nderna a athchur for a athair `until he returns him to his father', iii 502.19 Comm. (of returning a child from fosterage). gu caemsatís a a.¤ focetoir for righ (of a doubtful child whom no `fine' will admit), O'D. 2312 ( Rawl. B 506, 31d ). dá mbeith si 'ga ha.¤ ort `if she be restored to thee' (a wife), TD 20.50 . Hence of handing back, renouncing (a pact, etc.): luid . . . do a.¤ a chairdessa for Coin Culaind to return his friendship to C. (i.e. to renounce his friendship with C.), LU 6017 (TBC). tarmartatar . . . dol do a.¤ a chotaig . . . fri righ Temrach to renounce, Anecd. ii 74 § 31 . ag iarraidh ádhbhar athchuir a chómhosaidh ar Chonn `a cause for breaking his truce', ML 70.25 . In later lang. act of urging upon, recommending to: tánag d'athchur Fhódla air / Aodh Ó Domhnaill Dúin Bhalair to urge the cause of Ireland on him, Magauran 3828 . do ghaolta dá hathchur ort / faghthar t'aonta don Iarlacht `thy kinsfolk pressing it on thee', Aithd. D. 37.34 . máthair Críost re n-abar ógh / bíodh dom athchar ar a huan, 90.8 . dia athchar forro cech . . . truagh nobhiad leo a tidlacad dia dun-som, Marco P. 124 . In literal sense: a athchur ar húa nAinmirech to hand him over to . . ., MR 246.22 . With DO: faidis . . . techta do athchar chisa do M. `to yield tribute to M.', Marco P. 156 .

(c) act of rejecting, adjourning, postponing (a suit): eric troisce tar dliged uaithib ┐ a n-athcur dogres `they shall . . . be non-suited', Laws i 86.28 Comm. cuic seoit ┐ athcur co laithe for sechtmain, 114.1 Comm. ? do beir in saíre athcur for anud `puts an end to the stay', ii 114.13 Comm. ma tainic in grad feine d'acra in graid flatha . . . ┐ ni tarta gella . . . dó is athcor cu cend bliadna, O'Curry 679 (H 3.18, 331). ? re nathcur caitche cethra co ruice fogelta compensating(?), 257 (H 3.18, 149b).

(d) act of throwing; throwing out or away, getting rid of, dispelling: re h-imud na n-urchur aca n-athchur eturru being exchanged, TTebe 3085 . na cathaighthe anall 's anonn / dar n-athchuirne ó all go hall swaying us, Aithd. D. 51.13 . tucatar . . . athchur coitcenn ar a cloidhmib ┐ ar a clogadaib, etc. they flung away weapons and armour (of routed troops), Caithr. Thoirdh. 68.20 . ni mōr nach gcuirit trī lēige d'a.¤ a pelér `they carry almost three leagues in shooting their bullets', Fl. Earls 68.2 . icc atc[h]ur a n-anmann . . . dara mbelaibh seachtair, CCath. 6125 . tainig soillsi . . . iar n-athchur an dorchadais, Aisl. Tond. 110 § 1 . tabhair phóig go díochra dhamh / dar móid fhiochdha budh athchar `this will be enough to dispel our angry feelings', Magauran 2551 . fescar flaithiusa ┐ . . . athchur airechais `destruction', MR 122.4 .

(e) act of expelling (person): athc[h]or ar an ord ēiccius expelling the poets, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. v (1919) 92 § 8 . glún mh'oileamhna dom a.¤ (obadh v.l.) `that the knee which nursed me should reject me', TD 3.46 . nír hachradh cách ó chridhe / gér ghnáth athchar ainbhfine though one usually wishes to expel a foe, Aithd. D. 71.35 . ó atáid Gaoidhil . . . ag a.¤ Ghall, O'Hara 2892 . T. . . . do athchur a flaithes ua mBriuin was expelled, AFM ii 1064.7 . ar macaibh Ruaidhri da.¤ uaidh `on condition that he should expel the sons of R.', iii 228.7 . d'athchur ┐ d'innarbad C[h]uinn, ML² 875 . arna n-a.¤ ┐ arna n-ionnarbadh a parrthas, TSh. 3607 . tugadh achur ┐ ionnarbadh ar in rí, ZCP xxxiii 135 § 24 . do chuireadoir ar achur ┐ ar ionnarbadh é, § 25 .

(f) Various: ro-mboísom do nirt . . . a n-indarba a tír Hérenn do a.¤ a ndíbergi allanall to transfer their plundering to the other side(?), BDD² 400 . cen tinntúd ┐ cen a.¤ cusin coimdid turning back, PH 4196 . cor ┐ athcor . . . in cloigem ort, Acall. 2249 v.l. (= a sochar ┐ a dochar in chloidim ort, text). act of replanting: benaid . . . a croinn a huir dia n-athcur doridhisi, Marco P. 165 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. breth or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: brith, -e, breith, breith, -e, breith

ā, f. vn. of beirid. O. Ir. also brith i (with g s. in -e) (?), see GOI § 294 (b) , 727 . Later usually breith (d s. form). breith, f. g s. -e, IGT Decl. § 14 (69.6) . breith, Verbs § 13 . m., Beatha S. F. 1088 ; but breath in the sense `judgement´, Ériu lviii 154 ..

(a) act of carrying, bearing : fer brithe lésboiri gl. acolitum, Wb. 25d3 . asrous iarom a brith they were unable to bring it (a small pig), LU 1743. tōet nech ūaib . . . dia brith to carry it (a vessel of milk), ZCP viii 310.9 . a corp du brid taris syr da adhnacud `his body was borne eastwards over sea', Ann. Inisf. 1260.4 . teachtaire . . . / re breith sgéal `to bring messages', Dán Dé xiv 1 .

(b) act of bearing, bringing forth; parturition, birth : b.¤ et altram , Wb. 10b1 . óg re mbreith cen chuit cleithe, / óg i n-aimsir fírbreithe `a virgin before bearing', Blathm. 639 - 40 . co mbeba dot breith (: chleith) / do mathair, LL 18503. ar thrumme inna brithe, 33190 ( Fraech 107 ). saer bru beiris brith `that brings forth', Laws iii 312.20 Comm. mar mhnaói ag breith = that travaileth, Isaiah xiii 8. re linn beirthe Chríost, Keat. i 46.23 . breith . . . ar Slánuightheora, Donlevy 448.10 . glasgeg darach fo brith `the green branch of an oak in bearing', RC xxiv 196 § 11 (see Cín Chille Cúile 99-100 n. 117 ). deich nuain do breith in aoínḟecht d'aon chaoiridh, AFM iii 608.7 . Med. womb : dortadh fola . . . on breith (= matrix, Vocab.), Rosa Angl. 26.3 . no a muchad na breithe ac mnaim suffocatio hysterica (see Gloss.), 92.3 .

(c) act of carrying away, taking (with one) (opp. of tabart), Frequ. with LA with ref. to logical subject of vn. phr. In physical and abstract senses: mad fíu lib mo ainechsa do breith less, Wb. 14a4 . a b.¤ ┐ a tabairt `its taking and its giving', Laws iv 48.1 Comm. nir lam didu nech do feraib Herenn a b.¤ leis `durst carry him away', RC xxiv 190.15 . rinn a bhaise do bhreith lais, Dán Dé xv 33 . gorta dom brith, Irish Texts i 35.26 . mórán . . . nach feudfadaois do bhreith leó (= non potestis portare, Joh. xvi 12 ), Eochairsg. 14.17 .

(d) act of carrying off, securing, winning (a game, etc.): breith nó caill na glóire `the gaining . . . of the glory', Donlevy 186.7 . fá bhreith . . . na maithiosa saoghaltha (= gain in Span. text), Desid. 2762. in ferann uile do breith don ingín a dualgus bancomarbais `all the land is obtained by the daughter', Laws iv 40.20 Comm. See díriuch, techtugad. Note also: sdíoma bruit h'eich imtheachduigh / dá breith dhuit re ndonnchorcair you prefer the fringe of your horsecloth to (a) crimson (robe) (?), IGT Decl. ex. 121.

(e) act of carrying off, away (from, etc. with meaning limited by prepp.): inna fecheman .i. do breith neich assom (dobreithnechtassom, MS.) gl. depraedationi . . . creditorum, Ml. 127b1 . mo máthair do brith a cacht to take . . . from bondage, Ériu iv 98.2 . ar iss ed a cert-som a findtid do breith ar fine (Comm.) `to hold their family-land against the fine', Stud. in E. Ir. Law 151 .z . brith in chísa út díbh, RC xxvii 294 § 58. ní inchoisget sidi ní iarna ṁbrith onaib rannaib frisṁbiat `after being taken from the parts of speech', Sg. 202b3 . dot breithsiu úanna `to carry thee off from us', Mon. Tall. 153.27 . nir' āil dōib a thaissi do brid dō ūaithib, ZCP iii 35.9 . cia forúair a mbreith chucca? `who caused them to be brought to her?' Metr. Dinds. iii 386.11 . mo breith co hArdmacha (my body) to be carried to A., Cog. 200.26 . A. . . . dom breth co sid sogar `A. . . . to bear me to gainful peace', Gorm. Aug 29. ba cōru ind eich uccu[t] do breith dond espug, ZCP viii 106.22 . narbo cuman lia muintir si a breith leo do Cill Dara `did not remember to bring it (sc. a flitch of bacon) with them to K.', Thes. ii 339.15 . ind aiccend do brith for antepeneuilt `the bringing . . . on', Sg. 216b1 . iarna breith sech ingru / for dindgnu secht nime, Fél. Ep. 119. da breith for nem to bring it (sc. the soul) to heaven, ACL iii 216.6 . a mbrith i ndoiri `to carry them into slavery', Ml. 33c13 . dod b.¤ i tech péne `to bring thee into the house of pain', Ériu ii 222.7 . dia mbreith in óitith `to bring them (back) into youth', Sg. 63b6 . gá breith a ceann choinghleaca (a horse), IGT Decl. ex. 1187.

With DO, FRI act of referring (to): a brith do israheldaib `its reference to the Israelites', Ml. 36c20 . 36c21 . 37a10 . á brithe do iudaib `of its reference to the Jews', 37a6b . a mbrith fri corpu peccatorum `to refer to etc.', Wb. 13d4 . a brith frisa ndliged remeperthe, 23c11 .

(f) bre(i)th for (ar) act of catching up on, overtaking : drem . . . do breith forro i mB. `came up with them at B.', Ann. Conn. 1260.14 . ticedh sī do breit a mbethaidh orum `let her come if she would find me alive', ZCP vi 99.14 . go bhfanfaidis re sgéala do bhreith ortha for news to reach them, Celt. Rev. x 142.14 . ba geis do flaithibh Temrach eirge ngreine do breith forra alla astigh do shecht múraibh na T., BNnÉ 324 § 39 . iar mbreith do chéd tosach an geimhridh ┐ don oidhche fa da fair `when . . . the beginning of winter . . . has set in', AFM v 1792.16 . oibre . . . ar nach fuil breith uair oile for which no other time can be found, Parrth. Anma 2411. ní fhuil breith air gan díommbuaidh gcatha do bheith ort `there is no avoiding defeat for thee', Keat. iii 936. fa bheith . . . ag breith amuigh ar an Eagluis Romhanaigh censuring (?) the Roman Church (lit. catching out ), Luc. Fid. 2818. ag breith ar láimh ar Dh. taking D. by the hand, Desid. 638.

(g) act of judging, deciding; judgment, legal ruling, interpretation: immess fírían do brith for cach, Ml. 103c15 . bím do bhreith le bior an troighigh / nach reic[h] cion an oinigh orm, IGT Decl. ex. 812. Frequ. in figura etymologica: is ón spirut rouiccius brith, Wb. 9b6 . éitset frisin precept et berat brith fuiri gl. diiudicent, 13a11 . berid cách brith for arele gl. suspiciones malae, 29b9 . ber brith étrunn, Ml. 38c28 . á rí beres bretha, Fél. Ep. 416. ag breith breithe, RC xliii 8 § 2. ergc co C. cor-ruca brith fort, Ériu ii 222.4 . a ghníomh do fhlaith béaraidh breith a prince's deeds shall judge him, DDána 91.9 . Note further: na bretha scribatar and in æpistolis , Wb. 17b2 . am gáeth i mbretaib, LU 10287 (TE). cosnum a breithe o ro-sn-uca `to defend his decision when he has given it', Laws v 252.9 . imtiagad breatha ilbruige, 466.15 . i mbreathaib aicnigh ┐ cuibse ┐ screbtra, 452.20 . satharn do brethaib, Críth G. 547. a mbreith údair `in the decision of an author', Leb. Cert. 204.14 . In titles of legal tracts: Breatha Comaithcesa, Laws iv 68 . ZCP xv 315.12 . bretha dein checht, Bretha § 1 . córus breatha neimead, O'D. 2189 (Nero A vii, 132a). See neimed. breith le báidh a partial decision, Content. vi 176. do chuir Molaise do bhreith aithrighe air dul i nAlbain `imposed as penance on him', Keat. iii 1358. ruc Ioseph doib . . . / breith cóir foran-aslingthe interpretation , SR 3270.

(h) In phrases: tuc a b.¤ fen do braigdib dó whatever hostages he wished, RC xviii 274.14 (Tig.). asbert Mugain frisin mbancanti dobérad a b.¤ féin di día mbenad, etc. whatever she liked, LU 4223. fuair Ráth bhoth a breath leannáin `R. obtained its chosen love' (in appointment of prelate), Arch. Hib. i 96 § xii . gon ar breith (sic leg.) dhó (gan air a chumas, v.l.), BNnÉ 158 § 11 (see Éigse ix 272 ). ata gach uile ní ar breith (no comas) don tí creitfes = omnia possib[i]lia sunt cre- denti (note f.), ITS xix 44.22 . ná bíodh ar breith a úabhair `let him not be led by pride' (Notes), Bard. Synt. Tr. 26. 219.22. tabhram fad bhreith / . . . / nua na calla `let me put 'neath Thy power', Dán Dé xvi 8 . an maor do bhí ar gach mbaile / tug Brian fa bhreith a dtoile `placed beneath the authority of its folk', Content. v 75. ní nár dhuit dol fár mbreith-ne `to yield to our judgment', vii 16 . Note further: tíachtain tar do breith `to transgress thy judgment', Ériu iv 134.22 .

(i) With various nouns: is fer bret[h]i budi ┐ oirbiri `a man great in thanksgivings and in upbraidings', MacCongl. 87.9 . is cóir buidheachas do bhreith ré Dia `to give thanks to God', Donlevy 6.15 . eolus do breith ann `to find out the way thither', MR 276.14 . breith do roghuin . . . diomoladh na neolghach d'fulang, tar a bheith dorcha air chách preferring , Donlevy xxii 16 . See 1 enech, robud. céim do bhreith tar Chambrens ag cáineadh na n-Éireannach to go a step beyond Cambrensis, Keat. i 40.8 . See léimm. Note further: d'aicsin Dé is ní dom breith buan `to see Him, not to save myself', Dán Dé xxvi 41 .

? b.¤ .i. sith no cain, aprobio a greig, pax uobis a laidin, sith no si[th]cain a gaoidheilg, O'Dav. 323.

Compds. With nouns: a breat[h]aga (: lethḟada) time for judgment, ACL iii 235 § 20. bráthchæi .i. brethcheo ǽi, Corm. 7. re bhreithcheirt a breitheamhan ` justice ', MR 102.16 . ar bhéin re breithionnadh (breitindead, breith fionna, v.ll.) mbreath, LMuimhneach 425.293 . cét mbó mbrethlaind `a hundred well-selected cows' ( Corm. Tr. 26 ), Corm. Y 179. ? Cf. búalann. robae ar brethlaind Midi immuig / M. . . ., Rawl. 164b11 . na brethlaind `in his place of judgment' ( Arch. Hib. ii 84 § 30 ), LL 23969. fāeisidi . . . / cona brethlogad as bind confession . . . with Absolution, ACL iii 237 § 24. F. . . . / barr uas brethraind bithbuadaig, LL 15939. báire breath-sholuis gacha bréithre, MR 108.18 .

With adjj.: buaidh mbreatha (inbetha, v.l.) breathadh- bhail, IT iii 57 § 107.10 . firinne bruinnti, bretheamhanda, breth-fhuaslaictheach ` redeeming ', MR 98.18 . ainm bechtglan (breathglan, v.l.), ITS xxxv 94 § 11 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. cabalach or


n (cobail ?) tribute, tax : do tabhach a chísa ┐ a cabhalaigh (a chána, v.l.), BNnÉ 321 § 25 . cíos no cáin nó cabhalach, Duan. F. ii 230 § 28 . Cf. 2 coblach.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. Cesarda or
Last Revised: 2019


adj (-é-?) (Cesar) pertaining to Caesar, imperial (only in phrase cís C.¤ ): cis c.¤ , O'Curry 1432 ( H 3.18, 641b ). do erned in chísa C.¤ , Todd Lect. vi 40.3 . o thabach in chíssa césarda, LB 145a59 . do íc an císa Secarda, Ev.Inf. (LFF) 221 § 60 . Sesarda, Smaointe B. Chr. 557 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. cís or
Last Revised: 2013


n u, [m.?] (Lat. census, GOI 172 , Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 209 ). Treated as neut. in: cis n-incis o anfine, ┐ cis n-infuilaing o fine, ┐ cis n-airdbide . . . ó fine ┐ ó anfine, Laws i 158. 7 - 9 Comm., hisa c.¤ , Trip.² 184 . Perh. occasionally as o-stem in Laws (see exx. below). cíos m., IGT § 34 . tax, tribute, cess, rent : c.¤ gl. cim, LU 8901 ( FB 68 ). mál .i. cíos, Eg. Gl. 472 . c.¤ gl. fiscus, Sg. 37b16 . athgabail treisi sloiged, ciss `distress of three days for hosting, rent', Laws i 156.27 . sáor ar chios gach cionaidh (leg. cionad?) fine(?), Ériu xiii 30.17 . re im dingbail cisa di-a tuaith `a battle to ward of rent', Laws v 300.24 . c.¤ égoir ro cuinge[d] ar an duini, O'Curry 2314 ( Eg.88, 24(25)b ). dligid císa mo dhuan-sa, H 3.18, 563 . dirodba indiunn / ar colno císu `may she destroy within us the taxes of our flesh', Thes. ii 325.19 (Hy. iv) glossed peccata, cf. cíos .i. peacadh, O'Cl. ro maith in rí a ch.¤ do Pátraic, Trip.² 187 . cána ┐ smachta ┐ císa fer nErend, LU 4207 . fis do ch.¤ co cert, KMMisc. 276 § 72 . in tan rochlomar clocān / ni furāil in c.¤ , ACL iii 313 § 19 . cis trom do-berthea forro, Ériu xvi 84.88 . do chungid in chīsa co Gāedelaib, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 10.y . conair chissa a journey which led to (their) paying tribute(?), Acall. 7008 . dlegaid claidme c.¤ a nglantai iarna tosluccad `swords are entitled to the tribute of cleansing them', RC xii 106 § 162 . tug sé c.¤ in da theallach sin leis, Stair Erc. 1647 . cíos na gcath ag cath Bhúille `income from their battles', O'Hara 4000 , see n. cíos mar dogheabhthair don Ghall `cess is got even by the foreigner', Dán Dé xxv 7 . DDána 58.26 . ar gnē chīossae a fforcionn gach mīossa `at a certain rent, payable at the end of each month', Fl. Earls 54.3 . cíos cinnte . . . mar chothughadh óna thighearna, TSh. 10075 `wages' Glossary.

With bés: nī dlig nach rī . . . cīs nā bēs nā gēill . . . don tīr-sin, Corp. Gen. 207.8 . co fessta a ciso ┐ a m-besu lais, TE 2 Eg. = fri commus a m-bésa ┐ a chisa dóib, LU 10716 .

With descr. gen. or adj. of particular tributes, taxes: cíos na hainnise, an mhairsil ’s an tséile, Five Pol. Poems 92.196 . cíos na hainnise chailleas mar mhéirlig, 41.127 . oc tobach in chísa Céssarda, PH 2488 . cios cosanta `protection tribute', AFM iv 1152.6 . cīos is cáin Ērenn, ZCP viii 108.21 . ni rig . . . do na tabar chis flatha `he is not a king . . . to whom the rent of a king is not given', Laws iv 50.23 .i. daeraicillnechta .i. braich, 27 Comm. atait secht neimid cethra . . . bo ciss flatha no eclasa, v 260.3 .i. bo bis ac imḟulang a cisa do ḟlaith no do eclais, 12 Comm. fine cis flatha, v 318.3 .i. in fine bis ag imḟulang a cisa do'n flaith, 9 Comm. do chuinchid chísa grotha ┐ imbi, Trip.² 182 . dobeiredh dham cíos a chinn `used to pay me tribute' (polltax), O'Gr. Cat. 349.18 . c.¤ (n-)inchis see inchís ? c.¤ láime see lám. folach cis lobair, Laws i 230.24 glossed imfulaing (sic leg.) cisa in duine troig, .i. diablad in cisa, 232.25 - 6 . c.¤ nemid tribute due from person of status; uracomol cis neimid, iv 6.10 .i. in ní fora firaccomailter a cis do neimed, y. Comm. do cuireadh cíos Phádraig ar Chonnachtaibh lé Gormghal mac Dín Dáthaidh `Patrick's tribute', Keat. iii 2527 . c.¤ rigdae gl. uectigal, Sg. 52b9 . saer na bochta . . . o'n ch.¤ rigda, PH 458 . fon cis Romanach, Todd Nenn. 70.14 . Cf. mo chíos bhróin rem chois dom chailg `my tribute of grief', Rel. Celt. ii 236.11 . See also Laws i 158.7 - 9 cited above.

With a variety of vbs. expressing levying, exacting, paying tribute: ben do beim císa orainn exact your tribute from us, Lism. L. 3195 . ic brith chīsa Muman. Corp. Gen. 406.10 . fer lé cumthar c.¤ ar coblach, Studies 1920, 418.25 . do ghlacadh cíosa na sealbha `rents', RSClára 49b . ac nougudh (ag gnougudh) a chisa ┐ a chana fein orro, RC xliii 58.9 . cīs in caistiaill d'icc, Grail 3430 . oc tobuch a císa, LU 10435 . Ellipt.: co ná fil . . . / rolamad c.¤ ar Cairind `lay tribute on C.', Ériu iv 98 § 25 .

With prepp. CEN (somet. mere cheville): slíab cen chísu `the mountain free of tax', Metr. Dinds. iii 302.61 . ar do croich cruaid cen cisae innocent(?), Ériu xix 12 § 6 . FO: fo chísu cacht `a captive under tribute', Metr. Dinds. iii 8.83 . us cora mac mucsaide fo chis, Laws v 456.5 . fir 's mná na cruinne fad chíos-sa (of the Cross), DDána 2.4 . suídhe fó chíos tributis serviet', Párl. na mB. 1309 . ro laiset Cenel cConaill fo chios doibh, Hugh Roe² 114.16 . I N-: ingen Rúaid berair hi c.¤ do Fomorib, LU 10439 . SECH: dochuaid sech císu co cert, LU 3065 `i.e. she was exempt from tribute?' Fél. 53 note.

In cheville (see also above): ba buan a c.¤ , Anecd. i 60 § 88 . 65 §134 .

Compds. With nouns: do shaigdis na h-uili seo . . . co Cormac na chischain as tax and tribute, YBL 140b6 . ní thardsad císchain doibh, BB 207b35 . roinn na cíoscána, BNnÉ 258.15 . cuairt ┐ cischanachus a chinid . . . do Ch. `tribute-rents', Fen. 120.7 . ¤-thoibgeóir see toibgeóir.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. císel or


Forms: císal

n [o] (referred to cís, Thurn. ZCP viii 79 , to Lat. cens(u)ale, Binchy SCano p. 38). Also císal. cíosal .i. cíos oileamhna, O'Cl. a fir tidnaig mo dig dam / immer oired mo chisel (: domisig = do-m-ísed), Anecd. i 14.21 `for which tribute(?) has been paid', SCano 491 note. luid uadib cen chísal (chisa, cisiu, v.ll.) clé (: tísad) `wrongful offence(?)', Metr. Dinds. ii 28.39 . maicc Ebir . . . / lotar huili la c.¤ / fosrolaic in tarmchossal / sin mórchuthe n-ísel `all went with the Devil', Thes. ii 316.5 ( Hy. ii 37 ), where c.¤ is glossed: la ail inchis .i. demon, T; la ciselach nó la cisal .i. la hail inchis .i. la demuin hail eside ara dure . . . tob[aigther] cis . . . , F. So also: ataich Críst ┐ Patric Art Mache farná feil tám ná c.¤ . . . teilc coil (? leg. cóili) far c.¤ `plague or Devil . . . throw off hunger(?) on the Devil', 258.11-12 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. cófra or


n m., IGT Decl. § 2 (39.z) (Mid. Engl. (and Fr.) cofre, O'Rahilly, Celtica i 353 . See also Risk § 29 ) coffer, chest : críol .i. cofra, O'Cl. mo chisa as a c.¤ (: cróchdha), Magauran 66 . c.¤ in chróigh `box of saffron-dye', 944 . cofra a raibe or no aircet, BCC 422.1 .

Compd. i gcoraidh chófraithe in a warm enclosing vessel, Aithd. D. 72.6 .

1 díchor

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 díchor or


Forms: díothchuir

n o, m. (dí + cor) banishing, expelling: Adam . . . iar n-a dichur a Parthus, MacCarthy 60 (= tathcor, SR 1474 ). righe G. do gabail dó iar ndichar Domnaill, RC xviii 39 . dún iar ndíchur ídal as, Metr. Dinds. iii 168 . ac díchur danar ┐ díbergach, Fianaig. 86 . ic diucur na Findgeinti a hErind, Cog. 18 . tainic dá dichur asin[d] Etail, CCath. 1373 . cen díchur n-écóir, ACL iii 293 . do dichur cretmi asin bith, LB 131a53 . is dichur duailge . . . int ecnai diada sacred learning drives out vice, Anecd. v 2 (= is d.¤ da cach dualaig, Alex. 824 ). iar ndíchur cech élniuda úadib, RC xxv 242 . na hocht cairi colnaide . . . na hocht trátha togaide dá ndíochur, SG 160 . Cf. ZCP vi 271 . d.¤ dualach ┐ forbairt sualach, PH 7964 . do d.¤ herissi, 5004 . rotineolaid in seanad do dicur iris Maiccidoin, Todd Nenn. 68 . díochur na gcliar expulsion of the poets, DDána 72.4 . arna dhíochor tar príomh-dhóirsibh . . . parrthais amach, TSh. 2575 . a d.¤ aithisse Eua Thou expeller of the reproach brought by Eve! (to Mary), LB 74a37 . getting rid of, removing: rofailet ina ligi áisi ar ndichur a ngasced ┐ a n-arm having laid aside, CRR 14 . fidhbaidh . . . cen díchur a duilli dí tria bithu, Marco P. 81 . do díchur in chísa dochraid-se di chóiciud Lagen, RC xiii 44 . do dhíochur na ndéar [bhf]ola | ionnlais an bhais, A. Ó Dálaigh xli 17 . do dicur temil don rosc, 24 B 3, 49.25 . warding off: a chathcriss robíth immi ic díchur gai ┐ rend, TBC-I¹ 1903 . ba diochur fhlaitheamhnais do Chonn, oireachas Éireann do fhágbháil a renunciation of the sovranty for Conn, ML 106 . do dichur flaithiusa Muman do Temraidh, LL 378b42 . Attrib. g s. ceatha díothchuir na díleand `the displacing floods of the Deluge,' Celt. Rev. x 139 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. dírím or


Forms: dirim, dirímh

adj (rím)

(a) countless, innumerable: dirim gl. innumeros, Gild. Lor. 234 . bá dírim leó in slúag, LU 3782 . slocht nd.¤ , SR 5102 . re slúag dírim, Fél. July 15 . buiden dírimh, TBC-LL¹ 5497 (St.). rancatar popul dírim ann as cech aird, PH 1122 . Fir Domnand d.¤ , Metr. Dinds. ii 46.19 . ní fhail cenn conní a ārim is drem dīrim, ACL iii 303 § 11 . drong dírimh dferoibh Ereann, AFM i 59 . Adv. roboi cáin Cormaic . . . co adbal ┐ co dirímh , ZCP i 472.4 .

(b) In wider sense of magnitude in general immeasurable, boundless, excessive: ri dorigne ilar mil | fond ḟairrce ṅdermair nd.¤ , SR 302 . is dírim failte muintire nime, FA 19 . ba hadbal ┐ ba d.¤ truma in chísa , ZCP xi 60.19 . ba hadbul ┐ ba dirim met ┐ aidble in craind, Grail 1459 . is dirím méit trocaire Dé, PH 6474 . ba dirim fúath Maic Murchada do lucht Átha cliath, Expugn. Hib. 23 .

As subst. d.¤ a tonn the multitude of its waves, CCath. 1240 . go rop hí tres d.¤ na tána 'na torchair leis díb one of the three uncountable things, TBC-LL¹ 4627 ; cf. 2656 . The phrase d.¤ slóig may contain this word or dírimm, q.v. See also dírraim, and cf. dirim .i. imad in gloss on dirmann, O'Dav. 653 . See dírma. a dirim slóigh, numerous host, CCath. 466 . RC xviii 290.4 (leg. dírim sluaig). tainic mac B. ┐ Dal cCais ina ndírim deighshluaigh, Cog. 216 . Cf. díríme.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. domaíne or


n [, f.] = domaín: ní daitsiu a domaine na orgne `not to thee the loss caused by the destruction', BDD § 80 . cach fer nochunged Cheilg chaemi | ba dó féin a domaeni he was the sufferer by it, Ériu v 224.84 . Common in Laws in antithesis to somaíne. `Bussleistung', Thurn. ZCP xiv 336 , xv 238 . See also Stud. in E. Ir. Law 25 , 74 . is airium imrínn itir in somuine rotairg ┐ domuine chisa no fiach rofaguibh ar in mac arrears of rent or debts (?), Laws iii 64.3 Comm. dligtech cach torba techta cach somaine . . . freccuir cach d.¤ dofuba fri flaith, 22.1 . forusta fri hurnaide somuine ┐ domaoine, ii 278.25 ( ZCP xiv 369 § 31 . See also § 34 , 35 ). ni techta nechtar nae urtechta do somaine na d.¤ (of a mariage-contract between insane persons), 406.21 ( Stud. in E. Ir. Law 74 § 36 ) .i. somaine didbad no d.¤ cinad the profit of legacies or the loss of crimes, 27 Comm. ni renar nach ainim dofeilci d.¤ i trebad, 360.17 ( O'Dav. 710 ) a defect causing poor returns in husbandry (Thurn.), Stud. in E. Ir. Law 25 . cach fuidir acht doerfuidir, it messe imscartha fri flaith, acht ni fargbat domuine na cinta foraib `debts or crimes', Laws v 520.8 .

As m. D.¤ Mossud, name of a judge, BDD § 118 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. dúthaig or


Forms: dúthaige, dúithche

I As adj. i

(a) As pred. with DO belonging to by virtue of descent or heredity , usually of land or other hereditary possession or privilege: dian (= dianid) duthoig Liphe, Thes. ii 295 ( SP v 8 ). in ti dana duchaid in flaithemhnus, Laws v 440 Comm. comduthaigh doib Temair they have equal right to T., Cog. 122 . dāibh as d.¤ an ríghe, ZCP viii 116 . Compar. ní dúcha (= dúthcha) duid Mag Muaidi | ná fonn Temra taebuaine Mag M. is not more thine by ancestral right than the territory of T., Hy Fiach. 292 .

(b) Hence as attrib. belonging to by heredity, hereditary, native: cia nech do rigaib . . . tanic co a chathraig nd.¤ fodéin, PH 4477 . rochumduigsem cill don Coimdid ar ar bferunn duthaig , RC xiv 40 . ac ár n-inud duthaig, Moling § 2 . d'ionnsuidhi a thíre dúthaighe, BS 176 . ac fegad a tiri ┐ a n-atharda duichi iarna n-indarba uathi, Aen. 61 . a ríg duthaich féin do marbad, RC xxvi 132 . dá rígdamna da rígaib duitchib fein, ib. ic tairgnam da thigernu d.¤ , MU² 135 . cách dia eclais duthaig, Anecd. i 40 . mairg dána[d] fót dúthaigh in feronn-so, CCath. 501 . dagrī Dublindi dēne dūthaige (tuathaigi, v.l.), IT iii 15 .

(c) proper or natural to (esp. of hereditary as opposed to acquired traits, etc.): ba duthaig dō éc ┐ ba d.¤ do Dalcais uli, uair marb a n-athri ┐ a senathri, Cog. 68 . aní is toich no is duthaig bis orro (of shoots on stakes or boles), Laws iv 152 Comm. mic aen-athar ┐ aen-mathar ind, . . . duthaig dūind cosmailius inund it is natural for us to be like each other, BB 236b20 . druideacht la Mantan . . . | rigdacht fa duthaid do Dond | slicht oll ┐ breitheamnocht kingcraft was D.'s province, forte, Lec. 540a18 = duthaigh, BB 19b31 . bheith uathad ní dúthaid duid, a hI Dubda, Hy Fiach. 290 . ba duthaich cia nobeth it were fitting it should be so, Anecd. i 4 . do-n-angatar sidhe fo ghairm Uí Domhnaill . . . ┐ ba dúthaigh dhoibh cia nothiestais, Hugh Roe 110 . Compar. ba dúcha dó tachar giall it would have been more natural for him to send hostages, Cog. 100 . taít lim-sa dom dísiurt . . . is dudchu (duthchu, v.l.) dúib, Imr. Brain ii 285 ( LU 1216 ). ni ducha damsa techt do dichur in chisa . . . inā duid-seo it is as much your place as mine, Lec. 599a7 = ni duthchu, RC xiii 44 § 24 (where sentence is imperfect). rochuala ni tobair (sic leg.) . . . dober indi is duthaig dō, bo he gives what is natural to him, a cow, MacCarthy 120 .

(d) due, owing to: dála na Caillighi duibhe, dorad Fiachna a duthaig di .i. seacht caisléna gave her her due (in compensation for a loss), Imr. Brain i 61 .

II As subst. f. g s. dúthaige, dúithche. IGT Decl. § 150 .

(a) hereditary land, patrimony: triuchad céad dúthaigh an ḟir is lugha dúthaigh dhíobh sin a cantred is the patrimony of the man who has least patrimony among them, Ériu i 85 . duthaig na fine hereditary family land, Laws ii 330 Comm. rogab Cathal . . . in rígi, duthaich nár dúail an inheritance not his by right, ZCP ix 464 . geallais Diarmuid Loch Garman mar dhúthaigh dhílis go bráth do Roibeard Mac Stiabhna, Keat. iii 5043 . annsin chomraicess . . . ferann in rig ┐ duthaigh diúc de L. re aroile the king's territory and that of the duke, Fl. Earls 74 . ní baoí fer a duithche do sliocht Corbmaic `a man of the same extent of territory', AFM vi 1892 . aisecc . . . a dhuithche da gach aon, 2336 . ar shaoirsi ┐ ar shochar dúthaighe do fein in consideration of receiving the freedom and profits of an estate, 2170 . ré buain a dhúithche amach dhó to recover his patrimony, Keat. iii 5176 . go bhfuil gach prionnsa 'n-a chenn ar eagluis a dhuithche fein, Luc. Fid. 58 . ó Brí Ele, duthaig tor, | cu Sliab Mairg patrimony of princes (?), Fianaig. 46 . duthadh an Chaeille dno Baile na L. hereditary land, Hy Fiach. 166 . duthaich hí Leargusa .i. Baile C., Lec. 168a3 . Hence possession in perpetuity: conid laiss a lán-dúthaig (of a place), Metr. Dinds. iii 230 .

(b) native district, native land: do iompaig naom Ciarán daoine iomdha dá dh.¤ do Osraighib chum an chreidim, SG 4 . do léigedh saor dá dh.¤ é, 6. is í Éire dúthaigh dhíleas na Scot (= propria Scotorum patria), Keat. ii 5843 . rofācsum-ne in Roim ┐ dúthaigh ar n-athar ┐ ar senathar, CCath. 546 . assí an áit as mó ina fédfainn serbís do denamh do Día is duthaigh damh that place is my country where I can best serve God, BCC § 250 . gidh bé neach do thréig . . . clann no dúthuidh ar son mh'anma-sa, Matthew xix 29 .

(c) region, land in general (rare): do chonnairc sé and dúthaigh gur taithneamach é (sic), Gen. xlix 15 . go ngabha tú oighreacht na dúthaigh (sic) ann a bhfuil tú choimhigtheach the land wherein thou art a stranger, xxviii 4 . biaidh oidhreacht na dúithche ag a chloinn his seed shall inherit the earth, Psalms xxv 13 . ó aonach chinn na dútha, Gadelica 154 .

érned, érniud

Cite this: eDIL s.v. érned, érniud or


u, o, m. (vn. of érnid)

I Giving, paying: apodos [ἀπόδος] .i. redde (.i. erned), O'Mulc. 49 . éirneadh .i. tiodhlacadh, O'Cl. d'erned chísa do Rómanchaib LB 132a53 . do erniud in chísa , Todd Lect. vi 40.14 . a n-ionam a ttuarustail do éirnedh doibh, AFM vi 2136.20 .

II Solving (a question); explaining; solution: érchóiliud .i. eirned, O'Dav. 812 . eirnedh .i. fuasgladh, Auraic. 2730 . innell in t-imcomurc ┐ tinnell in t-eirniud, 1248 . érniud mo chesta, LL 141b29 = Rawl. 76a5 (eirniud). ic éirniud chest na canoni, LU 14b35 . as díor d'eólach sin uile do thaithmheach ┐ d'érnadh... gan ainbhfios, IGT, Introd. § 1 (end). d'érnadh na cceasd sin, § 4 . is leis dorigneadh... adhnudh eirneadh d'ḟiarfaigidh, BB 25a37 = ernead adnad fiarfaidid, Lec. 548a (cf. Leb. Gab.(i) i 40.16 ). ni doilgi son an eirnida na son an imcomairc the sound of the answer... the sound of the question Laws v 2.8 Comm. go teacht an luain éirnidh úd that Monday of (happy) solution (?) (when a just verdict was given) Ó Bruad. ii 278.20 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. faísitiu or


Forms: foisitiu, foísitin, foísitin, foisitin, foísite, foisiten, foísitnib, faísite, fuí-, fáoiside, -en, fáoisidin, -nech, faísidi, faísidin, faoisidneach, faoisdineach, foísiten

n, f. vn. of fo-sisedar, as if from fo-sem-, on analogy of airitiu, aititiu, etc., Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 629 , Ascoli, cclix , Thurn. Hdb. § 728 (cf. fáes(s)am). n s. ind foisitiu , Wb. 4d33 . Ml. 62b1 . a s. foísitin, Wb. 4a6 . d s. foísitin, Tur. 58a . foisitin, Wb. 3c16 . foísite, 3d24 . g s. foisiten, Ml. 23a6 . d p. foísitnib, Sg. 33a25 . Later faísite (foí- fuí-). fáoiside (g s. -en) IGT, Decl. § 143 . fáoisidin (g s. -nech) § 144 . faísidi, faísidin, Verbs § 83 . faoisidin, TSh. 1758 , etc. g s. faoisidneach, TSh. 1763 , etc. faoisdineach, O'Gr. Cat. 39.18 .

(a) confession (of belief), avowal, profession (of faith) : transl. Lat. confessio in Glosses. tre foísitin hirisse, Wb. 4a6 . tri foisitin t'anmae-siu, a dáe, Ml. 49d4 . foisitiu ata pecthaig 'the confession that they are sinners' 132a2 fóisitin [fóisin, foisitiu MSS.] oendatad `through confession of the oneness' Thes. ii 354 ( Hy vii 4 ). tecait i n-agid na n-ídal ... la foístin martrai, PH 6517 .

(b) confession (of sins), common Mid. Ir. use, in later lit. nearly always of confession as a religious duty : foísiten (gl. confitendi) Ml. 23a6 . foisitiu a pecthae, 32b18 . atat ... dí ernail forsin fhúisitin .i. fuisitiu doníther do Dia ┐ fúisitiu doniter do dainib, PH 6444 . co fhuisitiu a chinad, 6455 . doróine C. a fáisittin fri Ciáran, RC xxvi 370.5 . fóisitiu in mídénmai fia doínib, Laws iv 318z (CG). dorōine C. a faisiti do Dia ┐ do Ciaran, ACL iii 225.20 . [lucht] doniad a faisitin ┐ doberat a coibsena ... dia sacartaibh, Anecd. iii 8.7 . in faisidin menicc ib. 8 . cor chaith corp Crist ┐ co nderna [a ḟ]aisiti, Cog. 196.19 . iar faisidi ┐ aithrigi quievit , Ann. Conn. 1333 § 3 . doghní-siomh a faoíside, AFM vi 2218 . ní ... níor smuain ... budh déanta ... d'ḟaoisidin never meditated anything which would need confession TD 17.60 . faisidin na pecadh nach dernad nech fein d'faisidi isin tsaegul-so `the confession of the sins which one did not confess in this life' RC xxviii 320 § 43 . faoisidin bhethadh a general confession (distinguished from f.¤ bhliadhna yearly confession ) Mac Aingil p. 150 , 151 . fer faiside damsa ┐ do Dhia hē one who has made confession to me and to God ACL iii 225.28 = fer faisitte ┐ aithrighe damhsa ... hé, RC xxvi 370.15 . oide faoisidne a father confessor Mac Aingil 2 § 2 . o. faisidnech, BCC § 249 . o. faoisidneach, TSh. 7449 . Cf. ba headh so ... ni dia chrábadh .i. fodail bidh, etc. ┐ beith fa breith ┐ fa faisidin ó sin amach this was part of his piety, to distribute food, etc., and moreover, he was submissive to law and religious duty (?) ZCP xii 291.17 .

In: tig an geal ... | as-degh d'orlár ḟaoisidnech, IGT, Decl. ex. 1945 the meaning confessional seems implied.

(c) as leg. term, acknowledging (an obligation, etc.): fuisitiu cach rath iar fis the acknowledgment of every fief Laws ii 216.19 ( ZCP xv 252 ). fuisite o fine acknowledgment on the part of the tribe ZCP xvi 212 . inti ... nad chele fuiseten an acknowledged vassal SM Facs. 7a9 . landire i cele fuiseten (.i. in daercheile), 8b14 . céle fuisidin .i. fosisithar celsini ar seotu, no fosesedar flaith hi celi ┐ amos do, Ir. Recht p. 26 ( O'Curry 888 ). See Ir. Recht p. 19 , and cf. fáes(s)am I (d). fuisitin .i. íc, ut est, amail robúi Muire ┐ Ioiseb ag fuisidin in chisa , O'Dav. 1017 = O'Curry 1397 (< H 3.18, 628 ). Cf. snadu[d] faisiten dia nditen `the protection of sanctuary' Laws v 290.19 . ráidh re cumairce ... `snaidhedh' `faoisidin,' `faosamh,' Metr. Gl., D 55 .

Cf. fáes(s)am.

(d) profession (of a calling or art, i.e. avowal of its practice): hua ḟoisitnib inna ṅdáne frisgniat (gl. a professionibus) Sg. 33a25 . Cf. aspert fri Coin Culaind nad bai foiside (.i. forus) forceutail Con Culaind co rissed Scathaig (= that C. would not be an acknowledged master or adept ?) ZCP iii 248 § 60 (Tochm. Emire) = foisitiu forcoitil, RC xi 444.33 . Hence, perhaps, foisite .i. foistine, foras, no comhnaidhe, O'Cl.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. forcomol or


n o, n. restraint, captivity (?) : oirgset a ndun ... ┐ toberat bancuri in dūni hi f.¤ , LU 1624 . ba hécóir ingen in cheneoil rigda do beith aice i f.¤ foréicne, LL 227b47 ( TTr. 790 ). rucad ... Oed G. a forcomal co Temraig, YBL 172b17 = SG 77.3 . ba himmdai sruith-sheanoir ... hi ḟorcumal ann, Alex. 316 . Cf. ... is an Fiann in ḟorcomol, Acall. 675 v.l. Compulsion, obligation: forchumal fort co n-innisi I charge thee to tell SG 43.21 . In Laws forcible entry (on land), claim, compulsion: forcomul n-ēcne `violent seizure' Laws ii 374z ( Stud. in E. Ir. Law 38 ) = Laws iv 270z . Ni ranntar ni sech fine acht ce doberadh muiri na fine na seotu sin ... cin fis doib is comadhus don flaith forcomol chisa and sin, H 3.18. 389b3 ( O'Curry 863 ), cf. forcomal chís flatha `the security (?) of the chief's rent' (seizure to satisy the lord's rent, Binchy), Laws v 442.23 . Cf. cor go for[c]umal `forced contract' iv 268.22 . bach for fine a forcomal, 8.19 (= and it was a deforcement against the fine , see Thurneysen ZCP xiii 299 ). saerta la fine a f.¤ `she was freed by her tribe from obligation' (i.e. indemnified) Laws iv 16.24 = O'Curry 849 .

See also cit. under forcumang.

Cf. ar gcloinsin in ghotha don phrióir do chuir forcombal eir fo'n fhoirmsi ... : forcombhul ort a chréatúir Dia ... co lobhra tú riumsa = adiuratio Lia Fáil i 135 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. gruth or


n m. curds, cheese : caisi ab eo quod est caseus ... .i. gruth ind sin, Corm. Y 312 . innith Grith gruth (.i. fonaithe), ib. 690 = Irish Texts i 33 § 2 . bui ... oc creim (creime) ┐ grotha, Corm. Tr. p. 85 (s.v. greth). rop gilithir gruth, Lism. L. 4075 . luid rechtaire ríg Bretan do chuinchid chísa grotha ocus imbe co muime Pátraic, Trip.² 183 . a leibend do gruth is d'imm, MacCongl. 67.23 . fairre finda fírgrotha, ib. 37.22 . tar srónaib sengrothai `past headlands of old curds,' ib. 85.21 . galmula lasin Laitneoir, gruth lasin nGoedel dia frecra, Auraic. 1082 . a mét do gruth, Laws iv 122.20 Comm. ticc eisti gruth mór la cech mbairgein, BColm. 60.22 . doní Cáoimhghin don bán-gruth | clocha, mar taire arna mnáibh C. turns the cheese into stones, BNnÉ 154.7 (referred to as maothla, ib. 5 ; as mulcháin, ib. 11 ).

imb, imm

Cite this: eDIL s.v. imb, imm or


Forms: imb, imm

n n, n. later m. n s. imb n-eine óil, Críth G. 74. int imm , Three Hom. 62.24 .

butter: imb ab imbre, quasi imber super flore[s] praestat mel et butirum , Corm. Y 772. cetna thogairt dia foided | la cet-im hi fenamain (glossed dond arge ar chend imbi), Lib. Hymn. 116.50 . (= Thes. ii 332 -6). do chuinchid chísa grotha ocus imbi, Trip.² 183. feóil dóibh ... gacha tratha ... go ruigi in ced domnach do corgas ┐ im doib annside... im doibh gacha tratha nach coir feoil, O'Curry 1823 ( 23 Q 6, 46 b ). cuad lan imme in tanaise bliadain damna dá n-eme in tres bliadain fer im ┐ ban imb. cethri ordlaighi indrac do ban eim, a .u. do fer imb, O'Curry 881 ( H 3.18, p. 394 b ). in tabrai dam ... | sail loim im ocus aran, Laws v 64.19 Comm. di rusccaib imme `with firkins of butter,' Mon. Tall. 128.13 . gach clas ro claideadh do línadh do arbaim alaill do ímbim, Laws iv 98.15 Comm. dá trian d'arbar is imm oll `two full thirds of corn and butter,' Metr. Dinds. iv 250.3 . in tres fiach linni nir lond | liach immi a n-anlond, LL 206a8 . [a] adastar ocus a ellach | d'imim úr, MacCongl. 81.4 . Gilla an imme (a nickname), ALC i 480.11 . meall ime `lump of butter,' TSh. 5053. airliogadh airgid, arbhair, eime, mine, `a loan of money, corn, butter, meal,' Donlevy 100.1 . In pl. perhaps `special units or measures of butter ' (Cf. ref. to `vessels of butter,' Carew MSS I, 308 ): ro millset arbanna ┐ imenna in tiri co ler translated `all the corn and stock (?),' Ann. Conn. 1296.3 . (= AU ii 386.13 translated ` chattels .' = ro millset imat arbhanna ┐ immenna ` property ,' ALC i 514.24 ). imenna Arda Macha do buain asna templaibh ┐ a loscadh ar faighthi in baile translated ` valuables ,' AU iii 122.9 (= tucsat a raibhe do bhiadh isna templaibh, AFM iv 890.8 ). ni fuil comus for immenn (sic) na arbor, Laws ii 386.9 Comm. (= ni fuil comus di for imim ┐ arbur, O'D. 307 ( H 3.17, col. 239 ).

1 muirn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 muirn or


Forms: muirn, moirn, muirnn, múirn, muirni

n f. muirn moirn, IGT Dec. § 14. Occas. spelt muirnn (-nd): in LB often múirn.

(a) a loud confused or tumultuous sound , esp. that produced by a multitude, armed host, combat, etc. atchuala H. m.¤ ┐ sésilbi int ṡlóig, LL 243a30 (TTr.). ra chualatar muad-m.¤ in mórslúaig dochum in baile, CRR 53. ba hamnus m.¤ ┐ sai toi na curud . . . ic immditin a ngae ┐ a sciath, RC xii 98 § 131. ro cluinset mu[i]rn in morshluaig, Aen. 1939. bui muirnn occus seselbi isin cath . . . .i. buirfedach na fer, iachtad na miled, etc., Ériu viii 177.17 . ba hadbul m.¤ ┐ sesilbe na Rómanach oc tobach in chísa , LB 149a59 . rom-duiscther-sa as mo chodlud imon mormuirn, Aen. 531. ro bai a mac alla isna trachtaibh re med a muirni (of a combat), 993 . metighter tairm tuinni . . . cosmaile na muirne . . . ┐ seselbe na sochaidhe, TBC-LL¹ 5611 (St.). pl. atcluinti . . . geran na galgat ┐ cuadan na curadh ┐ muirni na miled, CCath. 5945. Of natural sounds: ind Etáil . . . muir a timchell cona m.¤ , Rawl. 78b37 . co clos a muirnd ┐ a ngair (of sea-waves), Aen. 229. tic in gæth . . . cona siansan ┐ cona m.¤ moir, 238 . tipra Chonnlai ba mór m.¤ `loud was its sound', Metr. Dinds. iii 292.9 . m.¤ gach lonnsrotha, BNnÉ 148.14 . ra m.¤ moir contuilim-si (of sound of a river), Anecd. ii 23 § 4. Of music: m.¤ na murduchand mara ` chant ', Metr. Dinds. iii 190.15 .

(b) met. a troop, band (of warriors): marcṡlóg na tuaithe Tesaldai cenmothá mormúirnd na mílead Maicedondai, Alex. 302. co ros-laiset a saithe saiged . . . frisin múirnd moir Maicedondai, 245 ; cf. 24 . m.¤ .i. buidhean, O'Cl. muad-m.¤ .i. mórbuidhean, ib. (cf. CRR 53 cited above). Cf. also follg.: cúic scéith, . . . cúic eich, cóic mná, mór a muirnn (of a tribute), Leb. Cert. 128 z (= in ṁuirn BB). fichi cornn . . . fichi moghaidh, m.¤ n-uabhair `a proud troop', 158.21 . an mhuirn . . . dá dtug annsacht the folk whom he had loved, PBocht 121 § 20.

(c) high spirit, ardour, exuberant energy . ropo mór far m.¤ 'sin chath | i n-agid na Fomorach, TFerbe 615 (`Schaar' Wind., see b). nā bíd laech cen arm, | nā rop maeth a m.¤ , LL 148b47 = KMMisc. 270 § 49. ro choiscfind-sea co luath do muirnn fora ta `I should soon have chastised him out of his present ardour', Aen. 1085. cét bliadhan damh fa m.¤ | am' séghdha hseabaic hsulghuirm (of Fintan mac Bochra), Anecd. i 28 § 27. ba mor ar meisneach 's ar m.¤ , Duan. F. i 9.28 . ? mac Fiachuidh moir na muirne, LL 396.14 . m.¤ ┐ menmanradh na macraidhe, AFM v 1278.2 . a muirnn, a misnec[h] ┐ a mileatacht, MR 314.18 . As quasi-vn.: bheith ag m.¤ dá múraibh `to be exulting ', ML 78.18 .

(d) often of festive mirth, gaiety, jollity, sometimes passing into objective sense of conviviality, good cheer, etc. gáir muirne is gáir meda, Metr. Dinds. iv 368.16 . buí Eamhain lán do mhuirn is do mheadhair, Content. xxviii 49. triath budh mhór m.¤ is meadhair, A. Ó Dálaigh lii 44. i dtigh Thaidhg ní thraothfa ar m.¤ , Gofraidh Fionn i 25 ( Ir. Monthly 1919 ). docer do dán, a meic righ Raighne . . . caide na cuirnn no caidhi in mh.¤ | do bi cot' athair?, ZCP xii 291.2 = Keat. iii 3423. ní threceb mo thratha . . . for aba ḟledōil no múirne dímaínige in domnáin, LB 273b69 . falchaid met bar muirni amuig | cen chuimni fon ēc acuib the exuberance of your spirits shuts out the remembrance of death, ACL iii 239 § 24. ní fuil uasal nó íseal | nach léir ina theach m.¤ mhór | ima seach cuirm is cómhól, MS. Mat. 564 y (poem by Cucoigriche Ó Cléirigh † 1664). ní do mhúch m.¤ na n-oireacht (of death of a chieftain), Miscell. Celt. Soc. 340.24 . truagh nach ránag eárr na haoise | sul dochonnarc do mhuirinn [leg. mhuirnn?] fá mhaoithe (to Dún Iasc after the death of its lord), Keat. Poems 1486. tú it'aonar . . . | anocht gan mhoirn gan mheadhair (to Dún na nGall), Measgra D. 56.55 . Possibly also in follg.: roddet mil, roddet crut[h]nec[h]t, | roddet muirn ic dainib de, | roddet cuirn, roddet cruithne `there was yielded affection in people too' (? the hearts of men were gladdened thereby), Ériu viii 67.11 (poem attributed to Flann Fína † c. 704).

(e) favour, affection, esteem (late use): mairg mhellus m.¤ in tsaoghail `whom love of the world deceives', O'Gr. Cat. 357.19 (poem by Gofraidh Fionn Ó Dálaigh † 1387; line 22 follg.: flaithemnas mór ar muirn mbic suggests rather the sense d; see quotation from same author given under that head). ní bhi oirn . . . d'onoir acht moirn uaibh d' fhaghail to gain your favour, Irish Texts ii 84 § 20. mairg darab soirbh an saoghal, a mhoirnd is mairg do ghébhadh, Carswell 246. d'énní dá tucas mo thoil . . . nír dlígh mé méid mo muirni I should not have given so much love, O'Gr. Cat. 347.8. dlighter dō díograis muirne `warmth of lovingkindness', 475.15 . drong ó bhfuighinn . . . sgoth mhuirne ar ḟeadh m'aimsire `the choicest favor', TD 15.12 . an óige . . . biaidh sise fá mh.¤ ag cách (youth) will be in favour with all, Measgra D. 72.10 = O'Gr. Cat. 523.21. go raibhi duine uasal . . . fá mhúirnn mhóir agan rígh, Mac Aingil 104.9 . méad na muirne do bhí ag Dia air the greatness of God's love for him, TSh. 340. With obj. gen.: ná traothadh Dia a mhoirn mháthar `His mother-like love' (? His love for His mother), PBocht 11 § 24. do mhuirn dá mhac for love of his son, 47 § 7 . As quasi-vn.: ic m.¤ ima mac fondling her son, RC v 199.4 . In concrete sense object of favour or love, darling: Aodh mac C. . . . muirn ┐ ordan Dal cCais, AFM ii 864 z . trí buadha Breagh ┐ trí muirne Midhe (of persons), ML 80.8 . Cf. muirnín.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. rechtaire or


n io, m.

(a) a steward, bailiff, administrator : in early Irish heroic lit. generally the major-domo of a king or chief who directed his household and whose duties somet. included collecting food-dues or tributes; also used of deputies or governors appointed by a ruler over a city or province. rechtaire .i. rector a rege , Corm. Y 1078 = .i. rechtorairge, Corm. p. 38 . regerent[ur] .i. rechtire forru, Thes. i 497.20 ( Ardm. 179a1 , of Blastus, chamberlain of Herod, Acts xii 20 ). rectire ind ríg, gl. praepositus regis, Wb. 17d13 (a prima manu). rechtaire, gl. villicus, Sg. 156b1 . ond rechtairiu, gl. villico, PCr. 65a3 . rechtaire teglaig Conaire . . . fer conic suide ┐ lige ┐ bíad do chách, BDD 86 ( LU 7184 ). coica rectaire randa lasin flaith, LL 28b38 , cf. rechtairi ┐ banrechtairi ic roind ┐ ic dáil dóib (of household of Tara), Ériu iv 124 § 2 . is é ropo primrechtaire fer ṅHerend, LL 165b28 (of Lindgadan, called `rannaire Osraige', Metr. Dinds. iv 218.7 ) = is hé ba rondaire ┐ ba sluagh-rechtaire fer nErenn, Dinds. 119 ( RC xvi 71.28 ). luid rechtaire ríg Bretan do chuinchid chísa grotha (= procurator regis), Lat. Lives 49.7 . Margg . . . rechtaire ríg Fomóre . . . dolluid dochum ṅHerend do thobuch a chísa , LL 160a14 . maoir no rechtuire in rí, Laws ii 94.4 Comm. ro ráidh D. fri a rechtairiu ┐ fri hoes tobaig a chana, MR 16.3 ( FDG 110 ). do ordaich . . . maeru ┐ reachtairedu in cach tir ┐ in cach thuaith (of a Danish conqueror), Cog. 48.12 . batar rechtairea rig Roman . . . for indsip fuinid, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 12 § 1 = reachtuireadha righ an domuin, 14 § 2 (appar. procurators appointed by the Roman emperor). Of officials employed to collect certain imposts or fines: rechtaire Cāna Adomnān, Cáin Ad. § 48 . do rechtairib na cána (i.e. the Cáin Domnaig), Ériu ii 208 § 29 .

In monasteries the prior (dispensator, economus) was somet. called in Irish rechtaire: rechtaire na mBocht, AFM ii 904.4 (i.e. of the Community of Maol Ciaráin Mac Con na mBocht; the translator of the Annals of Clonmacnois a. 1069 alludes to the same person as `the steward of that family').

(b) a judge? reachtaire .i. rí no breitheamh, O'Cl. (perh. an inference from particular exx.).

(c) in late lang. somet. a herd or dairy-farmer : tug x mba fithchead ┐ tarbh ┐ dís rachtaireada ┐ dís bhainrachtaireadha leis, ITS xvi 116 z . Cf. reachtaire `a dairy-man . . . a small farmer who rents a number of milch-cows ', Dinneen ; and: rechtaire .i. rechtorairge, Corm. p. 38 (= rector airge if not a mistake for r.¤ a rege , Corm. Y 1078 ?).


Cite this: eDIL s.v. tairecc or


n o, (n. later m., Sc.M² Gloss. ) vn. of do-airicc. Orig. perh. getting, obtaining (ScM.2), but seems infl. by tárcud and tárrachtain, q.v.

(a) providing, supplying: im othrus cach ain, hi tairec a lega, hi tairec a bid, hi tairec a thincuir, hi tairec a tige techta, Laws i 122.16 ff. im tincur roe, im tairec nairm, 150.12 . is eicin a naithgin do tairic ar aine the a. must be paid within one day, 182.12 Comm. biad maith do tairiuc, ii 244.2 Comm. Cf. biadh do thairechtain don flaith, 7 Comm. fri tairec do chisa to facilitate paying your tribute, RC xxv 26.12 . ? nistailged t.¤ tarba `no supply of gain appeased them,' Metr. Dinds. iii 4.29 .

(b) With gs. of tol ( desire, wish ) waiting on, pleasing, gratifying: ba fial Lugaid hi tich a aite fri tairec tuile dia oegedaib, Rawl. 126b34 . do thairiuc thuile do, 131a43 .

(c) preparing, preparation: .i. turgnamh, no ullmhughadh, O'Cl. do-deochatar ... d'innsaighidh in mórthairic do-rigned dóibh came to the great feast which had been prepared for them, ZCP xi 61.11 . cach tres bliadain fognídis [in t-aenach] ┐ dā bliadain fria t.¤ , RC xv 312.21 .

(d) Various: is maith lenn ar cuit do thairiuc ` get ,' Sc.M² 14.7 (ar cuit do tárrachtain dún, v.l., cf. Laws ii 244.7 , supra, and see tárrachtain). trebad im tairic `labouring for one's food,' Ériu vii 154.6 . Fiachu, fer na fuirec, | eter triathu tairec `he of the feastings and of banquets among princes,' Metr. Dinds. iv 74.86 . dligid tairec tunide, LL 345d31 (= toreic, toirec, v.l., Anecd. iii 14.25 ). dian in tairec (cheville), Anecd. i 57 § 61 . ar deirgtairic na maitne at sunrise (?), Laws i 66.9 Comm.

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