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ascall

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ascall or dil.ie/4397

 

n = ochsal: conici a dā ascaill, Ériu ii 22.1 . co tarad in mnāi ina lethuscaill, 20 § 3. on axail co 'raili, BB 489a38 . da mbeid na nescoidi . . . isna hosgallaib, Rosa Angl. 200.13 . mála binn na hasgaille, GJ viii 15a11 . Fig. tégtis for comairce ┐ coimm ┐ aschaill na n-dóine mor, LB 156b32 . ? tú as dín-chliath asgail againn (: fasduidh), A. Ó Dálaigh xix 4 . a n-osgail ḟeadh angle of woods(?), IGT Decl. ex. 531 . a n-aschuil ḟiodh, ex. 598 .

1 corr

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 corr or dil.ie/12513
Last Revised: 2019

 

adj I o, ā. On meanings cf. Loth, RC xxxiv 148 f. , TD ii 188 - 9 . ` tapering, cuspidated, peaked, pointed, jutting out or up, swelling ', Measgra D. 245 . Used of a wide variety of objects, incl. geographical features, places, buildings, weapons, human beings, animals, parts of the body, instruments, vessels, trees. Often somewhat vaguely applied: im Crúachain cuirr, LU 2847 . caidi ced-ainm in chairn chuirr?, Metr. Dinds. iii 356.7 . ón chrích chuirr, Bard. P. 5 . 16 . cathair ch.¤ , IT iii 23.2 . teagh c.¤ colam, IGT Decl. ex. 1343 . .u. claidhim corra catha, BB 273a35 . ar crandaibh camaibh corraibh, IT iii 86 § 91 . mac B. . . . gléchuirr `bright-eminent', Metr. Dinds. iii 272.26 . mac in chleirigh cuirr, AU ii 180.4 `stooped? hump-backed?' Plummer MS notes. fir chorra (of chessmen), Miscell. Celt. Soc. 160.7 . corrmhil c.¤ , IT iii 81 § 59 . a ccomtach a dha ccioch cc.¤ , Ériu iv 55.17 . na ruisg corra chriostalta, Dánta Gr. 13.11 (cf. cuirre). méra corra, IGT Decl. ex. 131 . dá pheinn . . . chuirr, ex. 1101 . pistal cuínge cuírre, IT iii 101 § 181 . fion . . . a cuachuibh corra, Rel. Celt. ii 208.26 . dī chūarán corra, MacCongl. 9.22 . cnóe corra, LL 27688 ( Dinds. 160 ). mínréidh na ród gc.¤ uile, A. Ó Dálaigh liv 2 . leathan thīs ┐ c.¤ t[h]uas (of a drop of milk), B. Fermoy 219b30 cited Duan. F. iii 246 . bainid teas . . . a cnapain corra dib `knobby' (hail- stones), Ir. Astr. Tr. 152.1 .

In more abstract senses: teacht ar druim cuain nó calaidh / ar uair gcuirr níor chleachtabhair, LBranach 6397 perh . `at an untimely hour', Gloss. ? do thréigios geallta corra / ní ghébhainn geall . . . / . . . acht do mholadh, 3406 . caince c.¤ / doní tonn . . . T., Acall. 861 `strange music', Murphy Lyrics 49.10 . laithe corra, TD 18.5 `unsettled', Notes (short?). diebus imparibus . . . .i. is na laithibh corra on odd days, 23 K 42, 57.14 (see subst. use below).

Equat. cuirrither hog luin a di ṡúil, Corm. 36.27 = cuirrit[h]ir, Corm. Y 1059 (91.17) . Compar. cuirre iná c.¤ aurócbála a dhá grúad, Corm. 36.29 . an bhruidhean nach cuirre cnoc, DDána 119.32 . na chíche nach curra an tugh, Rel. Celt. ii 232.10 .

II As subst. ā, [f.] (later somet. o) projecting part, end, corner, peak etc.: barr, críoch, c.¤ , Eg. Gl. 65 . c.¤, adharc, rinn etc., 119 . Used of a wide variety of objects (cf. adj. use supra): co cuirr Chruachain, BS 120.12 . fa cuirr cairrgi, ACL iii 235.20 . san gc.¤ choir(?), apse(?) (of a church), Eochairsg. 113.9 . corra an domhain = ends , Isaiah xli 5 . don chuirr bragat gl. ceruici, Gild. Lor. 133 . do benastar na goithne . . . i c.¤ bragatt na flatha ` nape ', Ann. Conn. 1405.15 . corra braghad `bend of the neck', O'Gr. Cat. 269.13 . re doighteach na naronn ┐ na gc.¤ mbraghad, 23 K 42, 156.6 . saothar mór ar na corraibh braghad, 165.7 (exact sense in pl. not clear). co tuargaib cend ass i coirr a chride (a knife), Fing. R. 328 . gé ro sgoilt cuirr chroidhe, Dán Dé xx 29 . ar chuir mo ghlūin on my knee, KMMisc. 358.23 = chuirr, Gadelica 294.z . corra a n-uillend the points of their elbows, BB 393a12 . ō ch.¤ na huillen go barr an meo[ir] medhoin, O'Mulc. 112 note . cona bachaill . . . cacha bainde . . . noscēed tar a cuirr crook (?), MacCongl. 91.2 . corra in c[h]oicat bachall, Ériu v 28.14 . i corraib bachall `points of croziers', RC xxvi 40.216 (.i. i n-aes graid ┐ i clerchu archena, note). in ferand risin abair c.¤ bachalla (n. loc.?), LB 258 marg. inf. tri mer dua (leg. dia) churr. Mer dia frithchurr. . . lethordlach [leithit a cuil] ar medon trian oca chuirr (a billhook, fidba), O'Curry 883 ( H 3.18, 395a ). a ch.¤ liathroití lubain, IT iii 69 § 12 (2 c.?). c.¤ . . . lamchrann . . . breasdach . . . caomchom (parts of harp), Manners and Customs iii 258 note (refers to violin-type instr., c. the end held against the shoulder, Plummer MS. notes) ` cross tree, or harmonic curve ', Gloss. sccriobhus iad sin a ccuir chruiti, Ériu iv 60 § 49 . Cf. carr. a prora .i. . . . on chuirr thussig prow , Gild. Lor. 49 . in ch.¤ thuisech din churuch sin ┐ . . . in ch.¤ aile the prow, the stern, RC xiv 402 § 9 . leím duine a cuirr a choiti, IGT Decl. ex. 551 . ac cumtach cír im chorraib na luṅgi, LL 30952 (TTr.). ro suigh a cathair cumdachta for curr na halttora, Grail 3397 . ag cuirr dheis na haltóra . . .an churr dheas, Eochairsg. 36.38 (cf. cornu altaris, Du Cange s. cornu ). ar chorruibh bhur naltórach = horns , Jeremiah xvii 1 . c.¤ comdala for dechnaid cumaisc (a metre), IT iii 77 § 43 . ar chuirr sheaghla sheing Sh. hem (?), DDána 99.13 . ? c.¤ laegbili (.i. Oengus) cétáin, ZCP xii 237 § 60 . uaclerigh carbat crin cuirre, IT iii 101 § 181 . is daleic a chuirr fair inna carpat .i. eir for in aile, O'Mulc. 763 . ? i gcórr shliabh (printed as compd.) `mountain pease', Ó Bruad. iii 134.6 .

In phr. céd traiged i tigh C. / ón chuirr go roich a chéle from end to end, Acall. 804 . o chuirr go cuirr, Luc. Fid. 5230 . ón ccorr go chéile, Ezra ix 11 . ón gceann gcurradh go chéile, Trompa na bhF. 204 = de fonds en comble, Gloss.

Note also: c.¤ mór is deich míle much more than, ZCP iii 621 .

In n. loc. Ross dá C.¤ , Metr. Dinds. iii 306.34 . C.¤ Crúadglórach, 40 . co fán Chorra Eidnige, 128.20 (see Notes). hic corraib Edhnecha, BB 367b26 .

See 2 and 3 c.

Compds. With nouns pointed, peaked, sharp etc.: corr-chathbarr, CCath. 4694 . corr-crechda .i. ainm do cnoc bis a n-étan na n-amatán, O'Dav. 518 (a lump or brand (?) on the forehead of a drúth, identifying him as such, CMCS lxvii 55-71 . See crechda). do cheppaib ┐ do chorrḟótaib . . . talman `round sods', RC xiv 416 § 32 . a chliath chorrga, IT iii 88 § 105 ( Bruchst. 17 § 33 ). na corrgabla siúil ┐ na loṅga luchtfethna, LL 22799 (`bent spars of a sail', CRR 11 ). ? corrgubhul .i. craicann gabair, [ut est] broc choel do chorrgubul gabais etc., O'Dav. 366 . ina corrthair chlaidem ┐ chorr-shleag, MR 214. 23 . tre corrsmál teinedh, Ériu v 104.22 .

With corr- in secondary senses: ? in chorrabhall, Acall. 4530 = SG 186.30 dwarf or crab-apple tree = We. corrafallen, KZ xxxviii 462 , ZCP iv 104 . le hecla corrméinee (sic) na sgoile ` ill-will ', O'Gr. Cat. 131.38 . corr-ecor selba `hinausgehendes Einbringen', ZCP xv 246 § 5 , with corr- in sense of odd (of numbers), 248 (see De Bhaldraithe, Éigse viii 244 ). corr-fhocla ┐ coirrlitreacha Gaoidheilge occasional words, Donlevy v 17 . ? in chorrimirchi `the odd drove', Duan. F. iii 18.42 ( Acall. 4978 ). seasca corr-mholt `smooth . . . wethers', Leb. Cert. 62.x . an tIarla do dhol corrshluagh ceandais feadhna with a small army (?), AFM v 1592.3 . C. . . . Corrbacc, IT ii1 181.191 .

With noun forming adj.: nomen do lestur chor[r]thón gl. futilis, Sg. 56b7 (see GOI 220 , Hermathena xcix 52 ).

With adjj. (in some cases dvandva-compds., in others compds. of subst. corr?): for dá n-echaib . . . corrbeca small-muzzled (?), TBC-I¹ 1973 . do chrāib charrbuidi (: glanbuidi), Bruchst. 66 § 150 = carn-, IT iii 99 § 167 . Leaburcam . . . corrchael, BB 257b25 . claidem cruaidh corr-cotut sharp and hard (?), hard-tipped (?), CCath. 5241 . corrderga (horses), LU 6910 ( BDD 51 ). an cíogh coirrgheal, A. Ó Dálaigh xliv 5 . rosc corrglas, BB 427a36 . demun doescair corrlond, IT i 190.16 ( FA 30 LB).

With adjj. derived from nouns: le céibh dtruim gcorramlaigh ` beauteous ', Magauran 922 . a slebh . . . Corrbennach, BB 23b48 . munter Ch. chorr-beraig of the pointed spears, Metr. Dinds. iii 174.82 . a chailleach, a chuirrchennach ` round-headed (?)', BS 72.13 . is sí . . . chorr-chíchech, Metr. Dinds. iv 140.z . tarclaim C. corr-deibig (sic leg.), Metr. Dinds. iv 8.12 `prominent in fight', Notes (coirrdheabhaidh wrongly expld., O'Cl. ). an barr corrgablach (of hair), Ériu iv 218.8 . teóra hingina corrlámacha Cailitín, Comp. CC 88.8 . S. inghean Chorrluirgnigh, ML 32.10 . i ndúin Caisil choirrshleaghaigh of sharp spears, DDána 74.59 .

Other compds. given as separate entries.

dorrda

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dorrda or dil.ie/18405

 

Forms: dorrdha, dorrdha, d.

adj (cf. doirr, 1 dorr) grim, surly: dorrdha sulky, surly, rough, rude , P. O'C. a Mhaelṡeachlaind . . . a chliath chorrgha . . . dorrgha thoghla Teamra, IT iii 88 § 105 . fer duirge d.¤ , Rel. Celt. i 129 . ar fianaibh díana dorrdha, Duan. F. i 12 . gnúisi giolladh nd.¤ , 3 C 12, 250.3 . daosgarshluagh dorrdha . . . deamhan, TSh. 1975 . ar ionchaibh na dáimhe dorrdha díoghaltaighe, AFM v 1618 . gnúis dhordha (tr. vultus torvus), GJ i 353 (Tadg m. Dáire). an diabal as d.¤ dáil, O'Gr. Cat. 628 . Adv. dol a hÉirinn go dorrdha , Duan. F. i 87 . go gruamdha gnúis-dorrdha, AFM vi 2256 . As subst.: d.¤ an bháis the grim terrors of death, Ó Héodhusa 235 .

1 eól

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 eól or dil.ie/20153

 

Forms: iúl, eóil, íuil, iúil

n o, m. later also iúl (confusion of d s. and n s.); gen. eóil, íuil, iúil.

n I

(a) knowledge (of a person or thing); acquaintance (with person or thing); experience (in), skill: eol .i. eolas, O'Cl. i fuithriu aesa iúil seers (?) RC xxvi 26.102 . aingeal dorad a eol damh an angel made him known to me BNnÉ 7.25 . dlighidh eól ar uile chumhachtuibh connsuineadh IGT, Introd. 2.14 . ben nár chuir eól ar an éra who has not learnt to refuse Studies 1920, 419 . sgaraidh remh'eol know me no more BS 16.19 . dorad dó...sgaith a heóil 'sa hionmhuine (poesy to a poet; possibly this is meaning b), Studies, 1923, 422 . dom iúl, ní fhuil...guais is aidhbhsighe so far as I know, to my knowledge TSh. 2091 . Cf. is éraise in rét in tserc | téit a héol cen immitecht (where a he. may mean knowledge of it or out of knowledge, into oblivion; astray) IT i 225.10 , and: romcobrat ar eol, let them aid me for acquaintance sake (?) Moling 48 .

In phrase: is e.¤ dom, I know, am experienced, skilled: in eól dúib a dindṡenchas ? Metr. Dinds. iv 58.2 ; 146.1 . LL 150a49 . as eol dam...cétna breithem ruc in cétbrith, Ériu iv 134.26 ; 136.2 . mas eol do budhen a gabail if he himself knows how to take it Laws ii 18.12 Comm. níor eol dí a cáin do chomhall (of Eve), Dán Dé vii 32 . ní heól do leigheas do dhéanamh = curare nescit TSh. 8172.6466 .

With oc: eól a ḟatha acainne the reason whereof is known to us Metr. Dinds. iv 172.8 .

(b) esp. lore, history (here perhaps: etir sruthu íuil RC xxvi 26.99 ): ceann ar seiniúil `head of our ancient lore' Studies 1920, 98 . innisidh eóil na hÉireann narrator of Ireland's lore TD 3.29 . tobar lomnán d'ḟírṡreibh eóil (of a book of historical tales) 25.28 . ná ceil gach iúl dá n-úarais (to a book stored with various kinds of learning), Studies 1919, 440 .

(c) that which is known or familiar, esp. of places, accustomed surroundings, home: eol .i. gnáth, ut est; ránic coa euol fén an fer | tar gach ler, Imr. Brain i 41 (< Harl. 5280, 49b2 ) = ZCP iv 160 n. 2 . mo brogad ḟor mara mūr | mu c[h]ūl do t[h]ochar frim ēol, ZCP x 45.16 . ni tharga co bráth dia echtra coa eol he will never return home from his adventure Dinds. 97 (= sheol, SG ii 471.41 < LL 170b ). Metr. Dinds. iv 144.10 . ag imsoi dia eol (.i. agh impos ina eol conicce in baile asa tuccad hi) (of a cow which strays back to its former home), Laws v 268.18 ( 25 ). re huaman a himana...da hiul agus da hoirrsleibtib firaicinti fein from fear of being driven from her familiar place and her own kindly mountain pastures (of a cow) YBL 340b30 = Celt. Rev. iv 108.13 . am úathad im eól `I am alone in my home' BS 24.25 . d'iarraidh m'eóil `to seek tidings of me' (to seek my home ?) TD 39.11 . Gen. as attrib.: om íathaib iúil from my homelands Ériu v 209.37 . IT iii 14 § 31 . ar ttaistel iuil is ainiuil [sic leg.] journeying through places known and unknown BNnÉ 199.30 .

Cf. mo disi a n-eol Mumhan (.i. mo bheithsi a n-iath Muimhnech), ZCP v 488.6 . Hence, perhaps: sa glaineól .i. sa glainfheronn, Leb. Gab.(i) i 102 n. 10 .

In npr.: Eochaid Iúil, IT i 220.20 . tír Echach Iuil (eóil ? : sceoil), 217.12 . cneit Echach Iúil (: biuil), 222.16 .

(d) information, direction, guidance; right way: ro imtighset rompa for iul na hingine by the maiden's guidance ZCP iv 383.9 . beir eol d'E... | is an tír guide E. GF, Ir. Monthly 1919, 283 . sa tslighe dhírigh 'na ndál...dorinne an t-iúl guided A. Ó Dálaigh iii 7 . seolais [probably ṡeolas is the right reading] an uile ar an iúl [a n-i. text] in the right path xii 2 . dobhéara ar iúl i 8. clann nach foil ar iúl erring children iii 5 . réadla eoil na hóghachta virginity's guiding star x 2 . gan ḟear n-eoil without a guide vi 4 . Rel. Celt. ii 226.20 . ní cóir an dall gan fear n-iúil, A. Ó Dálaigh vi 3 . do dénoim eoil don fedain | le treoir...ngeinealaig, Hy Fiach. 278.13 . téid a leith eóil na huaime goes in the direction of (?) IGT, Decl. ex. 1165 .

Cf. ní sirthir riamh eól aithnidh, ex. 1299 .

II As adj., knowing, acquainted with, versed in: am eól...in cech airm | 'sin sceól, Metr. Dinds. iii 266.3 . bamsa heól...do sceól in chlíath-átha, 314.3 .

Cf. eol ┐ aneol...eola aneola, O'Mulc. 404 .

1 fál

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 fál or dil.ie/21231

 

Forms: fala, fáltaigib, fáltaib, fál

n o, m. cf. fál o, m. IGT, Decl. § 96 . (orig. neut. ? n p. fala, Laws v 500.9 ). The pl. forms fáltaigib, fáltaib, cited below, are perhaps caused by contamination with 1 búaile (q.v.) which is common in similar contexts. A fence, hedge, enclosure: fál `a hedge' Kirk = Eg. Gl. 334 . domfarcai fidbaidae fál a hedge of trees overlooks me Thes. ii 290.7 . fri frega f.¤ `against the wall-fence' 293.22 ( SP ii 9 ). clár cóir cobsaid ... fal fri fóir forsaid, SR 982 (cf. fal ḟossud 986 ). draighneach bis i fal...`a blackthorn which is in a ... fence' Laws iv 150.11 Comm. felmae quasi fal im bae, ar is fal fedae focorthar ind, O'Mulc. 511 . ro choimhrithsat na huain ar amus a maithrech, ár ní raba fal eatarra, Lism. L. 4847 . ba fal re mbruchtud robarta `a hedge against the swelling of a spring-tide' (of a hopeless undertaking), Cog. 162.22 . focherd-san a ḟál mbodhbha ... i n-imthimcheall ceitri n-ollchóiged nErenn, TBC-LL¹ p. 381 n. 1 , cf. 'na cathchliathaibh ... ┐ 'na faltaighibh bodba umpu, CCath. 2691 (faltaibh v.l. see Compds. below, under -tech). fál catha, CCath. 1722 = moenia clausa ... iuvenum Luc. Phars. iii 373 . fal mara `a sea-wall ' (expl. of Fālgai = Fālchae) Ériu ii 22.11 . fál tonnmhuire 'na thimchioll the billowing sea as hedge TD 28.35 . g s. nach faicci ... inad in fail? `the site of the wall' (of a camp) CCath. 2997 . athnuagugad na mur ┐ tormach na rath ┐ na ḟal (of fortifying Troy) LL 407a42 . d'faltaib in longphuirt, CCath. 5421 . fá na fáltuibh, Luke xiv 23 . do bhris tú a ḟálta uile all his hedges Psalms lxxxix 40 . do phlanduigh ... fíneamhain ┐ do chuir fál uimpe (= saepivit eam) TSh. 10484 . leim tar fal amach a leap over the hedge (i.e. an evasion) Luc. Fid. 286.7 . Often fig.: nai ngrad na gnath-ṡairsi | bud f.¤ fam naomhaib-si, ZCP viii 214.10 . inti scuchas fal dochraite dibh the barrier of oppression Laws iv 376.16 Comm. f.¤ na fírinde, IGT, Decl. ex. 1068 . mar chleathaibh ceangail ar an bhf.¤ bhfírinne se, TSh. 6714 . f.¤ na foghluma, Studies 1924, 89 . na soibhéasa bhíos 'na bhf.¤ timcheall na hanma, TSh. 1469 . ... atáid 'na bhfál re broscar bíodhbhadh, Keat. Poems 35 . In Laws, a legal barrier: cis lir fala for iadat dilse cacha selba, SM Facs. 1a20 (`how many are the bars which shut up the right to every kind of property ?' Laws v 500.9 ). fal fine (.i. inn imi dani in fer fini, etc.) ib. SM Facs. 23 ( Laws v 500. 10 ). muna tuctar, is fal `unless they are given, it is a bar' Laws v 504.5 Comm. fal anfaitcis (.i. ... in ime doni in tí ac na bi faitechus ceille co comlan), Laws v 508.19 . Cf. ZCP iv 227 . fal fingaili (= the murder of a kinsman as an impediment to assuming sovereignty) Leb. Cert. 110.17 .

Compds.: ¤airbe hedge-fence: (fig. of an encircling phalanx) fál-airbi ferrda ... Frangc, MR 214.17 . ¤chip close phalanx: pl. fālchipeada fēigi, 224.6 . ¤ chliath a hurdle: co rallsat ... falcliatha sciach ┐ draigen isin n-āth, Dinds. 61 . ¤dos = a thornhedge: Micah vii 4 . ¤tech (?) an enclosure, pen: alma ┐ éiti ... iarna lecud as a faltaigib ┐ a fidbualtib, LL 265a9 ( MU² 390 ). Cf. CCath. 2691 cited above.

fáth

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fáth or dil.ie/21356
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: fáth, fáth, fáith, fátha, fatha

n u, m. (W. gwawd. Orig. n. ? n s. fáth ngle, LL 17a9 ). fáth (ó dhá chéill) m. IGT, Decl. § 38.12 (g s. n p. fáith, fátha. See fáith).

(a) cause, reason; with subjective sense motive, object , oft. with gen. or folld. by explanatory clause with or without prep.: in cetadbar ... fath ele, PH 7429 . in cétadhbar ... indara fath, Aisl. Tond. 110.4 . fer cotnic brāth ... is les cach fāth, cech forcenn every cause (i.e. origin) and end MacCarthy 24.18 . huair nach toracht trēn in fiach ... is hé fāth in choluim glē | iar sain ro faīdi Noë the reason why N. sent out the dove SR 2599 . cethardai condagar da cech elathain .i. locc ┐ aimser ┐ persa ┐ f.¤ airicc the cause of composition Fél. p. 2 ( LB 75a ). fath airic, Laws i 26.9 . fāth airicc a dēnma .i. do dichor in luin craeis, MacCongl. 3.3 . isse fath a denma (of a poem) Thes. ii 323.4 ( Hy iv pref .). más é is f.¤ molta ... dóibh if that be their matter for praise TD 8.20 . cidh fodera ... ? is é in f.¤ fodera ... this is the reason why ... Laws iv 84.14 Comm. isse fath fodera fochainn an tedma sin `the "causa causans" of that pestilence' RC xvii 416.25 (Tig.). fath fotruair, ZCP vii 305.27 . ro innisemmar in fath ar nách and roadnacht Cormac the reason why C. was not buried there LU 4087 . in f.¤ forar crochad Ísu, PH 2877 . ga f.¤ 'ma ra molais in fer sain ? why did you praise that man? TBC-LL¹ 3343 . ga f.¤ 'ma ra thogais, 3367 . cá f.¤ risi raibe ac fir bunaidh hí for what purpose the owner had it Laws iii 150.8 . ca f.¤ nach filet na demnu fomamaigti?, PH 2798 . cred in f.¤ ara feithim ? why do I wait ? YBL 401a20 ( Dán Dé xxii 4 ). ná habair ... m'ainm nó f.¤ mo shloinnte, Dánta Gr. 95.14 . co nadh fuil fáth h'íca there is nothing to heal thee (no possibility of healing) TBC-LL¹ p. 625 St [cf. under (c) below]. fáth oirbhire ret folt gcas | ní háil re Dia go ndearnas God did not will me to cause reproach to Studies 1928, 674 . ba fiú leis na fátha sin d'ḟuasaoid orra, ML 86.11 . fá hé f.¤ Bhlánaide ris sin, go mbeidis ... B.'s motive Keat. ii 3505 . With prep.: ar fath loitiche ind feoir for the purpose of injuring the grass Laws i 174 Comm. is ar an ḟ.¤ sin onoraighther in sollamain-sea, PH 5425 . ar díb fát[h]aib dorigset a carnd, LU 7034 ( BDD 68 ). ar dá fáthaib ro hordaigedh in tegdais, ZCP iv 239.7 . is fāilidh fiach dā fāth because of them ZCP viii 227.31 . isin fubtadh fo fath marbtha `for scaring for the purpose of killing' Laws i 178.3 Comm. his e Crimthann cinnes dar cach | fri fath fuilech for ends of bloodshed Rawl. 85b35 ( RC xxxvi 263 ). gach f.¤ asa bhfuighbheam neamh `all things by which I may reach heaven' Dán Dé xxvii 33 . ár bhf.¤ tnúidh the cause (i.e., object) of our emulation TD 25.6 .

Cf. aile dáilemhain ... fáth bris a ainm, Ériu xiii 41.8 . cf. bruis .i. soais, ut est fath bruis a ainm, O'Dav. 248 .

(b) subject-matter (of a composition) and in general sense subject, matter, affair: fri fileda fāth | fīu dā macc ḟīal Fedelmthe, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 14 ( Rawl. 124a30 . Meyer compares Welsh gwawd); 'the two noble sons of F. are worth a composition by poets', ZCP xxxi 49 . Freq. in chevilles: fath cen chlith, SR 6879 . f.¤ ngle, LL 17a9 . f.¤ co ngail, 299a4 ( SG 368.4 ). f.¤ cen dochta an inexhaustible theme Metr. Dinds. iii 20.1 . fath gin gheis, ZCP viii 107.16 . f.¤ ro feas `a fact well-known' ML 92.3 .

(c) wisdom, learning; maxims; skill: fath .i. fogluim, unde dicitur faitsine .i. faith, Corm. Y 602 . fath .i. foglaim, ut est ní acrat filid acht a firaib fer fath, O'Dav. 860 (= Ériu xiii 17.26 .) sruaim [sic leg.] co fathaib feith, O'Mulc. 537 (cf. fath .i. fis, ut est sruaim co fathaib feith, O'Dav. 916 ). Cf. fithcill .i. fath-ciall .i. fath ┐ ciall oca imbirt, Corm. Y 607 . fatha felmacc 'a student of wisdom (leech)', Ériu xx 38 § 28 . … fer fatha, Ériu xiii 17.26 .'… of the men of wisdom (learning)', ZCP xxxi 48 . The following seem to belong to this: cétdruí in domuin ri fath fiss, LL 143a50 . co fáthaib fiss `mit Weisheitssprüchen' (maxims of wisdom) ZCP xi 82 § 24 ; fri fáthaib is fri fogail `prepared against ruses and pillage' Metr. Dinds. iii 110.18 . fath ... .i. gliocas, O'Cl. dán ... as fuamḟoirfe fáth whose meaning is perfected in sound (i.e., perfectly expressed) O'Gr. Cat. 392.13 . pl. bam-sa heól, fri fecht fatha, | do sceól chert in chlíath-átha `through lore of battles' Metr. Dinds. iii 314.3 . furiud fáth `succouring sciences' RC xxvi 24 § 88 . tochmarc fáth `wooing science' 22 § 61 . ? fiad fath ` food of learning' 16 § 17 (see 7 fíad). fíad ḟáth 'in the presence of poetic skill', Éigse xxxvii 76 § 3 . ? Eocho flaith na fáth, LL 18a3 .

(d) a composition (?); a maxim, apophthegm (?): fath .i. aisde, O'Cl. Eg. Gl. 308 . `airbhe 'is `fáth 'da ainm d'aside, Metr. Gl., D 52 . cf. ar mo fath .i. ar m'aisti, RC xxvi 24 n. 15 . In composition, gen. in sense (c) with nouns: fáithbéim (a feat of Cú Chulaind) RC xxix 128.5 . Probably a scribal transformation of táithbéim ( LU 5973 . 9293 . 10343 ). ¤bert crafty deed (?): ag feithem ar ḟáthbhertuib Féidlim, ALC i 582.1 = faithbertaib, Ann. Conn. 1316 § 3 (ref. to the proceedings of an enemy). ¤chomairle wise counsel: fathchomairledha fellsam, MR 296.30 . ¤foghloim: (labrait) iarsin rath ┐ iarsin f.¤ , Anecd. v 25 n. 22 . ¤foras: fáthfhoras focal `mystic import of words' (?) Ir. Review 1913, 595 § 11 . ¤gleó: f.¤ feichemnais `recriminating quarrel' MR 298.13 . ¤imbert: ag fáithimirt ar fi[d]chill, Acall. 1387 . ag fathimirt fithcille, Ériu iii 162.10 . ¤rann `a witty stave' (a quatrain constructed with art ?) Triads 89 (.i. rann fáthach, gl.). ? ¤réim (a feat of Cú Chulaind): fáithréim andiaigh do rannaibh slegh, RC xxix 128.6 . Probably corrupt, cf. fonaidm níad for rindib sleg, LU 10344 . ¤rún figurative, mystical meaning: gurab é is f.¤ di (sc. a dream), TSh. 66 .

With adj.: ¤bertach: do roinn sé go f.¤ cách `with fore-sight' (cleverly ?) Duan. F. i 13.27 . ¤chomhairlech wise in counsel MR 214.20 . ¤rannach: ar mo cheird bfathrannaigh (i.e. my poetical calling) ZCP xii 384.5 = Dán Dé xvi 14 . ¤rúnda mystical, figurative: Eochairsg. 28.10 . do-ní Dia bagar go f.¤ san .29. caibidil ag Ieremias, TSh. 7802 .

la

Cite this: eDIL s.v. la or dil.ie/29233
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: le, le, lé, lasin, lasa, laisin, lesin, lasna, laisna, leisna, lemm, lem, leim, limm, lim, lium, liúm, lat, latt, let, letha, leiss, leissem, leissom, less, lessom, lessem, les, lesom, lesem, laiss, laissem, lais, laisem, lais, laisseom, lasim, leis, leiside, lee, l, laee, lǽ, lea, léi-se, lenn, leinn, linn, línn, linni, linnai, liun, liunn, lenne, lib, leu, léu, leo, leö, liom, leam, leat, lat, leis, lais, leis, lé, linn, leinn, leann, libh, leibh, le, liu, lelele, li, lam, lam, láad, lat, lad, lea, lia, l, liar, lasmbi, lastorchair, la, leis

prep. with accus. See GOI § 845 , Fraser, ZCP viii 46 ff . Occasionally with d p. of 1 suide: la suidib, Sg., 4a9 , Wb. 6b17 . 8a12 . 9c2 . 17d11 (but a p. la suidiu, 8a11 . 9b17 ). In IGT listed among the nine unaccented particles which do not cause inflection of masculine nouns ( IGT Introd. § 75 ). See also Magauran 4227 n. For the form in immaille(i) ille(i) see GOI § 44 , § 841 .

FORMS. With follg. noun: le, Cambr. ( Thes. ii 247.22 ). la, O. Ir. glosses and SR pass., also in early Middle Irish MS. texts, and concurrently with le, lé in later ones (le (sic MS.), AU 1085 ). For exx. see citations below. Doubling of follg. m, n, occurs sporadically in the O. Ir. glosses: la mmaccu, Wb. 19c15 . Ml. 49a20 . la mméit, 95d13 . 91c19 . la mmarbu, Wb. 25b22 . la nnech, Ml. 42c13 ; cf. also la gglais, Ardm. 17a ( Thes. ii 238.12 ). In later MSS. h is prefixed to a following stressed vowel. In later lang. also leis before certain proclitics: leis gach fear, TD 9.101 . leis gach neach, DDána 100.1 .

With article: s. lasin, etc. lasin conair, Ml. 45c9 . lasin sruth, Dinds. 52. lasa (n.), LU 10652. laisin, ZCP viii 107.3 . lesin, TBC-LL¹ 2374 , PH 7339. In later lang. leis an ( Dán Dé xviii 10 ). pl. lasna, Sg. 28a18 . Hib. Min. 3.75 . LU 8202. laisna. Ériu iii 140.184 . leisna, BNnÉ 70 § 116 , ZCP v 495.z .

With suff. pron. 1. s. lemm, Wb. 1b10 . 2c27 . 4b17 . 7a3 . lem, 5b31 . 14d16 . leim, Sg. 209b30 . limm, Wb. 19b7 , 23a18 , 23 . 23b34 . 24a27 . Sg. 188a19 . SR 1595. 3353 . lim, Wb. 7d3 . 8a3 , 8c17 . 23a27 . Ml. 55a4 . SR 1201 , 3361 . lium, Wb. 18a1 . Ml. 45c7 . 46c18 . 87b17 . 96a10 . 105b7 . 117d4 . 127c13 . liúm, 106b6 . 2 s. lat pass. in O. Ir. glosses: Wb. 10a10 . 16b11 . 29d18 , etc. Ml. 65a2 . 73a10 , 111a5 , etc. Sg. 215b5 . SR 1757. 2443 . latt, Bvi 74. let, SR 1593. 3 s. m. and n. Archaic (m.) letha, ZCP xx 401.8 ( GOI § 433 ) leiss, Wb. 6b8 , 16 . 14a22 . Sg. 29b12 , 13 , 19 . 61a16 . 93b8 . leissem, Sg. 10a11 . 28a18 . BCr. 32a5 , 32b6 . leissom, Wb. 33a2 . less, Wb. 6b21 , 26a8 . Ml. 35d24 . 71c12 . 129a9 . lessom, Wb. 10a14 , 24a17 . Ml. 47d2 , 131c14 , 132c6 . lessem, Sg. 77b6 . les, Wb. 10a2 , 32c2 . Ml. 18b1 , 34c17 , 55c1 . lesom, Ml. 18c6 , 23b12 , 53a1 , etc. lesem, Ml. 50b10 . laiss, Wb. 24b27 . SR 5791. laissem, Sg. 149b4 . lais, Sg. 153b7 . laisem, 158b6 . lais, SR 639 , 1631 , 2185 , 2591 , 2799 , 4969 . laisseom, LU 1425. lasim, Mon. Tall. 138.15 . leis, Sg. 111a3 , 202a7 . SR 637 , 2791 , 4971 (: geis), 630 . leiside, LU 1418. 3 s. f. lee, Sg. 167a4 . LU 3882. l, Laws ii 372.5 . laee, Wb. 14a37 . lǽ, 24d11 . lea, SR 3016. léi-se (: éise), Dán Dé ii 24 . 1 pl. lenn, Wb. 4a27 . SR 1615. leinn, GOI § 433. linn, Wb. 13b9 , 18a16 , etc. Ml. 30a2 , 5 . Sg. 198a6 , 207b11 . línn, Wb. 25a27 . linni, 4c23 . Ml. 26b6 , 10 . 30c3 . Sg. 149b7 , 160b2 , 207b9 , etc. linnai, Ml. 92c5 , 120b2 . liun, Ml. 89d6 . liunn, 112b13 . lenne, LU 1387. 2 pl. lib, Wb. 5a13 , 5d33 , 7d3 , 26a9 , etc. Ml. 115b10 . 3 pl. leu, Wb. 1d15 , 5d20 , 26d22 , etc. Ml. 3a6 , 14 . 33c13 , 35c23 , 43d1 , 102c8 , 139c3 , etc. léu, Wb. 30c11 . leo, 7d10 . Sg. 148b9 . 147a10 , 203a4 , etc. leö (disyll.), Blathm. 102 § 41. Archaic(?) lethu, Thes. ii 241.4 , Hy. ii 17 (see notes). Otia ii 86.8 ( GOI 52.3 ). For classical verse the forms given in the tracts are: liom leam leat lat leis lais (m.) leis (n.) lé linn leinn leann (lionn `lochdach') libh leibh le, 24 P 8, 194 (see also 190 , 218 ) = Bard. Synt. Tr. 7 ; cf. lionn: cionn, O'R. Poems 308. liu, Luc. Fid. 3212 .

With aile: lelele, Wb. 16c24 . li alaile, GOI § 845.

With possessives. 1 s. lam menmuin, Wb. 3d13 . lam' rig, SR 336. 627 . 2 s. láad muindtir, Mon. Tall. § 6 . lat tarb, LL 7644 . lad gráin, BDD² 1500 . 3 s. and pl. lea, Thurn. Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 37 § 5 . lia muntir (3 s. m.), Thes. ii 249.9 . lía mathair, SR 2828 . lia n-athir, Ml. 127b2 . lea hanāil, LU 10599 . le a, Ériu ix 164 § 17. l, Content. ii 15 . le athair, DDána 65.31 . lá olc, LU 1390 . la náimtiu (3 pl.), LL 260b33 (Lg.). lea fuaire . . . lena thes, Maund. 136 . lena choin, Feis Tighe Chonáin 757. So also TSh. 1 pl. lar tir, Ériu iii 136.44 . liar, GOI § 845.

With rel. In O. Ir. las(a) n-: lassa ndenatar, Ml. 84a11 . lasa ndernad, Thes. ii 289.5 . lasa mbiat, Ml. 75b2 . lasmbi, 24a19 . lastorchair, ZCP viii 302.20 . lasra chētgabtha, 303.1 . Later forms: le ndingnad, PH 7526 . le ffaicfe, BNnÉ 74 § 133 . lea ttuitionn, Párl. na mB. 1207 . le gcurthaoi, Ériu i 101.7 . le a ndamnuighthear, Luc. Fid. 2989 . le ar chuireas, ML 110.4 . lé 'r-buail, PH 7653 . lé n-ar chuiris, Párl. na mB. 907 . Note also: leis a mbí, Bard. Synt. Tr. 4. lé n-a n-oiltior, Párl. na mB. 917 . With copula: O. Ir. la sin(n), Ml. 53c16 , 129b3 , 131d11 . Later: an fear lena holc ┐ lenab olc ┐ len holc . . . an fear le nach olc ┐ leis nach olc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 25 ( leis nach beag, DDána 37.4 ). learbh annsa, Feis Tighe Chonáin 762 . na fir len leis an fearann, Bard. Synt. Tr. 26. (cryptic) loiscia .i. liath (? = lia 'with his' etc.) Goid. § 163 (Dúil Laithne) , ZCP xlix-l 612 . losca (? MS. losco) .i. leo 'with them' Goid. § 181 , ZCP xlix-l 612 .

In a number of idioms used concurrently with FRI, which it to a large extent replaces in the modern language.

MEANINGS.

I Denoting spatial proximity

(a) beside, by, touching : dollécet a láma la tóeb fochetóir, LU 8212 ( FB 16 ). amal roboí . . . laa and la toíb ind locha, LL 14439 ( Ériu v 208 ). snidig banna la taeb na columa medonchi in cech aimser, PH 6356 . trí chéad each le gcurthaoi srian, Ériu i 101.7 ( co n-allaib óir friu, LL 13246 ). a uille do leicen leiss to rest his elbow upon it, Fl. Earls 216.26 . gur léig a leathcheann lé a leathbhrollach, PCT 557 ( Gadelica 127 ). dia mbúi fecht lasan muir amuich go bfacuidh an días Erionnach dia ḟios, Ériu iv 63.26 (here the pseudo-archaic `lasan' may be a scribal affectation). ar bhfaicsin déar le a gruaidh, DDána 69.11 . Cf. beith le remonstrating with: dob é rún Ríogh . . . , beith léise ar lot na habhla, DDána 5.25 . Cf. FRI I (b).

(b) along by (see also I (d) below): flesc for dib ṅgablaib lasin conair immetiagat do erissem dia lethlaim furi a railing along the way they go on which to rest a hand, Ml. 45c9 . a sescunn da cor la descert léni la fur conrici hucht noi nomne `from the Moor of two Hillocks by the south of the meadow, by Fur as far as the Nine-Trees Hill', Thes. ii 238 ( Ardm. 17a ). ótha crích drommo nit cu glais tamlachtae dublocha la gglais cu grenlaich fote `from the border of Druim Nit to the stream of T.D. by the stream to G.F.' ib. le hairer nÉrenn, BDD² 253.

(c) along with, in the same direction as; in motion with: luid leo fades, Thes. ii 240.18 ( Ardm. 18a ). luid espscop fith leo for longis, ib. do thuidecht lat illei, Wb. 30b17 . ar tuidecht leu do brith macc nIsrahel i ndoiri for coming with them to carry the children of Israel into captivity, Ml. 113c8 . in gilla do thecht . . . / le . . . istech talman, SR 3196 . is amlaid tánic A. ┐ a tri meic les, LU 17. do hindled a carput forsna heocha ┐ nusfaīdhe pātric cen duine leo cu feótur ina dísirt la Mochtae, ZCP viii 106.24 . tairsiu féin lat tarb, LL 7646 ( TBC-LL¹ 106 ). ní regat lend they shall not go with us, LU 4632 . ticfaitis fosta fer Fernmaige leiss, TBC-LL¹ 833 . tánic ┐ cóeca ingen lee connici in comdáil, LU 3882 ( SCC 39 ). tanic . . . co n-epscopu ┐ braithri imda lais, PH 1587 ; cf. a taidchrec co sommataid ┐ setaib leu, Ml. 123c10 . do ruacht fer . . . sin tech ┐ fer fo lind leis, LL 7672 ( TBC-LL¹ 135 ). dochóid F. lasin n-athesc sin F. went with that reply, LU 8099 . is é seo mo chétḟechtsa latsu bud é mo ḟecht dedenach, LL 8599 ( TBC-LL¹ 1207 ).

(d) following the course of, secundum (flumen): lotar lasin sruth gó a bunad, Dinds. 52 ( BB 377a41 ). o indill Laeg in gae Aife / lesin t-ṡruth, TBC-LL¹ 2373 . is ann luidhes lasin mBoind sair, ZCP i 464.24 . rosnaid Osine in snaschur ┐ focheird e la sruth na tiprat co hAth na Feile, Dinds. 52 = BB 377a38 . ba sed comarc boi eturra, tomlacht na mbo do lecun lasin sruth, cor'bo find in glaisi in a ndocum, Dinds. 53 ( BB 378a38 ) = ra doírt . . . blegon . . . lasin ṅglassi, LL 169b53 . (cf. Ériu ii 22 , Keat. ii 226 . lasin sruth is represented in the first by: iarsan abaind, in the second by: ris an sruth, see FRI II).

(e) with, in the company of: conrobith i n-indocbáil la Crist `so that ye be in glory with Christ', Wb. 26a28 . attrab la Dia `to dwell with God', Ml. 92a9 . ciatasode lat ar écin `though thou keep her with thee perforce', Wb. 10a10 . nepproinde la geinti `of not dining with Gentiles', 19a10 . bes nobed nech aile leis ocind airchellad, Sg. 202a7 . bíad ind nim láad muindtirsiu `they shall be in heaven along with thy monks', Mon. Tall. 6 = fa re do mhuinntire si, Rule of Tallaght 40 . dubbert Pátricc cumtach du Fíacc . . . ┐ fácab morfeser lais dia muintir, Thes. ii 241.17 ( Ardm. 18a ). ainfa lib `I will tarry with you', Wb. 14a8 . corran célide libsi, 7a17 . congab iar suidiu i nDomnuch Féicc et baí and contorchartar tri fichit fer dia muintir lais and `after this he set up in D.D., and abode there until three score men of his community had fallen there beside him', Thes. ii 242.2 ( Ardm. 18a ). conna hacced nech leo hí that no one might see her with them, LL 260b13 ( LMU 11 ). In sense of alone . dob annamh thusa leat féin thou wert seldom alone, KMMisc. 346.8 . (see further Éigse viii 101 ). focal leis féin a word in its own right, a self-contained word (distinguished from a mere prefix such as comh- deagh-, etc.), IGT Introd. § 100 . See Celtica i 390 . In special sense: ni legend rollegusa la Petor `it is not a reading which I have read with Peter', Wb. 19a6 (cf. V (e) below). mosaithin aicce í / do lēigenn lē entrusted her to her to study with her, ACL iii 308 vi 9 .

(f) with , of mental relations and abstract qualities or notions; in some exx. assistance is implied: ls leu dorignius chomgnimu studivi innocentibus coniungi, Ml. 47a20 . socii .i. fodaimet immalle lium ón ┐ con dogailsegetar lium immalle dano `who endure along with me, and who also are sorrowful along with me', Ml. 87b17 . dia feidliged ires foirbthe leu, 136d2 . frithbruduth ointad la fírianu `refusal of oneness with the righteous', 76c4 . contísed P. do thoorund a luic lais, Thes. ii 242.7 ( Ardm. 18b ). gorb'é bés bfer nErenn beith leisan tí budh treisi to side with him who was strongest, Expugn. Hib. 74 . do thabhairt a lla baige leou, Ann. Conn. 52.12 . níl aoinfer ar in sgelsa leis, Rel. Celt. ii 293.28 . guidhim sibhsi fa beith lium uma cend I pray you to aid me concerning it, Fier. 96 . guidim sib fa cend beth lium im cach ní I beg you to side with me, 122 . With ellipse of verb: guidhim liom . . . / an chéad míle mairtíreach, Dán Dé xxv 62 . gā tarbha an béal do bheith lais / san inntinn ina éagmhais, xxii 20 . an lucht do-beir iad féin do shainnt an tsaoghail . . . óir saoilid go mairfeadh sin leó do shíor, TSh. 220. feib atré in mac bec atresat a gníma oclachais leis, TBC-LL¹ 985 . teid in ingen co n-ēgaīne moir lé dochum a hathar, RC vi 174.16 . scela lat hast thou news ? LU 7987 ( BDD 166 ). ZCP xiii 177.15 . dochóid F. lasin n-athesc sin F. went with that reply, LU 8099 ( FB 7 ). an teachtaire tig le haitheasgaib Dé, Dán Dé xiv 26 . an toisg lér chuirios iad the errand on which I sent them, ML 110.4 . abradh fris conā tardad gráin na hirfuath leis ina dochum, ACL iii 5.8 . cona gabur . . . e can fir De lais, Laws iv 294.20 . dá gcaitheam thú leis an toil if I consume Thee with (sinful) desire in my heart, Dán Dé xviii 10 . Also in spite of: ní léigfiom úainn . . . / le a bheirt . . . nglanmháilligh . . . / an sduaigh I will not let the chieftain go, for all his suit of polished mail, Ériu ix 164 § 17 .

(g) with, in custody of, at the disposal of; carried or worn by: fodord doib di dommatu ┐ dufuairthed ní leu forasaith din main, Ml. 97d10 . fáccab Áed aidacht la Conchad, Thes. ii 242.20 ( Ardm. 18b ). admuiniur in slánicid foracab dian cecht lia muintir, Thes. ii 249.9 . co lóg leu á fognama hiro-batar di mainib inna n-egiptacdae, Ml. 84c12 . mar aes mbraith . . . / cen scribenn lib, SR 3479 . gaisced lasin n-íngin, LU 4522 . claidib gelduirn léo, TBC-LL¹ 175 . is leis . . . frith escra na E., SR 3592 . ra leiced Fer loga . . . siar dia bliadna ┐ da gabair Conchobair leis, LL 13246 ( Sc.M² 20 ). doriacht Niall immach ┐ in indeoin cona cip lais, RC xxiv 194.6 . rofhóid . . . a gilla, ┐ a bréit allais lais, airm a mbói, PH 2193 . is amlaid tancatar, co slogu mora ┐ co n-ascadaib examla leo, LB 198b27 ( PH 6972 ). co n-imat piast . . . co mellaib dergaib umaide leo ina lámaib, PH 8312 . ni dlegait lōn leo for sét / . . . acht an ccéin rabhaitt amuigh / rī Érenn da bhfriothāilimh, ZCP viii 116 § 12. Common in this sense with beirid and do-beir (q.v.): an rí chondaigi hi foss / manimbera latt ní fogbai, Thes. ii 296 . iarsindí dunnucsat i ndoiri leu `after they had brought us into captivity with them', Ml. 92d1 . manimbera su latt if thou dost not carry me off, LL 260a43 ( LMU 9 ). do bert a chend ┐ a fodb lais, LU 5144. co ructáis a chend leo, TBC-LL¹ 1433.

(h) along with, and, in addition to, as well as: la cach cuimliucht ol chenae gl. hoc reliquis quoque commodis iungetur, Ml. 112c9 . ni lour in degforcitlaid maní be indithem leir . . . lasin `withal', 53c18 . tórmaig la cach maith dubir dúnni ar ṅglanad hua . . . chomroircnib gl. adde ad augmentum benignitatis tuae ut ab errore nos convertas, 105d4 . la sassad inna n-anmandae gl. et quod est amplius post expletionem . . . animantium, 129d16 . is airi nistabur la k ┐ q gl. h . . . aspirationis est magis nota, Sg. 4b13 . lasin ngutai inna degaid, 7b6 . co ndechatar [int sailm] mudhaigh hi tempal lasind canoin ol chena, Hib. Min. 7.210 (`they were lost in the Temple with the rest of the Canon', Strachan, RC xxviii 203 ). int[ṡ]ailim lasna noibscribhinna atarimim `I reckon the Psalms with the Sacred writings', Hib. Min. 3.75 . ataruirmiset la gerind `they have reckoned them (i.e. participles) with the gerund', Sg. 188a1 . biit remsuidigthi uaraib cen briathra leo, 215a6 (cf. friu in similar sense, 5). sens magis ┐ posit leiss `the sense of magis and with it the positive', 39a29 . atá dechor n-aimsire hi suidib la cumscugud coibedne, gl. etiam in prima persona habent differentias temporum, 146b15 . da cet mile . . . / la tri cethair cethrachat, SR 116 . tricha lathi . . . / la dech n-úara ┐ lethuar, 225 . immon Michil lasin crosfigill so, immon Muiri lasind crosfigell n-aile, Mon. Tall. 28 . masui dina[i]p Psalmaibh [in tituil] cid arna gabtair leu ? Minip dinaib psalmaib, cid ar[a]scriphthair leu?, Hib. Min. 7.230 . gaibti seom tra teora biadi ┐ magnificat la cach naí, Mon. Tall. 5 . ronbiat da tír lar tír we shall have two countries in addition to our own, Ériu iii 136.44 . bennacht fort . . . la céol nimhe deit dara éisi, BNnÉ 92 § 202 . co ndechaid [in rí] docum ithfrinn . . . la dilsi a thire do Senán ó sin amach, Lism. L. 2328 . condasloic . . . lasa loim gabais asind lestur swallowed her along with the draught, LU 10652 . atat sin sin duma . . . / iii. meic ríg . . . / la tri ingena, 2866 . See also s.v. taeb (la, fri, t.). In leiss (etc.) also; either : ind indocbál doratad do Crist condartar dúnni less gl. coheredes autem Christi, si tamen compatimus ut et simul glorificemur Wb. 4a18 is possibly an early ex. of this (cf. ZCP xvii 223 ). sine é sin ná tusa ┐ na mise leis, Celt. Rev. ix 142.25 (text and MS. late). rachaidh leis féin ar foghuil / raghaidh leis le féin bhFuinidh will go also, Bard. Synt. Tr. 8.10 . lais in this meaning forbidden, ibid. ? ré bliadhna ┐ beagán lais, TD 15.10 .

(i) with, assisting, on behalf of: ar debaid . . . leis fri Senach, LU 3342 ( SCC 13 ). dena ernuighthi leamsa curab reidh dham dhul, Lism. L. 1560 (= ora pro me, Lat. Lives 82 ). ro ghabh B. pater leis, Lism. L. 1566 (= orante B. pro eo, Lat. Lives 82 ).

II Of temporal relations.

(a) Marking point of time, coincidence of occurrence or action. Of point of time: is gnád bróen . . . oca turcbáil ┐ lia fuined, BCr. 18c2 . dognisom ind figild la matain `he performs the vigil at matins', Mon. Tall. 30 (= ar maidin, Rule of Tallaght 96a ). la turcbáil ṅgréne at dawn, TBC-LL¹ 634 . la fuinead ṅgréne, Ériu iv 138.24 . PH 5108. la fescor, PH 1699 . ro imthig reme la doshoillsi na maitne, Grail 1324 . ni tigdis acht le deghdil (= dedail) laoi nó le tosach seachdmuine, ZCP x 291.16 . Cf. la linn (3 linn). Of actions: cóichet na heichsi a gilli for se la fegad co andíaraid fair, LU 8522 ( FB 38 ). la fuirmed in mátan fair, LU 8545 ( FB 40 ). gairfitit . . . le guth a Dūileman (sic leg.), ZCP viii 212.22 . adbered-seom iarum la déicsiu in chuaich . . ., Ériu i 46.11 . tinoilis T. a muintir . . . fo cetoir la hairiugud Cesair cuige, CCath. 3735 . forba ┐ crich do dul for in forbunn rechtaide la tuidecht soscela, PH 3450 . rogab . . . imecla Sir Persaual la faicsin inn eich, Grail 1974 . Freq. in la sin and esp. la sodain with that, immediately, thereupon : dofeccai secha a gabuir . . . lasin donic in gabuir chuci, LL 14155 ( RC iii 184 ). See 1 sin. colláa th'ais tra ol sesem . . . La sodoin fochedoir slechtais C., Mon. Tall. 7 . la sodain téit úad, LU 6100 . ni thó or seiseom. La sodain focheird bedg cuce, LL 260a41 ( LMU 9 ). See 1 suide. Note also: cani du pater fothrí lase thereat, Thes. ii 249.3 . leis sin thereupon, TSh. 364.

(b) This sense sometimes merges into that of III (a); cucut . . . thánac do nim / la forngairi De, SR 1696 . luid for muir . . . lá forcongra Pátraic, Trip.² 2633 . do choid ass . . . in draicc iar sin la brethir in apstail, PH 2505 (cf. soithis A. fri brēithir a mathar, Cáin Ad. 8 . issí . . . rotathbēogadh . . . fri brathair nA., 10 ). rofacsat i n-aenla i la clois[t]eacht Cesair amain `merely on hearing of C.', CCath. 815 . ro eirigh an ben iar sin lé haithne Maodócc `at the command of M.', BNnÉ 218.28 . attracht in duine . . . la cloisteacht in sceōil `on hearing the story', Fl. Earls 194.1 . Cf. VI (b).

(c) during : dogéna sibh an caiscc si mara ndernabhair hí leisna secht mbliadnaibh ele si, BNnÉ 70 § 116 . ni lamar la graifne in gáid / élud, aithne, athgabáil, Metr. Dinds. iii 18.223 . lé ló in his time Content. ii 15 (cf. réd lá, xxiii 4 . rem lá, ACL iii 304.20 ). le haimsir, Párl. na mB. 17 . This use seems confined to later texts and is probably derived from FRI IX (b) q.v.

III

(a) on account of, because of, by reason of (see also II (b) last para., and FRI IV (b)): ní aicci ní lia mescai `he sees nothing for his drunkenness', Ml. 94c3 . gabail mo gotha dim la mméit inna nimned forodamar, Ml. 95d13 . ingnad lesom cutuim doib lammeit inna soinmige hirobatar, Ml. 91c19 . co mbo nem tened indala leth dind rígthig lasna claidbiu ┐ la fáebra na ngái, LU 8202 ( FB 15 ). lasin siabrad ro síabrad immi, LU 9143 ( FB 88 ). ce do faidsad snathat for lar . . . rocluinfide lasin tuí imbítis, LL 12557 ( Ériu iv 30 ). co mboi C. oc sirchuí lásin ngolltraighes, RC vi 183.16 . ba failid lais labra fris la somillsi a indsci, Grail 2187 . gu ro facsat sruithi . . . a n-istuda . . . la homun Cesair, CCath. 772 . ba huathad ro ela dib la f[a]ebra ┐ tennti ┐ biasta what with blades and fires and wild animals, few of them escaped, PH 6326 . le [a] mhéd rachas da ríodhún / a n-íobha slógh mear Mumhan / budh hól gan fear n-ealudhan, Ériu v 54.30 . Cf. II (b). ar ecla Chuind ┐ la hecla rīg Ulad, ZCP viii 274.25 . techit la crith ┐ omon Meic C., LU 7237 `with trembling and terror of Mac C. they flee', BDD 90 . tobur nach etir le duine . . . d'ol lea ḟuaire a ló ┐ lena thes a n-oidhchi, Maund. 136 . ní caomhnactar a feughadh . . . leis na ruithnibh diághadha, ZCP v 495.z . le na fad liumsa co faca tusa anocht, docuadhus . . . gut' iaraid, ZCP vi 66.21 . ni cumgat ni la Mac nDe, Anecd. iii 55.27 . nir ḟētsat in tech d'fāgbāil la daingne an iadhtha bái fair, Irish Texts i 42.10 . níorbh iongnadh le méad a sluaig ar ngéill do Chian it was no wonder we submitted to C., considering the size of his army, Ériu i 93.18 . tic la egsamlacht an inaid . . . examlacht an blassa (o, a, v.l.), Ir. Astr. Tr. 40.11 .

(b) In the following exx. the notions of purpose and instrument are more prominent; through the agency of, by means of: in tan scaras fria thola leo `when by means of them he separates from his desires', Thes. ii 247.7 (Cambr. Hom.). am dechaid a trian sin la bruith `when that third had boiled away', Mon. Tall. 52 . dolduid bannan bec bec as lasind fascad fottai `by reason of the long squeezing', 61 . rogabtha a cossae cona dernae figild rée mor ria necaib lasind forcrid dorigni dia naild, 34 (= ar an iomarcaigh dorighne se cheana, Rule of Tallaght 103 ). Cf. nombeir fort muin connesbiur dich latt take me on thy back that I may get (lit. drink) a drink with (by means of?) thee, RC x 214.z . gach paiter dar gabus riam lesin mbelsin, PH 7339 . is í so in t-ochtmad plág lér buail Dia Faró, 7653 . gach ní at-chluinim leis an gcluais, Dán Dé ix 6 . in spreid la ndíngned nech a bethugud, PH 7526 . clann do dhénuimh . . . dhi / le féghuin an éoin eile, IGT Decl. ex. 496 (= ar fēgad, ACL iii 238 ). rostad a n-éisg doníd ar chlochaib leisan grēin, Maund. 49 . maothuighthear í . . . le fothrogadh fola do thabhairt dí, Mac Aingil 306 . dogheba sibh . . . soinean maith le ffaicfe sibh an t-oilén so, BNnÉ 74.9 . geas do bhí ar an sleigh sin . . . gan bainéacht do dhéanamh lé, Keat. ii 4390 . an t-urchar . . . ler thuit morbhar G., Rel. Celt. ii 194.13 . ag gáire le guth mór, Dán Dé xxix 5 (cf. ro nuall o guth mor, PH 2898 = do éigh do ghuth ard, Matthew xxvii 46 ). Of persons: dochotar martra la heachtrandu, YBL 12a28 . ata Muma lais i ssíd through him M. is at peace, LL 19073 . tairthe na bhfeadh leat do lúb, L. Cl. A. B. 234.6 . Cf. II (b).

(c) Of accompanying circumstance or condition; contemporary action: nach comai[r]le . . . dognither la fortach[t] Dae is bithsuthin adae, Ml. 51b28 . ar bá fio factus sum dogéni prius; suffio sufiui immurgu la cumscugud n-inne, Sg. 185b4 . ní choímnacair a fogbail lá doirchi na aidchi, Trip.² 1446 (126) . focheird deit chubus . . . la slemni `send him away from thy confession gently', Mon. Tall. 2 . a mesrugud do neuch tra buddesin la eolus ind fita, 63 . ni aurcail dano laisiom do neoch cid chodala a lórtid acht rop la forcomet na trade colleir `provided that he diligently observe the hours', 82 . praind do tomailt la marb hi tig to eat a meal whilst in a house where there is a dead man, 65 . dá ndeach le bás mbeannaighthe, Studies 1918, 282 § 16 . isin rainn is nesam do dochuaidh la cundtabairt he goes (lit. has gone) to the next division to it by reason of the doubt, Laws iv 192.7. Comm . do-chúaidh an gort san choll go ndearna an tsoil .g. aris de la a bheith bog na choll chumuisg (i.e. g + c = cc but s + cc = sg), IGT Introd. § 30 . gan duine . . . do dol faoi . . . acht le custam do dhīol, Fl. Earls 90.4 . caith le daondacht a bhfoighe, O'Gr. Cat. 29.5 . dochuir urnaighthe diochra go Dia . . . gidh edh nir treicc . . . a troim-easlainte leissin hé for all that, BNnÉ 275 § 257 . Cf. la dēcim felmac (.i. is amlaid ataciim conid mac foglamma) `according to what I see (he is only) a pupil' RC xxvi 14.12 . ( Rawl. 108a5 .)

(d) Expressing purpose with follg. vn.: lé a congbháil ó fhéin fhuinidh `to guard it', TD 10.16 . ní le rádh uirre is iomdha (of Jerusalem), 17.25 . la furtacht d'faghail in order to get help, Stair Erc. 78 . ar an leabhar . . . noch atā le taisbēanadh, Párl. na mB. 133 .

IV Expressing agency by, by the hands of, by direction or order of.

(a) With pass. verb. dogéntar aidchumtach tempuil less, Wb. 26a8 . congabtis gabala linn, 19a4 . a molad . . . lúaidfidir láedib limmsa `it will be sung in lays by me', Thes. ii 295.7 (Cod. S. Pauli). indí lassandenatar inna cumtach `those by whom the ornamentations are made', Ml. 84a11 . gabthe dunad les fris `a camp was pitched by him (Saul) against him (David)' Ml. 55c1 . dichossecrad inna cathrach conrotacht la duaid `of the consecration of the city that was built by David', 48d27 . conoscaighther du scath immut la cumscugud inna grene gl. sicut umbra corpus sequitur et conversionibus solis inflectitur, 118c12 . amal asrobrad leusom, Ml. 37b24 . oroit ar Thurcain lasandernad in [c]hrossa, Thes. ii 289.5 . oroit . . . do Flaund . . . do rig Herenn lasandernad a cumddachso (i.e. to whose order?), 11 . ised canir leisim, Mon. Tall. 131.11 . rothinolad lais . . ./ na fuair frisna secht ṁbliadnaib, SR 3393 . díaro sáertha na mná la Adomnan ┐ la Fínnachta Fledach, la ríg nÉrend, ┐ la mathib hErend ar chena, LU 2258 ( FA 32 ). do toglad in dun la Coin Culaind, RC vi 184.28 . Tigernmas . . . / leis ro berbad . . . méin óir a tús i nHerind, LL 2046 (cf. is aciside doronta ilbrechta i n-étaigib, 2037 ). darónad urgnam bíd ┐ lenna leo, TBC-LL¹ 811 . ro alt la Conchobar, LL 260a11 ( LMU 6 ). C. . . . lasrachētgabtha comgni, ZCP viii 303.1 . rohailed in mac sin la Cathbad, RC vi 178.129 . Marchelli din . . . is lais do-ronad leiges in abbad, PH 555 . gabthar Ailill la hÉ., RC xxiv 186.2 . a chlár . . . ler cabhradh cách, DDána 2.6 . Sometimes with ellipsis of the verb: ni do chach la Meidb in lind dálter for Fer ṁbáeth, TBC-LL¹ 2167 = ni do chách berar la Meidb, TBC St. 1926 . lechtain le Pedar / isan offrend ard uasal the lectio was introduced by Peter, ZCP viii 115 § 31. Frequ. with impersonal forms of intransitive verbs: dutiagar leu du failti fris[i]n ríg, Ml. 116b5 . dochuas (docuas v.l.) limsa chuici I went to it, Ériu iv 134.11 . cid fa bfuilter damsa lib what do you want from me, TBC-LL¹ 2261 . sciobadh na miasa . . . is trialltar leo tar sleasaibh an mhúir amach, Keat. iii 1012 .

(b) Denoting agent after vn. or an appellative so used: tri óenpheccad la Adam, Wb. 3a5 which could also be rendered one sin of Adam's. Cf. VI (a). conaroib diupart neich lelele `so that there be no defrauding of one by another', 16c24 . connabí asse a aicsin leu `so that it is not easy for him to be seen by them', Ml. 116a1 . Cf. cid fodruair latsu . . . mo dímiadsa fiad andrib, LU 3901 ( SCC 41 ). ba ferr a comaitecht . . . oldaas a tuitim la náimtiu, LL 260b33 (Lg). dogniat nuallguba . . . ic a riagad la drungu demnu, PH 8316 . cúirt . . . ag a cor suass lesin diūc, Fl. Earls 78.35 . Here may be assigned the type: ni sí ar sercc less `that is not the love He hath for us', Wb. 4b16 . méit for serc lemsa, 14d16 . Cf. 23a27 , 25a27 , 27d8 . ara seirc lind because I am so fond of her, Fing. R. 392.

(c) Denoting agent after active verb, at the hands of: cutrummae neich forodamair som leu `the same measure as he had suffered at their hands', Ml. 54b28 . Cf. maided fair lib `let him be routed by you', Wb. 7a4 . rombith lat . . . a lestar give me the vessel, Irish Texts i 11.2 . cach la tan ba leo. tan aile ba forro, LU 223 . co torchair .l. leis cona ḟiaclaib, LL 14054 ( RC iii 181 ). fuair bás na chomland chatha / la D., Arch. Hib. ii 85 § 41 . dáig ni bam béo meni thaeth cara nó náma limm, TBC-LL¹ 669 . táet a bás lim, 907 . mad dia tóetsad latt, 2088 . E. lastorchair C., ZCP viii 302.20 . tuitfe tú liomsa, Duan. F. ii 256 § 31 . is lais tra forodamair in martrasa, lasin forcongarthid . . . Datianus, PH 1109 . o atchualaid tra Dioclian . . . in bisech bui for in cristaigecht lais (i.e. Paphnutius), 539 .

(d) With neg. vb. denoting preventive agent: mainbad tairbad bāis . . . / lem ni bud fien cen dīgail, Fianaig. 10.18 .

V In at, among, with (apud, chez, bei).

(a) Of locality or population-group: ucc domnuch mar criathar la auu censelich in Uí Ch. Thes. ii 241.6 ( Ardm. 18a ). la laigniu `in Leinster', Thes. 241.16 (ibid.). Raith Cathbaid .i. la Cruithintuaith Raith C. in the country of the Picts, RC vi 175.38 . Cf. la di[a]mair a inchlidi som gl. apud arcanum virtutis suae, Ml. 53a5 . nach loinges roḟitir E. la hEirind, Ériu iii 138.103 . érlamae Cille F. la Áu Amalgada, Trip.² 1540 . Mag Ṡeired la Tethba. Mag Tochair i Tir Eogain, LL 626 . Ui A. la Muaidh `on the Moy', Hy Fiach. 4. Cf. nach namae ro bói lia n-athir `any enemy that their father had', Ml. 127b2 . is de atā Trāig Ési la hUltu, Ériu i 118.35 . Crimthann la Hū Maine, ACL iii 308 § vi 1 . la hErinn huili throughout Ireland, RC iii 345.6 .

(b) Referring to persons or peoples generally: bat he berte bretha lib `let it be them who give judgements among you', Wb. 9c12 . lia muntair `among his household', Ml. 71c16 . no cainte tobchetal leusom hi tosuch cech mís, 102c8 (or to be referred to IV (a)?). rechtga[e] ríg amail rongab rechtga[e] righ Caisil la Mumain, Críth G. 520 . in Cú ro chúalammár la hUltu, LU 4832 . mad me bad chend athchomairc laisna Déisib, Ériu iii 140.184 . máethmaccáem co n-gabh armu lind, TBC-LL¹ 1249 . is hē ba tuaircnid flatha la Fiachaig, ZCP viii 317.18 . da ech bas ḟerr la Connachta `the best pair of horses to be found with the C.' LL 13031 ( Sc.M² 2 ). is é cétna ro gabh in ceim sin la Romhanchu `the first to obtain that rank among the Romans', CCath. 77 . do mheaduigh cert lem gach lá, Rel. Celt. ii 240.y .

(c) in, amongst, with, of customs and usages, corresponding to in, amongst, with , in such phrases as in Virgil, in Shakespeare, (it is the custom) in France or amongst the French, (it is a custom) with him; in the days of (cf. VI (d) below): intí lasmbi ind encae . . . intí bís isind encae (sic), Ml. 24a19 . file athir leíss `that he has a father', Sg. 29b12 . ní áis aeccalsa ata brithemin lib, Wb. 9c7 . lebedan .i. ised ainm forán la ezechiál `Leviathan, that is Pharaoh's name in Ezechiel', Ml. 93b7 . do thintud in suin ebraidi sluindes . . . ilintliuchtu la ebreu, 37a10 . dundgniat ind filid linni, 26b10 . briathra āildi la cechtar de frialaile, 31a24 . is la grecu atā a ndliged sin, Sg. 95b1 . dund lathar fil la Dia ocar nditin ni `to the purpose which is with God in protecting us' Ml. 103d27 . nad fel dliged remcaissen la Dia, Ml. 27d10 . mascul la baedam són immurgu `this however, is masculine in Baeda', Sg. 124b6 . arecar forṅgarthaid sechmadachti la Grécu gl. apud Graecos etiam praeteriti temporis sunt imperativa, Sg. 147b6 . ind interiecht nad rann insce la Grecu, 26b6 . cit comsuidigthi la Grecu ní ecen dunni beta comsuidigthi linn, 207b11 . aní as nomen lasna littridi aili is cognomen són la Priscien, 28a18 . is follus nach mór bríg articuil linni, 26b3 .

Very frequently in Laws i n phrase la Féine (Féniu) (frequently abbreviated lā) according to (the custom of) the F.: cis lir fodlai fine la Feine?, Laws iv 282.10 ( SM Facs. 3b ). atait tri comurba la Feine nis comsaer a cuir, Laws iii 46.18 . atait secht cella la Feine, na dlegad dire na dicubus, v 118.1 . dichenglaiter cach chor cen raith fine la Feine, iv 206.z . is [s]ruithiu la Feine in foesam andsen óldas a tir as a tairidnither, 9 ( Ériu xvii 64 § 3 ). Note further: ní heclas, acht ūam latrand ┐ tādat a hainm la Crīst, Ériu i 219.z . ar is fern laisin laidneoir ┐ u laisin Gāidel, ZCP viii 107.3 . ni facai . . . tuaslucud for selind n-imbe la muindtir Máolrúoin, Mon. Tall. 22 . atat tri altai leusom for ind gabail, 33 . ni fogni laisim fachmarc scel dóib `it is not his usage to ask them for news' 2 (see fo-gní). ba sollamain gresach la maccu Israel in sollamain-sea in Cengcaigis, PH 5417 . is meinic leis na hoideadha techt . . . do lathair na ndaltadha, RC xxix 110.x .

(d) Various: is bés leosom in daim do thúarcain ind arbe Wb. 10d6 . is bes leusom torand hi tempul delbae inna rig, Ml. 65c16 . ba lugae leu in sin gl. per . . . exempla iurabant, 118c5 . ba bés leu . . . ferthain ind óenaig, LU 3230 ( SCC 2 ). as breth la F. leth diri gach graid tuaithe for a mnai, Laws iv 306.17 . In the opinion of, according to: issi a bríg liumsa atechtae som huaim amal ni confessin etir I care no more about their going from me than if etc., Ml. 117d4 . ba bibdu báis leusom intí nád imdibthe, Wb. 1d15 . is cert a míad linn do beith-siu etrainn we deem it a sufficient honour, Mer. Uil. 49. See dar.

(e) from, at the hands of: gabais caille la patricc took the veil from P. (i.e. was professed by P.), Thes. ii 238.16 ( Ardm. 17a2 ). rotbia less lóg do daggníma, Wb. 6a11 . rotbia limm airmitiu intslóig, SR 3353 . nanní asbertisom frisom . . . ba ed a frecrae adi lesom `whatever they used to say to him that was the answer to them that he had', Ml. 62c13 . ba hísin tochuiridh Patraic leo the invitation they had for P., Dinds. 68 . in eitchi connaigh, nī sunn atā dhó acht a Clūain mic Nois ┐ la Ciarán, ACL iii 4.35 . amail rochualatar som lassin faith commad tria chumachta na hingine rogebtais tír, Ériu iii 138.80 . ro chuala la nech legas libru I have heard from one who studies books, LL 19060 ( Misc. Hib. 17 § 1 ). cia hairm ita in chleth, cluinem lat, Rawl. 84a21 . rot bia tír lind cen chís cen biathad, Ériu iii 140.168 . dia mbui Crist hi croich la hIúdaigib, PH 671 . rodbē a lūagh la Dia `may God reward you for it', Ériu i 46.27 . cīa lóg rombīa latt ar a fagbāil what reward shall I have from thee? ZCP iv 44.5 ( TBFr. 23 ). Cf. further: luid C. do forceatal gaiscid la Scāthaig . . . ilLetha, Ériu i 114.3 (cf. Wb. 19a10 cited under I (e) above). tathum cech maith la Gūaire, Ériu ii 16.13 . cía fogaba mōrchennsa / lassin dūilem īar ndola, BColm. 98.8 .

(f) The following also are most simply explained as developments of the sense with, amongst, at ; exx. of the types cited are very numerous in Old-Ir. glosses: trachtad lesom anisiu this is his commentary, Ml. 74c9 . cosmuilius aile lessom in so this is another of his similes, Wb. 10d14 . cosmuilius roisc anísiu lessom, 12c10 . canoin centrachtad in so lessom (of a verse without commentary), Ml. 132c6 . analogia laissem anisiu do thaidbse cheille `he has here an analogy to shew the sense', Sg. 149b4 . Cf. forsani as corda trachtad (dtrachtid, MS) lesom anisiu, Ml. 53a1 .

(g) according to, in the opinion of in phrases with copula: ished aperficere lessom (to do) this he deems perficere, Wb. 3d5 . is peccad diabul lesom he considers it a double sin, Ml. 97d10 . issí ind inducbal lesom in molad, 126b17 . arathis leusom anintamail fria ndeu `they deem it as a reproach', 138c10 . This construction very common at all periods to indicate possession of opinion, notion, feeling, desire, impulse, etc. The predicate can be (i) a noun, or (ii) an adjective. (i) iscían ós accobor lemm farríchtu I have long desired to come to you, Wb. 7a3 . intí lasinformat maith dodegdoinib, Ml. 129b3 . is machdad limm, Sg. 6a4 . cid as mó miscais lat atchí, IT i 81.18 . cach ní ba tol libse, PH 637. (ii) robu maith leu they would have liked, Ml. 105b8 . aní asmaith ladia doguidi, Wb. 4b4 . condib sain . . . linn, Tur. 86 . an robo dech leó dona tri coectaib ingen, LU 8724 ( FB 54 ). ba holc le anisin, RC xxiv 192.21 . amal ba lór leo, PH 3300. Common with menma: bá maith lais a menma, IT i 257.5 . See menmarc. See also dar. With certain predicates the meaning is more concrete, see doich, étir, mebair, etc.

VI Denoting possession, ownership, etc.

(a) attá x la y y has x (cf. oc IV (b)): nistá leo leth docoiset they have nowhere to go, Mon. Tall. 128.10 . robadar cethtri cridiscél liomsae `I have had', 136.19 . See also 144.28 , 130.1 , 135.19 , 135.28 , 148.20 . boí fled . . . la B. do Ch. B. had a feast (prepared) for C., LU 8041 ( FB 1 ). itá a rigan la cach ríg sund has with him, TBC-I¹ 190 . in filet scéla lib?, ZCP viii 318.20 . tresin ceird toṡuigthi fil lib, LL 13770 . mór na tiorchanta atá lionn, TD 27.30 . In St. Ercuil common in archaisms (see Introd.); elsewhere replaced by attá . . . oc . . . Cf. an lá nocha liom do bhí it was not my lucky day(?), Aithd. D. 47.1 .

(b) x la y y has x (perh. as (a) with ellipse of subst. vb.): ceist limm dúib, Wb. 19b7 . óenchoimdiu lib `one Lord have ye', 22d7 . sainred n-eulais leu, Ml. 37b12 . As subordinate clause: ho ro mmoidisom cumachte less that he had power, Wb. 17a12 . is torbach do popul flaith firian leu it is profitable to the people to have a righteous prince, Ml. 90b11 . conrubaidh fri m'enech gin mháthair nó athair lium (.i. agum), ZCP v 523 . Of personal attributes: rosc nglan . . . lais, LU 7078 ( BDD 75 ). berrtha lethna leo, TBC-LL¹ 181. Of relatives: da brathair limm, TBC-LL¹ 50 . E. . . . oenmac leis, Rawl. 148a5 . ni fess celi le, IT i 139.26 = nácon fes céle for a seilb, LU 10606. Various: de[i]ch mbaí lais, Laws iv 306.x . breithemnus dogrés la clandaib L., Críth G. 133 . leth in tigi . . . la Connachta the men of C. occupied, Sc.M² 5 . rob tusa lemsa / rob misi latsa, Ériu ii 89 § 4 (see Éigse x 46 ).

(c) is la x y x owns, possesses y, y belongs to x (also with ellipse of copula. See Éigse x 45 - 8 ): ní lanech huáin alaile, Wb. 6b20 . commimis less huili, 21 . leissom a tech, 33a2 . amal ata les inna nert, Ml. 108c11 . á aii .i. comtis les gl. uoluerit eos suos uocari, 92c10 . is limsa in cauradmir, LU 8974 ( FB 73 ). A. . . . ba leis ind Hériu, LL 14786 . latsu na rucais, PH 3217 . bud le a maccaibsi a cuit de, Laws iv 46.3 Comm . diamtis lat, LU 3310 ( SCC 11 ).

In extended meaning x has a right to (do) y: ni limsa superedificare it is not for me to, etc., Wb. 8c17 . is la B. tocht isan cath it is B's part to go into battle, RC xxiv 194.24 . riaguil proinntige . . . ní linni a rád it is not for us to fix the rules of the refectory, ZCP xiii 27.21 . is liomsa a chogar ó chiort I have a right to be heard by him, DDána 121.33 . Note also: in let / dál dia fuair doirthe dost thou know why? Metr. Dinds. iii 412. 27 . do ba leam ise d'aithmhealladh it was in my power to, Aithd. D. 89.32 . imtheachd . . . is é bhus libh, DDána 26.3 .

(d) Phrase x la y as adjectival complement of a noun: petta sindaig la rig L. a pet belonging to, IT i 46.22 . dorime an mac aite ile lasin n-athair many places belonging to (that many places belong to?), Anecd. i 51 § 3 . E., cathair . . . lé hEoin, Maund. 31 . go baile le diūc de L., Fl. Earls 74.28 . Cf. Créd la Marcán, Anecd. i. 7.14 .

Personal forms used reflexively: atdubelliub lemm, Wb. 7a4 . décce lat corintiu, 10c20 . atreba leiss possesses, Sg. 33a1 , 4 . addella leis tech[t] do thig filed N., Otia ii 86.2 . faichle lat atair mo thairbhse, BB 384b36 ( Dinds. 66 ). Áth Chliath fégaid lib, Metr. Dinds. iii 100.1 . finta lat in ranic ní Fer baeth, TBC-LL¹ 2198 . an fitir lat?, YBL 13a24 ( Snedg. u. Mac R 46 ). imthigid don halla leó féin, Maund. 203. áirimh leat, Content. v. 71 . tiomsaigh leat, TD 2.5 . See Duan. F. iii 75 n ., Celtica i 390 .

Idiomatic uses with verbs, nouns and adjectives are given under the words concerned.

In later lang. 3 s. n. leis as adv. visible, uncovered : ná léig leis do bhrághaid bhán do not expose, Dánta Gr. 26.7 . a n-aighthe ┐ gach ní do bhí leis díobh all that was uncovered. Beatha S. F. 2347 . leigmíd ár mbrollach . . . leis, Párl. na mB. 562 . ? duit ó nach léis na lomróid, Rel. Celt. ii 298.26 . (Earlier ris, see Duan. Finn., Éigse ix 227 , fri IX (f)).

sadess

Cite this: eDIL s.v. sadess or dil.ie/35874
Last Revised: 2019

 

adv. southwards : sadess romemaid in maidm do Áth Chlíath , CMMucr. 56 § 56 . ó Emain sadess, TBC-LL¹ 4929 . See dess.

2 saigid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 saigid or dil.ie/35952

 

Forms: soigid, soighthe

i, f. vn. of 1 saigid. Later soigid. IGT Decl. § 150 (g s. soighthe), Verbs § 91 . going, proceeding, advancing, attacking .

I With obj. gen.:

(a) to advance towards, visit, seek ; esp. common with prep. DO in meaning towards: tainic C. . . . do shaidhig na hErenn, Fél. 246.1 . oc saighidh a longphuirt, CCath. 1895 . do saighidh an feraind sin, RC xxvi 132 § 2 . ar dáig na ṅdóine do breith o chomrorcain ┐ dia tabairt do sh.¤ Dé, PH 2131 . luig (= luid) . . . do s.¤ carut `to visit friends', Laws iv 4.28 Comm . nír bó saighidh carat i ccein dó Gaoidhil Laighen d'ionnsaighidh it was no pleasant visit, AFM vi 2110.23 (proverbial phrase). nīr vo saigidh deghc[h]arat a gcēin dōip gnūissi na n-eritchedh, Fl. Earls 12.z . ag soighidh chlíath ccáol attacking, IGT Decl. ex. 2017 . s.¤ fir gráidh fri comnai fetching, Ériu ii 208 § 32 (task permitted on Sunday). ní hūaim téit éc . . . | acht tríall for sét dom sh.¤ , ACL iii 216.27 . cuirfet-sa macamh . . . dot' shoighidh, BNnÉ 319 § 15 . tiagum uli dia s.¤ , PH 3756 . atconncatar slúagh . . . do demnaibh dia soigedh, BNnÉ 67 § 104 . in coica long . . . da saidid gach ndirech making straight for them, Ériu v 146.9 . ra chonnaic gnúis Conaill d'a sh.¤ approaching him, CRR 38 . atchonnairc A. d'a sh.¤ , 43 . Note also: oc imchosnam na saigti thall `disputing the attack from the other side' (of a game of chess), Ériu v 32.21 .

(b) seeking, aiming at, trying to get : ar s.¤ inna ngnimae foirbthe gl. pro studio boni operis, Ml. 66b5 . amal nan coer (= cóir) cen saigith mlas hi rruna Dé `not to seek (to bring) savours into God's mysteries', Thes. ii 255.17 ( Stowe M. 66a ). nimbái suidi saigthi síd of seeking peace, SR 6399 . oc s.¤ acallma forro, LU 5796 = co saidig acallmai, TBC-I¹ 1324 . oc s.¤ dit acallma Senchāin, Corm. Y 1059 (93.21) . dia s.¤ to obtain it, Sc.M² 24 e . do soighidh na bethad naeimhe, BNnÉ 320 § 21 . iar s.¤ a airm, BDD 143 . rofecsat . . . for s.¤ īca a mac friu, ZCP viii 103.22 . luidh . . . du saghaid arba to procure corn, AU 913 (i 428.18) .

II With follg. prepp.: ag saighidh do dechain na lanamhan going to see the couple, Irish Texts iii 15.25 . With FOR act of making for, approaching; in fig. sense tackling, dealing with, discussing: is he besad felsub etarcert di dúlib et s.¤ forru, Wb. 27a10 . oc s.¤ for sunu nó oc tabairt ruún essib, 12b23 . nan coir rosaegeth for rúna Dé `to dispute overmuch', Thes. ii 255.18 ( Stowe M. 66a ). s.¤ for rūna Dé (a virtuous action), ZCP iii 25.11 . gan saighidh doibhsium ar Maoilshechlainn `not to attack M.', Cog. 134.5 . With other prepp. Gaill . . . do dergiu Erenn . . . ┐ sagaith doib iarsin co firu Alban, AU 917 (i 436.7) . cinnit . . . saighidh co Tor Conain, Leb. Gab.(i) 78.1 . co saidig (= saigid) tar comlond do briusiud for forlond, TBC-I¹ 3263 .

III Legal. claiming, suing for: oc s.¤ chána in domnaig enforcing the law of Sunday, LB 204b15 , cf. Ériu ii 208 § 29 (`claiming'). cach ōen comaldathar in cāin-si etir s.¤ ┐ timmarcain `both as to claim and levy', Cáin Ad. 30 . dlegar do cach deorad De s.¤ a nadma soscēle (sic leg.) amal adrogesta ind, Laws iv 210.8 . s.¤ feich a n-aicditar o mnai, v 308.18 . occ saighidh ceirt a cheneoil forra `asserting', AFM vi 2220.1 .

IV In prosody of the repetition of the opening word of a poem in full at the end (see Meyer, Meyer Prim. 12 § 28 ): .ui. hernailí deg na filideachta . . . .i. saighidh ┐ ascnam . . . saighidh .i. co rap isind iarcomarc in focul tusech, amail ron gabh lasin filid: `Donnchad dian-fich domun', ┐rl. .i. co rob `donnchad' frisin fordunad, IT iii 29 . ZCP vi 262.25 . saighid so . . . | Dondchadh int ainm ollamda, Auraic. 2201 . saighit[h], 2211 .

See also saige, saigin, saigthin.

sathúaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. sathúaid or dil.ie/50512
Last Revised: 2019

 

adv (túaid) northwards : sathuaid gl. ad septemtrionem (sic leg., GOI § 483 ), BCr. 33c2 . dar Taltin sathuáid, TBC-LL² 3940 . ó Emain sair ┐ ó Emain síar ┐ ó Emain sathúaid, TBC-LL² 4103 . fri Aidne atúaid ó Áth Chlíath dano sathúaid 'to the north of Aidne, northwards from Áth Clíath', CMMucr. 48 § 33 . luid ... sathúaid, CMMucr. 56 § 58 .

siriud

Cite this: eDIL s.v. siriud or dil.ie/37682

 

Forms: sirtha, sirthe, sirthain, sirem, sireadh

u m. vn. of sirid. g s. sirtha, sirthe. Later also sirthain, sirem, sireadh m. IGT Decl. § 49.7 , Verbs § 71.9 .

(a) act of ranging, wandering about, travelling : do sirt[h]ain in domain, CCath. 3856 . oc sirthain mara ag iarraidh thíre tharrngaire, SG 67.29 . ic siredh na sliged, BB 239b8 . siredh a samradaib, ZCP viii 209.z . mór in s.¤ ó Āth Chlíath co Carn cāem Cornáin, Arch. Hib. ii 72 § 24 . Banba a sleib Miss co na ṡluagaib | siriuc[h] (? leg. siriud) tuislech, Todd Nenn. 246.4 (siriuth, v.l.). soais ó Domhnaill don chur sin iar siredh ┐ iar ccor cuarta Connacht uile, AFM iii 180.11 . ? To this: o bói Solom oc s.¤ (i.e. since S.'s time?), Metr. Dinds. i 36.109 .

(b) ranging in search (of do): trúag d'Ultaib . . . | cen s.¤ in domain duind | d'ícc . . . Con Culaind, LU 3546 ( SCC 29 ). ag siredh in aír do churp a cæmcheili, TTebe 4695 . ac siredh na lerg da lecht, IGT Verbs ex. 637 .

(c) act of searching, seeking for, asking, beseeching, begging; a search : s.¤ slán na saccraide complete ransacking, SR 3036 . truag d'Ultaib . . . cen sirthin a márica, LU 3536 ( SCC § 29 , H). bo cusani timsaigther le . . . do s.¤ do, Laws v 434.10 Comm . comlaintes in uasalbid do s.¤ for na cometaide, 434.16 Comm . a shiriud ó Dia in ní bís i n-aneolas do dóinib, PH 7191 . iongnadh an sireadh sláinte!, Éigse v 234 § 13 . is ed adbert Apaill ris, gan a sirthain, uair ni bfuighbedh, TTebe 34 . siorthain (sic leg.) deabhtha, Keat. Poems 1024 . ag sirim go hoiríseal air Dhia . . . gan a ainneis fein do chur toirmisg air thíodhlaicidhibh righ na féile, Donlevy xxiii.x . lucht siortha na derca, 23 G 24, 398.4 .

(d) a (light) reconnoitring or raiding party, act of reconnoitring or raiding: timsaigit a sloig ┐ a sirthe . . . imon cathraig, LB 124a4 . do léigidar sirtha lethna lánd[iana] luathbidba leó fana críchaibh 'na comthimchill, Comp. CC 80.7 . ni díb-si in buiden-sa i timmchell in guirt immaig ┐ ni díb in síred so (sirid sa, v.l.) don leith eli, Mer. Uil. 199 . con-acatar na sirthe siobhlacha slōigh dia soigidh, ZCP xiv 262.7 . go Tír bhFáil na fearchoinshirthe, DDána 89.7 . sirthe faolchon 'n-a fiodhbhaidh, 73.5 . co rancatur a sirthi co Sid Aeda . . . ┐ ro arcidur manistir Esa Ruaid, Ann. Conn. 1398.2 . T. . . . do marbad le muinnter mic Aodagain ar siredh creiche sin cogad cedna, ALC i 290.2 . tucatar luathshirtha fa na crichuib ar gach leith díbh, L. Chl. S. 19 . ro líonait . . . do sluagh ┐ do ṡirthibh armtha edighthe, AFM iii 278.12 . Séasar na siorthadh mbras, DDána 121.11 . ? To this: co roibe crīch Breg i n-a comar creach . . . ┐ i n-a sreathaib sirthi, ML² 1133 = síortha, ML 80.20 . coinnme degslūaigh, | sretha sirthe, ZCP xii 290.21 .

togda

Cite this: eDIL s.v. togda or dil.ie/41167

 

adj io, iā (toga)

(a) chosen, choice, excellent: Tomás t.¤ , ZCP vii 299.8 . mo c[h]ara-sa Tadg to[g]da, viii 226.18 . a chliath chorrgha thromdha thoghdha, IT iii 88 § 105 . druing tren toghdha, Anecd. i 55 § 44 . dar' linged in t-ath co toghdha, AU ii 468.21 .

(b) wilful, arrogant: catha croda ... ┐ troda t.¤ tul-borba, BB 241a15 . fer t.¤ tulborb, MR 152.5 . tibis in flaith re freagarthaib t.¤ tulborba in tuaiscertaig, 158.7 . gidh tréan nocha toghdha, DDána 98.9 . mear toghdha (: colbha) glór na ngiolla, 113.27 .

Cf. togaide.

1 toll

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 toll or dil.ie/41337
Last Revised: 2019

 

adj o, ā

(a) pierced, perforated: taib tholla trenfher, TTebe 4689 . cuirp cirrthi ┐ táibh tolla, CCath. 2247 . firfid cath hi Maig C. ... dia mbiat fir tregtaig thuill, ZCP xii 237 § 60. t.¤ mo chosa-sa, BS 94.23 . culpait tolla imma thóibu, LL 116a16 . il leith a túaid don chloich thuill, LL 205b5 . eithre na slabraidhe tria cairthi t.¤ , 393b44 . is nau th.¤ diant eslinn guas ` leaky ,' Thes. ii 294.27 . lind i coire t.¤ , Ériu ix 45 § 3 . cuma lium cidh t.¤ mo lend, ZCP x 42.10 . in tual .i. in tiaronn t.¤ , Laws i 140.22 Comm. an teaslán do ghabhail a dheataighe trit stól th.¤ , 23 K 42, 404.19 . cuimhnigh an bonn do bhí ar sileadh | 'san chlí th.¤ do righeadh riot, Dán Dé iii 20 . do mhaithfedh sé an troighech t.¤ | 's gidh é doighech na ndernann, IGT Decl. ex. 799 . t.¤ taobh ó bheith gan bhráthair, Dánfhocail 208.

(b) hollow, empty: slebe tolla, IT 191.1 . me 'smo chodhnach gun ccloich thuill, KMMisc. 362 § 6 . isin cloich thuill ... no faccbadh an agh díol an leinib dia loim, BNnÉ 129.8 . cian om relic mo theach t.¤ , BS 40.10 . eagail madh t.¤ an teach thall, Aithd. D. 62 § 5 . cnú tholl, IGT Decl. § 203 (of anything vain or fruitless Jn. Celt. Stud. ii 201 ). tighthe tolla, ML 6.24 .

(c) tonsured : casla ... umpa, cind tolla leo, Lia Fáil i 80.23 . See also tollchenn, tollchennach in compds. below.

(d) vain, ineffective : ar is toll cach n-indemin 'for everything disputable is ineffective', Contract Law 182 § 48 . toiched toll, Tec. Corm. § 25.6 .

Compds. ¤airbe broken fence (usually metaphorical): ní taobh re tollairbhe tolltar fa trí, ZCP viii 203.15 . ni taobh re tollairbhe dhuinn, Content. viii 19 . gur bhó samhal do chruit gan cheis ... do ghort taobh le tollairbe amhail ro bhattar cenel C., AFM v 1792.6 . Hence ¤airbech defenceless, helpless: tréad ... toll-airbheach gan taoiseach, TSh. 6617 . ¤brógach with pierced shoes (of a horse): le groigh mbuirb tollbhrógaigh (: lomródaigh) Taidhg, IGT Decl. ex. 888 . ¤cenn (for form and discussion see Ériu xiii 141.20 ) with perforated head, top: a bratt tollcend, Trip. 34.6 . ana tuilcenna, O'Dav. 174. As subst. (a) some marine animal having a blow-hole: na ron ┐ na rinnach, na tollcend ┐ na corrcend, CCath. 4333 . toilgind ┐ muca mara, Ériu iii 156.7 . tuilchinn (sic leg.) agus míolta móra, GJ xix 102.10 . (b) one who is tonsured, a cleric (cf. tálcend): [cco] ttiocfaidís toillchinn co Cuillinn, Acall. (Leabh. ó Laimhsgr.) i 5.15 . tene na ttollcheann súd ad-chonnarcais, Acall. (Leabh. ó Laimhsgr.) i 5.10 . an díach agus an díol ... do-bhéaram fá dheóigh ar na tollcheannuibh tabhram anoss orra é, Acall. (Leabh. ó Laimhsgr.) i 8.10 . ¤chennach having a tonsured head As subst.: tíocfa aímsir ... ionna m-bia tollceannaig annsan áit seo, CF 133 (Eg.). ¤chiall lack of sense, foolishness: Laoghaire ag tnúdh—fa toillchiall— | rer n-aoghaire n-úr n-armchaol, DDána 113.4 . ¤ chlíath pierced phalanx: maidm toraind tollchléthi, LU 8708 ( FB 53 ). ¤choill empty wood: ge bet leighind isin loind | ro bai tan nír bo tollchoill, Acall. 497 v.l. ¤chráes havinga yawning gullet (?): tollchrúis tolberbudh, BDD² 814 (cf. cuirn chroes-tholla, Metr. Dinds. iii 18.234 ). ¤fhaebair having a gapped edge: a sgian tana tollfhaobhair, DDána 50.1 . ¤gerraid cuts and pierces: gur thoillghearr an tréanluithreac, CF 195 (Eg.). ¤timpán broken, pierced timpán: a tholltimpāin `du durchlöcherte Timbel,' Bruchst. i 28 § 62.

tromda

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tromda or dil.ie/42036

 

Forms: -ae

adj [-ae, io,iā] (3 trom).

(a) oppressive, importunate: nír bommar utmuill oc foigdi inter vos nó nír bommar tromdi, Wb. 26b14 . o ropu t.¤ ... ┐ ropo lenamnach in t-aidech, LU 5680 = thromtha, TBC-I¹ 1206 . robās oc etarguidi fair co t.¤ , 2147 . tromde iarum robúi frisim ind chaillech oc atach dé co mór, Mon. Tall. 130.11 . miscneach cach t.¤ , ACL iii 229.100 . is tromdai atai ... forsin righ, Lism. L. 2573 . is t.¤ atai rim, RC vi 183.12 . gidh tromdha tathaoireach tarchuisneach atáim-se, DDána 111.24 .

(b) heavy, sad, weighty, serious: t.¤, in trath ropo thrú `heavy the hour' (Corr.), Metr. Dinds. iv 122.17 . a chliath chorrgha thromdha thoghdha, IT iii 88.21 . ro-ptar t.¤ a roisc o'n chotlud, PH 3061 . an corp t.¤ talmanda, TTebe 4167 . maith bean i n-eaglais na naomh, | tromdha ar tulaigh dignified , Dánta Gr. 5.50 . breatha tromdha an Tighiorna the weighty judgments of the Lord, A. Ó Dálaigh lii 37. troigh sheangbhán as tromdha i dtreas formidable , DDána 102.41 . fá duine tromdha tuigseach an fear so, Desid. 552 . fer ... gá mbiadh betha ghlan dhiadha tromdha, Mac Aingil 413.12 .

1 úar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 úar or dil.ie/42762
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: úa

adj o-ā (later also with prothetic f-) fúar úa, IGT, Decl. § 96.23 .

I

(a) cold, cool : is húar allaa nísiu, ZCP viii 175 . a ttosach oidhche fúaire, Duan. F. ii 70 § 17 . gach adhaigh uar, Dán Dé iv 15 . Feabra fúar, IGT, Decl. ex. 84 . do bhí an aimsear fuár, John xviii 18 . san aimsir fhuair, L. Cl. A. B. 164.70 . madh fuar am na hIairmhéirghe, Dán Dé xxviii 37 . is hé sain int-aear huar, SR 109 . Ri dorigne aéar n-uar, 313 . dar aer n-úar, 7932 . isin aher n-úar, 7936 . rith ... | ind aeor uair uscide, 40 . Ri c(ria)thras usce n-an, n-úar | for iathmass na n-al n-ollmuad, 41 . Ri thuc doib sruam usci uair, 4629 . Ri robennach ... | na secht lestru usci úair, 7602 . cupán duisge ḟúar, Matthew x 42 . immun n-usce n-uar, SR 3763 . tar gormṡáile n-úar (: túar), IGT, Decl. ex. 638 . tar in ffairrge ffúair, Duan. F. ii 40 § 34. uar cech ler, MR 48.3 . fogar esa uair ra hall, SG 366.12 . ardomneat anfud uar | fri uar fairrci duilgi fál, 235.27 . mun eo fhuar, 24.25 . ó bhonnaibh craobh n-uar n-iobhair, Ir. Monthly 1919, 226.18 ( DDána p. 332 ). i n-áit ḟuair, Corp. Astron. 34z . i dtalamh ḟuar, 52.6 . mur uisge a beól (v.l. mbéol) úar eisci, IGT, Decl. ex. 1081 . imdadh úar (v.l. fuar, ḟúar), ex. 541 . is amlaidh bói an inis, ┐ secht ccosa fúara fuithe, BNnÉ 90 § 194 . is é is cáilidheacht dí (sc. the moon) [a bheith] fuar, Corp. Astron. 88 § 32 . uaraib adbaib, `in cold dwellings,' Auraic. 5585 . a dhá chaomthach re feadh bfaghla | cáolshruth sean is adhbha fhúar, Studies 1919, 75.21 . fúar liom an adhaighsi dh'Aodh, 1921, 417.1 . Adv.: sul bheas mo rosg go fann fuar, A. Ó Dálaigh xli 12 . a rí thuc Emain co húar | iarna dedail ria deg-shlúag, `that broughtest E. to desolation' Metr. Dinds. iv 130.105 (cf. c, below).

(b) freq. as epithet of wine, etc., cool, refreshing : fín fúar finnmer, IGT, Decl. ex. 184 - 5 . ibhe thunnaill bfíonduinn bfúair, ex. 520 . fíon fuar finngheal, Ir. Monthly 1920, 166.31 ( DDána p. 397 ). tulach na bhfíon bhfuar, A. Ó Dálaigh lii 48 . mór bhfleadhtunna bhfúar, IGT, Decl. ex. 1088 . ar Mac L. na bhfleadh bhfuar, Ériu i 98.26 .

(c) of places, freq. in sense bleak, unfriendly : fuaramar tir n-uar n-aiṅbtech, SR 4681 . i Lundain ḟuair allmhardha, TD 36.7 . is cosmhuil ré Beinn ḟuair Éadair | gruaim Í Ghrádaigh, 34.22 . a chuit ar ṡléibh úair Ealpa | fúair ..., IGT, Decl. ex. 296 . do mnai na n-airer nad uar, ZCP xiv 161.15 . i nOcha fhúar, L. Cl. A. B. 117.61 . budh fuar do dhruim a ndéanann | ráth séadChruachan ... | fa éadnuachar ... nGaillmhe, `his own deeds shall make comfortless the rich castle,' Ir. Monthly 1921, 329.18 ( DDána p. 303 ).

Cf. also Metr. Dinds. iv 130 , cited above.

(d) esp. of hell : Ri dofuc brait hIffirn uair | a pein, ..., SR 7777 . teach fuar an-aoibhinn Ifrinn, A. Ó Dálaigh xxxv 5 . i nIfearn fhuar, Dán Dé xxvii 8 .

(e) of pain : i píanaib úaraib Iffirn, SR 8330 . uara idna `cold pangs' ( shivering fits ? ) etym. gl. on Aedh Uaridhnach, Cóir Anm. 121 .

(f) of weapons : lann ḟúar ḟéinidh Ch. ..., IGT, Decl. ex. 1085 . budh iomdha colg fuar is fagha, TD 16.66 . do marbhadh M. d'arm uar, Dán Dé xxvi 49 . Cf. Eochaid Uarches .i. úar-ghaiech nam cess gai dicitur , Cóir Anm. 30 (see also úarchess below under Compds.).

(g) of clothing : i croicnib hūaraib, ZCP vii 498 .

(h) of persons, in uncomplimentary sense, implying coldness of disposition, sometimes = cruel (see Compds., below): brissiud cride úair Aichle, LL 161a49 (= Metr. Dinds. i 46 ). don rachēim rucc Eachtair án | dar' gabh fa gāibh Aichēil ūair, ZCP vi 269 § 10 . an corp fuar-sa i bhfuile a Thríonóid, A. Ó Dálaigh xvii 5 . Étar úar, cruel Metr. Dinds. iii 324.7 ; 326.25 . (fig.) onchu uar airgneach Erend, BB 51a42 (of Tigernán Ó Ruairc). Conall mac Etersgeoil fhuair, Ériu x 81 § 45 . nách fuil tú fuár na té, Rev. iii 15 . gu bfhuile fuar, gan fhonn gan dúthracht, Desiderius 1709 (80) . an uair do bhíodh fuar 'na chrábhadh, 5189 (249) .

(i) in technical legal expression mac húar (lit. cold son), a son who has failed to provide filial service and obedience and so is rendered legally dependent on the father ( GEIL 80 , see Ériu xlvii 195 ) : atait tri mic beoathar la Fene .i. mac huar ┐ mac De ┐ mac ailte. mac huar, as isidhe bis ina hocht i ngnae helotha athar, co n-oponar a lepaith ┐ a apuith, ZCP xiii 23.12

(j) atá (is) fuar fa (imm) is cold, indifferent towards: ag so an tí fa bhfuile fuar, `whom Thou lovest not,' A. Ó Dálaigh xx i . do tholl a thaobh | do chloinn fa a n-athair dob fhuar, `whose love for their Father was cold,' Aithd. D. 63.36 . ná rabh Peadar umam fúar, Studies 1919, 75.22 . do bhuime a rí is truagh nach tuilleam | ná budh fhuar í uman, PBocht 4.20 . gémadh fuar umainn th'aigneadh, Ir. Monthly 1921, 114.18 . nach truagh na trí geallta | ar an tí as fhuar iompa, PBocht 22.12 . ní meise an bráthair nach bí | go fuar im dheaghmháthair nDé, Dán Dé ii 1 . dá mbeath go dtuillinn gan triall | san teach fa bhfuilim go fuar, `for which I feel so little desire,' Aithd. D. 95.13 .

(k) in sense of ineffective, unprofitable, vain (cf. Mod. Ir.: tá sé f. ag, etc.): fuar don dul sa a daltacht the | d'Art Chliach, do Chormac Bhóinne, `vain now is her kindly rearing of Art,' Gleanings from Irish manuscripts 29 § 5 . gach céim sochair | dar áirmheas ar Ulltachaibh ... | ní sochair ḟuara d'Éirinn, `no useless benefits,' Content. xxx 27 . ní hí an tuigse ḟallsa ḟuar | duid-se as dual damh-sa mo dhán, `it is no idle vain idea' A. Ó Dálaigh xxxiv 2 . mo smuaineadh fuar fada ó chéll, Dánta Gr. 63.18 . guidhe na mná bhus dhíon damh-sa | ó tá mo ghníomh fallsa fuar, `ineffective,' A. Ó Dálaigh xliv 11 . idir gach comhrádh fuar, `stupid talk' Content. xvi 93 . muna ndiulta sibh... as th'ughdarás féin go fuar, `vainly' xvi 21 . Cf. acht muna mbeith go gcuala | uait féin it ḟuighlibh fuara, 69 . sgéal fuar ar a bhfionntar bréag | ní cóir a chreideamh go h-éag, `an unlikely tale,' vi 124 . Here perh. belongs: as úar náoidhe an t-iongnadh é, Studies 1919, 72 .

(l) of poetic composition, stately (?): laoithe fuara suadh dhá séisghabháil, Hackett xix 15 .

Of a welcome: rún m'anma, fáoilti nach fúar, Studies 1919. 75 . nírbh í soin an fháilte fhúar, ib.

Compar. and superl.: fuairiu ina sírsnechtu, FA 30 (LB). iss é is fuaire and, uisce an uarain, O'Dav. 669 . (of warriors) as iad ba fuaire ... ris na forgomhaibh `the coolest ... for the thrusts,' ML 132.13 . Compar. with de: ce roib re snechta ┐ re gaith ni fuairidi the colder , YBL 83b10 . ciar' gabthar i ngaethuibh ┐ aigredaib ┐ shnechta ni fuairi-de fris, Ériu ii 114 § 44 .

n II Subst. a cold thing : tri húar fíchte: tipra, muir, núae corma `three cold things that seethe,' Triads 145 (v.l. huara). As name of a spring: Uar ainm a tiprat, Fél. p. 86 . mar uar dom `I am very cold' (a scribal note), Thes. ii xx ( Sg. 114 ). Cf. mor uar dam `woe is me,' Otia i 126 § 22 . As npr. m.: Is Loch nÚair, cía hÚar 'sa loch? | cía díb in t-Úar ronúarchroth?, Metr. Dinds. iv 230 x . airm Uair mheic Th., Ir. Monthly 1921, 331 § 41 (leg. uair-mheic? For the sons of T. cf. Atlantis iv p. 171 ; ZCP xii 241 ff. ).

Compds.:

n (a) with subst.: ¤álach? cóirigter cosair d'úib Ch. ┐ fuarálach d'úib O. `a cold lair' Caithr. Thoirdh. 121.4 (cf. ¤ḟalach). ¤astar a useless journey : fa ríor! is é an fuar-astar | mionca ar dturas dot fhéachain, Dánta Gr. xxxiii 9 . ¤bert a cool garment, i.e. mail (?): slán ann dá súainleabthuibh sróil | fóir Ghall na bhfúairbheartuibh féin, IGT, Decl. ex. 1112 . ¤both f. a hut, habitation, dwelling, bothy, hunting lodge (cf. airboth): andord Andle dia uarbaith, LL 261a31 ( IT i 78 ). tic iarom F. doṅd huarbuid, Corm. Bodl. (s.v. orcc) = don ḟuarbóith, Thr. Ir. Gl. 34 . don ūarboith, Corm. Y 1018 . Énan na húarbothi, LL 298a43 ( RC xiii 48 )=E. na fuarboithi Lec. facs. 300vb 22 . ro lingsiot an ḟuarbhoth fair captured the hut in which he was AFM v 1794.3 (where f.= fianboith folachtae, ib. 1 ). a ḟuarbhoth oidhche saighnéan, Ir. Monthly 1920, 208.9 ( DDána p. 374 ). ¤chécht a bare plough-share : sía indás uarchécht arathair, Metr. Dinds. iv 138.80 . ¤chess: slúag Banba fo bét 'mon mbress | diarb adba éc is úarchess, Metr. Dinds. iii 370.54 (`death and savagery' v 138 ). co torchair in dáilem diss | la Fergna n-áir-mer n-úairchiss `barbarous,' iv 88.28 . pn As sobriquet: Eocho hÚarches, ZCP viii 303.5 . Eochu uarches, Fen. 26.7 . la hEochaid n-airdirc n-uairces, BB 46bz . Eochaid Uarches ... ceasa uara bádur aigi ina chobhlaighibh, Cóir Anm. 30 . is uime ghairthear Eochaidh Uaircheas dhe .i. ceasa fuara do bhíodh aige mar loingeas, Keat. ii 2242 . ¤chinnsel: fuairchinnsel nach fiu pinginn `dull aspersions' O'Gr. Cat. 556.17 (cf. cendsal, Contribb. ). ¤chioth a cold shower : do sgéith fúair-chioth gach flaithis, Gleanings from Irish manuscripts 19 § 32 . ¤chóir: fiu an crannsa clódh fuarchóra `stern justice', Aithd. D. 60.13 . ¤chrábud m. hypocrisy : lucht in fhuarchrabuidh, Lism. L. 4579 , ZCP iv 389.3 . fuar-chrádhbhadh, Donlevy 158.5 . ¤chreitem: tar ēis an fhuar-chreidimh do chur ar gcūl 'after abandoning the false faith', Carswell² 1.9 . ¤chride a cold (unfeeling?) heart : fo chen a scíth búagnigi | ... | úarcraidi taiscea, LU 10352 . ¤chúis: ag iarraidh taise 's budh fuarchúis dáibh `scant cause,' Ó Bruad. iii 224.14 . ¤dúsccad a cold awakening (common in the Annals of surprising the enemy): tuccad fuar-duscad namat for lucht na cathrach isan aidci sin, BB 442a38 . fuardhúsccadh namat do thabairt forra, `gave them a hostile awaking' AFM iv 1242.17 . do radadh uardhúsccadh námhat for an lucht báttar go sóinmheach suanchodaltach, v 1652.8 . dobert uardhúsccadh namhatt for fianlach an bhaile `awoke the soldiers of that town with the sword' vi 2362.4 . ¤errach cold Spring : ba hadud n-aird-grise for fidnaig n-uarerraig Marta mis, Anecd. ii 48z . ní thiobhrainn do chléir cheannaigh | mo chliath fosgaidh fhuairearraigh, Studies 1926, 238 . ¤ḟairrge cold sea : tar sruthrabhartaibh ... na fuar-ḟairrge, ML 46 z . ¤ḟalach (ḟolach) m. a cold hiding-place : amhail chréachtacha 'na gcodladh 'na bhfuar-fhalchaibh ar nach bí cuimhne ó shin amach `in sepulcris' TSh. 4709 . ¤ḟéchain `a lukewarm regard': dá ghaol féin ní fuairfhéaghain, Aithd. D. 65.37 . ¤fiafraige a stupid question : do bferr mo fhreagra go glan, ina bheith leis na fuairḟiafraighthibh sin, Luc. Fid. 367.6 . ¤gam mid-winter (?): isin mís īar n-úargaim (: Brain), ZCP xii 234 § 47 . cf. ic ō[u]l isinn uargaim (: Brain), ZCP ix 338 . ¤gaol sódh fuilngthe gacha fuarghaoil `a disaffected kinsman' Measgra D. 26.62 . ¤grés: firfid cath T. la teora húargrēsu hÚ Māil, ZCP xiii 375.13 . ¤gus: cengait celga úargossa | fri ág erred anglonnach, TBC-I¹ 1693 (in a rosc). ¤ifrenn cold hell : ar n-argain ḟūarifrinn, ZCP viii 206 § 37 . ¤lámach: a thiaghanaigh etigh aitigh uarlamhaigh cold-handed (i.e. inhospitable? ) IT iii 103 § 198 ( Bruchst. § 74 ). ¤ledrad: do fuaratar a bfuair-ledrad, Caithr. Thoirdh. 25z . ¤leitir: créad fá mbeinn re fuairleitribh?, Measgra D. 53.7 . ¤lommann: nī lua úar-lommann fola for úarmírenn crōdai, ZCP xi 85 § 37 . ¤a cold month : gné shéimhlí a aighthe i n-uairmhí, L. Cl. A. B. 217.64 . ? ¤neim: see fúairneim. ¤scailteóc: fuarscaoilteog `a cold winding sheet,' Keat. Poems 356 . ¤scél a silly story, fiction : dobheir fuair-sceul fabhaill leis, Keat. i 62.23 . ¤scoth: dar cend Fhebrat na n-uarscoth, LL 198b19 (`cool flowers' Metr. Dinds. iii 227 ). ¤sioc: adhbha úairsheaca, BS § 45 . ¤sliab a cold mountain : 's is guth adhradh d'fuair-shléibhtibh, Ir. Monthly 1919, 284.13 ( DDána p. 229 ). ¤sreb a cold refreshing stream : fúairsreabh dá hól ag aoighidh, IGT, Decl. ex. 1337 . a n-ibheadh d'fhuair-shreabhaibh, Ir. Monthly 1921, 421.13 ( DDána p. 267 ). ¤sruth a cold stream : fuar-shruth Finne, 68.12 ( DDána p. 315 ). ¤thress a cruel fight : dar Mag nAilbe na n-úarthress, Metr. Dinds. iii 148.12 . ¤thingell deceitful pledge : ó na fuairthinghealltoibh imrighne ettarbhacha no geallta dó, AFM vi 2140.22 . ¤uisce cold water : féar a gcuilt, fuaruisge a bhfleadh, TD 21.9 . teora dabcha úarusci, LU 3794 ( SCC 36 ), 8719 ( FB 54 ). ¤urnaigde (airnaigde) f. lukewarm prayer : fuarurnuighe, Donlevy 390.6 .

adj (b) with adjectives: ¤angbaid cruel and ruthless : dām ifrinn ḟúarangmaid (v.l. úarangbaid), ZCP viii 211 § 56 . ¤choíl cold and narrow : leabaidh fhuar-chaoil dómhain, Keat. Poems 358 . ¤chráibthech hypocritical : drong thógbhálach, fhúar-cráibhtheach, Donlevy 128.15 . ¤chr(a)idech cold-hearted : nipat úarcraidech im chardiu, LU 3493 ( SCC 26 ). ag éisteacht re briathraibh fuar-chraoidheacha, ML 102.3 . do laochaibh fuar-chraoidheacha na h-Aisia, 116.7 . ¤derg cold and red : co Muir nIcht n-uarderg, Rawl. B 502 83a52 . ó fhíon fhuairdhearg, Ir. Monthly 1919, 403.54 ( DDána p. 301 ). ¤fliuch cold and wet : fa chlár ndíllidh bhfuairḟliuch bhFáil, TD 7. 48 . fan gclár bhf., 28.4 . idir dhorchladh bhfúairfhliuch bhfeóir | is confadh úaibhreach aieóir, Studies 1921, 418 . a inis fh., Keat. Poems 1356 . ¤foirfe cool and complete : a mbeirt fhúarfhoirfe iairn, Studies 1921, 418 . ¤glan cold and clear : tofil in matin n-uairgloin, ZCP viii 418.9 . re taeb Eoire uarglaine `the cold-pure Nore,' Fél. p. xxiv . ¤glas cold and green : i n-achadh fhuarghlas Eireann (: dualghas), Studies 1925, 403.1 . ¤idnach: Aed úaridnach, LL 304b44 . Cóir Anm. 121 (where it is variously explained as `cold pangs' or `cold weapons'). ¤lebor cold and long : tonn ... fhuarleabhar, ML 94.16 . ¤mer cold and stimulating : ní d'iarraidh chlú ... | do cheannchaidis fíon fuair-mhear, Ir. Monthly 1921, 374.16 ( DDána p. 258 ). ¤thondach having cold waves : go Loch n-úarthondach aAindind, ZCP viii 220 § 32 .

(c) prefixed to vbs. (rare): ¤chrothaid shivers with cold: andsin romemaid in loch | fosin fedain, ronúarchroth `quaked with cold' Metr. Dinds. iii 462.42 (v.l. ronuacrot; romarbchroth). cía díb in tÚar ronúar-chroth?, `who stirred its cold waters' iv 230 x . Cf.: an Ruachtach ag fuarghol go brónach, O'Rah. xxii 129 .