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amail, amal

Cite this: eDIL s.v. amail, amal or dil.ie/3057
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: amail, amal, amál, amail, amaltsa, amlut

Prep. and conj. like, as . Unstressed form of d s. of 1 samail ( GOI § 178 , § 826 . But rhymes and alliterates in classical verse, e.g. IGT Decl. ex. 607 ). As a rule contracted to am̄ in MSS. Archaic amail ( GOI § 168 ) ( Wb. 21c10 , 22c14 , both a prima manu, Críth G. 461 , Hib. Min. 188 ). Usual form in O. Ir. glosses amal ( Wb. 6a30 , 10c12 , Ml. 107c8 , Sg. 217a8 . amál, Thes. i 5.37 ). In later lang. amail. Leniting ( amal chlanda, Ml. 123c8 . amal chon-degam, 107c8 ). Glosses Lat. quasi, Wb. 11a11 , Sg. 9b11 , etc.; sicut, Wb. 2a11 , 6a30 , 14c17 , Ml. 34b6 , etc.; tamquam, Wb. 9a3 , etc.; uelut, Ml. 23c9 ; ut, Wb. 10d19 , 22c14 , Ml. 54a21 .

I As prep. with accus. For forms with suff. pron. see 2 samail. Note also: amaltsa, IT i 72.35 = amal tussu, 18 . amlut, TBC(C) 575 . Later somet. with independent pron.: amal tussu (supra), amhail é, DDána 116.5 . Eventually replaced by mar (see immar): amar (amal, v.l.), TTebe 929 . Cf. amair, Laws ii 202.9 Comm. See Bergin, Ériu xiv 142 . like, as, similar to: amal tuthle no ailsin gl. ut cancer, Wb. 30b13 . ní amal inní asóircc gl. non quasi aërem uerberans, 11a11 . amal nahí nadchrenat gl. tamquam non possedentes, 10b7 . amal in n-altain gl. sicut rasorium, Ml. 72b8 . amal in lochairnn ṅaḟfracdai gl. quasi lanterna, Sg. 24a16 . amal inna anman asrubartmar `like the nouns', 188a29 . amal na heliu, 9b2 . amál chócúll dercon no chno, Thes. i 5.37 . amal nathracha bodra sicut , 485.19 ( Tur. 11 ). amal airig ndésa, Críth G. 367 . intan mbete renna nime amail éscai ┐ éscai amail gréin, Ériu ii 200.18 . amal firu cathacha, Trip.² 803 . feil . . . docuiridar echdar corgus . . . amail chaindech `the feast of a saint that falls outside Lent, as for instance Cainnech's', Mon. Tall. 135.2 (§ 22) . amhuil a cinaidh féin `like his own crime', Laws iv 88.8 Comm. nocha tánic amail a samla . . . nocha tánic . . . buiden amail a lethide, Celt. Rev. ii 220.26 (omission before first amail?). amal aig n-allaid, TTebe 1881 . amhail gach nduine oile, TSh. 254 . With dat. amal ruithnib grene, TBFr. p. 15 § 3 . amhail cherdcadaiph, BNnÉ 71 § 123 .

In phr. amal sin, so, ṡodain thus, so, in that case see 1 sin, 1 so, 1 suide.

II As conj., freq. but not invariably with follg. nasalizing rel. clause ( GOI § 498 , § 505 ).

(a) As comparative conj. with verb in indic. as, like as: amal ṅguidess athir a macc gl. tamquam pater filios deprecantes, Wb. 24d19 . amal fondrodil in coimdiu do chách gl. sicut diuisit Dominus, 10a11 . amal nonda thorisse frissintectairecht gl. tamquam misericordiam consecutus sum, 10a28 . amal nát anse dúib, 17c11 . amal arindchrin dǽ ┐ asindbail gl. uice fumi, Ml. 57a10 . amal nach fuar fessin inneuch, 57d3 . amal as toísegiu grián . . . ┐ is laithe foilsigedar . . . sic is toissigiu, etc., 85b11 . amal as inna ngnimae gl. ut a sé profecto iure factorum, 17b3 . amal is na nassar gl. sicut Assiriorum, 54a22 . amal ṅ-dond-foirde ainmm `as a noun signifies it', Sg. 26b12 . amal addaas `as it is', Ériu ii 144 § 159 . amal as n-airdirc clearly, Trip.² 2066 . ro chí fora muime amal is bés do naídenaib, 115 . amail nach dentar dia domnaich `just as such things are not done on a Sunday', Mon. Tall. 148.3 (§ 55) . amail bis mes in feóir in ḟamfucht (sic) fa i ngemfucht `according to the appraisement of the grass in the hot or in the cold season', Laws iv 146.15 Comm. dligidh . . . / a bhrondadh amhail chuinghes, ZCP viii 109.13 . dobérthar . . . dia tuca tinnscra amal asbérthar, TBFr. 177 . as-bert in so huile amal rom-múin dó in fer, BDD² 168 . amail indises canóin, ZCP viii 114.2 . amail ba bes di . . . `as was her wont', RC vi 175.1 . amhail thógaibhthear an cháith uas an ghrán, Desid. 2918 . In later lang. combined with ┐, mar: amhuil ┐ chromas an géadh a cheann, Desid. 1923 . amhail mar stiúrionn ┐ mar oibrighionn siad, Corp. Astron. xxiv 10 . amhail ┐ mar atá, 2.7 . amhail mar do rinne Iudas, Donlevy 254.13 .

Folld. by second member of comparison (as . . . so): amal nondubcairimse carad cách uaibsi alaile gl. eandem caritatem habentes, Wb. 23c12 . amal nád robe . . . ní bia, 1d2 . amal as corp do crist æclesia is corp mulier uiro , 22c13 . amal as ndian . . . mbis is denithir sin . . ., Ml. 57c12 . amal durigni . . . dogena . . . `as He has done . . . so also will He do', 50d10 . amal fōides in naingel . . . doróiter dún . . . `as he sent the angel . . . may he be sent to us,' Thes. ii 304.1 (Hy. i). amal soite a shlúaig úad soid a grád ┐ a gráin for cúlu, ZCP xi 86 § 45 . With follg. clause introduced by an adv. (samlaid, etc.): amal nadngaib lius di suidiu is samlid insin nisgaib som lius di . . . , Ml. 34b6 . amal rombói ingnae cáich is samlid . . ., 26b8 . amal fongníter ídil síc fogníther donaib ánib, Wb. 27b9 . amál nád ṅdéni neutur dindí as tiberis . . . síc ní déni, Sg. 63a17 . amuil is etarbach grech na cno faisi cen torad aici is amlaidh is etarbach na neiche sin do denam, Laws iv 36.17 Comm. amal do-rala . . . thall . . . is amlaid do-rala sund, PH 146 . amail adcondarcais misi co granna . . . ar tús ┐ alaind fadeoid, is amlaid sin in flaithius, RC xxiv 200.17 . amail teit . . . is amhlaidh sidhe as . . . so, Stair Erc. 499 . amal is e cet lá na sechtmaine in domnach . . . is amal-sin . . . is e is ochtmad lá . . ., PH 3585 . After compar.: is mesu andas amuil robui, Laws iv 156.12 Comm. do badh líonmhaire da n-édálaibh . . . inás amhail ro fhédsat a ttiomáin, Hugh Roe 88.8 (fo. 23b) . bá moa a n ainm ┐ a n oirdearcus inas amhail tangattar, AFM v 1848.z .

In PH with ellipse of verb. (cf. the Lat. construction): co mbí in t-í dobeir hí i n-a shímontaig amal in t-í gabus, 7595 . do thabairt ascad amal rig do as (on) a king, 2838 . fofhuaras duine amal mo chride a man after my own heart, 6479 . Prob. also in: me-si tra amal mo brathri tindnacimm mo chorp . . ., 6640 . Note also: amal alanaile ndoine gl. ut caeterorum, Ml. 54a21 , a literal transl. of the Lat.

(b) With impf. subj. in meaning as if, as though (in this constr. not as a rule followed by rel. clause, see OIPG 209 ): ro pridchad dúib céssad Críst amal ad-cethe `Christ's passion has been preached to you as though it were seen', Wb. 19b6 . is amal bid fri Crist frisorthe `it is as though ye offended against Christ', 10c12 . amal ninfessed cách et ronfitir calléic gl. sicut qui ignoti et cognoti, 16a2 . amal ni bimmis cutrummi frib gl. quasi non pertinguentes, 17b16 . amal ni cuimsimmis a denum gl. quasi [nos] infirmi fuerimus in hac parte, 17c18 . amal ni risinse do bar cosc si gl. tamquam non uenturus sim ad uos, 9a19 . amal nombemmis érchóilti gl. tamquam morti destinatos, 9a3 . amal fid a fondamtis gl. quasi longam famem passi `as (though) it were when they suffered', Ml. 34b11 . amal bid do íc a galair gl. velut in doloris solacium, 23c9 . amal bid ind aimsir feisin, Sg. 188a26 . amal ni bed ad and, 217a8 . amal bith do chonsain, amal as ṅ-dí `as though it were to a consonant, (or) as it is to it', 9b11 . amal bid oc caíned in guḟorgaill, Trip.² 87 . no lastais in aidche amal betis ruithni gréni, TBFr. 27 . amal ní acced is ní cloath ní `as if he saw not and heard not anything', Ériu iii 104 § 40 . amhoil búdh fear fiadhoigh thú, Desid. 3183 . With condit.: amhail do bhiadh gráin . . . aca air, TSh. 4255 . Later a.¤ ┐: amhuil ┐ do bheith riachtanas aguinne réna seirbhís, Desid. 5244 . The following may be elliptical, but could also be referred to I: otconnairc a gnúis amal aingel as (though it had been that of) an angel, PH 1313 . ni hairmither amal duin-orcuin do sin it is not counted as manslaughter, 4208 . atchīam-ne tú amail catharda díless hi neim, BColm. 106.6 . amal tofunn dotṡéstae as though it were a pursuit wherewith thou wert pursued, Ériu i 200 § 25 (supply bid?).

(c) As temporal conj. expressing simultaneousness, while, when: amal immind-ráitset con-accatar F. cuccu `as they were talking about it they saw F. coming towards them', Thes. ii 241.11 (Ardm.). amal batar ann . . . co n-accatar in tene, Trip.² 445 . amail notreigtis addurtaig `when they left the oratory', Mon. Tall. 132.12 (§ 12) . amal atib in dig nirbo chumain laiss F., LU 4030 ( SCC 48 ). amal batar and . . . ico'n ol, PH 76 . amal itcualae . . . H. . . . . a beth i n-oentuma, 834 .

(d) As explicative conj. with adverbial force how, in what state, manner; how in sense of (the fact) that: bá foderc dó . . . amal ro both and how things were there, LU 8219 ( FB 16 ). a scrutan i n-a menmain amal doragad airi, 8223 (17). ni chumaic . . . innisin inna n-airecht sin amal itát what they are like, 1997 ( FA 6 ). indēsad dáib madh āil libh / amhail fūaradar oidhidh how they died, ZCP viii 119 § 1 . atchifet amal digeltar forru, PH 2806 . tabhair an taiplis don tigh / gu faicmis amhail imrid, IGT Decl. ex. 607 . do ordaigh Tairrdelbach . . . do lucht túaisceirt amal no raghdais dia taig, RC xviii 55.1 (Tig.). ro indis in echtra ┐ amail dochuadar for iar[r]aid usci, xxiv 202.4 . innister dó amhail ro escain Espuc E. . . . in fled, MR 24.18 .

(e) Doubtfully causal in: amal is i lóu bad sochrud ar n-imthecht gl. sicut in die honeste ambulemus 'since it is in the day', Wb. 6a30 . amal is tre bar tabirtsi dochum nirisse gl. sicut et uos nostra (gloria) . . ., 14c17 . In both cases the use of amal is no doubt due to the Lat. sicut. Possibly also: amail is tre metur ro cet in chantaice, Hib. Min. 6.188 .

Miswritten (am̄) for amlaid (aml—) in: is amal ro-batar in corp ┐ in cend oc tepersain fola, PH 1881 . is amal bói I. oc ernaigthi, 2202 . is amal fo-s-gébtái it é eroslacthi, 3753 .

In IGT Introd. 2.14 , 33.6 in phrase samhlughadh amhuil of adjectives in -amuil derived from nouns.

bág

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bág or dil.ie/5152
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: -aib

n ā, f. Perh. not orig. distinct from báid, q.v. for reff. to IGT Decl.; ascription of certain exx. doubtful.

(a) boast, threat, promise, undertaking, declaration: bagh .i. geall—ut est do bert . . . bagha . . . for sluaigeadh, Thr. Ir. Gl. 58 s.v. barr. baghi (sic). .i. gnim [ut est] baghas ar mbagha finda, O'Dav. 324. bagh .i. briathar, O'Cl. bag ┐ maidhem a threat (to inflict an injury) and a boasting (of injury inflicted), O'Curry 2422 ( Eg. 88, 33b ). bagh .i. ria ndenam chinaidh .i. an bagh re séd sundradach a specific threat (?), ibid. Cf. 2571 . Cf. maidhem iar ndenam cina, 2424 (33c). faisneis fir iar mbagha esamna .i. iar mbagha dó do dén olc frit ┐ adeir go lasamail, do den olc. Ocus is de ata, `ni bera fiacha fear bagha lasaman,' 2595 (50e). rom-ṡóerae, á Íssu,/ ar écnairc do báge, Fél. Ep. 490 (: pláge). ar na ructha do bag it cend that your boasting might not be turned against you, LU 8990. ar ngníma ropsat mára/ar mbága rapsat beca, Ériu i 72 § 4 ( LL 29430 ). ro bruiset baig ┐ brethir i cend demuin, LL 364 marg. sup. na briss brethir [na briss] baíg, TBC-LL¹ 3509. eipstil co mbágaib ┐ tómthaib ┐ ironaib innti, Alex. 782. Cf. PH 1131. borrfad is báig, SG 65.13 . cidat mora bar mbága frimsa . . . ni chumaic nech uaib ni dam, LB 115a32 . nó maided for hUltaib. . . . Nī collad bāg hi suidiu (i.e. the undertaking was fulfilled), ZCP viii 319.8 (Laud Gen.). ní ba bréc in bágh it will be no idle boast, SG 88.2 . do regra na bagi sin to answer that challenge, Cog. 74.23 . cend mic Conaing ina láimh, / do bháigh for ionchaibh mic Taidhg, AFM i 504.z (`to exhibit it before the face of'). anat for mbriatra bági boastful words, LU 8425 ( FB 29 , rhet.). ? sgiath an bhádha mar do bhual, Aithd. D. 63.23 (`the shield of His love'). ? ba b.¤ ám dait-siu ga (= cía) dobertha do greimm catha gan díchill lind i[n]diu (Medb to Fergus), TBC-LL¹ 5942 = ba coir duit-si, TBC St. 4812. ba bāg dōibsom an toitim oc tesorcain a n-eiti, TBC-I¹ 3435. Cf. ba slúagad baga (buadha, v.l.) dó in sluagad a hosting in fulfilment of an undertaking, TBC-LL¹ 463.

As vn. E. oc báig mo marbtha frim threatening to kill me, RC xiii 377.10 . inn ingen asatái oc báig boasting , TBC-LL¹ 3497. do chualaigh . . . na fineadha ag báidh dá bhuandhíochur threatening to expel him, ML 80.22 . bátar occ báigh ┐ acc baccar dul do indradh Tíre Conaill, AFM v 1812.4 .

(b) fight, contest, striving; act of contending, etc.: comrama et baga Poil `P.'s conflicts and battles' gl. bonum certamen certaui, cursum consummaui, Wb. 30d12 . bid adas far mbáich, 5d35 (`proportionate to your struggle', GOI § 249.5 ). a sgel nglan / di bagaib Dhe `contests', Blathm. 93. rugais mac friom baigh to contend on my behalf (?), 156 (`of whom I vaunt'). robūi oc bāid fri Conchobar, Ériu ii 26 § 7. fri báig is búnad prímda `for battle he is a pre-eminent stock', Thes. ii 295.14 . ciṅg báge, Fél. July 24 . bagh .i. cath, O'Cl. ni comtig beó da mbágaib, TBC-LL¹ 4390. nonbur 'sa mb.¤ ri Bregmag, Metr. Dinds. iv 340.6 . oen tarb . . . rempu / . . . / oca mbáig ar búaraib defending (?), 70.27 . fri (= frim, TBC-I¹ 1212 ) baga berai fri náimtiu ascada cen claideb fa allud, LU 5686 (rhet.). a cléth bága fría naimtiu, TTr.² 1621. fer bagha ┐ buancosanta Lethi Cuind, RC xviii 285.6 (Tig.). ar bid tresi ar mbagi anāit baga Foraind, BB 240a18 . buadugad cacha bágha, MR 258.23 . déd ban ┐ bel corcra / dán trén bágh an banntrochta, Prolegomena 45 § 25 . báigh 'na n-aighidh to fight them, Aithd. D. 33.16 . gabhaidh báigh gach aoinfhear undertakes battle (?), 38.23 . i nDruim Ríg . . ./ luid b.¤ for macc nDomnaill the fight went against, Arch. Hib. ii 55 § 13. is maith chosnaidh a Briain do báidh, Cog. 78.5 . Cf. Caithr. Thoirdh. 111.3 . Aithd. D. 39.6 . báidh d'eas nó d'aol do d'fhaoilinn / red chnes chaoilshlim competes (in whiteness) with (the foam of) the waterfall, L. Cl. A. B. 216.35 . iarna luathletradh . . . do bagaid (leg. -aib) bidbad, ZCP xxx 69.1368 ( LL 408az ).

lá bága day of battle; a day's fighting: sind ló baga sa, TBC-LL¹ 444. as usa limsa aisg d'fulang na gan cungnam le mo cairdib is in lo bágha sa aniu, MR 284.23 . naoimh . . . an bheatha / . . . / go dteagaid linn i lá bágha, DDána 25A. 31 . do thabairt a lai bágha lea bunadh ceineoil, MR 284.17 . thugais linn do lá bágha you fought on our side for a day, DDána 30.16 . Cf. fri huair ṁbáge the threatened hour (?), the day of conflict (?), SR 5115.

With various verbs: slúag romaith ind rígsa / lasa tá mo bágsa `along with whom is my fight', Fél. Ep. 162. lámh oirbheartach ré mbí ar mbágh, A. Ó Dálaigh xviii 4. bágim báig for Laignechaib, LL 6343. na fer báig a Fergus ar buaib sceó mnáib Ulad, LU 6623 (rhet.). na fer baig . . . dit díth claidib, 5429 (rhet.). ni math d'ferus baíg / darochar a Chú (Fer Diad speaks), TBC-LL¹ 3962. a Ḟlaind . . . / nocho lind beri do báig, LL 7531. in oen-ḟecht dobertis a mbaig, CRR 57. cet cia théis fri báig, Fél. 4.14 . fuair a dochar dol re mbaigh (leg. baigh), Anecd. ii 39 Poem 23 § 3 . doconnarc-sa F. ag slaidhe slúagh ar ar bris báigh, Fianaig. 80.22 . do-ní in fer ´s a síd so | báig im a rígaib rompa `boasts (or `contends´) about its kings´ Celtica xix 40 § 2 .

(c) warlike qualities (?), boldness: at mathi . . . Fir Breg . . . im blad im báig im cridechairi, LU 4267. bar mbaid ┐ [b]ar mbeodacht fen, TTebe 2710 . eter . . . gráin ┐ báig ┐ chostud, TBC-LL¹ 5172.

? nach b.¤ forsa torchair / mo menmae múad medrach `battle,' Fél. Ep. 361 (promise ?). nir ba h-aitherrach báigi na bisig, MR 314.23 . do bhrígh a báigh / le mnáibh síl gCuinn contending (in generosity) (?), L. Cl. A. B. 236. 143 . deochain bunaid baga, Gorm. Jan. 23 (`warlike'). Petrus co mbaig mbunaid, Acr. 27 (`blessing').

Freq. in chevilles: brígach b.¤ , LU 4135. oen-ri bethad bag cach noib, Rawl. 84b37 . bāig go mbloidh, ZCP viii 114 § 15. ní baid briathrach, BB 273b30 (= bágh, LL). Cf. MR 264.6 . báigh briathar, Aithd. D. 8.22 .

In n.pr. Cú Bage, LL 322f1 .

Compds. With noun: M. bagfer, Gorm. March 31. teichis . . a nertaib bághfear as hard as he could go, RC ix 470.x (ICM). With adj.: co lathe brātha bāgmōir, ZCP iii 18.20 .

1 bith

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 bith or dil.ie/5971
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: inb, betho, beotho, betha, biuth, bithu, bithe, mbetha, bethaib

n u, m. GOI §§ 73 , 307 . n s. an b.¤ , Blathm. 245. a s. inb, Wb. 22b13 . g s. betho, 1a3 , 14b10 , 29a8 , 31b18 , Ml. 16c5 , 54a15 , 88a3 , beotho, Wb. 11a19 . betha, 15d9 . Ml. 46d6 , 68b9 . d s. biuth, Wb. 12c16 , Ml. 24b13 . a p. bithu, Wb. 4c4 . bithe, Beatha Bharra 62.111 , BNnÉ 7 § 23 . g p. mbetha, LU 2001 ( FA 6 ). d p. bethaib, Imr. Brain 26. b.¤ m. (acht gan illradh aige), IGT Decl. § 71.

I

(a) the world: isin biuthso gl. in hoc mundo, Wb. 12d4 . isin mb.¤-sa gl. in hunc mundum, 29b14 . is dered ṁbetho inso `this is the end of the world', 10b3 . fon mb.¤ `throughout the world', Thes. ii 334.4 (Hy. v). do thustin an betha, Ériu ii 98 § 1. tuigithir blath inb.¤ `blossom covers the world', Ériu xxii 41 § 4 (MS). ad-comaicc a erball do thochur in beatha tar a cheann (of Leviathan), BDD² 503. no sirfed . . . in m[b]ith mbras, LU 3554 ( SCC 29 ). céin boí in díliu forsin b.¤ (for b.¤ v.l.), Airne F. 76. in b.-sa is b.¤ cáich ar n-uair `this world belongs to each (generation) in turn', Ériu ix 48 § 22. m'ænur dolod forsin mb.¤ `alone I came into the world', ii 56 § 14 . da mad he in b.¤ uli dogebtha, PH 7581. timcheall an betha `round the world', TTebe 4471 . cech noeb . . . bias / for b.¤ barrglass broenach, Gorm. 250 Ep. § 1 . báidhtir an bioth, DDána 26.16 . do lucht an bheatha, TSh. 7645. Freq. in phr. fir betha inhabitants (men) of the world, mankind, people: fir betho, Ml. 16c5 . di ḟeraib Hérenn nach di feraib betha, BDD² 917.

Often in theolog. sense the (temporal or material) world as opposed to the spiritual one: ó deithidin in betho .i. ó sétchi, Wb. 10b15 . amal ro mbo marb Ísu don biuthso `dead to this world', 15b25 . ní car Brigit būadach b.¤ , Thes. ii 327.13 (Hy. v.). mo chlūasa / . . . / nār ēistet . . . / . . . for b.¤ bētach the shameless world, ZCP vi 259 § 3. docotar . . . fri tola in betho `to worldly desires', Wb. 29d8 . See 1 cé.

(b) land, territory, soil: urcollud b.¤ brug betha go banna .i. uasal-collud for in mb.¤ .i. for in tír, O'Dav. 312. dobeir in ṁblicht isin ṁb.¤ , Ériu ix 50 § 37. bid íatt bus mesa / dūibh for b.¤ Banba, ZCP viii 110. 31 . lachttrom dúibh an bioth `the land', Magauran 354 .

(c) existence, life: i ndiththrub in beotho `in the desert of Life', Wb. 11a19 . ná ragad ar cúlu . . . co bruinni mbrātha ┐ betha, TBC-I¹ 1834. báire an bheatha `life's game', Dán Dé vii 3 . ar táille an bheatha i n-a mbíod span of life, xxiii 25 . Note also: amal aipgitir in betha `the alphabet of the fauna', Auraic. 5600.

In ds. in phrases ar-beir, airbert, comairbert biuth, see these words.

In phr. isin b.¤ , for (ar) b.¤ in the world, in existence; hence developing to anywhere, at all; (follg. a noun) any, whatsoever, see also s.v. 1 cía; freq. follg. a noun in neg. sentences nothing, no(one) at all: can co rabur acht oenlá . . . ar b.¤ but one day alive, TBC-LL¹ 1112. baterc for b.¤ mnai a samail for chóemi scarcely anywhere was there to be found, PH 830. na Ulltach eli for b.¤ `or any Ultonian', MR 38.16 . imad dérchointe . . . ┐ cecha eccumsanta for b.¤ of every unrest whatsoever, PH 4314. a bpéin budh mó san mbioth `in the greatest possible pain' (Gloss.), Desid. 1440. gibé ar bioth ní whatever , 593 . ni chumaic tra nech for b.¤ (isin b.¤ frecnairc-sea, LU 1996 ) tuaruscbail . . . na n-oirecht sin, FA 6 (LB). nac fitir a chuphus for (ar v.l.) b.¤ cidh no biadh doib donn orgain, Anecd. ii 49 § 11. nach béradh aen troigh teichid . . . ar comha ar b.¤ , Cog. 252.18 = ar coma sa b.¤ , 186.10 . ní háil leam . . . obair ar bioth shaoghaltha, Desid. 2511. ní fhuil ar bioth eascairde aguinne as mó, 478 . Note also: ba lōr a onōraighi . . . ar b.¤, dia madh rī no-biadh ann grand . . . enough indeed for a king, Fl. Earls 46.z . ar b.¤ any, Eg. Gl. 707. nom-bera ar bith at all events, RC xxiv 60 § 19. tar gach mbioth ` everywhere ', BS 30.22 . See McCaughey, SGS xii 30 - 33 .

II Age, period (see GOI § 365 ): is hé in b.¤ dédenach diand ebrath b.¤ sīl Chuind ┐ Muman ind [ḟ]laith co bráth, ZCP viii 313.30 . b.¤ cc. rob. ccl. a `bith' is 200 years, a `robith' 250, O'Curry 21 (H.3.18, 9b). o rosaigh co dechnemur is ann is ro b.¤ , 20 (ibid.) ? ic turc[a]bail na mbithó, Lism. L. 760. In phr. isna (tre, tria) bithu for ever: is dia bendachthe isna bithu gl. benedictus in secula, Wb. 4c4 . tria bithu na mbetha (Lat. per saecula saeculorum), LU 2001 ( FA 6 ). tre bithu betha (= in saecula), Lat. Lives 2 § 2. noco techtai sruth intí ná eissi acht lán tre bithu (= semper), 29 § 23. ro hedhbhradh dó hí trí bithe 'was surrendered up to him in perpetuity', Beatha Bharra 62.111 ​​​​. anaid hi sist ┐ hi ccairdes tre bithe, BNnÉ 7 § 23​ . piana ... o nach ternaife tré bíthe, Aisl. Tond. xiii 3 . See sír.

Compds. (freq. bid- in Wb., but cf. bith- 3b4, 3b7, 24a17). Only in meaning lasting, permanent, perpetual (later also as intensive and/or alliterative prefix). Cf. b.¤ .i. sir, Corm. Y 126 n. 8 . nad etsa bas b.¤ , ACC 98 (indep. use of bith ever , Misc. Hib. 50 § 366 ).

With adjj.: ag Tegh Moling biothainglighi ` ever-angelic ', BS 80.y . an ógh bithálainn bennaighthe `beauteous', BNnÉ 275 § 254 . robo bith-buaghlach (? -báoglach) bailedhach buadhartha, O'Dav. 297. act bid bidbéo gl. non moritur, Wb. 3b2 . is bithbeo corp crist, 3b4 . bad bithbíi i n-ísu, 3b7 . totchurethar bíi bithbi (rhetoric), LU 10027. teine bithbéo ` perpetual ' (Vocab.), Críth G. 180. a bhó bhithbhliocht always rich in milk (of Mary), Aithd. D. 97.27 . fear biothcaithmheach ` constantly-spending ', AFM v 1424.26 . nipsa bla bithdilis (b.¤ diles, v.ll.) inalienable , Anecd. ii 60.6 . it bithdommai sidi dǽ gente gl. inopes, Ml. 36c14 . bithḟotai sidi gl. uocalibus semper longuis, Sg. 5b 1 . bithgairddi gl. perpetuo breues, Sg. 5a14 . scieth bithghel, TBC St. 4561. Ol ṅguala .i. dabach Geirg, for lár in tige bithlán ` ever-full ', Ériu iv 30.25 . Brigit bé bithmaith `ever excellent', Thes. ii 323.1 (Hy. iv). a cind secht mbliadan mbithmas, ZCP v 23 § 4 . no-meilinn léini mbithnuí, Lament 2 . combi bidslán ` ever-sound ', Wb. 4d33 . cen soinmigi ┐ doinmigi do tecmung . . . acht robu bithsóinmech doib, Ml. 90c27 . for pianad bithsuthin `in the everlasting punishment', Ml. 26d12 .

With nouns: .iiii. bliadna pennite ┐ bith-ailithre (= cum peregrinatione perenni), Ériu vii 144 § 21. beannacht ┐ bithbheannacht perpetual blessing, DDána 120.31 . bithbés troiscta `continual fasting', Mon. Tall. 161.1 . uita aeterna .i. . . . bid bidbethu, Wb. 4a13 . immin bidbethid, 15c14 . i mbithchāin `as a perpetual law', Cáin Ad. 28. bithchen do thíchtu, MU² 58. comalta ┐ fer bithchotaig dam, LU 6007 (TBC). mnā do uhith i mbithdōire in perpetual bondage, Cáin Ad. 16. bithfer fíta na riaglae one who keeps to the prescribed ration, Mon. Tall. 151.24 . donfé don bithflaith `eternal kingdom', Thes. ii 325.16 (Hy. iv). do bithgres always, SR 4912. ní dúthrais a bithingnais `his perpetual absence', Thes. ii 291.10 . [i m]bithphennit, Wb. 24a17 . bidserc doib gl. inseruerunt sé doloribus multis, Wb. 29b23 .

With vnn. doarngert bithanad isin chill sin, RC xxiv 56 § 17. bhithbeith gan forcenn i fudhomhnuibh pian, Ériu ii 122 § 63. biddixnugud fírinne `eternal existence', Wb. 14c31 . bidfoglim doib gl. semper discentes, 30c15 . in bithiata hi robaid riam `of the perpetual closure', Ml. 46a8 . ba ferr lim dobertha oldaas a bithtarṅgire than to be constantly promised, Mór M. 262 § 1.6 .

With vbs. ( GOI § 384 ): ro-bithbéo it pardus `may I be for ever', Fél. Ep. 39. faithchi i mbithbiat caírig `in which there are always' (Vocab.), Críth G. 198. in Coimde robhithbhai ┐ bhithbias, Ériu ii 106 § 19. ? is fris con bith bennaib búredar (= bith-buireadar co mbennaib, ed., 105 n.43), ZCP xi 87 § 48. a Chrīosd, bhiothmhairios ad th'airdrígh, Parrth. Anma 4827.

feidligud

Cite this: eDIL s.v. feidligud or dil.ie/21471

 

Forms: feidligtheo, feidligthe

n u, m. (vn. of feidligidir) remaining, persisting: f.¤ do hi fochaidib, Ml. 63b15 . is dligthigiu a cumscugud quam a f.¤ its permanence Sg. 22b12 . g s. serc feidligtheo oco, Ml. 15a5 . feidligthe, Sg. 16a14 . rop [f]err léa a feidligud i n-ógi to remain a virgin TTr.² 1856 . folamastar fedlegud (.i. anmain, ACL iii 28.6 ) hi toeb Clare, Trip. 200.21 . mad ail leind fedliugud i tír na mbeo, PH 8068 . an lánamhain sin d'feidhliughadh i n-óitid ... go cenn seacht mís remained youthful Irish Texts iii 15.16 . fédliugud isin cinded ecoir persisting in the wrong resolve PH 5259 . feidliugud a timnaib De, ZCP iii 30.6 . ni chumaic demun fédliugud fri re n-oenuari i talum ..., LB 260a11 (= feidhliuccudh, RC xxvi 364 ).

3 má, ma

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 3 má, ma or dil.ie/31164

 

Forms: ma, mai, mad, ma, mararubart, ma, matchím, matchí, mani, mini, mane, mana, maine, meni, min-e, -a, mun-i, -a, masam, massat, masat, másat, mas(s)u, masa, maso, mas, más, manid, matu, madam, madham, mainba, munbáam, madat, madit, mádat, mad, manip, menip, minab, munab, mat, mainbet, manibat, menbat, menbadat, mad, mainbad, mainbed, manibad, manibbad, manipad, manibat, manibed, menbad, manbad, munbad, matis, ma, maniptis, má, muna, má's, máiseadh, madh, munab, mun-, mur-, murab, mura, mur, mur, ma, manas, masad, masdod, munid, manid, manip, munab, má, masu, manibad, mainbad, mad, mad, má

conj. if. Synopsis of forms in O.Ir. and Mid.Ir. (forms found only in latter are enclosed in square brackets):

A. With vbs. other than copula: ma (Glosses): má, Ml. 85d6 , freq. in Mid.Ir.; mai, AU 617 ; [mad]; folld. by deuterotonic verb-form; lenites follg. cons. (but cf. ma rrufeste, Wb. 9c8 ) and sometimes prefixes h to follg. vowel. Elision before follg. a is rare: mararubart (= ma ararubart), Ml. 112b5 ; matchím if I see, TBC-LL¹ 3357 , matchí if thou seest, 3353 = TBC-I¹ 2592 , 2587 . With neg.: mani; mini, Wb. 9d1 ; [mane, mana, maine, meni; min-e, -a; mun-i, -a].

B. With copula:

(a) folld. by indic.: pres. 1 s. [ masam, CCath. 596. ] 2 s. [ massat, LU 6971 = BDD 62. masat, PH 4708. másat, BS 100.13 .] 3 s. mas(s)u. masa, Ml. 108a16 , 118a5 . maso, SR 3497 (mafo MS.). [mas, más]. (neg.) manid. 3 pl. matu hé, Wb. 2c14 .

(b) folld. by subj.: pres. 1 s. [ madam, Acall. 800. madham, CCath. 4210. ] (neg.) mainba, Wb. 17c10 . [ munbáam, Acall. 1071. ] 2 s. [? madat, TBC-I¹ 2641 = madit, TBC-LL¹ 3442. mádat, TTr.² 1801. ] 3 s. mad; (neg.) manip [menip, minab, munab]. 3 pl. mat, Wb. 28c21 , Sg. 189b4 , CRR 5 , Laws ii 324.6 , 362.25 , 382.2 (all text). [ madat, ZCP viii 217 § 2. ] (neg.) mainbet, Wb. 11c5 . manibat, Ml. 24c1 . [ menbat, LL 265b36 = MU 26.27 ]. impf. 2 s. (neg.) [ menbadat, RC xiv 426 § 47 ]. 3 s. mad (?). (neg.) mainbad, Wb. 4a20 . mainbed, 6c31 , 9b19 . manibad, Ml. 134b3 . manibbad, Sg. 17b8 . manipad, Mon. Tall. § 4. ? manibat, Trip. 78.18 . manibed, SR 4129. menbad, 4643 . manbad, LU 3771 = SCC 34. [munbad.] 3 pl. matis, Wb. 11a22 . 5b15 . Ml. 73d1 . 40c17 ( ma atis). (neg.) maniptis, 73d1 .

Mod.Ir. forms: má, (neg.) muna. With cop.: má's (mé, tú, é, etc.), máiseadh; madh (early Mod.Ir., now obsolete); (neg.) munab; in some dialects mun- becomes mur-: murab eadh, Luc. Fid. 325.10 ; mura mbeith, 259.5 ; mur bhfuil, 262.18 . mur ttaisbeunair, 284.1 .

I In O. and Mid.Ir. used in protasis of a conditional statement, if ; with neg. if . . . not, unless ; folld. by (A) indic. for a present or past condition, (B) pres. subj. for a future condition, (C) impf. subj. for a remote future or unfulfilled condition ( Thurn. Hdb. § 890 ).

A. With indic.:

(a) with vbs. other than copula. In O.Ir. when the follg. vb. has no infixed pron., ma infixes -d-, see Thurn. Hdb. § 425 , Pedersen Vgl. Gr. § 537. ma chomalnit a ngrád . . . ma ru-d-choiscset a mmuinter if they fulfil . . . if they have corrected, Wb. 28c7 . ma du-d-esti ní . . . íccfidir if aught is lacking . . . it will be made good, 25a30 . ma du-d-ell ní if he has stolen aught, 22b7 . mani-d-chretid esséirge Crist . . . nib-noíbfea for n-ires if ye do not believe, 13b19 . ma du-d-rignius ní if I have done aught, Ml. 23c27 . rot-bia onóir ma fíraid duit . . . ind fissiu do fuaslucud, SR 3355. ma ro sárugus do smacht, 1403 . ma thecait Ulaid, ní theciub-sa, TBC-LL¹ 5019. ma ra-charais . . . fǽ lais if thou hast loved him, 4561 . má thánic a thrath, 3629 . ma do-s-gní Dia feirg fri re mbicc . . . dogēna ar comdidnad iarum, PH 6637. ma daronus-[s]a bar n-osaic-se, 5269 . mad cretid Crist, atber!, 448 . is peccad . . . do neoch cen aíne do dénam . . . mad conicc, 6029 . munob (mánop LU) gaib far nglindi unless your bonds hold you, TBC-I¹ 1515. at meirb mani-d-frescai thou art weak unless thou hope for it, Fél. July 19 . mani-d-cuala if thou heardest not of him, June 13 . mani chumaic nech iat do dénam, PH 4697

With the subst. vb. the form fil is used in 3 s. pres. in O.Ir. ( Pedersen Vgl. Gr. § 641 ), but tá is common in Mid.Ir. ma nu-dub-feil i n-ellug coirp Crist, adib cland Abrache, Wb. 19c20 . ma nud-fil etir á foraithmet if there is any memory of them, Ml. 107d12 . ma nod-fil fer i nhEre, ZCP viii 311.34 . má ta nech icon cloich thall, SR 6157. ma tá ocaib 'sin dun . . . ┐ mani ḟail, TBC-LL¹ 1765. ma ta cumachta latt, PH 3871. ma tá ceol a nim, cid nach biad i talmain?, Acall. 3484. manas-fuil os an seolchrann if it is not above the mast, Leb. Gab.(i) i 256.

(b) with copula (generally used to emphasize some member of the conditional clause). masu du réir spirito ataaith if ye are subject to the Spirit, Wb. 20b16 . massu cut séitchi ro cretis . . . manid co séitchi ro cretis, 10a29 , 30 . masa choimdiu if he is lord, Ml. 108c16 . masu ed sluindes ind rann if this is what the part of speech expresses, Sg. 27a11 . maso ḟír . . . for ṁbith iarmui do Abram, tucaid uaib etere if it is true that ye are A.'s descendants, SR 3497. más co mbaraind debtha totháet, FB 46. mas iat benas in fid, TBC-LL¹ 1398. masa thú | demin limm isat lomthru, 3659 . masa mac Dé tu, slanaig tu fén if thou art the son of God, PH 2864. masat mac Dé iar fhír, apair . . ., 4708 . matu hé ata horpamin indí ro chomalnaiset recht if those who have fulfilled the law are heirs, Wb. 2c14 . masat Herennaig ┐ menbat allmaraig, isat Ulaid, LL 365b36 = MU 26.27 . mástat [= másat] carait . . . mastat námait, FB 84 = masad . . . masdod, ZCP iv. 172.33 . manid innonn forcital linn unless our teaching is the same, Wb. 17b32 . manid caindleóracht in tige as áil duit do chosnam, FB 92 = munid ZCP iv 175.20 . ni cian bai hIssau ic seilgc | manid gáu dó . . . mochthánic astsleib . . . mas e thuc in sére-se, SR 2866 , 2868 . The 3 s. ind. form manid passes early out of use, giving way to the subj. manip (minab, munab): mas o Dia ata in fhís-[s]ea ┐ minap togoethad diabuil, PH 1542. minab lór lett a n-abair . . . dféch thuas, 7639 .

B. With pres. subj.

(a) with vbs. other than copula. is deid som ma arí in fer-so maní n-airi immurgu ní deid if he find this man; if however he find him not, Ml. 30d24 . ma dugneu, 23c24 . mani bée dechur isint senmuim ni tucatar inna rríara, Wb. 12c43 . mani-s-mbe bethu suthin unless they have eternal life, 13b20 . mani eple de if he die not of it, Sg. 181a5 . ma ro-m-thoicther-sa . . . mani-m-rothcaither, Thes. ii 293.6 ( SP i 5 ). ma dorontar ón if it can be managed, Mon. Tall. 52. mani-mbé sēt sīrhettla, meni tabra dilgud dam, SR 2086. mani thetarrais issin chetforgam, ni thetarrais co fescor, TBC-I¹ 650 (LU) = maini tetarrais, YBL. mono thæth in ḟirmimint . . . nó mani thí in ḟarggi, TBC-LL¹ 5975. manu thisat, 4271 . moni digsid ass . . . no-bor-mairfither, IT i 75.3 . mairg dobeir seirc do duni | mene-s-tarda dia airi, SCC 44. mine rab déirc accum unless I have charity, PH 5910. mine fhacur-sa slicht na cló . . . ní chretiub unless I see, 6694 .

(b) with copula: mad hinunn a n-etargnae in chetnidi ┐ in dirṡuidigthi bid hinunn randatu doib if the notion of the primitive and that of the derivative be the same, they will have the same particularity, Sg. 188a7 . mad in chruth sin beithe if ye be in that wise (gl. pacem habete et Deus . . . erit vobiscum), Wb. 18b16 . mad marb duini . . . do chumaid . . . bid marb Iacob if any one should die of grief, SR 3601. mad hi cein . . . menip cían, 6125 , 6127 . mad nóeb ar-id-lega if he who recites it be holy, Fél. Ep. 178. mad ḟorum-sa bus róen, TBC-LL¹ 3750. mad iat fir Herend bes and, CRR 11. mád co féirg dothí C. . . . is amlaid coto-méla-ni, FB 52. mad amlaid seo dechsam d'airitin chuirp Crist (=si . . . accedamus ad hanc coenam sanctam), PH 5353. mat hé na briathra-sa forcane if these be the words thou teachest, Wb. 28c21 . mat anmann adiechta emnatar and is écen coma-comol if nouns adjective be doubled there a conjunction is necessary (but not in other cases), Sg. 189b4 . mat ruanaid if they prove valiant, CRR 5. ní torbe la suidib [precept] manip sulbair unless it be eloquent, Wb. 8a12 . mad aire chuinces sin . . . ┐ manip ar daig lessa, PH 7990. munba deóin le Righ na rann . . . munbo cairnech in craidhe, ZCP vi 268.11 , 12 . manibat fer[r]-som de (gl. si non . . . fecerit meliores), Ml. 24c1 .

The form mad (madh) continues in use in early Mod.Ir.: madh fírinneach . . . comhrádh an duine . . . madh bréagach, TSh. 1777.

C. With impf. subj., generally corresponding to an impf. subj. or conditional in apodosis and sometimes with force of pluperfect.

(a) with vbs. other than copula: ma nubed if it existed, Sg. 31b21 . ni tibertis piana foraib mani esersitis if they did not rise, Ml. 15c7 . ma doruirminn if I should recount, Fél. Ep. 128. (with tmesis) ma ro loídib lammis if we dared in lays, ib. Fél. Feb. 27 . meni bethe ar in tṡluagud-sa . . . doraismis Ultu if thou wert not in this hosting, TBC-LL¹ 766. monu thiastáis if they should not come, 4277 . mina chredind-se he . . . nis-cuirfind techta if I did not believe in him, PH 449. muna mbeith acht an aonghamhnach istigh were there but one stripper in the house, Keat. iii 2757. With pluperf. force: ba miscuis atroillisset . . . mani thised trocaire if mercy had not come, Wb. 4c15 . ma rrufeste ní gētte if ye had known, ye would not snatch, 9c8 . mani thorasta mo dáil . . . no bíad Nabál cen anmain if thou hadst not come to meet me, SR 6321. ni boi i nnim . . . dúl tísad frind, mine thísad Lucifer, MacCarthy 62.5 = LB 112a11 . mina báitea-su mé . . . nis-bíad pian form hadst thou not drowned me, PH 8258. With cond. in late text: ma ragad cliar dimdach de `if a company went grumbling from him', Ériu iv 214 § 10 (gé bheith v.l.).

(b) with copula: mad forṅgaire dognein, docoischifed pían a thairmthecht if it were a command I gave, Wb. 10a27 . ní bad samlaid son mad on chetnidiu nobed this would not be so if it were from the primitive, Sg. 207b2 . mad ed asberad . . . is ed rogigsed if he had said . . . this is what he would have prayed for, Ml. 32d5 . mád do Laegaire . . . tisad ág . . . no sirfed hErind, SCC 29. ni ráncatar som less a scríbint mainbed díar nertad ni they have not needed to be written unless it were to strengthen us, Wb. 6c31 . docoith dígal forru: matis tuicsi ní rígad if they had been elect it would not have come, 11a22 . matis mu namait dudagnetis ┐ maniptis mu charait dudagnetis had it been my enemies and not my friends that did them, Ml. 73d1 . is é in claideb dobéraind . . . menbadat [sic leg.] aide if thou wert not (my) fosterer, RC xiv 426 § 47. munbud coll crabaidh . . . robo gairit linn t'accallaim-si if it were not a breach of piety, Acall. 127. In follg. instance, mad appears in combination with an absolute form of the copula: adubairt an Díabul ris, mádh bo mac Dé é arán do denum dona clochaib, Maund. 91.

II Special uses of má+copula.

(a) masu ed if it is that, if so is used in Sg. to express doubt of a foregoing statement; 21b6 , 50b13 , 124a1 . In later Mid.Ir. sometimes with force of a concessive particle = if so, in that case, then , or to introduce a contrasting statement: glosses igitur, BB 299b28 . sluindfet a thri buada cech ócthigirn . . . Tri meth octhigirn massed `on the other hand', Ériu ix 46 § 12 = LL 147b23 . Common in mod. lang.: is ón tTighearna atá imtheacht an duine; cionnus fhédus duine maiseadh a shlighe féin do thuigsin? how then can a man understand, Proverbs xx 24. gion go bhfuil an teine-se síorraidhe, maiseadh is iongantach an truime atá innte (=etsi non sit aeternus, miro tamen modo gravis est), TSh. 3999. tar ceann go dtugthar Scotia d'ainm ar an gcuid úd don Bhreatain . . . maseadh foillsighidh Beda go ngairthí an t-ainm sin d'Éirinn nevertheless , Keat. ii 5868.

(b) manibad (3 s. impf. subj. cop.) often appears folld. by a subst. in elliptical sentence, if it were not . . ., but for . . . ; cf. Wb. 9b1 : minibed croís ni bíad etrad if there were not gluttony. manibed Moísi . . . óenfer díb nā faicbed beo that, had it not been for Moses, he would not have left one man of them alive, SR 4129. manbad omain Dé . . . no berad leis cenn Saúil but for the fear of God, 6393 . minabad do shnadad, robtis do reṅga rigthi, TBC-I¹ 1182. munbad Conall . . . ropad forainne bad róen, CRR 56. ní biadh iffern . . . minbadh mé there would be no hell . . . but for me, Ériu iii 148 § 4. manibat ainmnet . . . nutscaílfeth cumachta Dé `but for my (? God's) patience', Trip. 78.18 (but cf. reading in ACL iii 20.4 : mani bit ainmnit .i. ciuin). With pres. subj.: ni thánic . . . fer bud amra manip [manipad v.l.] do chruas save for thy hardness, 120.4 . Cf. mainbad fororaid in rí had not the King lent aid (?), Hy. v 32 , with gl. mani fortachtaiged T, mani fured F; edd. Thes. ( ii 335 ) connects mainbad with follg. line.

(c) in older language when the subject of a vb. in 1 pl. is analysed as `thou and I', the formula: mad tú if it be thou is used, the 1 s. pron. being already implied in the vb. (see KZ xlviii 51 ). dia mbamur mad tu leis ic foclaimb bindiusai when thou and I were with him, ZCP iii 249 § 64. cia bem-ne madh tu . . . i n-airisem, Anecd. ii 9.3 . cid nach n-acallmis mad tu? why should not you and I converse? ZCP xiii 268.3 . consáiter etrunni mad tú between thee and me, IT iii 244.1 . Cf. anas bermaisin matau (leg. an-asbermais-ni mad tú?), ZCP viii 329. 26 = anasbermaisiu ma táu, LL 330c9 , anasbermaisim matu, BB 166a6 .

(d) mad folld. by a subst. or equivalent often serves to introduce a new subject of discourse or a contrast = as for, with regard to: mad messe, ba dethbir dam, etc., SCC 45. madh é Fraech immorro, ro eirigh co moch as, ZCP xiii 171.3 . mád ind Assia beg immorro, TTr.² 1046. madh a n-adhnacol ní cæmais as for burying them, thou wilt not be able, Anecd. i 72 § 198 . mád in ra brethaigestar Cúruí as for C.'s judgement, FB 90. madh an ro dusaig do marbaib | is mó milib as for the dead he raised, ACL iii 303 § 11. mad nofail [leg. 'na fail?] d'hilphianaibh ann . . . lia nāt luibi as for all the divers punishments there . . . (they are) more in number than herbs (?), SR 933 (where Stokes takes mad as = immad quantity). mad o Adam . . . co ngénair mac De, cóic mili is cét . . . ocus sé bliadna nochat as for (the period) from Adam to the birth of the Son of God, 2333 . is dō a óenur do nach airchend bás . . . ar mád sinne immorro is a[irchenn], Thes. ii 351.23 . madh iad clann R. tra, así comhairle doronsat, AFM iii 226.5 .

(e) similarly in the common formula: mad iar (do réir, etc.) (if it be) according to: mad du stoir . . . mad du rúin according to the literal sense . . . according to the mystic sense, Ml. 44b4 , 6 . mad iar sians imorro . . . is ed doforne, PH 3449. mad iar Cirine . . . mad iar n-Augustin, 6435 . mad iar n-araile immorro, issi a liathroit, etc., TBC-I¹ 525. mad do reir na sgoile, MacCarthy 278.5 . Cf. also: dobí macaem . . . arna damnad docum a loiscthi tria drúis do denam di (mado fis), Maund. 57 ; leg. mad ō fis if it be from knowledge (= if it be true)?

(f) similarly in phrases like: mad cose up to this, hitherto , in which mad appears to be a mere expletive. ní ḟetatar . . . inad beo-sa mad cose, TBC-LL¹ 4940 , cf. 739 . dulig sár ar bar sluagaib mád cose, LL 238b23 ( TTr. 1615 ). Áth nÍ. a ainm mad cosin, Áth F. a ainm o ṡain ille, TBC-LL¹ 4948. mad colléic, 5148 . mad gustráthsa, 5111 . ni rugusa troidh theithidh . . . má guse, ZCP viii 551.20 . mad costrasta ` just now ', MR 262.24 .

III Acht má (mani):

(a) in affirm. sent., acht má = `but if', unless: acht massu made in chretem except the belief is vain, Wb. 13a34 . nocon ḟetar-sa ac[h]t mad sin | cid imma ndernad unless that be (the reason), TBC-LL¹ 608. acht má. dothísad . . . ni reg-sa, Trip. 118.14 . ní thic do neoch acht mád doneth fein [acht mine dernad LB] unless [God ] were to do it Himself, FA 9. acht ma tecmadh secht tengt[h]a filed i cinn aenduine . . . do beth ní dia chomrumuib gan turim, ZCP viii 111.16 . acht madh chena even so, nevertheless , Laws iii 542.9 Comm.

(b) acht mad, folld. by subst. unless it be . . ., except, saving . . . only , generally after neg. sent. acht mad Rab . . . ni therna . . . oenfer, SR 5069. ni ruc claind . . . acht mad óeningin, IT i 130.14 . cia doragad and acht mad Findchad?, CRR 8. ní mairenn don muintir . . . acht mád missi, Acall. 3320. co na raibi acht madh foraithmed bec di i nErinn, Acall. iii 4.13 . ro fetar-sa co na bia maith eitir de acht madh olc uili, CCath. 4603. ní therno eladach betha dib acht ma misi, ZCP xiii 233.13 .

(c) acht mani unless indeed (a more emphatic concession than mani). nad ḟetar-sa . . . act manip íat in Galían, CRR 11. ni raga ass . . . acht mani-t-ainge ben unless a woman protect thee, SCC 14. in aíne cen in almsain is bec a tarba, acht mani beth do bochta neich co na raib aicce almsa dobera unless one's poverty were such that one had no alms to give, PH 4972. acht manibad drochduine he, ni thindlecmais-ni det-siu he, 2698 . is maith [ind elada] . . . acht muna beth sianargan in brechta sídhe inti, Acall. 3482 (`but for a twang of the fairy spell that infests it', SG ii 191 ).

IV In Mid.Ir. mad dá (dia) often takes the place of má folld. by subj.

(a) mad da tí a thig, CRR 22. méraid ní bus lia a laídhi | madh dá ndíla a commaíne if she requite, Acall. 801. mad da ríus Emain, TBC-LL¹ 1208 , cf. 3416 . mad da mbeind-se i crichaib Ulad, CRR 8. Exceptionally with pret.indic.: mád dammamar [madam bámar, St.; leg. mad da mbámar] allanair [sic leg.] ac Scathaig if we were (still) yonder with S., TBC-LL¹ 4102 , cf. 4039 .

(b) mad dia ti taris, is bǽth, TBC-LL¹ 1644. mad dian bérthai [mad dia mberthai, St.] uide uad, 595 . mad dia marbthar Mani mór, | bid díth cethern, TFerbe 370 . mád dia follamnaige co fírén in rí, PH 4086. ba hed adgegmis-ni ani sin mad dia fédmais, IT ii2 228 § 3 . mad dia mbeth at cumung if it were in thy power, RC vi 175.54 . With indic.: madh dia ndeni-siu forru if thou do [it ] to please them, BNnÉ 304 § 16.

V Other idioms:

(a) inge má unless: iṅge mad etarscartha unless it be separated, Sg. 75b5 . inge mad dligtechu in ceili, Laws ii 338.1 , cf. O'Dav. 708. Scarcely, hardly: ingi ma rochoillset fir, TBC-I¹ 265. as ing má ro thérna neach riamh hardly any one escaped, Hugh Roe fo. 15 a . go mbo hing ma rob éigen . . . a n-airm d'imbirt forra [sic leg.] it was hardly necessary, fo. 81b . With subj.: iss ing ma rasoissed [sic leg.] cind mile bliadan a dhomhnai it could hardly reach its bottom, Ériu ii 132 § 109. See 1 ing, 1 inge.

(b) is becc má `it is little if', scarcely: is beac ma ba oirrdearca Concobhar C. was scarcely more illustrious, CF 411.

(c) ní mór má: ni mor masa incretmi he it is almost incredible, LB 152b16 . ní mór má doērna sceola indisen scel hardly a fugitive escaped, BDD 158. ni mór má ro proinnigsiot they scarcely broke their fast, AFM vi 2288.22 .

VI Rarely used to introduce a subst. clause: ni cuman lim ma rudbaitsius nach n-aile, Wb. 8a3 . robú mór a homun lium-sa ón mad and atbelmais-ni . . . ┐ mani-n-soirthae my fear of it was great that we should die . . . and that we should not be delivered, Ml. 96a10 . is dual dun mani [mina v.l.] torgoethat in[na] duailc[h]i it behoves us that vices should not deceive us, ZCP iii 450.4 .

VII In early Mod.Ir. má (folld. or not by nó) is used exceptionally to introduce a disjunctive clause, whether (Lat. sive): madh beag nó mór an chréacht doníthi leo, ní ghabhadh leigheas greim don othar, Keat. ii 1731. ma's beo marbh iad whether they be alive or dead, Parrth. Anma 327.10 . mas olc maith me, 343.22 .

trá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. trá or dil.ie/41529

 

Forms: .t., thrá, tra, thra, tráth, t., trá, tráth

adv. and conj. (See GOI p. 558 , p. 673 ). Written plene BCr. 3d : anísiu t.¤ is écen remfuar bissext ┐ emblesim `this, then, is necessary, to prepare bisext and embolism.' Usually contracted to .t. in O.Ir. Glosses. Later when written fully the forms thrá, tra, thra occur. Also occasionally tráth. That t.¤ is a fully stressed wd. is shown by the rhymes: tra: chombartsa, Thes. ii 292.1 . tra: anma, SR 1349 . tra: himmarba, Metr. Dinds. ii 42.17 . trá: lá, DDána 2.13 . TD 1.9 .

With regard to its position in the sentence, the use of t.¤ corresponds to that of dano, didiu, immurgu etc. (see these words), and these are commonly interchanged with it in Mid. Ir. MSS., e.g. marbthair dōib dano in mucc (tra, Hl.), Sc.M² 5 . toirbirid tra (immorro, LU), FA 1 . tir shuthach solusta tra in tír sin (iarom, LU), 4 . na búidne ocus na hoirechtu tra (dano, LU), 6 . Also occurs side by side with such words as dano: ina bretha fir aicnid tra didiu (sic leg.) ro labairustar in spirit noem, Laws i 16.10 . a forbí tra dano for lortaid na muindtire, Mon. Tall. 128.7 .

In general trá comes after and emphasises the first principal stressed word in the sentence. The commonest positions are:

1 After the verb: ní ceilsom tra as né crist, Wb. 4d16 . ni-con fil tra belre issin [biuth so], 12d5 . amal gnís tra crist, 21b2 .

2 After the copula and predicate: cib cenél tra dia roscribad ind epistil, Wb. 3b20 . is bées tra donaib dagforcitlidib, 11b6 . is hed torbe nammáa tra, 12d29 . is hé tra as fír, 19c7 .

3 After prepositions with suff. pron.: ropo ainm dúibsi tra inso uile, Wb. 9c29 . masu glé lib tra in precept, 13b12 . darolged dam tra, 18a12 . Cf. cid as dénti fri sin tra, 12d41 .

4 After conjunctions and adverbs: isamlid tra is lobur, Wb. 4a27 . is amlaid tra canithsom, Mon. Tall. 139.9 . in tan tra rochloither imtecht duini, 136.14 . is ann sin t.¤ , BDD² 429 . huair tra is deichnemur rochachain ina psalmu, Hib. Min. 126 . an uair tra tainec am legind, BCC 172.9 . iar sin tra dorala for dul dia hacallaim, TBFr. 15.13 . is suaichnid sund tra as rect maid, Wb. 3d10 . hi sunt tra conricc frissa lind serb, 7d9 .

5 After nouns: ceist tra, etc. Wb. 13a13 . a senud uille tra ni biat i nóentu muintire nime, 9c28 . inna tri secht tra, Ml. 2d2 . cóic méich fichet tra, LU 8126 . focal coirmdhighe th.¤ ar ttreas, Studies 1921, 589 § 7 . iarsin mbreith sin tra Laws i 14.12 . indill dún in carpat t.¤ , LU 8571 . ( FB 43. ) donertad iude tra in so, Wb. 5b11 . cosmulius co nécsamlus tra inso, 13b25 . de dliguth tra inna niltoimddensin, Sg. 26b7 . do neoch t.¤ do daínib in domain, LU 2060 . Less frequ. after the subject following the verb: bertit alaili tra combad spirut nóib, Wb. 13a16 . is lib atá a rogu tra, 9a23 .

6 After proper names: Cathbad tra tainic, RC vi 175.29 . Fachtna Fathach tra is é ba maclendan don ingin, 50 . Nihassa tra a hainm iar sin, 174.20 .

7 After adjectives: it dóindi tra haec exempla, Wb. 10d4 . ro-pad demin tra, PH 5122 . maith tra, LU 8096 . Cf. is nech tra ecin dom chomaltaib, TBC-LL¹ 2172.

8 After féin: doselbi fein tra do praind, Mon. Tall. 148.27 . Cf. a mesrugud do neuch tra buddesin, 152.10 .

9 In phrases, see infra.

In addition to emphasising the word it follows trá usually has a conjunctive or adversative sense with reference to what has gone before.

I Conjunctive then, therefore, so, indeed: coir irnigde tra inso `this, then, is the right way of prayer,' Wb. 4a27 . ní áil tra insin do epirt `it is not proper, then, that that should be said,' 27c8 . trop tra donadbat `a figure of speech, then, he shows,' Ml. 15a2 . maith tra, ol Patraic `well, then, said Patrick,' Laws i 8.7 . tocuirius etrum thra na huile nert-so `I invoke therefore all these forces,' Lib. Hymn. 135.1 . huair tra is deichnemur rochachain ina psalmu `now, since it is ten persons that sang the psalms,' Hib. Min. 12.6 . ro bátar t.¤ deólatchaire móra inna fhlaith, BDD² 182 . ni chumaic thra nech isin bith, LU 1996 . bā soccair tra in lestar `indeed, she was a sound craft,' MacCongl. 85.15 . fri teora la tra ro badar foran abairt sin `for three days then,' Stair Erc. 197 . tug an damh [t.¤] tug an t-asal | aithne ar an rígh rugadh ann, DDána 17.9 . soitheach th.¤ do dhéanamh go n-onóir, TSh. 902 . So also tráth: is solom dún in sét sa tráth, TBC-LL¹ 2071 . is amra lib tráth, 2083 . badh hiongnadh tráth, CRR² 26 . doden-sa trath inni-sin, RC vi 176.1 . is aire sin tráth aderthi Núadha Airgétlámh friss, Cóir Anm. 154 . marbh trath a mathair dia bhreith, BB 205a42 . tréigthear libh t.¤ bhar dtuirse (tráth, MS.), Measgra D. 60.5 .

II Adversative

(a) however, but, on the other hand: ata ni is messu de tra, SR 1349 . Patraic tra ind inbaid sin i ndaíre i nHerind, LU 266 . Assa a hainm gó sin anald, ar ba hailgen. Nihassa tra a hainm iar sin, RC vi 174.20 . robái t.¤ Ioif co firen, TTebe 4254 . acht gé tá cló tred chroidhe | dá mhó t.¤ do thrócaire, DDána 20.17 . focal coirmdhighe th.¤ ar ttreas `our fight was mere words at ale-drinking,' Studies 1921, 589 § 7 . dobheredh ierraidh meinic ar a himfholach fo n-a brat. Nī roibi tra sin ar comus dō `he often endeavoured to conceal it under his coat, but could not succeed,' Fl. Earls 62.29 .

(b) In the phrases cid trá acht (later cid trácht ?), cid fil and trá acht however, at all events: cid tra acht .i. cid cred ┐ tra ticfaid ┐ acht gnim, Lec. Gl. 280 . cid tra acht dia curta nech i secht n-áesaib, LU 2454 . cid tra acht nir chutulsa do Chonchobar, CRR 12 . cidh trā acht do tinōiled, ML² 197 . cid tra acht torchair cethrar, TTebe 954 . cid tracht ro cind Ercuil forro, Stair Erc. 192 . ciodh trácht roghluaiseadar na Cléirig, Celt. Rev. x 133.1 . cidh tráth acht, 24 P 9, 67.1 . Cf. cid didiu (sic leg.) acht, PH 146. 565 . cid fil and tra acht marbais Cú Chulainn cét, Comp. CC 64.14 . cid fil and tra acht ata in scriptuir, PH 2184 . cidh fil ann tra acht nirba sorimthea, Stair Erc. 158 . cidh fil ann tra, ol an ri fri hErcuil, acht ro crín, 1251 . Cf. cidh fil ann didiu acht, 605 . PH 834 . cid fil ann immorro acht, Stair Erc. 448 . cid fil didiu (sic leg.) acht, PH 1803 . cid fil ann tra, 2299 . See trán.

túarascbáil

Cite this: eDIL s.v. túarascbáil or dil.ie/42218

 

Forms: -ál

n [-ál, ā, f.] vn. of do-fúarascaib. IGT Decl. § 148 . Verbs § 100 .

(a) act of giving an account of, describing: ni chumaic thra nech ... túarascbail nó innisin inna n-airecht sin, LU 1996 ( FA 6 ). tri cressa ... ┐ ni fes la túaraiscbáil cid atascomnaic, LU 2017 ( FA 8 ).

(b) account, description: atot-gén ... ar do thúarascbáil from the description (I have been given) of thee (? from thy appearance, see (c)), BDD² 56 . ní dia tuarascbáil (of a monster), LU 2429 . tuarascbail delba Conculaind, TBC-LL¹ 2705 . ata tuaruscbail tróm er in peccad-sa ic Solam, PH 7768 . is leōr sin dia tūarascbāil, ZCP viii 218 § 21 . tucsatar tuarusc[b]al na hingene do, RC iii 351.8 . tonn Tursgair mo thúarasgbail `the wave of T. is my emblem' (i.e. I am like ... ?), Celt. Rev. iv 20.23 . do bhéar dhaoibh ... tuarasgbháil tighe Ifeirnn, Dán Dé xxv 21 . gach aonstaruidhe thráchtas ar thuarasgbháil na gcríoch ` geography ,' Keat. ii 490 . as fair tuccadh an tuarusccbáil si (folld. by quatrain), AFM i 176.13 . ainm na heaslainte ... ┐ a tuarasgbail, Rosa Angl. 2.11 . lé droch thúarusgbháil do thabhairt air an bhfearann, Numbers xiv 36.

(c) appearance, characteristics (as distinct from mere description thereof, but meanings (b) and (c) often difficult to distinguish): ba ingnad a túarascbail ┐ a delb, LU 3109 . nirbo segunda a tuarascbáil he had an unprepossessing look, 8516 ( FB 37 ). do folsigud na tuarascbála bias do féin i lló brátha to show forth his appearance at the day of judgment (?), LU 2310 . ba hí a thuarascbail: gnuis aingelda lais ..., PH 313 . ba hálaind tuaruscbhail na hindsi sin .i. lān d'fhiaghublaibh ┐ d'ēnaibh ... ` character ,' Ériu iii 164 § 18 . ni raibi forsin domun ingen bid chaime tachim nó tuarascbail inda si, RC xxiv 198.z . trí tuarascbalai gach nainmnedaigh characteristics , Triads 189 v.l. créad tuaruscbāil na buidhne atā san dorus ?, Feis Tighe Chonáin 76.

(d) Gramm. the `descriptive' case: a digbail .i. den fir ┐ a thuarascbail .i. in fer ... acht ... is inunn a thuarascbail ┐ a inchosc, Goid. 75. 6 , 7 . is fer a thuarasgbhail `its descriptive,' Auraic. 1529 . a thuarascbail .i. in fer, 1889 .

(e) mode, manner , in phrase fo th.¤ as conj. or adv. ní hí sin tuarascbáil bha tú-sa indiu itir it is not thus that I am today, TBC-LL¹ 3403 . ra pad maith lind ... co m-bad hí sein tuarascbail fa tístais Ulaid dar saigid, 4609 . tiucfamuid ar siad, ┐ do cuadar a triur fon tuarascbail cedna, ┐ ro beannachtsad dó, MS. Mat. 530.39 .

(f) In Mod. Ir. fame, reputation: test ┐ tuariscbail na n-anmand, TTebe 1678 . tuilledh ele do thestaibh ┐ do thuarusccbhalaibh Maodhócc, BNnÉ 279.6 . dod' thuarasgbháil go fíor lean justify your reputation (?), Oss. iv 156.25 . atā ... do thuaruscbáil ar lucht an tīre si gurab íad is fīrinnighi ... fon doman `it is said of ...,' Fl. Earls 92.21 . in tuaruscbāil reatha a reputation for running, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1755 . do chúalamar a ttúaruscbháil `the fame thereof,' Jeremiah vi 24 . do bhrígh gu bhfuil tuárasgbháil bhur gcreidmhe ar feadh an domhain uile, Romans i 8.

(g) In Mod. Ir. also news, report; trace, vestige: ar n-a cloistin sin d'Ua Néll ┐ d'á t-sluagh, do fhilletar fó tuaruscbáil na crech sin at the tidings of those plunders, AU iii 542.18 . le tuarasgbháil as mheadh blaoisg `a rumour no weightier than a shell,' Content. xvi 82 . ní maith na túarusgbhála do chluinim `it is no good report that I hear,' I Sam. ii 24 . túarasgbhála cogthadh, Mark xiii 7 . ní frith in [t]sleg sin iarum acht oen tuarascbail fosfuair Mael Odarn `save one trace of it which M. found' (?), RC xv 305.18 . ní fhuil fis tuarusgbala in cethruir ele o sin `nothing has since been known,' Maund. 258 . go nach fríoth a tuarasgbháil dá héis, TSh. 63.

? trēigim an tūaruscbāil | ar tīr na Trīnōidi, ZCP viii 216.17 .