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bec

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bec or dil.ie/5512
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: lugimen, beag

adj o, ā small, little, of size, quantity, extent, physical and moral: b.¤ quasi ec ebraice paru[u]s interpretatur, , Corm. Y 151. duine beg gl. homunculus, Ir. Gl. 436. magnus et minus . . . mor ┐ beg, Auraic. 676. natat beca gl. non parua, Ml. 18b6 . cid na olc mb.¤ `even any little evil', 35d9 . atá debe m[b]ec nand, 40a20 . ma beth na galar b.¤ for corp duini, Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr.). na brithemnachta becca `petty judgements', Wb. 9c8 . both b.¤ gl. umbraculo, Ml. 100c21 . inna mmacc ṁbecc, 123b12 . cid b.¤ cid már gl. quantitas, Sg. 28b7 . immar fa b.¤ `whether it be great or small', 73a16 . huan suidiu biuc gl. modica sesione, Ml. 135a14 . o aimsir bicc `for a little time', Wb. 5c2 . is becc rand aos túate ┐ lucht na sencheld mór ucut `the laity and the people of the great old churches yonder are of little worth', Mon. Tall. 137.4 nibo b.¤ in tech, Sc.M² 5. fri ré iúbili bicci .i. uii mbliadna, LU 4044. cansit ceól mb.¤ , LU 3274 ( SCC 7 ). ar thoirsi in meic bic do chosc, MU² 186. atchi tenid mbic `a little fire', RC xxiii 418.25 . id-bert an laoidh mbig si ann, ML² 1151. b.¤ cech glōr is cech gredan, Bruchst. i 62 § 143. dogní na briathra beca sa (of some lines of rhetoric), SG 371.18 . faillsighis . . . doibh-siumh an talamh mbiucc dia mbattar iarraidh .i. tir thairrngire, BNnÉ 77 § 148 . lethad baisi bigi (of a measure of bread), ZCP vi 286.10 . beag nglóire thú i dtalmhain (lit.) small as regards glory, Dán Dé viii 13 (but ex. may belong to subst. use below). más beag mór ar mbéim `all our sins, great and small', Aithd. D. 85.2 . ní fhuil dá éis dom scéimh acht scáil bheag, Keat. Poems 516. do chrích Banbha is beag re maoidheamh `small credit to B.', Aithd. D. 28.6 . b.¤ b.¤ very small, Ériu v 22.21 . becc nāt beg `not too tiny', K. and H. 10 (See Bull. Board of Celt. Stud. xxiv (1972) 484).

Compar. and superl. supplied by root *lug (cf. ). b.¤ ┐ lugum ┐ lugusomh, Auraic. 659. Compar. laugu (sic leg. laugi, MS), Wb. 6b12 . lugu, 16c26 , Ml. 23a13 . laigiu, 17c7 , Sg. 120b2 . lugha gl. minor, Ir. Gl. 1115. dleagait mic leigind . . . saire ada lugu a free status that is less (than that of higher-ranking men of letters), Laws v 102.6 . gnim nad lugu smacht for which the penalty is not less, IT i 70.19 . co nar ba luga hí . . . oltás orcc cránai it was no smaller than a young pig, PH 7210. ni lugu is machtnaigthi lim-sa I have no less reason to marvel, 1758 . gerba lugu d'ais ┐ do airrdi in gilla sin `of lesser age and height', TTebe 393 . Scotia Minor nó Scotia ba lugha, Keat. ii 5797. With DE: combad lugaite a nert i n-agid ríg Lagen that their strength might be the less, LL 6423. his laugudi a pennit, Ériu vii 154 § 2. ba lugaide a galarsom ón do suidiu `thus his sickness was alleviated', Ériu xii 166.7 . ro ba lughaide ro heccaoíneadh a oidheadh go ro thionnsccain sé dol ar bélaibh a athar `was the less lamented', AFM v 1778.1 .

Superl. : lugimen gl. minimam, Ml. 14c10 . is ē dēach is laigem, Corm. Y 447. cia luigem i fuillemaib gell, Laws v 376.1 . With form of compar. : ūair is é mer is lauga isin lāim é (the little finger), Corm. Y 809. na tri fira is luga a fenechus the three smallest (least in value), Cóic Con. 42 § 63 . i coneilg in neich is lughu, Auraic. 677. in aen lámh mharcaigh as luga rob olc `by no means one of the least expert horsemen', AFM vi 2040.11 . In adverbial phrases: na rachthai . . . co cend .x. ṁbliadan a n-as lugu de `at the least' ( TTr. 1776 ), LL 32574. in mēide is lugha dhe, Fl. Earls 178.z . adeirim nī sa lugha cúig Paidreacha at least , Parrth. Anma 777. muna rabha sí ann go follus, ní as lúgha de, bíodh sí a bhfolach none the less, Mac Aingil 2210 .

As adv. in d s. (in) biuc little, a little ; a while?), in some exx. perh. merely expletive: ma conatil biucc `if it has slept a little', Wb. 29d15 . in biucc gl. paulatim, Sg. 12b1 . cid in biucc `even in small measure', 39a25 . in biuc iarum gl. paulo post, Ml. 19b6 . in biuc `to a small degree', 122b7 . seōl bic romaind 'sa rōt cētna / a choss truag-sa, ACL iii 243 § 27. an biuc, a L. corot-aiciller, Sc.M² 9. tair bic ille, LU 3724 ( SCC 33 ). Compar. as adv. ind lugu gl. minus, Ml. 123c12 .

As subst. of persons and things small, petty, unimportant (of state, rank, possessions, etc.): ataat cetheora sabuid tuaithe noda-desruithetar i mbecaib who are degraded to small people, ZCP xvi 177 § 14 (= Laws i 54.8 ), see 184.23 . a becco, ol Fer Rogain, BDD² 888. nān .i. b.¤ ut dicitur, nanus .i. abac nō lucharbān, O'Mulc. 828. dona beaguibh (= paruulis, Psalms 118 ), Parrth. Anma 9 (title-page). In phr. o b.¤ (biuc) co mór both small and great i.e. everybody: tabhach cíosa ┐ cána Maodhóg o bhecc go mór `from small and great', BNnÉ 203 § 44 , cf. v.l., n.3. na coiglidh enduine acu o b.¤ co mor, Fier. 131. donangatarsidhe ó bhiug co mór, Hugh Roe 108.10 . Cf. etir b.¤ ┐ mór both small and great, Ml. 114b17 .

As subst. o, n. a little, a little while, etc., smallness, fewness : beag, m. IGT Decl. § 65. cid a mb.¤ gl. uel paululum, Ml. 29b12 . b.¤ gl. paulum, Sg. 14a11 . Études Celt. xi 110. iṁforling hícc a mbeicc rochreti `of the few of them', Wb. 5b21 . is becc rofitemmarni i rrúnaib dǽe, 12c5 . cid beicc daucbaid si `of little worth', Wb. 21c12 . is hed a mbeccsin nammá dogníu di maith, 24a12 . cid b.¤ ṅdi ulc, Ml. 46a1 . cid cen na b.¤ ndo síd and `even without a little of peace there', 51a5 . ní b.¤ dia ndergeni forcenn a sailm `it is no small thing', 69c7 . corrobu b. du essarcnaib furodamair, 131b12 . becc torbai little profit, Thes. ii 296.4 . a mbecc mín `the small light diet', Mon. Tall. 152.20 . a mb.¤ arathá . . . doṁsaegulsa during the little that remains of my life, RC iii 179.9 . edrad fota do biuc (bicc, v.l.) buair `long the milking time for a few cattle', Ériu v 116.8 . dochóidseom trá i nnem arin ṁb. sin do maith, LL 36833. don ti rucc becc h'innmusa, RC xxvi 366.4 . beg dá hioth do-chúaidh ar gcúl, IGT Decl. ex. 1093. as beag do geabhthar do dhaoinibh fíréanta a small number, Desid. 2257. beag ga bhfoil an ceart ar chuimhne ` few ', Aithd. D. 38.5 . ar uathadh sluaigh ┐ ar beg mbuidhne, AFM v 1662.3 . Of time: ni bia do m'fhuirech-sa anosa mar-oen frit . . . acht b.¤ bet oc tuba h'uilc . . . i t'agaid, PH 8230. dar thrachtsam beg roimhe so `a short time', Geneal. Tracts 53.5 .

With prec. possess. 3 s.: rochotail a becc slept a while, TBC-I¹ 2513. nír codail a b.¤ an aidhchi sin he did not sleep at all, ZCP x 307.18 . ni rucsat a beg ar a m-buidnib they quite failed to overtake, Celt. Rev. iv 206.20 . dá leigeadh a lámha síos a bheag nó a mhór, Eochairsg. 54.5 . hi tōeb na conaire anair a bic `a little to the east', Dinds. 20. gan a bheg `not a whit', Duan. F. i 53.20 . dubhairt-sean nach raibhe a bheag `he said it was nothing', Keat. ii 5272.

With neg. verb and follg. DI anything at all, the smallest quantity: ní romill a becc din chasail (= permanente cassula tantum intacta quod ignis non tetigit), Lat. Lives 11.12 . na beiridh a bhecc da bhar nettaighibh libh asin luing, BNnÉ 54 § 55 . ní haithristear a bheag da scéalaibh `no tidings whatever are given of them', Keat. ii 2571. Cf. nochon do biuc bae dia brīg not slight was his power, ZCP viii 217 § 5.

In phr. acht b.¤ almost, nearly: fri re tri n-uairi acht b.¤ , PH 550. dia bualad co mbo marb acht b.¤ so that he was nearly dead, LU 3290 ( SCC 8 ). roscarsatur ar cuirp fri ar n-anmannaib acht b.¤ `have all but separated', MacCarthy 66.23 . acht madh beac, Fl. Earls 168.23 . b.¤ ná, b.¤ nach almost, nearly (i.e. little but that): b.¤ nachamralae i nderchóiniud ón `I have almost fallen into despair', Ml. 90c17 . b.¤ nád múchtha doíne impu were nearly stifled, TBFr. 272. beag nach brisiodh mo chroidhe / gach dán roimhe da gcumainn, Studies 1918, 618 § 11 . beg do Tuadmumain nár thrían / do bí ag M. M. held almost a third of Thomond, Caithr. Thoirdh. 136.15 . go raibhe trian bhfear nÉireann ré filidheacht beagnach, Keat. iii 1462. So also: is b.¤ mā dorinnus ariam gnīomh . . . badh doilghe liom do dhēanamh hardly , Feis Tighe Chonáin 1469. is beac ma ba oirrdearca C. `C. . . . was scarcely more illustrious', CF 411. Cf. is b.¤ cid dia fesstar a chenél `his kin will be almost unknown', RC xxiv 176.5 .

With copula and follg. prep. is b.¤ do it is little, insufficient (for): ba becc duitsiu cometecht dossom `it were little for thee (sic leg.) to be indulgent to him', Wb. 10c10 . ba b.¤ ṅdamsa mad buith cen chotlud tantum , Ml. 95d13 . Hence with neg. it is enough; an bhraid-sin nochar bheag dí `grief enough for her', Dán Dé ii 23 . ní beag dó dá chora i gcéill / an fhola féin i ló an Luain, Aithd. D. 100.33 . ní beag seal don bhaois, Dánta Gr. 102.2 . níor bheag aon aifrionn amháin do rádh ar gach n-anam a single mass would suffice, Eochairsg. 51.20 . cá b.¤ do ? is it not enough (for) ?: ca beag dóibh so do robhadh?, KMMisc. 352.3 . cár bheag dhuid aithmhéala inn ? `would not repentance satisfy thee ?' Aithd. D. 34.5 . cá beag sin dá chur i gcéill ? isn't that enough to make it clear ? Dánta Gr. 85.8 . is (ní) b.¤ la deems insufficient; thinks little of: is beic (g s.) lim in bríg sin ced molad ced tatháir domberaidsi domsa is beicc limsa a bríg `little do I care', Wb. 82d1 . as becc lem slechtain dó I think it beneath me to make obeisance to him, BNnÉ 13 § 13 . mó as beag lé burba na bhfear `small account did she (viz. Eamhain) make of', Content. xxx 35. fá beag leó . . . iad féin ┐ a sochar do bhuain don duine `they did not hesitate' (Vocab.), TSh. 3065. ní beg limm do biadh gu bráth / balad mo chráibi cáimhe, Anecd. i 34.23 . ná bad begc la hingin ríg hErenn feis lais that the daughter of the King of Ireland should deem it no small honour to sleep with him, BColm. 88.8 . doraid in saer nar' beg lais do shaegul usci do thoidecht docum in muilinn (= sufficit mihi vivere donec), RC xii 344 § 39. adubradarsan nar beg leo féin a fheabhus sin they thought that excellent (i.e. an offer of billeting), L. Chl. S. § 9.12 . is b.¤ ar thinks little of, considers insignificant; despises, dislikes: sgéal is beag ar a mbuachail, Ir. Syll. Poetry 29 § 3. is beg oram cáil na mban, Duan. F. i 85.31 . beg air imurro caingean na namad . . . uair ra dhlighsiot `he thought little of the doings of the enemies . . . for they were entitled to it', TFrag. 154.13 . is bec orumsa gach uile leiges lagtach isin cuis so acht clisteri (= abhorreo), Rosa Angl. 288.16 . gidh beg ormsa S., Ériu v 184.1 . an tí do dhéanadh math . . . dhóibh, go madh é budh lugha orra, Gadelica 38.65 . is lughaidi orum tú beth a t-[S]axanach . . . uair is don talam-sin in dias is lugha orum tainic riam, ZCP vi 87.21 . gidh ard thú ó threibh fhola, / dola i gclú leibh ní lugha you are just as intent on becoming famous, L. Cl. A. B. 215.20 .

In nn. loc.: in herinn bicc bebais `in Becc-Eriu', Fél. Apr. 23. Augustin Insi Bice, Lat. Lives 42.2 . See Hog. Onom.

In n. pr.: feil Brain Bic, Fél. May 18 .

Compds.

(a) With nouns. .x. mbuair . . . mbecalma, Ériu ii 4.11 . ¤baile: go mbeg-bailtip `villages', Fl. Earls 82.20 . ¤brat ina becbrataib `in his swaddling clothes´ Blathm. 34 . ¤déntaid `small worker ' (one of categories of wives with specific activities, see Stud. in E. Ir. Law 34.32 ): masa beccdentaidh, gunudh seiseadh no nomadh gnimha a fir aiccisi ann sein, Laws ii 410.7 Comm. issed da ní beccdentaidh dissi banaicidh (sic) uaidhsiumh ina aighidsi `what makes her a small worker is to have feminine implements supplied by him', 22 Comm. ¤dolb: (in rhetoric) iba srúaim sruthborr slán lam broind begdolb crú, LL 13860. ¤ecla of little fear . pn As epithet: Conaing B., ZCP viii 337.20 . ¤enech of small honour: comairge béldub b.¤ , Tec. Corm. 33.2 . ¤ḟola, small stock, cattle: .x. mbuair mbecfolad . . . glossed: .i. cáirigh nó gabhair nó dairt, Ériu ii 4.10 . ¤grend short-beard: Tuirenn Beggreann, Cóir Anm. ii § 159 . ¤a small thing, a trifle: dorindi in ridiri bagar ┐ becni do briathraibh Sir Gyi, ZCP vi 32.26 . ¤popul little (lowly) people: is cend daim for dartoid [.i.] mōrpersan for becphopul, O'Mulc. 753. ¤ṡaegal short life: gan uamhan báis nō begs[h]aogail, ML² 1189. ¤ṡed little interest, heed: teirce a-cách an creideamh cóir / beigsheadh ag cách san chanóin, DDána 57.1 . ¤ṡelb: i lennmhain a mbegṡelbha bó `their few cattle', Hugh Roe 84.20 . ¤ṡluag a small company, host: is doras bāls beg-s[h]luag, ML² 1384. With vn. ¤carthain: gan bhríogh i mbeag-charthain séad `paltry love of treasures', Content. xxix 13.

(b) With adjj. derived from nouns: ¤cíallda having little sense, weak-witted: boathán builidh beig-ciallda, TSh. 1721. ¤cosach short-stalked: (of a plant) luib b.¤ , ACL i 330 § 11 . ¤cridech small-hearted, hard-hearted: aderthar gurab duine cruaidh no beccchroidhech thu, Ériu v 138 § 124. ¤dígbálach of little harm: neithi iat sein . . . begdighbalacha, Irish Texts v 2 7. ¤eclach fearless: Conaing B., LL 2491. ¤ḟoltach having little substance, `inops': sochla brīg b.¤ , ZCP v 503.1 . ¤lachtach yielding little milk: comét in buair bec-lachtaig, Metr. Dinds. iv 338.26 . ¤menmnach dispirited: dobhí se go brónach begmhenmnach, Ériu v 196.33 . ¤náirech impudent, shameless: m'iaraidh-si do bhancheile led' bogbhriathraib begnaracha, ZCP vi 26.16 . ¤nertach having little strength, weak: biaid in bhuidhe becnertach (of a plague), SG 21.4 . ¤nertmar: don chriosdáidhe óg bhíos maoth beignertmhar, Ó Héodhusa 195.13 . ¤thuicsech feeble-witted: an téigentach bocht begthuigsech sin, Ériu v 166.34 . ¤uiscech: biaidh . . . an geimhreadh . . . beag-uisceach `scarce of water', Corp. Astron. 64.7 . Note also artificial compd. ¤máo: in b.¤ máo (? leg. becmáo) .i. is b.¤ as máo oldáusa .i. is b.¤ in derscugud gl. paruo maior quam ego, Sg. 45a15 .

Note also: muiti .i. mifothai . . . .i. b.¤ caithte a foghur, Auraic. 467.

bél

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bél or dil.ie/5607
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: beoil, beóil, beolu, beula, beulu, belu, bélib, i mbeolu

n o, m. g s. beoil, Sg. 14a16 . n p. beóil, Wb. 7d9 . a p. beolu, Wb. 3b11 , beula (gl. ora), Ml. 19c9 . beulu, 35d22 . belu, Thes. ii 251. 16 . d p. bélib, Wb. 7d10 . b.¤ m., IGT Decl. § 61.

I

(a) In some exx. explicitly lip , in pl. lips, but here usually mouth: don b.¤ gl. labio, Ir. Gl. 107. Gild. Lor. 139 § 40. tri beulu dlútai gl. fixis labris (17), Sg. 6a18 . ni radi ní trí thalmaidchi, amal dundchuirethar inna beulu as it rises to his lips (`as he takes it into his lips'), Ml. 35d22 . anasberaid hó bélib `what ye utter with (your) lips', Wb. 7d10 . anasbérat mo beiúil, 12d12 . (of a hag) tacmaicced a b.¤ íchtarach coa glún, LU 6828 (BDD). i socraidi labrait biuil (: Iúil), 3875 ( SCC 38 ). niamdai a beóil partardeirg (partuingdeirg, v.l.) her crimson lips, IT i 69.8 . ( LMU 4 ). co ṅditned a srona ┐ a beolu `so that it protected his nostrils and his lips' (but perh. transl. nose . . . mouth), CCath. 5265. folcuit a n-aighti uile lena mbélaib úachtair upper lips, Maund. 176. beoil lethna thick lips, Marco P. 187. cúiseach bind asa bēalaibh `sweet piping from her lips', Ériu iv 174.15 . maille siabhradh beóil ( = labium . . . pervertatur), 23 K 42 , 54.14 . do scoltad an croimbeoil ┐ in béil iocht[a]ir of chapping of the upper and lower lip, O'Gr. Cat. 191.z . baile .i. maith . . . digbail dubha baile bel .i. is maith í o belaib no i mbel `from lips or in mouth', O'Dav. 224. (in application of an incantation) imbir in da mér . . . it bélaib, Thes. ii 249.11 . doberar in salann i mbelu `the salt is put into the mouth', 251.16 . asoilgg a bēolu . . . combo ecna a [g]inchrāes, TBC-I¹ 396. (of a witch) a beóil for leith a cind her mouth in the side of her head, BDD² 540 . gebid dano cenn in tarra ina béolu, Sc.M² 17.6 . do-lleblaing int éicne ara chend, ┐ gabsus inna béulu took it in its mouth, TBFr. 209. an tan immoro no berid an leg laun ina beolu `when he used to put the ladle full into his mouth', RC xii 86 § 91. nicon acca beolu eich / amal beolu ín liathainigh, IT iii 68.2 . inbat budig do bēoil do shainól ┐ do shainait, MacCongl. 77.4 . secht traigid eter a ó ┐ a beolo . . . ┐ secht n-artim inna bélaib, Ériu iv 26.9 , 10 . acht nad neibre dod belaib nama `although thou hast not said so by word of mouth', Laws iv 108.1 Comm. cuit mo b.¤ (term of endearment), LL 18576.

(b) mouth in sg.: sróin súil b.¤ , Ardm. 434a marg. (220va). i cinaid do laime, do sula, do thengad, do beil, Laws i 156.32 . issin ṁb. tacras sin in the mouth that asserts that, MU² 369. laech . . . belmar . . ., meit a beil beolu eich, TBC-LL¹ 5400 n.4 . fuil rochuiread tara bel ┐ dara sroin, TTebe 2414 . beiris i n-a bheōl . . . ar lampa airgit seized a silver lamp in its mouth, Fl. Earls 138.1 . Note also: na beula gl. ora, the mouths (?), Ml. 19c9 . Fig. gá tarbha an béal do bheith lais / 's an intinn in-a éagmhais, Dán Dé xxii 20 . an b.¤ dúnta as eadh budh ḟearr better be silent, IGT Decl. ex. 1285. Prov. is binn beál ó bheith iadhta, Dánfhocail 55 . By metonymy person : cerd cach ṁb. .i. eladu cech duni do ḟoglaim ar dáig forcitail caich (`art for every mouth', RC xxvi 22 § 62 ), LL 24410. crochadh ar bh.¤ na bréige! `perdition (lit. a hanging) to him who tells the lie' (Gloss.), LBranach 1072 . b.¤ na psalm (nickname of St. Fintan), Mart. Don. Mar. 27. Grigoir Béil óir `Gregory the golden-mouthed', BNnÉ 172 § 16 .

(c) In phrases: derg-mír i mbélaib lit. red (raw) morsel in (the) mouth apparently of property illegally acquired or attached: atait tri deirg-mireanda naidet usa a mbelaib cacha hecalsa (glossed: is indligthech do'n eclais a ngabail cuichi o belaib, 432.3 Comm. ), Laws v 430.22. at-ballat, ¤bailet (a) béoil with poss. or foll. subj. gen., see at-bail(l): co n-aplat a beoil i mmbron (leg. mbrōn ?) ┐ toirrsi `they perish', Ériu ii 114 § 38. Note also: bás fort béolu, Fing. R. 72 `death on your head!' RC xiii 378.11 .

(d) Of the mouth as the source of speech: iss ed bói i mbēlaib cáich this was the common talk, ZCP viii 317.26 . go rabhadar na lán béil ┐ buanteanga ag gach aon that they were a continual subject of conversation to everyone, RC xiv 28 § 6. lán beóil don ríoghfhuil Bhranoigh, LBranach 3581 . budh lán beoil an Brianachsoin, Studies 1925, 253 § 6 .

By extension word(s) ; subject of talk : fer na ropeccaig o bel na o gnim `in word or deed', Ériu v 20.2 . idna beoil integrity of speech, LL 3901. roiarfaided o Fiachroig Muillethan . . . dia belaib his advice was asked by F., ZCP xiv 156.14 . gurab mó do theagascdaois . . . ó theagasc beoil ioná ó scríbhinn by traditional instruction, Keat. ii 976. (explanation of the name of Eogan B.) b.¤ cach tuaithi ina thimchell `the mouth [i.e. the acclamation] of every country round about', SG 64.z . b.¤ cach flatha ina lenub / ar ó Fiachrach foltlebur, 65.2 . In phr. breth a b.¤ féin self-judgment, -doom: atetha breth do b.¤ (sic leg.) féin duit, RC xiv 430.8 . co tucsat Gaill breth a beoil fein d'O Neill, AU ii 270.8 . In adv. phrase ó óen-b.¤ unanimously: o aen bel, PH 7233. dh'aoinbheul, Luc. Fid. 2856. Legal. cor b.¤ , see 1 cor 12.

II Applied to various things resembling lips or mouth .

(a) edge, rim ; mouth of cavity, orifice, opening : b.¤ gaili, a mbél an gaile ( = orificium stomachi), RSláinte 3698. do fínégra ar b.¤ an gaile `on the pit of the stomach', O'Gr. Cat. 193.25 . b.¤ cridi (used as term of endearment): a bél mo chraidi, ACL iii 243 § 24. edge, opening of wounds: bador beoil na ccneth ag claoi a cheile, ZCP x 292.9 . a lomma cro ic teprisin dar belaib na n-alad batar fair, Grail 685 . rucc b.¤ na cneidhe chum a chéile ┐ ticc sele fuirre, ITS xvi 42.13 . Other applications: co fil āit a beōil isin c[h]loich fóss ann `the mark of its rim (i.e. of a bell) is still there in the stone', BColm. 64.9 . sileadh deór rúadh ar ruisgne / mur uisge a beól (mbéol v.l.) úar eisci like water out of a vessel (?), IGT Decl. ex. 1081. mé is b.¤ na cróine ar mo chind, ex. 81 . lase foruillecta beóil in chalich di mil, Wb. 7d9 . īadais indala sūil . . . asoilg alaile comba mor bēolu fidchōich as large as the orifice of a wooden bowl (?), TBC-I¹ 395. b.¤ dabcha ele 'na b.-si anúas (of one vat turned over another), BColm. 72.6 . (of a bag for chess-men) a ferbolc, is amra sceúil / de ór imdernta a beúil opening (`rim'), Fianaig. 14.22 . go bhfuilti claoidthe . . . a mbeul an tsaic (of opponents silenced in controversy), Luc. Fid. 4127. béil a ngunnadh `the muzzles of their guns', Rel. Celt. ii 194.11 . (of prongs of pincers) do briseadh teanncuir an ghobhann, ┐ an t-īarann dearg 'na beal `with the red-hot iron in its jaws', ZCP ii 562.30 . beola crot ┐ bolg ┐ buinne `mouths of harps and bags and pipes', RC xii 108 § 163. the eye of the upper millstone (Studies on Early Ireland 16 ) : iss e sin doberimsi a mbel in muilinn si, RC xiv 52 § 62. upper of shoe: bróg tar teach do teilgeadh leam . . . nar bhean tall a b.¤ fa a bonn `a shoe whose upper was detached from its sole was thrown at me' (Notes), Bard. Synt. Tr. 2.z.

(b) Further extended applications: mén mara .i. bel na mara, O'Cl. ( mēn .i. bēl, Corm. Y 948 ). fri beolu mara, Trip.² 1581 ( = in sinu maris, Lat. Lives 33 § 25 ). dá thraigid .x. lethet a b.¤ the width of its opening (an earthwork), Críth G. 571. (of Tara) deis fri Banba, b.¤ fri Bóin `her front towards the Boyne', Ériu iv 92 § 3. tir cen beula without entry, Corm. Y 674 ( Corm. 22 ). tir cin toin cin beolu bis itir da ferunn cin conair `ingress', Laws iv 158.14 Comm. cuiris comla dar a b.¤ (a well), Metr. Dinds. iii 326.19 . triall istech tar beolu na hecuilsi `threshold of the church', Marco P. 173. léigthear suas beoil na bruighne `portcullis', Aithd. D. 3.19 . siar go b.¤ na sráide `the entrance of the street', AFM ii 900.2. Of gunwale of a ship: chuir iad am beòil mhòr re chèile, SGS xviii 107.1 .

III In phrases with prepp.

(a) prepositional. With A: crithre sin a beól (mb. v.l.) bhruithne sparks from boiling heat (?), IGT Decl. ex. 1296.

With AR (FOR): huare romboi ar belaib tempuil `in front of the Temple', Ml. 48d8 . ar beolu diabuil `before the Devil', Wb. 3b11 . gontai Cūchulaind, co tabrad a marb ara (ar, LU) bēolu a brāthar, TBC-I¹ 1637. ar belaib ind ríg ( = in conspectu regis), Lat. Lives 10.8 . arbelaib (.i. a fiadnaise) fer nErenn, ACL iii 14 § 31. finta cia as toisech fodla ┐ ar a ndentar bélaib `before whom it is made', RC xiii 446 § 26. cathair . . . for bel ḟasaigh dhimhoir `at the edge of a great desert', Marco P. 20. dán bog ar bh.¤ na slighiodh `on the open road', Studies 1918, 617 § 5 .

Freq. of replacing in kingship, headship, etc. one who had the normal claim, before, in preference to, in place of : rogab F. righe ara belaib, RC xvii 233.32 (Tig.). gabais C. flaith ar belaib a athar, Ériu iii 142.4 . an crioch do ghabail for a belaibh `to snatch . . . the country away from him', Leb. Gab.(i) 226.5 . mar tugadh ceannas na slógh / ar bhéal Éibhir d'Éireamhón `to Ê. rather than to Ê.', Content. xvi 33. With verbs of coming, etc. do-tét indḟine ar beolu de(i)rbḟine `the ` indḟine' comes in front of (i.e. is preferred to) the `derbḟine', Ériu xvii 64 § 3 ( Laws iv 206.7 ). D. . . . do beith ag dol ar bélaibh a athar `attempted to depose', AFM vi 1891.1 . an tánaiste do theacht ar beulaibh mic tighearna an fhuinn `that the tanist takes precedence of', Keat. i 66.6 . dul fora mbelaibhsiomh `to anticipate them', Hugh Roe² 172.2 .

With FRI (RE) before, at, close to; on the point of : fri beolu báis on the point of death, Fél. 74.19 . cen bith ria mbeolu oc airiuc thuili dóib not to be close to them, Fing. R. 432. ag so anois an bás rem bhéal close to me, Dánta Gr. 63.15 . re béal a theachta don toigh `before its reception' (of the Blessed Eucharist), Dán Dé xviii 2 . cosg fiabhrasa re b.¤ mbáis, Studies 1919, 613 § 12 .

With I N- i mbeolu, i mbeól, i mb.¤ before : in bo boi 'na beola sin `that was in front of her', Dinds. 142.10 . a mbeol an dunaidh `in front of the fort', BNnÉ 187 § 27 . do-chífe bárc a mbeól chúain `in the harbour's mouth', Ériu ix 168 § 46. towards, to : do-bhir im béal teachtaire `He sends a messenger to fetch me', Aithd. D. 83.3 . sgath dealg 'na beol muna bheath `had not the thorn-points been in the way', 95.20 . over, across : seolais iarsin Brenainn . . . i mbéolu (a mbhél, v.l. , = for beluibh, Lism. L. 3590 ) in aiccéin iongantaigh, BNnÉ 97 § 5. Note also: ro herbad da oclach lais da chur i mbeolu na tuinne to cast it (an infant) upon the sea (?), LL 14623 ( ZCP xii 273.17 ). do chur a mb.¤ mara ┐ mor-fhairrge set adrift on the open sea, KMMisc. 313.13 . a mbēl na h-oibre at the beginning, ML² 1.15 . i mbeol airechtais at the very beginning of sovereignty (?), Ann. Conn. 1410.2 . ni ḟuil amuigh gidh seól síth / crích nach fuil a mbeól a bláith, IGT Decl. ex. 992 . i mbéal a tharbha do thoigheacht, Aithd. D. 25.4 .

With TAR: tar béolu out of : adre amach dar beolu in duin, Marco P. 23.

(b) Adverbial. With FOR (always with possessive) on the face, face downwards : for a mbeulu gl. prone, Ml. 131b6 . tairniud form béolu bend face downwards, LL 36766 = Goid. 180.10 = Fél.² cv 8. an corp bis ina rogad ar in talmain for a beolu, RC xv 491 § 31. tolduid iarum taurtaim fair fora beolu `a trance fell upon him, as he lay on his face', Mon. Tall. 155.15 . (of a collapsing house) amal ro clóenad a thech conda tarla for a lethbeólu uli, LU 8382 ( FB 25 ). (of a cup) rohimpa iarum Patraic in copan fora beolu upside down (?), Anecd. iii 35.9 . b.¤ ar b.¤ , ó bé(o)l go b.¤ face to face : truagh gan sinne bel ar bel, TTebe xv 7 (scribe's note). (of a bird-decoration) ealta 's a mbeoil béal ar bhéal, Aithd. D. 9.7 . ag labhairt libh beul ar bheul (os ad os, 3 Joh. 14 ), Eochairsg. 15.30 . go labradh se riss ó b.¤ go b.¤ `face to face', ZCP xi 118.2 ( BCC 236 ). meic ollamhan Innsi Fáil / . . . / god choimhreic ó bheól go b.¤ `repeating thee from mouth to mouth' (i.e. the contents of a manuscript Gaelic Miscellany), Studies 1919, 440 § 12 . adeirid o bheol go beul they say so currently, Luc. Fid. 4088.

With IAR N- iar mbélaib (contrasted with iar cúlaib): i ngilfine iar mbelaib, amuil atá athair ┐ mac ┐ ua ┐ iarmua ┐ innua co cuicer; ┐ geilfini iar culaib .i. brathair thathar, ┐ mac co cuicer beos `in the direct line', Laws ii 160.z Comm.

(c) In fig. phrase do-ní a b.¤ re turns to, seeks help from : do-ghén . . . mo bh.¤ ré seabhcaibh Saxan `I will turn my face to', Studies 1924, 242 § 11 .

Note also: muna thí dhíom bas rem béal unless I can keep a guard on my lips, Dán Dé ix 4 . a-tá 'gan chol bas rem béal `raises its hand against me', xxiii 31 . In nn. loc. see Hog. Onom.

Compds. With nouns. ¤braise: feib atféd mo bhélbraisi `eloquence', Leb. Cert.² 164 § 9. ¤deirge: beildeirge redness of lips, Prolegomena 43 § 26 . ¤étan: (of a charioteer) dara béletan mouth and forehead (?), LL 24905. ¤mod manner of speaking (?): caistidh ria bēlmod, ACL iii 307 § 28 ( Measgra Uí Chl. 153 ). ¤proicept traditional teaching, tradition : bēalphroceapta nó teagusg bheōil na n-absttal, Mac Aingil 5949 . béulphroicheapta asbaltha ┐ eagalsa, Desid. 4942. With vnn. ¤chengal: ar mbélcengal a mbeochréchtadh when their fresh wounds had been sewn up, Caithr. Thoirdh. 124.7 . ¤tuidme: fiacuil .i. fia figo . . . fiacuil didiu bēl-t. fastening for the mouth, O'Mulc. 507.

With adjj. ¤balb: do piastaibh bel-balba `dumb-mouthed', Ériu iii 164 § 20. ¤binn: longphort . . . bíthe bēilbhinn melodious (?), Butler Poems 556 and n. ¤blasta of excellent sound : (of `Gaedelg,' the language) in berla b.¤ bind, LL 17716. B. blaith belblasta well-spoken (of a hand-maid), BB 237a2 . ¤buide yellow-lipped : (of a famine-stricken appearance) ina n-ímágib b.¤ nochtḟiaclacha, LB 154b61 . In n. pr.: Eochaid Bēlbuidi, ZCP viii 274.1 . ¤chamm crooked-mouthed : la hUnchi mbrúachda mb.¤(-mall, v.l.), Metr. Dinds. iii 98.6 . ¤cherr: in senBodb Barchi b.¤ `wry-mouthed', Metr. Dinds. iv 338.20 . ¤chert: mo dhaltán búilid béilchert `right-spoken', SG 190.7 . ¤chorcra crimson, red-lipped : belchorcra banamla detgela, TTebe 730 . ¤chráibhthech hypocritical : Content. vi 270. ¤chumang narrow-mouthed, having a narrow opening, entry : a crocan (leg. corcán ?) belchumang narrow-necked, Lia Fáil iii 122.20 ( 23 P 10 ³, 11b7 ). ar na bernadhaibh bélchumhgaibh, AFM v 164.22 . ¤derg red-lipped, red-mouthed (in good and bad sense): buriud berna Baidbi béldergi, LL 10872 ( = TBC-LL¹ 4024 ). na brithemain bēilderga `red-mouthed brehons' ( = severe in judgement ?), Ériu iii 30 § 7. cáinead in barrchais béilderg `the curly-headed red-lipped fellow', iv 216.20 . F. file m. Oengusa Bēlde[i]rg, ZCP viii 326.1 . ¤dub black-mouthed : comairge b.¤ becenech `a black-mouthed guarantor of small honour', Tec. Corm. § 33.2 . a curaig blaithe belduba `black-prowed', Ériu viii 10.36 . sgéala libh go báirc mbéalduibh `tidings to your black-decked barque', RC xlix 173 § 32. ¤ḟairsi(u)ng wide-mouthed, having a wide entrance : .l. bléide buabaill belḟairsiuṅg, LL 7292. ro cóirged bruidin brotla bélfairsing `wide-doored', Fianaig. 70.31 . ¤ḟota long-lipped : D. b.¤ , LL 354c64 . a mbíala belfhoda `wide-edged', Hugh Roe² 174.24 . ¤ginach: na trī badhbha bēl-ginacha three witches with gaping mouths, ML² 1585. ¤glicc: mo bhreath bheilghlic gan bhine `my skilled oral judgement', Keat. ii 1287. ¤lethan broad-doored : ós bruidin béllethoin, SG 230.24 . ¤lúath hasty of speech : 'ná bheith baoth beul-luath aig teagasg cách, De Imit. 13.24 . ¤maith: C. b.¤ `C. Fair-lips', Metr. Dinds. iii 324.11 . ¤mall slow of speech : la hU. mbruachdha mbelmhall, BB 365b37 . ¤remor thick-lipped, big-mouthed : belremur bolcsuilech, LU 8516 ( FB 37 ). badhbh béil-reamhar, TSh. 6623. ¤ṡalach foul-mouthed : Badb birach belsalach, RC xxiv 52.1 . ¤scaílte wide open; split open ; scattered : i mbrudin bronnḟarsing bélscailti, RC xiv 414 § 28. ina mbuidhnib bega bélsgāilte, Fianaig. 54.4 . (of a cast-up ship) go ndéantar blogha béal-sgaoilte dhi, TSh. 735. ¤tais with soft, moist lips : an chuideachta chuanna bhuadhach bheóltais (of fair women), Hackett xxvi 57 . ¤tana: go mbiailibh blathsnaoighte b.¤ `thin-edged battle-axes', AFM vi 2126.25 . ¤tirim: bérla breganta beoiltirm (spoken) with a dry mouth, O'Gr. Cat. 518.30. ¤trúag: na bid fri baisi ṁbeltrúaig poor-mouthed (?), SR 3890.

See béillic, bélaites, bélscál, bélscálán, bélscáth.

3 co

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 3 co or dil.ie/9788
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: co, co, co n-, cu, có, go, gar, ɔrici, coni, con(n)á, connar, co-ndum-fel, conom, condidtuctis, conidtuccid, conid, condin-roirea, Condubtanicc, condibfeil, con-da-r-íccad, conda-tuárgabusa

conjunction (a use of 1 co, GOI 554 ). There are two forms, co, leniting, with abs. and deut. forms of follg. vb. ( co chutrummaigidir, Ml. 25c12 ; co du-fess, 44a9 ); and co n-, conj. part. See GOI 145 , 299 , 312 . Also cu, Ml. 89d16 , 139a14 , có, 142a1 . In later lang. go (gur), gar, Mac Aingil 4671 etc. See Blathm. 26 note . co n- freq. abbreviated ɔ in earlier lang. even where nasalizing n would not normally appear, e.g. ɔrici, Wb. 33b18 , ɔticfad, TBC-LL¹ 963 . Somet. even with con in full: con ropu, Ml. 67c9 . Cf. ɔṅdárbastar, Sg. 211a10 . See GOI 554 , TBC-LL¹ p. 1099 . Neg. of co is coni ( coní, Sg. 209b13 ), of co n- con(n)á etc. ( GOI 539 ). connar bo, TBC-LL¹ 2548 . go nach beath, DDána 74.68 . With inf. pron. ( GOI 258 ). 1 s. co-ndum-fel, Wb. 3c38 . condomarrgabad sa, 17d14 . conom thicisea except me, LU 8368 ( FB 24 ). 3 s. m. n. condidtuctis, Wb. 21c21 . conidtuccid, 11 . conid chuale, Ml. 20a2 . 1 p. condin-roirea, Wb. 29b16 . 2 p. Condubtanicc, Wb. 5c10 . condibfeil, 24c4 . 3 s. f. and 3 p. con-da-r-íccad, 4d19 . conda-tuárgabusa, 26d10 . an frim céin córda sille, LU 3907 ( SCC 37 ). conda tucsa, Fraech 278 . For forms with copula see 1 is (I 307.61, 310.9 , 39 , 311.44 , 312.45, 313.4, 16, 21, 49, 65, 314.22, 33, 315.11, 23, 65 , 317.76, 318.58, 319.12, 63, 75, 320.48, 83 321.3 etc.).

On usage see GOI 342 , 554 ff. (possible difference in meaning between co and co n-; co rare outside O. Ir. glosses, see Translator's Note no. 197).

1 With indic. so that, and (consecutive): co gl. quo (. . . fatetur), Ml. 130c22 . con fri fuili foichliter, Bretha 25 . con[n]á heisedar, Críth G. 176 . ɔricub-sa cucuib `so that I shall come unto you', Wb. 32a27 . ɔarrceoratar a n-arma doib gl. ut doficerat eis quod in nos torquere possint, Ml. 26d6 . is co durogabsat, 108a6 . tremi-berar . . . conid ainm dun chrunn, Wb. 8a5 . ɔaich rann so that it is not, Sg. 212a6 . ar a coitcinne na cladh sa gu nach urasa cín dagra for a tigernaib, Laws iv 222.1 Comm. ɔruptar fadirci ind usci Ml. 40d16 . connar bo leír, TBC-LL¹ 2548 . With vb. of motion forming prep. phrase: téit co téit isa teach he goes into the house, BDD² 280 . ránic C. co mbuí hi faichchi na Bruidne came to, 507 . táncatar . . . co mbátar i ndorus etc., Sc.M² 5 . With as-beir introducing direct speech: mná . . . do gabāil chepóce . . . co n-ērbrat saying, Sc.M² 20 . atgládastar . . . B. co n-epert, LU 8235 ( FB 18 ). con-erbairt = dicens, Lat. Lives 1.4 . Freq. with copula and personal form of prep.: conid airi so that that is why, Sg. 189b2 . conid and atá otharlige a chind and that is where, RC iii 182.5 . conid and atbert c.¤ , 178.27 . conid de atá . . . whence is, 181.36 (cf. conid iarsin, y). conid de ro ainmniged . . . , Fraech 107 . Similarly: conid innisin . . . sin so that that is the story, TBC-LL¹ 1388 . co n-id di-a deoin dochoid, PH 2374 . As mere sentence-connective: robo trom tra la Moingḟind an ni sin, co n-ebairt fria macaib . . . , RC xxiv 194.25 . luid . . . co mbensom, LU 4907 (historic pres. rare in this use, GOI 331 ). luidseom . . . co tubart a láim tairrsiu, BDD² 141 . lasin donic ingabuir chuci corragaib mīr assathóib and took, RC iii 184.31 . dotaet . . . C. do tsiriud in dithruibh cetna, co riacht in tobur and he reached the spring, vi 175.28 . ro selaig C. . . . co tarat . . . co ragaib . . . co toracht, LU 8460 - 1 ( FB 31 ). Cf. loech foltfind lebar co mbeanad folt braine a da imda whose hair reached, etc., RC xxiv 184.6 . For stereotyped co cloth ní introducing rhetorics ( LU 5449 etc.) see Celtica vii 79 ff. See also viii 155-60 and Ulidia i 251-53 . See further Celtica ix 117 (as co) 118 (ar co), 133 (mod. mar is fearr go dtiocfaidh leat, etc.).

2 In special consecutive use in `which the subject of the clause is taken out of its logical position, and placed (under the government of the principal verb, though often almost absolutely) before the introductory conjunction and copula' ( PH p. 594 ). See further O'Brien Celtica ii 348 , C. O'Rahilly viii 162 . is rad dée immumforling conda apstal gl. gratia Dei sum id quod sum `God's grace has caused me to be an apostle,' Wb. 13b6 . is di chéin immunrordad condan maicc togu gl. qui praedestinauit nos in adoptionem filiorum, 20d10 . dobrograd condibfeil icorp crist gl. electionem uestram, you have been called to be members of C.'s body, 24c4 . In the follg. exx. rather with explicative force: o du raidhmisiot . . . / iosa com bu thorisi that J. was etc., Blathm. 55 . domuinet sochaide, na hapstail co n-id as cech berla ro-labairset, PH 5485 . is demin cuirp na hesergi co mbat foille, 6746 . atnaigh . . . aichne fair, conar bé A., TE 12 Eg. Similarly perh.: mainba æcne lib act conda anecne gl. ne quis me putet insipientem esse, alioquin velud insipientem accipite me, Wb. 17c10 . [no] ghnathaigeth U. aingel co torraimed indí Pátraic, Trip.² 215 .

3 In quantitative contexts (to the extent) that, (so much so) that: in sí a meit friscomartatar co ndo[d]sitis huili a fide have they offended to the point of falling a fide? Wb. 5b11 . attá diṡeirc la laitnori innangrec co seichetar cid a comroircniu the Latinists are so fond of the Greeks that they imitate even their errors, Sg. 1a2 . ba hé a méit co cathaigtis co corptha na demna frisna doínib, LU 4036 ( SCC 49 ). boí tra dia fot na lamae co rroacht tar na teóra fuithairbe the arm was so long that it reached, 9069 ( FB 82 ). ba he med na dochraidi co mba hecin di . . . , RC xxiv 190.7 .

4 until (with `the indicative or subjunctive according to the character of the sentence as a whole', GOI 555 and cf. 330 ). With pres. ni ib fínn combi mescc gl. non uinolentum, Wb. 28b24 . co mbí, Críth G. 83 . co ndichet till he goes, 28 . co roglea dó until he has finished, Mon. Tall. 133.16 . ní rach . . . / don Charraig . . . / taireise go rabh a-rís / damh, Aithd. D. 32.16 . Freq. with verbs of coming to, reaching in prep. phrases, see do-icc, ro-icc (cf. orta co rís in corthe, LU 3334 ), 100.36 . With pret. and perf.: con-dub-tanicc misericordia Dei , Wb. 5c10 . conda-tuárgabusa, 26d10 . co bba till it was, BDD² 12 (for co mba? corbo, D). co nderglē till I made up my mind, Sc.M² 4 . asbertatar . . . co comarsatis in dá adnacul . . . ní comroicfed . . . , Airne F. 148 . In later lang. also with fut.: gearr go mbia, DDána 26.8 . See cotá.

5 As connective marking subordination after verbs of saying and in various other contexts that (with subj., later also condit. and indic.): a n-asberid a Iudeu coni cloitis geinti tairchital Crist, 5a8 . as n-é tairrchet . . . combad adramail in macc conróbad écoscc a cheneóil fair, 6d6 . nád chumaing aranísar and coní enggnatar gníma, Sg. 209b13 . ? is écen ɔṅdárbastar, 211a10 . coní ecmi nád n-airchissa act is co arcessea (it happens) that he does spare, Wb. 5b35 . atbertsat . . . co leicfitis, LU 9023 ( FB 77 ). forairngert-sa . . . co ragad méla . . . fort, TBC-LL¹ 647 . dá mbeath go dtuillinn, Aithd. D. 95.13 . do fhóbair go ndearnainn dearmad, 38.16 . tuig . . . go raibhe . . . , TSh. 22 . go dtarla . . . gur mhionuigh ┐ gur bhris, 59 . ó ataoi dall . . . 's gar mían leat etc., Mac Aingil 4671 . gar cōir dhuit etc. (title), 1033 . toingim-se . . . co ná fil, Ériu iv 98.10 . ní mōr go mbui ar comus dōip `they were scarcely able', Fl. Earls 88.12 . As connective particle in ar eagla go, do bhríogh go etc., see TSh. tre go bhfuighedis, Luc. Fid. 3269 .

6 In O. Ir. with subj. glossing Lat. ut, ne (final): coni gl. (timens) ne, Ml. 22d12 . gl. uti, Sg. 213a5 . ɔrop imdu de duún gl. ut abundet, Wb. 3a12 . co beit amal innahí nad tectat sétchi gl. ut sint, 10b5 . co remifoil gl. ut . . . anticipiet, Ml. 23a8 . co asagnoither gl. ut intelligatur, Sg. 180b2 . commimis less huili gl. ut et mortuorum et uiuorum dominetur, Wb. 6b21 . co ngnemmis gnímu colno gl. ut . . . uiuamus, 4a9 . co fu-crothad .i. co chon-scarad gl. ut . . . cassaret, Ml. 23b14 . có gl. quo (maior . . . prauitas appareret), 29a5 . co gl. quo . . . possint, 74c10 .

7 With subj. so that, in order that. Pres. condib dídnad domsa, Wb. 1b1 . con festar cách gl. scientia, 12c38 . cona roib etarcéin, 26a14 . corbu du reir nach aili labraimme gl. nostro iuri in loquendo, non alieno seruimus imperio, Ml. 31b16 . ni nád ndenam-ni acht is co dugnem, 23c6 . conna dechsam i n-adradu idal, 62d1 . coni taibrea feuchrai fírmessa foraib, 109c14 . mad he herchoiliud cétne persine in sin .i. conibbé dese and, Sg. 199b4 . ɔnábé and, 166a3 . co ti N. do bar n-eadrain `so that N. may come to separate you', RC xxiv 194.26 . tíagsa co n-ardu tenid I'll go and light a fire, BDD² 286 . cid is áil duib . . . co ndernur what do you want me to do ? PH 4414 . congain liom go leanar help me to follow, DDána 2.7 . Impf. co no pridchinn a indocbáil, Wb. 28a7 . combad aurlam cách dia bathis, 8a4 . ɔrobad cech brathair post alium , 34a4 . conaib fir, Ml. 31d9 . confresced in popul á íc, 136d1 . co mbin cosmail fri encu, 91b7 . cinged issin sliab co tabrad fiad `to fetch a deer', Arch. Hib. ii 70 § 5 . oc imchosnum, comtis hé cétnarístais, Airne F. 135 . atbert in ríg, go ructha that he should be brought, PH 1329 . a bhreath don bhoct do-bhire / go nach beath ort oirbhire, DDána 74.68 .

8 With impf. subj. of copula and subst. vb. introducing a tentative or alternative explanation: combad notire rodscribad cosse gl. salutatio mea manu Pauli, up to this point it is no doubt the work of a scribe (an epistle), Wb. 27d16 . co mbad si amser sin rongabthe in salm apparently it was then . . . , Ml. 24d7 . combad ho ṡuidiu iarum pepigi gl. antiqui `pago' . . . dicebant pro `paciscor', and that, presumably, is the origin of, Sg. 181a3 . combed secunda gl. de aliquo habet locutionem, 200a1 . ɔnabeth foraithmet dǽ hi suidiu gl. id non dixit absolute etc., Ml. 22d26 . no, go na beith acht trian and dogres `or, according to others, there is never more than one-third', Laws iv 196. 12 Comm. no guna tuctha acht einní dib do gach thir, 162 note (Comm.). no comad a cáer . . . no ásad, Airne F. 55 .

9 In wishes (see Murphy Lyrics p. 255 ): conarbera dam . . . fri M. `say to M. for me', Mon. Tall. 150.7 . gurab tu ar comairge , Ériu i 122.24 . co rop é in læch . . . may he be the warrior . . . , TBC-LL¹ 1151 . go roibh linn . . . / . . . banaltra thrí dtighearna, DDána 9.1 tocht id leith gur mheala mé, 25a.25 . Perh. also: conná' musnágat may they not fear each other, LU 9091 ( FB 84 ).

10 With prec. conj. forming compound conjunctions. See 1 acht (A 21.59), 1 ara (A 372.12, 24 etc.), cen (114.78), 2 cía (170.85), cían (180.39), dáig (D 19.44), dochum (D 229.60 ), indas (I 218.42). For use with prec. neg. adv. see nícon (N 45.79, 46.4, 11).

11 After positive, compar. or super. adj. used adverbally: mar is lúaithe co tairnig, Maund. 38 § 57 . marus ferr co fetfaitis, RC xix 26 § 19 . luaithiu con-rānic Maelodrān, Fing. R. 1023 . cid lúath condránic in gilla, LL ii 8791 .

12 After ocus (generally introducing different subject): dotháet Findabair assind uisciu. & facbaid in claideb i llaim Fraech. ┐ co mben a chend den míl, LL v 33282 . dobert Cu Chulaind side da ṡaigid ┐ co topacht a chend de, iv 23220 . delbaid a richt cacha fírcharat etir ḟir ┐ mnai fos, ┐ co léiceann cach a rún ria, Acall. 5680 .

commairge

Cite this: eDIL s.v. commairge or dil.ie/11492
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: combairge, coimirc

n [], f. Also -c(h)e (see ZCP ix 342 - 3 ) and coi-, cu(i)-. n s. combairge, ZCP iii 240.6 . d s. coimirc, Párl. na mB. 4033 . cumairce comairce cumairchi comairchi cumairgi comairgi (c.¤ cáol leis íad, v.l.) f., IGT Decl. § 3 (44.15) . comairci, -che, -ghe, cum-, Verbs § 83 . cumraidhe, Celtica xi 211 = comairghe, BCC 30.19 .

(a) protection, security, refuge; sanctuary: act of protecting , etc. (see Críth G. pp. 106 - 7 ): commairce .i. comhmarcaigheachd, O'Cl. fáosamh .i. com[ha]irce, Eg. Gl. 647 . rāith c.¤ `surety of protection', PRIA xxxvi 308.19 ( Laws iv 340.20 , ZCP xii 366.1 ). for foísam ríg na ndúle / comairche nachanbéra (leg. -méra, Edd.) `a protection which will not betray us', Thes. ii 306.5 . lubair cretra c.¤ , LL 3921 `protection', Ériu viii 71.20 . comairce na ngrádh flatha so sís. cúic laithe comraite (leg. c.¤?) an airech desa; sé la comraite (leg. c.¤?) an aire tuisi; deich lá comraite (leg. c.¤?) an aire áird etc., O'D. 845 ( H 3.17, 602 ). comairche in aired bes a caithemh ambaile ┐ faesam dana iar fagbáil in baile, O'Curry 1386 ( H 3.18, 630a ) (cf. Laws ii 20 n. 4 ). cen ḟáosam, cen chomairche ina tíre, TTr.² 246 . bá túalaing a chomairgi in fer sin, LU 7778 = cumairce, BDD² 1323 . batir comarchi forro a n-airm, LU 3237 ( SCC 2 ). ba do comaircib na haimsire sin na hairm `the safeguards', RC xii 106 § 162 . Cf. section (c) below. tuc curu ┐ commairgeda ria nachas rinfed etc., LL 31131 ( TTr. 314 ). Easgob Ibair is Ailbhi / do c[h]rādh ima comairghi `sanctuary', Ériu xviii 60 § 13 . sochraid cach comairci, ACL iii 229.102 = ZCP xvii 61 § 24 . do ch.¤ a meic to protect his son(?), LL 2314 . do sharugud a comairgi, RC xxvi 134.12 . bid hi in chomairchi glan grinn, Fen. 108.9 . do fhagaibh se coimerghe ag mindaib . . . C.C. `enjoined safeguard', BCC 74.7 . tech ōiged la comairghi, ZCP vii 298.4 . comairche cotchend ┐ termonn, Ann. Conn. 1235.16 . dul tar ceart dár gcomairghe `the injustice involved in saving me', PBocht 17.19 . a n-onoir . . . na comairghe ordeochas se do beith ag an ferand so, BCC 30.20 . ceann comuirghe `chief protector', O'Hara 1768 . séana croinn na comairche (:aithne) (of tree of life?), DDána 6.8 . roba gairit in caill comarchi uathib iat they could afford them little protection from them (their pursuers)(?), Cog. 176.23 . coill chumairghe (of a family), IGT Decl. ex. 189 . sgíath comairghe (:connailbhe) (of a chief), Studies 1919, 74 § 15 . maithmhighe ar gcinn choimirce (: reimpe) (of Michael), DDána 11.36 .

(b) With various verbs and prepp.: do-berat comairgi di they give her protection, Heroic Biography of Cormac mac Airt 121.73 . ro gabais chommairchi you have sought protection, Fing. R. 51 . an tí ro gab ar chomairce a gualann, O'Curry 2626 ( Eg. 88, 53(54)c ). ro gab a commairgi fort in bairgen `has got its protection against thee', Ériu i 134.8 . gabh mo chomairce, a chuirp Íosa, A. Ó Dálaigh xvii 1 . do chuaidh ar a choimeirce, IT ii2 144.562 . dochuadur fein ar cumraighi Ronáin, KMMisc. 313.3 . tú ar a ccomairghe cuireim I place thee under their protection, Studies 1919, 440 § 13 . B. do marbhadh ar a comairce `while under his protection', Laws i 66.x Comm. iar marbad mac nUsnig fora ḟaísam ┐ fora chommairgi `in despite of his guarantee and surety', TBC-LL² 363 . fort comairge damh `under thy protection may I be', Ériu xix 14 § 11 . fora ccomairccibh, AFM ii 1074.13 . arna ndiúlthadh fa chumairce an tsagairt sin safe passage (`release'), Ériu v 92.20 . dar comhairge na bachla Iósa `in violation of', AFM ii 988.11 . maith [mo] choimirce ar cóir nDé protection against, A. Ó Dálaigh xxiv 1 .

(c) Of persons affording protection sureties, guarantors, protectors (us. in pl.): ? [í]ar lín a chomairce ┐ a charat, Críth G. 366 . ? na huile daine do cuir in ri amach din cumairce, O'Curry 1062 ( H 3.18, 439a ). rogabsat a c.¤ `took to them sureties', Metr. Dinds. iii 272.36 . tiagat c.¤ friu, IT i 75.9 ( LMU 13 ). ar ba duna comaircib bai fri maccaib Uisnech Cormac, BB 250b15 . na comairgi `protectors', RC xxvi 134.13 . go madh fiadhnach lasna comairgibh a chion `evident to the sureties', AFM ii 1072.12 . Note also: tainic in comharba ar toradh a retha a ndiaigh na comairge `the protected cattle', ZCP x 18. 26 v.l.

con-dïeig

Cite this: eDIL s.v. con-dïeig or dil.ie/12067
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: connaigim, -cuintgim, -chunchimm, -cuinngim, chondaigi, connaigi, condnigi, condnaige, -cuinchi, condieig, condaig, connaig, condnaig, connaigh, cunnuid, condegar, chuindegar, cuindegar, connegar, cuinnegar, chuinneghar, connadur, condagar, conadar, conagar, connagar, chondegam, connagam, -cuingem, condagaigh, condegat, condaiget, condagatt, -cuinget, -cuinchetar, conattgi, conaittig, conatig, conaitech, conattech, conaitegar, conaitcid, -contagad, -cuincithea, condaigtis, conatchitís, cuíntís, cuindig, cuinnig, cunnig, condíg, cuinged, cuindced, cuinched, cu[i]nged, condiu(g)sa, -cuindius, -chuinnius, -chunnis, con-dia, -cuintea, -cunte, condes(s)ar, condeisir, -cuintestar, -cuinntestar, -comthastár, -comtastár, -comthastar, conníestar, conniastar, connesum, condesat, connesat, chondesin, condesta, cóndesta, connchesta, connesed, conesta, condestis, conaitecht, -comtacht, condiachtais, condīacht, condiacht, conniacht, conaitecht, conattacht, conattecht, conaittecht, -comtacht, conataig, conataigh, conattig, co ndatig, conaitich, conatuigh, co n-auttaigh, connachtaigh, conrotacht, conaitigir, conaitigair, conaitegair, conatechoir, conaitechair, conatceastoir, -comtacht, conaitchet, -comtachtmar, conaitechtat, conaittechtatar, conoitechtatar, coniachtatadar, conaitchetar, con-aitcheadar, con-aitcetar, conaitchitar, conaitidar, connaigid, cuinnigid, cuin(d)gid, cuin(n)chid, cuinnid, cuindchid, cuintechtai

v (< com + degaid or *dechaid, Éigse xxviii 156-59 ; * com-di-saig-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 607 ) Indic. pres. 1 s. connaigim, MU² 77 . Three Hom. 70.18 . -cuintgim, Wb. 14c12 . -chunchimm, Three Hom. 70.19 . -cuinngim, Ériu ii 89.z . 2 s. chondaigi, Thes. ii 296.5 . Metr. Dinds. iii 340.46 . LU 5669 (TBC). MU² 65 . connaigi, LU 3104 . condnigi, SR 5993 (see 3 s. below). condnaige, RC xx 142.21 (ACC). connaige, TBC-LL² 4835 . -cuinchi, Thes. ii 307.12 . 3 s. condieig ( -dïeig, GOI 66 ), Wb. 23d5 . condaig (with vocalism of 1 saigid, Thurn.), 8d20 . Ml. 30b8 . 35c21 . 110d10 . TBC-LL² 1637 . connaig, 1548 . condnaig, LL 12908 ( RC xiv 422.z ) (perh. infl. by atn-aig, see ad-aig). connaigh, ACL iii 4.34 . cunnuid, Laws i 58.17 Comm. Pass. condegar, Wb. 8d20 . 14c11 . Ml. 48a7 . IT iii 5.1 . chuindegar, BDD² 1446 . cuindegar, O'Dav. 404 . connegar, Corm. Y 62 . cuinnegar, LL 36491 . chuinneghar, Laws iv 242.2 Comm. connadur (leg. condagar, Ed.), ACL iii 3.2 . conadar, Auraic. 746. 1389 . conagar, Laws i 30.y . connagar, PH 7934 . 1 p. chondegam, Ml. 107c8 . connagam, LL 12681 . PH 3104 . -cuingem, Wb. 14d38 . 2 p. condagaigh, Anecd. i 62.z . 3 p. condegat, Ériu ii 126 § 87 . condaiget, Alex. 924 . condagatt, PH 3972 . -cuinget, Ml. 107c8 . Pass. -cuinchetar, 123d4 . Forms influenced by ad-teich (see also pret. and perf. below): 2 s. conattgi, TBC-LL² 1508 . 3 s. conaittig, Triads 77. 78 . conatig, LU 10877 . conaitech, 9820 . conattech, TBC-LL² 2109 . Pass. conaitegar, LU 7888 (BDD). 3 p. conaitcid, Leb. Gab.(i) 148.5 .

Impf. 3 s. -contagad, Wb. 4b2 . pass. -cuincithea, PH 7933 . 3 p. condaigtis, Trip.² 1082 . conatchitís (with infl. of ad-teich), PH 6032 . ? cuíntís, BB 352b11 (= saigtís, Metr. Dinds. i 36.94 ).

Impv. 2 s. cuindig, Wb. 10a20 . LU 7875 (BDD). Ériu ii 204 § 22 . cuinnig, TBC-I¹ 2763 . cunnig, TBC-LL² 81 . condíg, RC viii 154.25 . 3 s. cuinged, Wb. 10a15 . 11b18 . cuindced, ZCP vii 312 § 23 . cuinched, ACL iii 307 § 21 . cu[i]nged, Ériu xx 124 § 17 .

Subj. pres. and fut. (see GOI 410 ) 1 s. condiu(g)sa, Three Hom. 70.14 ( Lat. Lives 81.11 ). -cuindius, Ériu xiii 19.19 ( O'Dav. 385 ). -chuinnius, TBC-LL² 1574 . 2 s. -chunnis, TBC-LL² 1573 . Cf. -cunghis, RC xii 66.12 . 3 s. con-dia, ZCP xi 87 § 52 . -cuintea, Ml. 51a18 . -cunte, Vita Br. 16 . Pass. condes(s)ar, Mon. Tall. 133.2 . Fraech 258 . condeisir, RC xxiv 150.17 . -cuintestar, Ériu xiii 18.11 . -cuinntestar, O'Curry 2397 ( Eg. 88, 32b ). -comthastár, LU 5710 = -comtastár, TBC-I¹ 1236 . -comthastar, RC iii 345.11 . Cf. conigestar, Ériu ii 196 n. conníestar, RC xv 488 § 5 . conniastar, iii 345.12 . 1 p. connesum, PH 7965 . 3 p. condesat, Ml. 46c13 . connesat, PH 3506 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. chondesin, Wb. 19d24 . 2 s. condesta, Trip.² 1356 , cóndesta, 1335 = connchesta, Anecd. iii 38.5 . 3 s. connesed, PH 7978 . Cf. conaitchedh, BNnÉ 43.9 . Pass. conesta, Fél. 2.6 . 3 p. condestis, Thes. ii 31.24 .

Pret. and perf. (with -ad-; exceptionally with -uss- (?), -ro-): 1 s. conaitecht, Ml. 132d5 . 2 s. -comtacht, Ml. 60b20 . condiachtais, LU 5836 ( TBC-I¹ 1366 ). 3 s. condīacht, ZCP viii 329.25 . condiacht, Ériu ii 118 § 53 . conniacht, LU 6143. 6153 . conaitecht, Ml. 36b5 . 59c3 . 98b6 . Immrama 64 § 101 . Ériu viii 175.25 . Hugh Roe² 104.30 . conattacht, TFerbe 235 . conattecht, Corm. Y 698 . conaittecht, TBC-LL² 2110 . -comtacht, Ml. 59c3 . 54b30 . Follg. influenced by pret. of ad-teich (see Celtica vii 42-4 ): conataig, Three Hom. 70.15 . Dinds. 99 . conataigh, 69 . conattig, Metr. Dinds. iii 440.21 . LL 30975 (TTr.). conattaig, Dinds. 161 . co ndatig (sic), 12 . conaitich, 78 . conatuigh, Lism. L. 834 . co n-auttaigh, Dinds. 3 ( RC xv 290 ). connachtaigh, TBC-LL¹ p. 335 n. conrotacht, Corp. Gen. 68.31 . With depon. inflexion: conaitigir, Trip.² 2700 . conaitigair, 2731 . conaitegair, Ériu xvi 66.86 . conatechoir, xii 146.6 . conaitechair, Dinds. 46 . conatceastoir, AFM i 30.2 . Pass. -comtacht, Ml. 35c26 . 123c3 . ? conaitchet, LL 356 marg. sup. 1 p. -comtachtmar, Wb. 24b20 . 3 p. conaitechtat (sic MS), Ml. 44d27 . conaittechtatar, 90b16 . conoitechtatar, Wb. 8a14 (see GOI 344 ). coniachtatadar, O'Curry 778 ( H 3.18, 365a ). conaitchetar, Metr. Dinds. iii 390.65 . 440.13 . Dinds. 161 . BB 488a46 . Leb. Gab.(i) 252.18 . con-aitcheadar, Dinds. 141 . con-aitcetar, 78 . conaitchitar, Auraic. 194 . conaitidar, BB 30a51 ( conaithchedar, 55 ).

Later as simple vb. connaigid, cuinnigid, cuin(d)gid, cuin(n)chid, cuinnid with both ē-fut. and f-fut.

Vn. cuindchid.

Vbl. of necess. cuintechtai.

Asks, seeks, demands (with accus. of object sought): ní comtachtmar ni `we have asked for nothing', Wb. 24b20 . conaitecht C. dig, LU 7881 (BDD). cuinchis F. . . ./. . ./ cath, 3202 . ? connigset indromuin Scāthach dōib diblīnaibh, TBC-I¹ 2683 . ni tri haiscedha conaigiub a Temraig, IT iii 194.7 . ni chunnecha . . . amal ro chunnig, LL 13945 . bale i cúinnebar bás, PH 6167 . cuingidh bean nach cleasach cuing, O'Hara 3433 . cecip ní chuinghifett, Hugh Roe² 130.3 .

With prep. introd. person of whom someth. requested. In O. Ir. usu. co: denum neich condegar cuccu, Ml. 48a7 . intan con-diacht fer cerdda bratt co M., Corp. Gen. 409.22 . conaitchidar gusin sai .i. co Fenius, ACL iii 247.16 . ro-cuinnig foigde . . . / cosin siair, Ériu iii 196 § 19 . cuinchim-si itchi co Dīa, xix 77 § 2 . condaig cert n-imbi coa c[h]arait, Corm. Y 883 ( Anecd. iv 76.15 ).

With DI (DO): is and condegar do manchaib má beth dibh nech bes maith is enquired (cf. Rawl. 80b47 cited below), O'D. 554 ( H 3.17, 437 ). ? cuinnegar do (dia, O'Dav. 404 ) gruaide grís, Ériu xiii 31.4 .

With FOR (see Celtica vii 44 ): amal chondegamni fordia arnícc, Ml. 107c8 . 's ed sin conattecht-sa foraib, TBC-LL² 1033 . cuingis Luigdeach fair arríga Muman do gabáil `enjoined [on] him', Ériu xvi 66.76 . fort ní chunnig comairge , LL 12934 . do chuind[i]getar cend Eoin fair, ZCP xiv 150.1 . grás ar Chríosd do chuingis, Dán Dé xii 19 . Cf. is andsin cunnis C.C. bar na sluagaib `sought for', CRR 51 . ro cuimnidh (sic) air co tartad, Grail 1941 . With Ó: ní ho doinib condaig aithesc sunt, Ml. 35c21 . isī an éraic con-aitecht uaidib, ZCP xii 244.10 . no chuinchitis . . . na Saxain ó Germain fortacta doib, LU 287 . In: conattecht C. in caratrad . . . friss adjured him by their friendship, TBC-LL² 1895 the sense and usage are that of ad-teich ( Celtica vii 43 ).

? In sense enquires: da conaiget aiṅgil nime cid in deilb sin, Rawl. 80c47 , cf. O'D. 554 cited above.

? congair

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? congair or dil.ie/12136

 

n eochair c.¤ cuitriud, ZCP vi 270 § 11 . for mo comairge cen c.¤ (: cobair), Anecd. ii 20.x . Cf. congar?

6 ré, ría

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 6 ré, ría or dil.ie/34869

 

Forms: re, r, ri, ria, re, ré, ría, re, résin(d), riasin(d), résna, riasna, reum, róm, remum, remut, remut, riut, rōt, riam, ríam, reme, roime, remi, remi, romi, rempe, roimpe, reunn, remond, remaind, remhainn, riun, remunn, remainn, round, romainn, remib, romaib, remib, remaib, roaib, rempu, rompu, rompoibh, rom(h)am, rom(h)at, rém, rom, rét, rót, réna, riana, rem, reim, roim, roimh, roimhe, rem-, remi-, reim-, réimh-, rem-

prep. gov. dat., eclipses follg. initial. In Glosses generally re; r, Sg. 169a1 , Wb. 9b16 . ri, Wb. 28c4 . ria, Thes. ii 240.19 ( Ardm. 18a1 ). Mid.Ir. re, ré, ría. In later Mid.Ir. somet. confounded with re (ri) < fri. Folld. by art. résin(d), riasin(d); pl. résna, riasna.

With pers. pron. suffix.: 1 s. O.Ir. reum, Thes. ii 357.14 (Hy. vii); Mid.Ir. rium; róm, SR 1270 ; remum. 2 s. O.Ir. remut; Mid.Ir. remut, riut; rōt, SR 1273 . 3 s. m. n. O.Ir. riam (disyll.); Mid.Ir. ríam; a form which comes to be used as an adv. and is supplanted by reme (remi, roime). 3 s. f. O.Ir. remi; Mid.Ir. remi, romi, later rempe, roimpe. 1 pl. reunn, Thes. ii 325.18 ( Hy. iv 4 , reading of T; remond, remaind, remhainn v.l.); Mid.Ir. riun, remunn, remainn; round, TBC-LL¹ 992 , 1132 ; romainn. 2 pl. Mid.Ir. [remib?], romaib. 3 pl. O.Ir. remib; Mid.Ir. remaib; roaib, LL 198a19 ( Metr. Dinds. iii 80.46 ). Early in Mid.Ir. the 3 pl. form is replaced by rempu (-o, -a), rompu; rompoibh, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919 v 92 § 2 (metri gratiâ). In later Mid.Ir. and in mod. lang. the pronominal forms are added to the stem rom-; rom(h)am, rom(h)at, etc.

With poss. pron.: rém, rom; rét, rót: 3 s. and pl. réna, riana.

In late Mid.Ir. the simple prep. is freq. displaced by rem, reim, ( ZCP xii 292.21 ; Ériu ii 174.10 ), roim ( PH 7774 ), mod. roimh, roimhe, leniting follg. consonant. ría .i. roimhe, O'Cl.

In compos. with vb. rem-, proclitic remi- (O.Ir.), later rem-, reim-, mod. also réimh-.

In compos. with verbal nouns and other nouns, rem- (reim-).

I In general sense before :

(a) of time: ut fuit Adam ré n-immarmus, Wb. 9b16 ; cf. ria n-immarbos, SR 1040 ; roim peccad, PH 7774 . ma théis . . . rium-sa before me , Wb. 14a14 . re ngrád et iar mbathis before ordination , 31b4 . rem chuimrig before my captivity , 30a5 . rena galar-som before his sickness , 23d5 . di bliadin re mbas, Thes. ii 238.18 ( Ardm. 17a2 ). fubíthin creitme ria cách because of believing before all others , 240.19 ( Ardm. 18a1 ). ni longe co longe céle Dé remut till a Culdee eats before thee , 258.31 . is me ra chunnig in coibchi na ra chunnig ben riam remom which no woman ever asked for before me , TBC-LL¹ 30 . ní buí róm, ní bia tar m'éis | nech bus eólchu, Metr. Dinds. iii 304.7 . co na boi remut nach hi [leg. hit] diaid rig bus ecnaide, PH 3968 . corub ed connesum . . . in ní ro chuinnig in fáith romaind that we should ask what the prophet asked before us , 7966 . nárbh eól dá rabha romhat unknown to all before thee , Studies 1919, 612 § 6 . cerd do shen rót the profession of thy ancestors before thee , O'Gr. Cat. 392.10 (early 17th cent.). ni dernad aer dia n-aithrib . . . reimibh | nach dia senaithrib re suidhibh to their fathers before them nor to their grandfathers before those , ACL iii 297 § 59 . ata ann o aimsir na dílend ┐ do bí roimpi, Maund. 42 . ríasind trath cóir, Mon. Tall. 9 . résan dílinn, Keat. i 146 y . is cian ria gCormac do céadtógbhadh Teach Miodhchuarta, ii 4745 . ri techt gráid foir before taking orders , Wb. 28b32 . ria n-airnechtain duib before the invention of ink , Hib. Min. 8.242 . in adaig [sic leg.] reim chath D. do thobairt, Ériu ii 174.10 (re v.l.).

The Mid.Ir. 3 s. m. (orig. f.) pron. form remi (sin) is used freq. as adv. before that, previously : ind úaburdelb tárfás dóib in adaig sin reme the night before , LU 6539 = riam reme, TBC-I¹ 2022 , TBC-LL¹ 2710 . ro chrithnaigsetar tri tonna Herend remi sin in n-aidchi sin previously that night , CRR 16 . co n-acatar he remi sin co menic, PH 3418 . gar reimi sin a short time before , ACL iii 225.20 . See ríam.

(b) Implying preference: lánbendacht . . . for Máelruain ria ṅdaínib before all (other) men , Fél. Ep. 64 . sluind dó ri cāch bréthir announce the word to him before all others , ZCP xi 80 § 4 . buaidh ria mbannaibh a victory above all achievements , vi 264 § 5 . neamh ré ngach ní iarram ort, Timth. vi 17 § 2 .

(c) Used with reflex. pers. pron. in adverbial sense referring to a previous statement or passage, previously, above : amal ra scribsam remaind, TBC-LL¹ 1470 . amal ro ráidsium remaind, PH 1082 , cf. 6424 (romaind). tugsad Gaoidhil, mar tá róm as I have said , Content. vi 96 . as na mallachtaibh do luaidheamar romhainn, TSh. 9726 . See remainn.

(d) occas. with reflex. pron. of that which awaits a person in the future: do chaith na hocht mbliadhna déag do bhí roimhe do fhlaitheas Néill the remaining eight years of Niall's reign , Keat. iii 206 . in meide bui rompa don lo the remainder of the day , Fl. Earls 14.32 . fech leathanach ród a page further on , Hy Fiach. 46 .

II In local sense,

(a) before, in front of : ní airecar .b. remi ( the letter) b is not found before it (the letter m), Sg. 20a9 . a thitol re cach libur, 2a8 . ni feil titlu remib (of the psalms), Ml. 2b4 . (with acc.) atat cethri tituil resna psalmo, Hib. Min. 8.272 . Christ reum, Crist im degaid, Thes. ii 357.14 ( Hy. vii ). bid reid riam cach n-amreid, Thes. 235.16 (Bern. 117a ), cf. rop reid rémunn cech n-amreid, Thes. 304.2 ( Hy. i 34 ), ZCP vii 268 § 2 (riëm). imreditis a t[h]raigthi iarma ┐ a escata remi, TBC-I¹ 1451 . ro díbairg in ṅgai dó 'sa urlond reme butt foremost , RC iii 178.9 . feib théit echrad láir rena serrgraig, TBC-LL¹ 6103 . in redlu resna draide preceding the Magi , PH 7067 = resna draidib, 7094 . luid in t-aingel roim Finnén, Lism. L. 2636 . Labion . . . rompo L. leading them , CCath. 177 . Diarmait Gall ré nglasláith nAirtigh, IGT Dec. ex. 641 .

In Mid. Ir. the pron. form is often preceded by a prepositional form ríam, so that the preposition is doubled: ciataim ane ar loṅgais riam reme, though we are in exile before him , TBC-LL¹ 874 . ni thechiub-sa riam remut I shall not flee before thee , 1861 . co mbatar riam remi, 2596 . For further exx. see remáin, ríam.

In fig. sense: cid dam-sa na curfind mo chomlund a chetóir romum why should I not resolve on (undertake) my combat at once? CRR 25 , cf. 26 . aní se do chuireamair romhainn do chríochnughadh to finish what I propose to do , TSh. 31 .

(b) with reflex. pron. after vb. of motion on, forwards (very common in Mid. and Mod.Ir.): luid in mac remi, TBC-LL¹ 886 . lotar rempu connice in dún, 1227 . raghat-sa róm gonige an baile, BS § 30 . imthigh-si romhad go Sord, Ériu i 88 § 34 . tibra ita i Loch Con . . . teit 'na diaid in tan traiges, inn uair linas in loch lan teit romi subsides when (the lake) ebbs, rises when the lake fills , ZCP v 24 § 11 (cf. Todd Nenn. 195 n. d ). luidsed fo thuaid rompo, viii 274.12 . In the follg. exx. the pron. is virtually reflex.: tair round timchull na Emna come on , TBC-LL¹ 1132 ; cf. TBC-I¹ 461 (tair ruind = reond, LU). dó run co tech Conaill let us get on to C.'s house , RC xiv 418 § 36 . Ellipt.: rout, a gillai, dar druim sair `forward, boy', Metr. Dinds. iv 348.23 . By extension, of progress or continuance: tuigium romaind gu ria aris let me go on thatching , ACL iii 236 § 9 . Cf. innis rod, TD 28.1 .

(c) after vbs. of fleeing (= Eng. before, from, Germ. vor): dochuaid rim-sa for teithed, TBC-I¹ 1262 (= reomsa, LU 5736 ). in tan teithes ria n-oenḟer, 1268 . TBC-LL¹ 1861 , 6060 . for teched re guth in duileman, MacCarthy 58.1 ( LB 111b14 ). beit ina rith romaind, CRR 22 . With ellipse of vb.: Slige Dalo, fosfuair Setna . . . ria ndrui[d]ib hIrmuman, Dinds. 58 ( RC xv 454 x .), cf. is rempu-sin . . . fúair rót Dala `fleeing before them', Metr. Dinds. iii 282.81 . Cf. cia bemni for loinges riam, TBC-I¹ 372 .

(d) after maidid the victor is expressed by RÉ, the vanquished by FOR or FRI: in tan rommemaid re nAbracham forsna cóic riga, Ml. 127d 6 . ho rumaith fora naimtea remib 51c9 . go tiasur-sa da ḟiss cia riasa maidend in cath fa thrí ruind (leg. frind), TBC-LL¹ 5972 = cia resa maid in cath frind, TBC-I¹ 3575 . reime no maidsed ┐ ni fair ro rainfide he would win , TBC-LL¹ 830 . is rem Eogan ro moigsed na catha sin, ZCP xii 292.21 . ro meabhaidh riamh forro he defeated them , AFM v 1524 z . See maidid. Similarly: ro roína reunn cathu cach thedme may she break before us the battles of every plague , Hy. iv 4 ( Thes. ii 325.18 ). After a noun: mad romum bus róen if I rout (the enemy ), TBC-LL¹ 3753 . cath Formāili rīam for Conall he won the battle of F. over C. , Arch. Hib. ii 62 § 54 ( LL 183a49 ). Cath Chind A. . . . risna [= riasna] tri Chairpri . . . for Lugaidh, RC xvii 10.25 . coscradh Atha Cliath ria Ciannacht for hU Teig, AU 769 .

(e) after vbs. of opening: hoslaic róm dorus Parduis, SR 1270 . conérget . . . cach fer díib do oslogud ríana mnaí to let his wife in , LU 8271 ( FB 21 ). cor oscail roaib in rígthech, Metr. Dinds. iii 80.46 . ro oslaic in dorus re Cesair, CCath. 3334 .

(f) in fig. sense after words expressing welcome, etc.: rom chrideōn is mochenōn welcome to my heart , Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1912, xxv 439 § 9 . don mhór-fhuil ré mbiodh fáilte . . . gach fóirne, Keat. Poems 174 . rob suilbhir aghaidh gach fhir | róibh-si, Studies 1921, 74 § 6 . forffailidh e rompa ag toigeacht, Fl. Earls 100.31 . ní foláir don uile dhuine bheith ollamh roimhe to be prepared for it (i.e. death), TSh. 131 .

(g) after words expressing fear, abhorrence, etc., of cause of feeling: na gabad oman sib reme, PH 2100 . ata do meit in omhain ann for na hanmunnaibh riasna pianuibh, Ériu ii 134 y . corab mór mh'[im]egla resan mac mallachtan, ZCP viii 203.11 . fer is mó gráin . . . re n-urcharaib the most terrified at shots , Ériu iv 214.24 , cf. is móidi a gráin re a ngothaib, 216.4 . cia an duine . . . nach géabhadh gráin rompa?, TSh. 6753 . déistin roimh dhrúcht nimhe, loathing of manna , Hackett xlii 53 .

(h) after words expressing protection, warning etc., against : rabadh . . . roim mailis na mban, RC xix 152.16 . ar comairci Colmain dūnn riasin ngabad-sa we put ourselves in the safeguard of C. against this danger , BColm. 86.28 . atu-ssa ar comairge Concobair romut, Ériu v 72.13 . comhla gen gobi rem' baeis though there be no guard against my folly , ACL iii 236 § 9 .

síl

Cite this: eDIL s.v. síl or dil.ie/37503
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: silta, sīlta, siltaib, sīltaib

n o, n. Later m. In Mod.Ir. dental forms in pl.: n p. silta, ACL i 326 § 46 . a p. sīlta, RSláinte 1160 . d p. siltaib, Irish Texts v 1.3 . sīltaib, RSláinte 5062 .

The seed of plants and animals : s.¤ gl. hoc seminum, Sg. 63b9 . s.¤ gl. semen, Ir. Gl. 1009 . is a chorp fessin arafoím cach s.¤ .i. mad grainne cruithnechte foceirr is diass cruithnechte rl., Wb. 13c24 . a s.¤ inrolad hisin mais nécruthaigthi gl. creaturae seminibus, Thes. ii 10.19 ( BCr. 18a1 ).

(a) of plants: Abellanium, is as tucad sīl n-aball leo, Corm. Y 1272 . is dilsi in air cona ṡil `the tillage and the seed are forfeited', Laws iv 132.26 Comm . ceithre meich fichet do sil brach[a], ii 200.26 Comm . coconidium .i. sil lauiri `laurel-seed', ACL i 332 § 48 . luibi cach shīl | shīlas ar gach slicht guidheasun, iii 235 § 23 . do shilaib ┐ do thorthib ┐ do chethrib na tuath, PH 6288 . gnáth folamh síol na sligheadh the seed by the wayside, PBocht 12.3 . sil cnaibi, Irish Texts v 6.15 . moluim sīlta osglus na dūinti do bearbad ar na sīrōipib sin, mar atāit so, .i. sīl melones ┐ cucurbita . . ., RSláinte 1160 - 1 . ag cur ṡil sowing, Mart. Don. Sept. 9. 60 boirilli sīl, Cín Lae Ó Meall. 33.17 . toradh an tsíl do chuir tú, ┐ toradh na fíneamhna, Deuteronomy xxii 9 . Freq. used figuratively: síol glan ní hionchuir im fhearann, PBocht 4.29 . iomdha a thoradh tearc a dhuille | dlúth a ghéaga glan a shíol (of Franciscan Order), 1.22 .

(b) metaph. cause, origin : sila ┐ adbair in chatha, CCath. 3852 .

(c) small amount, trace : torsig, truagaig, cen sil foiss `wearying, wretched, without germ of rest', MacCarthy 58.25 . cen sīl n-úabair nā haincceiss 'without a trace of pride or wickedness', SR (Adam and Eve) 30.1126 . do-rimnai Día ... a cosc cen sīl comairge 'God commanded ... that they should be punished without any ounce of pity', SR (Greene) 4153 . cen sīl ndogra 'without a trace of sorrow', SR (Greene) 6131​ .

(d) the semen virile : ó oínsíl rogénartar da macc de `of one seed have been born two sons of him', Wb. 4c12 . immefolngar dund s.¤ ferdu, Ml. 44a10 . intan dofuissemar sechtair a sil sin ┐ gainethar hon mathir is and is ainm do fructus, 44a11 . teistiu int s.¤ immefolangar tri . . . peccad, 71c6 . a shíol do dhórtadh tré na chionta féin, Donlevy 94.4 .

(e) very freq. in sense of race, progeny, descendants : dar cenn peccati . . . s.¤ Adim, Wb. 15d20 . fognífi do s.¤ do sílaib do bráthar, ┐ nocho [bía rí dot sil co bráth], Trip.² 740 . re s.¤ dálach dóine `before men's multitudinous race', Fél. Jan. 1 . toisech sil nAnmchada, AU i 516.x (A.D. 1006) . mairc ócán dom s.¤ | asa holc donruá, LU 9907 . s.¤ a féola the issue of her body, Laws iv 44.7 . isedh i tabuir duine a fearunn . . . do s.¤ a cholla, iii 46.28 Comm . in s.¤ ro sílaig Neimed, LL 7a20 . ní roclos fri sīl fri cath | nōnbor nodasáraiged, ZCP viii 333.6 . Síol gConaill ag teacht tharainn, DDána 113.29 . sgaoilid síol Eóghain ag Aodh `at Aodh the seed of E. divide', TD 26.15 . do bhi a síol ó sin i le | ag leanmhain luirg na deise, 26.11 . íarsma degsil na ndeich righ, Irish Texts ii 35 § 31 . ba medithir re hArcail mac Amphitrionis ar met ┐ ar mesnig in milid sin, uair ba da s.¤ do, TTebe 2557 . a síol fá dhruing ndanardha (of Ireland), Keat. Poems 1184 . Of a single individual (viz. Níall Noígíallach): do dhiúlt Corc . . . | do shíol mhór (do mhór shliocht, v.l.) Chuinn Cheudchathaigh, L. Cl. A. B. 108. 198 . Freq. in sept-names, see Hog. Onom. s.v. síl.

(f) of animals, offspring, breed; act of breeding (?): sil cethra do luad .i. na cethra siles ac neoch do cennach doib, Laws ii 358.4 and 28 (`Kauf von Samen vom Vieh', Thurn. Stud. in E. Ir. Law p. 23 ). saithe . . . do sil bech, Laws ii 122.1 Comm . bliadain a dtuisten, bliadain a seoil, bliadain a sil `the year of their breeding' (of bees), iv 164.3 . .iiii. fir eich ┐ da ban each riata cenmotha a groig uair dlegar do a da cutruma fri sil do groid, O'Curry 239 ( H 3.18, p. 133 ). culén do shíl in chon út, TBC-LL¹ 1048 . nī hē sīl in maigri maill | āsas a hiuchra ālaind, ACL iii 238 § 3 .

Compds. ¤aicme race, descendants : i síol-aicme Ádhaimh, TSh. 3261 . ? To this: ¤búalad act of threshing (?): ruc ruathar fuatha . . . da silbhualad `to utterly smash them', CF 683 (`with sil- Professor Rhys compares W. chwil- in W. chwilfriwio', Meyer). ¤cháith chaff, husks : nocho gran seang silcaith slethcraiti, IT iii 89 § 116 . dā óibell tened i mmedón suipp sílcátha corcca, MacCongl. 15.2 . ¤chur act of sowing: gurab é an diabhal do-ní síol-chur ar na coirthibh i n-aigeantaibh na ndaoine n-urchóideach, TSh. 6334 . ná déantar libh síol-chur idir na dreasaibh = nolite serere super spinas, 10475 . aimsir an tsíolchuir, Gen. viii 22 . Metaph. silcur na tragha ona fearaib 'na faenluighi, CF 810 . aimsior tháinig Pádruig . . . do shíolchur chrábhaidh ┐ chreidimh, PCT 27 . Hence: sílchuirid sows, propagates : an ithir go n-a harbhar | . . . | ós libh do síolchuireadh soin | críochnuigheadh sibh an síolsoin `as Thou didst sow the seed', Aithd. D. 50.32 . mar gur síolchuireadar craos i n-áit an troisgthe, Eochairsg. 3.15 . do bhris sé síos an chathair ┐ do shíolchuir sé í le salann, Judges ix 45 . síolchuiridh sé imreasuin, Proverbs vi 14 . ¤pheccad original sin : bheith damanta trés an síl-pheacadh sinnsir, TSh. 3260 . ¤treb descendants: Naoi 'na fhíréan 'na shíl-treabhaibh féin = in generationibus suis, 3181 .

torann

Cite this: eDIL s.v. torann or dil.ie/41429

 

Forms: toraind, torniu, torainn, thorni, torainn, toirne, torann, tarann

n o, m. n p. toraind, Ériu ii 112 § 33 . a p. torniu, Ml. 96d5 . Also ā, f. n s. in torainn , Ml. 40d7 . g s. thorni, Ériu ii 100 § 6 . d s. torainn, Corm. Y 1256 . n p. toirne, SR 8038 . torann, tarann [f.], IGT Decl. § 12 (p. 61.10) .

(a) thunder: cid 'mifoilngi t.¤ tren, SR 7933 . ticfat toirne cen tola, 8038 . ba maidm torainn for cech maig, SR 3931 . rí conic trethnu torann, 5254 . buale thiug tuirn tulcid ass `a dense ring of thunder breaks forth from it,' PRIA xix C 540 § 2 . tōn a tonitro .i. ōn torainn bīs innti, Corm. Y 1256 . ised tobchetal nime in torainn, Ml. 40d7 . in toráinn ón, 40d11 . int ainid ┐ in torainn, 96e11 . inna torniu, 5 . ní chúalasa in toraind cen na niulu and cosin-dossa, LU 8584 ( FB 44 ). tanic dorchatu ┐ toirne, PH 6324 . ba tinfisiu thorni collēic, Ériu ii 100 § 6 . amal fhogur torainn, ib. torunn no tene saignen, Laws iv 94.6 Comm. erlim ria toraind no aibeall, 104.8 Comm. dobertis torne ┐ ainbtine isin aer, CCath. 3920 . mar thoraind tricc, TBC-LL¹ 3364 . ceatha is teine is torann, DDána 50.20 . ní torainn tréan acht tóirneach, Dánfhocail 269 . pláigh na péine ifreannda 'na torn teintidhe gan traothadh, TSh. 7846 . teannáil no teine dhiadh an toirn teinntidhe sin, 6700 (but in the two latter exx. perh. read sorn, tsoirn; see sorn).

(b) (loud) noise: canait ... ardcheol n-ailghen amal toruinn ngaeithi, Ériu ii 128.3 . co ndiuchtradar toraind inna ngāeth, 112 § 33. co rīacht a bressim ┐ a torand ac techt sūas co Conall, i 116.z . duni t.¤ mar thoirnig aer, YBL 83b19 . in toirm ┐ in t.¤ , TBC-LL¹ 3307 . roacht in cloch a torand oc teacht sūas, ZCP xiii 176.27 . fa t.¤ mór míchéille, DDána 74.30 .

(c) noise of battle; battle, conflict: maidm toraind toll-chléthi, LU 8708 ( FB 53 ). do-clas tarann ag car chnuais | fa ngabhann gúais agh dá éis, IGT Decl. ex. 599 . do thionnsgann t.¤ na troda amhuil is gnath san uile mhachuire, Rel. Celt. ii 186.36 . tāinic roime i n-a thoraind f[h]ergaig f[h]orrānaigh, ML² 1783 . sgiath thar lorg ón torainn-sin (: comairge), Duan. F. i 88.5 . is edh rothorcuir la Heront aran toruindsin do muindtir diūice na Páni, ZCP vi 42.2 . dochuadur na hAlmainnig eturra ┐ dorugadur in t-imper ōn toruind-sin, 275.2 . ar mbeith coirthi dona Cristaighibh on cathughadh ┐ on torainn sin, ITS xix 78.30 ro léiccsiott na saighdiuiridhe frassa pelér ... go ttorchair Tadhcc ... don torainn sin, AFM vi 1882.14 . nochar th gan toradh, DDána 113.3 . gá dú achd fuair Fathadh Canann | bás ann d'éis a mhórtharann, 64.18 .

Compd. ¤breisim loud noise: do chuaid torrainnbreisim issin naer lá gein in meic, SG 253.25 . ¤brúcht loud noise : rocluinter a torandbrūcht ┐ a breisimnech, Corm. Y 323 (28.1) . ¤chaer explosive missile: occ diubhraccadh a n-ubhaillmheal luaidhe ┐ a ttoranncháor tteintidhe, Hugh Roe 106.9 . torannchless, see separate art. ¤chrith thunderous shaking: fa toirnchrith airm, CRR² 70.2 . ¤mór very noisy : do chaeraibh tromaibh torannmhoraibh teinntidhi, AFM vi 2028.6 .