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áilgine

Cite this: eDIL s.v. áilgine or dil.ie/1011

n , f. (áilgen). āilgena, Ériu ii 172 § 2 . softness, gentleness, mildness: a.¤ amal bróin nailgen sniges hi cnai, Ml. 89c15 . ailgini a dilguda doib som gl. lenitatis suæ, 98d6 . cen ní du ailgini indí, 94c7 . ba súan [┐] álgine arabeitte in mac dédenach, TBFr. 115 . ba hingantach ailgine . . . in croind sin, LB 221b63 . comba leir ruithen greine tre bois G. . . . ara hailghine, RC xlvi 230.36 . āilgine adhbair airdrīgh ina faicsin, ZCP xiv 218.13 . tosach ecnai ālgine, Anecd. iii 16.10 . lucht na censa ┐ na hálgini, LU 2462 . fecais . . . Alaxandar for ailgine imagallma frisna senoiri, BB 496b11 ( IT ii2 102 ). a umla ┐ a ailghine do labhair se, Smaointe B. Chr. 2429 . In sense of compassionate allowance: ag ┐ mucc . . . cenmotha gaire ┐ algine do étiud ┐ biathad, LB 12a23 . In bad sense slackness, softness: comet riagla. Cosc fri hailgine, LB 260b85 .

airtem

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airtem or dil.ie/2422
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: airthema, airthem, airtim, artemu

n o, m. (? cf. Sprache xliv 43 ) (but cf. g s. airthema, LL 12540 ). Also airthem. n p. airtim, Sc.M² 23 . a p. artemu, ZCP xviii 297.7 . Name of a measure of length , (according to glossators the fist with thumb extended): a.¤ .i. feardorn ut est . . . airdide in t-a.¤ uasa .i. in feardorn, O'Dav. 129 . naoi nduirn a fot, a.¤ [a] leithe (of a joint of meat), Laws ii 238.14 ( ZCP xiv 348 ). a.¤ .i. airdiu de indem a eimh fair, in ordu as a chinn suas anairde, 240.1 Comm. ro erigh a lon laoich . . . comba sithremightir airtimh n-óglaigh, TBC St. 2328 (airnem v.l. see note). dodechatar a dí ṡúil asa chind combat sith[ith]ir artemh fria chenn anechtair, TTr.² 1475 . fot n-airthim os chind ind ḟir, RC xxii 398.10 . secht traigid eter a ó ┐ a beolo et .vii. n-artim eter a da ṡúil, Ériu iv 26.9 ( LL 12483 ) = vii n-ardaim, BB 247a45 . secht n-artim fo thrí tadbain / gulban cach óen-eóin angbaid, Metr. Dinds. iii 258.25 . Perh. wrongly in: a cur ar muir . . . ┐ airtim tri ndornn ina laim do dichur aithite in aedhair, O'Curry 2250 ( Eg. 88, 18(19)b ) = geann orda tri ndornn, Ériu xi 98.22 . in biail innraic, a.¤ fod a genned, 884 ( H 3.18, 395b ). Note also: ro buí airther láime din claideb tri trúaill anechtair, in t-arther láimi sin . . . (airth—, arth—, MS), BDD² 1004 (ed. suggests reading airtem).

1 amlaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 amlaid or dil.ie/3145

later form of 1 samlaid.

(a) Frequently replacing O. Ir. amail with demonstr. (cf. O. Ir. amail ṡodain s.v. 1 suide, amal sin, PH 116 ), giving adv. phrase a.¤ sin, a.¤ so thus, so (both words being stressed in syll. verse: coimhéadaidh Aodh amhlaidh sain: Murbhaigh, DDána 75.6 ). The meaning varies between the literal in that (this) way and the more general thus, so, accordingly, then: blíadain don chúiciud a.¤ sin, MU² 29 . do rad min aire is amlaich sin cech día `so every day', Mon. Tall. 147.11 (§ 52) (is a.¤ perh. for samlaid, cf. cach [la] gabal tra issuidiu araile hisesam is a.¤ canitir in pater gebesim i forciund cacha gabala, 140.4 ). co rochet . . . a.¤ sin tarsin nglend, LU 2154 ( FA 22 ) (amal sin, v.l., IT i 185.20 ). ni a.¤ sin ba-sa, TBC-LL¹ 49 . roḟata atám a.¤ -seo, 3549 . conid a.¤ sin fuair bas, RC xxiv 186.8 . mar theid . . . is amlaidh sin docuaid E., Stair Erc. 497 . an amhluidh sin remain in that posture, Parrth. Anma 4425 . in tan tra batar a n-oen inad a.¤ -sin, PH 15 . is ecen co n-icthar cech ní . . . a.¤ -so, 7538 . go ngialldaois dó amhlaidh sin, TSh. 3074 . In greeting: a.¤ sin a Mess Gegra, ar Conall. ató sund ar M., LL 13503 . a.¤ sin, ol in gilla. Is a.¤ eigin, ol si, RC xxiv 196.23 .

(b) Replacing O. Ir. samlaid thus, so: duine do thenid 's do thalmain / fuine deighḟir a.¤ hī, ACL iii 242 § 7 . dogentar a.¤ `so shall it be done', RC xxiv 200.23 . sechtmain . . . bói a.¤ , Arch. Hib. ii 70 § 7 . do marbhadh meisi led mharbhnaidh / marbhnadh deisi amhlaidh í, IGT Decl. ex. 582 . ionmhuin le Dia í amhlaidh, DDána 99.23 . Brought forward with copula: meise is amhlaidh do hionnarbadh, Dán Dé xvi 2 . an corp ní hamhlaidh do b'áil, xxiii 7 . amhlaidh budh fhearr gach itche, iv 28 . ní amlaidh do rála dhó `it did not so turn out for him', TFrag. 242.1 . Note also: amhail na eirghedh C. air, as amhlaidh ro eirghe M. . . . dó as C. would not rise against him, therefore, TFrag. 242.3 .

Hence as quasi-adj.: cian ó bhaois airrdhe amhlaidh such a sign, DDána 99.39 . díoth amhlaidh `many a like destruction', TD 18.29 .

With follg. explanatory clause: is a.¤ domel C. a ḟlaith: a trian ind lāi oc dēcsain na macraidi etc. this is how etc., TBC-I¹ 369 ( LU 4858 ). is a.¤ ro buí side Cú Ch. rotan-ail, MU² 166 . is a.¤ táncatar, cach briugu cona bantuilg etc., 195 . is a.¤ tra canithsom na salmu. Randaich (leg. rannaid, Ed.) cach caocad hi cethair `he sings the psalms as follows,' Mon. Tall. 139.9 . a.¤ itá in rí go rath / gan deiredh is gan tosach, ZCP viii 114.4 .

With .i.: is a.¤ dognithe in tarbfes sin .i. tarb find do marbad . . ., LU 3450 ( SCC 23 ). is a.¤ so tra ro-foired . . . .i. téidm ┐ plaig . . ., PH 371 . is amlaidh ro buí C. .i. fodhmoir romor, Stair Erc. 762 .

With OCUS: is a.¤ dognítis sin ┐ a claidib fora slíastaib this is how they did that, with their swords etc., LU 3234 (sic MS. SCC 2 ). is a.¤ buí Cú Ch. ┐ comfhled mór ace, MU² 41 . is amlaidh do roine si in samugad sin . . . ┐ di cairigh a coraid ina laim, Laws iv 10.4 Comm. is amlaidh iarum ro geanair in mac sin ┐ duirb cecha lamha dó thus the boy was born, with a worm in each of his hands, RC vi 177.107 .

With CO N-: is a.¤ bui in chaillech comba duibithir gual cech n-alt . . ., RC xxiv 196.15 . amhlaidh chreidim . . . go dtibhre, Dán Dé xvi 6 . is amhloidh forcaomhnagair go ro taissealbadh, Fl. Earls 194.5 .

Occasionally indicating simultaneous action: is amlaidh adubhairt ┐ ro thogaib in libher `as he spoke he raised his club', Stair Erc. 806 . is amlaidh adubhairt ┐ tug ola neime di `as he said this he gave her a poisonous oil', 2286 . is amhlaidh adubhairt [┐ ?] tuc béim cloidhimh dh'A., SG 66.22 .

With virtual loss of meaning of a.¤ (as in spoken lang. Perh. also under some of preceding headings): ní fhuil cruth a mbearar ar .sh. nach amhlaidh as cóir úaim ria, IGT Introd. § 13 . is a.¤ tōgaibhthe do na nāimhdip bean uassal, Fl. Earls 48.16 . is amlaidh ro bui in cathair sin . . . a nglinn `and that city was in a valley', Stair Erc. 772 .

Wrongly for amail: a coibne coir comarda .i. amlaidh ro coibindtigedh etc., Laws iv 40.2 (text and Comm.).

báe, bá(a)

Cite this: eDIL s.v. báe, bá(a) or dil.ie/5125
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: bái

n io n.? (báe nde, Celtica xviii 42 § 8 ). Freq. in negative constructions and perh. originally meaning something, anything (of consequence, value, etc.) (cf. 1 ní (d)), the meaning profit , etc. being an extension. something advantageous ; benefit, utility, profit : bá .i. tarba, ut est ni beir in ben ba on fir dinnab cethraib .i. nocha mbeirinn in ben tarba on fir . . . ┐ ni toighlen ba don iarraid .i. tarba, O'Dav. 279. Cf. Laws ii 164.8 Comm. esbae . . . nī ba ní etir, quasi es-baa, Corm. Y 517. ba .i. maith, O'Cl. scel n-amhra . . . cen baa di goi `without a trace of a lie', Blathm. 102 § 37. ni torbe do bóu gl. ad nihil [enim] utile est, Wb. 30b6 . ní cumgat góa baa i cathroí anything at all, ZCP xi 83 § 30. ní roichim baa (.i. díghaltus nó cathugadh) fort I cannot gain by thee, v 524.18 . ní taurga ndam báa nde no good will come to me from it, Anecd. i 42.3 . nocho taircci baa dam, ii 9 § 13 . lanamnas eicne no sleithe: ni techtat ba acht comperta, Stud. in E. Ir. Law 71 § 35 ( Laws ii 404.14 ). a ba (.i. a maith), Laws i 50.13 Comm. bái nad ba an advantage that does not die (?), Metr. Dinds. ii 32.91 . béd combá glossed: gníomh co maith, Leb. Gab.(i) 48.10 . Eochu Bai bladach ba ba, Rawl. 148a2 . líag uachtair ba ba, LL 29008. b.¤ ferainn landed property: a mbai ferainn ┐ a cain ┐ a cablach their profit from land, LL 389a20 . cech cáin ┐ cech bai f[er]uinn (sic leg.), 23 .

In phrases. attá b.¤ do x de y y is advantageous to x: ní baí báa di (leg. do) sodain de sin, LU 6947 (BDD). bāi baa dō-sam de, O'Mulc. 726. ni roibe ba de sodain do L., IT i 272.25 ( FB 38 Eg.). cia rofessair h'athair ni fuil bá duit de, RC ix 456.19 . briathra banda sain arse ni ḟuil baa díb, LL 32733 ( TTr. 1942 ). ní bhaoí bá do sodhain, AFM vi 1900.3 . Cf. ni marat, ni fil a mbá, RC xxiii 304 § 2 (translated `there is not what has died'). ni bæ son it does not matter, Vita Br. 24.28 . ni baa aní sin, LU 4541 (TBC). ní bá sin or Cu C., 5723 . Cf. ní dénaimsea baa de sin I make light of that, 4849 = ní denam robríg de, TBC-LL¹ 859. nirbo baa dosom ón that was of no avail (of an injunction), LL 37040. hore nárbu bae la ludeu creitem did not want to believe, Wb. 5b12 . nirbo bá leiss sárgud meic sethar a athar he preferred not to, LL 32562 ( TTr. 1763 ).

Predic. and attrib. g s. ní bái lib manducare dominicam cenam `ye deem it not profitable', Wb. 11d4 . nī būi dō, Bruchst. 41 § 4 ( ni baoí ní dó, TFrag., 62.3 ). ? Dauid co triath[aib] darb' bai, SR 6353 (: na huamai). fó lóe in bruit bái of the good cloak, Thr. Ir. Gl. 20 s.v. fola brith. do sluagaibh in betha baoí (: mnaí), TBC St. 3748. ni bethu ba, LL 15775.

Compd. ? ¤ḟis. In pseudo-etym. gloss: corus bescna .i. coir seis, seis choir in bafesa gnae no aibind `the true rule of the pleasant or delightful knowledge', Laws iii 2.5 Comm.

bailiud

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bailiud or dil.ie/50059
Last Revised: 2019

n (2 baile) confusion, madness; becoming mad : ro bui in bioth i mbailiuth mani astaitis cuir(e) bel, Laws i 40.24 . astad caich . . . argair bailiuth in betha, Laws i 50.30 = bailidiu, Laws iii 14.3 . bith-builed betha iar mbas .i. nis cian rombatar a ngente (? na gente) i mbailiud ainfesa esergi iar mbas, O'Curry 477 ( H 3.18, 249 ). comba mesc . . . . Dolluid iarum for bailegud meraigthi, LL 22214 (= for builiugud a mescdha, BB 388b4 . bailiudh, Dinds. 75 ). Cf. bailiugad.

bél

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bél or dil.ie/5607
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: beoil, beóil, beolu, beula, beulu, belu, bélib, i mbeolu

n o, m. g s. beoil, Sg. 14a16 . n p. beóil, Wb. 7d9 . a p. beolu, Wb. 3b11 , beula (gl. ora), Ml. 19c9 . beulu, 35d22 . belu, Thes. ii 251. 16 . d p. bélib, Wb. 7d10 . b.¤ m., IGT Decl. § 61.

I

(a) In some exx. explicitly lip , in pl. lips, but here usually mouth: don b.¤ gl. labio, Ir. Gl. 107. Gild. Lor. 139 § 40. tri beulu dlútai gl. fixis labris (17), Sg. 6a18 . ni radi ní trí thalmaidchi, amal dundchuirethar inna beulu as it rises to his lips (`as he takes it into his lips'), Ml. 35d22 . anasberaid hó bélib `what ye utter with (your) lips', Wb. 7d10 . anasbérat mo beiúil, 12d12 . (of a hag) tacmaicced a b.¤ íchtarach coa glún, LU 6828 (BDD). i socraidi labrait biuil (: Iúil), 3875 ( SCC 38 ). niamdai a beóil partardeirg (partuingdeirg, v.l.) her crimson lips, IT i 69.8 . ( LMU 4 ). co ṅditned a srona ┐ a beolu `so that it protected his nostrils and his lips' (but perh. transl. nose . . . mouth), CCath. 5265. folcuit a n-aighti uile lena mbélaib úachtair upper lips, Maund. 176. beoil lethna thick lips, Marco P. 187. cúiseach bind asa bēalaibh `sweet piping from her lips', Ériu iv 174.15 . maille siabhradh beóil ( = labium . . . pervertatur), 23 K 42 , 54.14 . do scoltad an croimbeoil ┐ in béil iocht[a]ir of chapping of the upper and lower lip, O'Gr. Cat. 191.z . baile .i. maith . . . digbail dubha baile bel .i. is maith í o belaib no i mbel `from lips or in mouth', O'Dav. 224. (in application of an incantation) imbir in da mér . . . it bélaib, Thes. ii 249.11 . doberar in salann i mbelu `the salt is put into the mouth', 251.16 . asoilgg a bēolu . . . combo ecna a [g]inchrāes, TBC-I¹ 396. (of a witch) a beóil for leith a cind her mouth in the side of her head, BDD² 540 . gebid dano cenn in tarra ina béolu, Sc.M² 17.6 . do-lleblaing int éicne ara chend, ┐ gabsus inna béulu took it in its mouth, TBFr. 209. an tan immoro no berid an leg laun ina beolu `when he used to put the ladle full into his mouth', RC xii 86 § 91. nicon acca beolu eich / amal beolu ín liathainigh, IT iii 68.2 . inbat budig do bēoil do shainól ┐ do shainait, MacCongl. 77.4 . secht traigid eter a ó ┐ a beolo . . . ┐ secht n-artim inna bélaib, Ériu iv 26.9 , 10 . acht nad neibre dod belaib nama `although thou hast not said so by word of mouth', Laws iv 108.1 Comm. cuit mo b.¤ (term of endearment), LL 18576.

(b) mouth in sg.: sróin súil b.¤ , Ardm. 434a marg. (220va). i cinaid do laime, do sula, do thengad, do beil, Laws i 156.32 . issin ṁb. tacras sin in the mouth that asserts that, MU² 369. laech . . . belmar . . ., meit a beil beolu eich, TBC-LL¹ 5400 n.4 . fuil rochuiread tara bel ┐ dara sroin, TTebe 2414 . beiris i n-a bheōl . . . ar lampa airgit seized a silver lamp in its mouth, Fl. Earls 138.1 . Note also: na beula gl. ora, the mouths (?), Ml. 19c9 . Fig. gá tarbha an béal do bheith lais / 's an intinn in-a éagmhais, Dán Dé xxii 20 . an b.¤ dúnta as eadh budh ḟearr better be silent, IGT Decl. ex. 1285. Prov. is binn beál ó bheith iadhta, Dánfhocail 55 . By metonymy person : cerd cach ṁb. .i. eladu cech duni do ḟoglaim ar dáig forcitail caich (`art for every mouth', RC xxvi 22 § 62 ), LL 24410. crochadh ar bh.¤ na bréige! `perdition (lit. a hanging) to him who tells the lie' (Gloss.), LBranach 1072 . b.¤ na psalm (nickname of St. Fintan), Mart. Don. Mar. 27. Grigoir Béil óir `Gregory the golden-mouthed', BNnÉ 172 § 16 .

(c) In phrases: derg-mír i mbélaib lit. red (raw) morsel in (the) mouth apparently of property illegally acquired or attached: atait tri deirg-mireanda naidet usa a mbelaib cacha hecalsa (glossed: is indligthech do'n eclais a ngabail cuichi o belaib, 432.3 Comm. ), Laws v 430.22. at-ballat, ¤bailet (a) béoil with poss. or foll. subj. gen., see at-bail(l): co n-aplat a beoil i mmbron (leg. mbrōn ?) ┐ toirrsi `they perish', Ériu ii 114 § 38. Note also: bás fort béolu, Fing. R. 72 `death on your head!' RC xiii 378.11 .

(d) Of the mouth as the source of speech: iss ed bói i mbēlaib cáich this was the common talk, ZCP viii 317.26 . go rabhadar na lán béil ┐ buanteanga ag gach aon that they were a continual subject of conversation to everyone, RC xiv 28 § 6. lán beóil don ríoghfhuil Bhranoigh, LBranach 3581 . budh lán beoil an Brianachsoin, Studies 1925, 253 § 6 .

By extension word(s) ; subject of talk : fer na ropeccaig o bel na o gnim `in word or deed', Ériu v 20.2 . idna beoil integrity of speech, LL 3901. roiarfaided o Fiachroig Muillethan . . . dia belaib his advice was asked by F., ZCP xiv 156.14 . gurab mó do theagascdaois . . . ó theagasc beoil ioná ó scríbhinn by traditional instruction, Keat. ii 976. (explanation of the name of Eogan B.) b.¤ cach tuaithi ina thimchell `the mouth [i.e. the acclamation] of every country round about', SG 64.z . b.¤ cach flatha ina lenub / ar ó Fiachrach foltlebur, 65.2 . In phr. breth a b.¤ féin self-judgment, -doom: atetha breth do b.¤ (sic leg.) féin duit, RC xiv 430.8 . co tucsat Gaill breth a beoil fein d'O Neill, AU ii 270.8 . In adv. phrase ó óen-b.¤ unanimously: o aen bel, PH 7233. dh'aoinbheul, Luc. Fid. 2856. Legal. cor b.¤ , see 1 cor 12.

II Applied to various things resembling lips or mouth .

(a) edge, rim ; mouth of cavity, orifice, opening : b.¤ gaili, a mbél an gaile ( = orificium stomachi), RSláinte 3698. do fínégra ar b.¤ an gaile `on the pit of the stomach', O'Gr. Cat. 193.25 . b.¤ cridi (used as term of endearment): a bél mo chraidi, ACL iii 243 § 24. edge, opening of wounds: bador beoil na ccneth ag claoi a cheile, ZCP x 292.9 . a lomma cro ic teprisin dar belaib na n-alad batar fair, Grail 685 . rucc b.¤ na cneidhe chum a chéile ┐ ticc sele fuirre, ITS xvi 42.13 . Other applications: co fil āit a beōil isin c[h]loich fóss ann `the mark of its rim (i.e. of a bell) is still there in the stone', BColm. 64.9 . sileadh deór rúadh ar ruisgne / mur uisge a beól (mbéol v.l.) úar eisci like water out of a vessel (?), IGT Decl. ex. 1081. mé is b.¤ na cróine ar mo chind, ex. 81 . lase foruillecta beóil in chalich di mil, Wb. 7d9 . īadais indala sūil . . . asoilg alaile comba mor bēolu fidchōich as large as the orifice of a wooden bowl (?), TBC-I¹ 395. b.¤ dabcha ele 'na b.-si anúas (of one vat turned over another), BColm. 72.6 . (of a bag for chess-men) a ferbolc, is amra sceúil / de ór imdernta a beúil opening (`rim'), Fianaig. 14.22 . go bhfuilti claoidthe . . . a mbeul an tsaic (of opponents silenced in controversy), Luc. Fid. 4127. béil a ngunnadh `the muzzles of their guns', Rel. Celt. ii 194.11 . (of prongs of pincers) do briseadh teanncuir an ghobhann, ┐ an t-īarann dearg 'na beal `with the red-hot iron in its jaws', ZCP ii 562.30 . beola crot ┐ bolg ┐ buinne `mouths of harps and bags and pipes', RC xii 108 § 163. the eye of the upper millstone (Studies on Early Ireland 16 ) : iss e sin doberimsi a mbel in muilinn si, RC xiv 52 § 62. upper of shoe: bróg tar teach do teilgeadh leam . . . nar bhean tall a b.¤ fa a bonn `a shoe whose upper was detached from its sole was thrown at me' (Notes), Bard. Synt. Tr. 2.z.

(b) Further extended applications: mén mara .i. bel na mara, O'Cl. ( mēn .i. bēl, Corm. Y 948 ). fri beolu mara, Trip.² 1581 ( = in sinu maris, Lat. Lives 33 § 25 ). dá thraigid .x. lethet a b.¤ the width of its opening (an earthwork), Críth G. 571. (of Tara) deis fri Banba, b.¤ fri Bóin `her front towards the Boyne', Ériu iv 92 § 3. tir cen beula without entry, Corm. Y 674 ( Corm. 22 ). tir cin toin cin beolu bis itir da ferunn cin conair `ingress', Laws iv 158.14 Comm. cuiris comla dar a b.¤ (a well), Metr. Dinds. iii 326.19 . triall istech tar beolu na hecuilsi `threshold of the church', Marco P. 173. léigthear suas beoil na bruighne `portcullis', Aithd. D. 3.19 . siar go b.¤ na sráide `the entrance of the street', AFM ii 900.2. Of gunwale of a ship: chuir iad am beòil mhòr re chèile, SGS xviii 107.1 .

III In phrases with prepp.

(a) prepositional. With A: crithre sin a beól (mb. v.l.) bhruithne sparks from boiling heat (?), IGT Decl. ex. 1296.

With AR (FOR): huare romboi ar belaib tempuil `in front of the Temple', Ml. 48d8 . ar beolu diabuil `before the Devil', Wb. 3b11 . gontai Cūchulaind, co tabrad a marb ara (ar, LU) bēolu a brāthar, TBC-I¹ 1637. ar belaib ind ríg ( = in conspectu regis), Lat. Lives 10.8 . arbelaib (.i. a fiadnaise) fer nErenn, ACL iii 14 § 31. finta cia as toisech fodla ┐ ar a ndentar bélaib `before whom it is made', RC xiii 446 § 26. cathair . . . for bel ḟasaigh dhimhoir `at the edge of a great desert', Marco P. 20. dán bog ar bh.¤ na slighiodh `on the open road', Studies 1918, 617 § 5 .

Freq. of replacing in kingship, headship, etc. one who had the normal claim, before, in preference to, in place of : rogab F. righe ara belaib, RC xvii 233.32 (Tig.). gabais C. flaith ar belaib a athar, Ériu iii 142.4 . an crioch do ghabail for a belaibh `to snatch . . . the country away from him', Leb. Gab.(i) 226.5 . mar tugadh ceannas na slógh / ar bhéal Éibhir d'Éireamhón `to Ê. rather than to Ê.', Content. xvi 33. With verbs of coming, etc. do-tét indḟine ar beolu de(i)rbḟine `the ` indḟine' comes in front of (i.e. is preferred to) the `derbḟine', Ériu xvii 64 § 3 ( Laws iv 206.7 ). D. . . . do beith ag dol ar bélaibh a athar `attempted to depose', AFM vi 1891.1 . an tánaiste do theacht ar beulaibh mic tighearna an fhuinn `that the tanist takes precedence of', Keat. i 66.6 . dul fora mbelaibhsiomh `to anticipate them', Hugh Roe² 172.2 .

With FRI (RE) before, at, close to; on the point of : fri beolu báis on the point of death, Fél. 74.19 . cen bith ria mbeolu oc airiuc thuili dóib not to be close to them, Fing. R. 432. ag so anois an bás rem bhéal close to me, Dánta Gr. 63.15 . re béal a theachta don toigh `before its reception' (of the Blessed Eucharist), Dán Dé xviii 2 . cosg fiabhrasa re b.¤ mbáis, Studies 1919, 613 § 12 .

With I N- i mbeolu, i mbeól, i mb.¤ before : in bo boi 'na beola sin `that was in front of her', Dinds. 142.10 . a mbeol an dunaidh `in front of the fort', BNnÉ 187 § 27 . do-chífe bárc a mbeól chúain `in the harbour's mouth', Ériu ix 168 § 46. towards, to : do-bhir im béal teachtaire `He sends a messenger to fetch me', Aithd. D. 83.3 . sgath dealg 'na beol muna bheath `had not the thorn-points been in the way', 95.20 . over, across : seolais iarsin Brenainn . . . i mbéolu (a mbhél, v.l. , = for beluibh, Lism. L. 3590 ) in aiccéin iongantaigh, BNnÉ 97 § 5. Note also: ro herbad da oclach lais da chur i mbeolu na tuinne to cast it (an infant) upon the sea (?), LL 14623 ( ZCP xii 273.17 ). do chur a mb.¤ mara ┐ mor-fhairrge set adrift on the open sea, KMMisc. 313.13 . a mbēl na h-oibre at the beginning, ML² 1.15 . i mbeol airechtais at the very beginning of sovereignty (?), Ann. Conn. 1410.2 . ni ḟuil amuigh gidh seól síth / crích nach fuil a mbeól a bláith, IGT Decl. ex. 992 . i mbéal a tharbha do thoigheacht, Aithd. D. 25.4 .

With TAR: tar béolu out of : adre amach dar beolu in duin, Marco P. 23.

(b) Adverbial. With FOR (always with possessive) on the face, face downwards : for a mbeulu gl. prone, Ml. 131b6 . tairniud form béolu bend face downwards, LL 36766 = Goid. 180.10 = Fél.² cv 8. an corp bis ina rogad ar in talmain for a beolu, RC xv 491 § 31. tolduid iarum taurtaim fair fora beolu `a trance fell upon him, as he lay on his face', Mon. Tall. 155.15 . (of a collapsing house) amal ro clóenad a thech conda tarla for a lethbeólu uli, LU 8382 ( FB 25 ). (of a cup) rohimpa iarum Patraic in copan fora beolu upside down (?), Anecd. iii 35.9 . b.¤ ar b.¤ , ó bé(o)l go b.¤ face to face : truagh gan sinne bel ar bel, TTebe xv 7 (scribe's note). (of a bird-decoration) ealta 's a mbeoil béal ar bhéal, Aithd. D. 9.7 . ag labhairt libh beul ar bheul (os ad os, 3 Joh. 14 ), Eochairsg. 15.30 . go labradh se riss ó b.¤ go b.¤ `face to face', ZCP xi 118.2 ( BCC 236 ). meic ollamhan Innsi Fáil / . . . / god choimhreic ó bheól go b.¤ `repeating thee from mouth to mouth' (i.e. the contents of a manuscript Gaelic Miscellany), Studies 1919, 440 § 12 . adeirid o bheol go beul they say so currently, Luc. Fid. 4088.

With IAR N- iar mbélaib (contrasted with iar cúlaib): i ngilfine iar mbelaib, amuil atá athair ┐ mac ┐ ua ┐ iarmua ┐ innua co cuicer; ┐ geilfini iar culaib .i. brathair thathar, ┐ mac co cuicer beos `in the direct line', Laws ii 160.z Comm.

(c) In fig. phrase do-ní a b.¤ re turns to, seeks help from : do-ghén . . . mo bh.¤ ré seabhcaibh Saxan `I will turn my face to', Studies 1924, 242 § 11 .

Note also: muna thí dhíom bas rem béal unless I can keep a guard on my lips, Dán Dé ix 4 . a-tá 'gan chol bas rem béal `raises its hand against me', xxiii 31 . In nn. loc. see Hog. Onom.

Compds. With nouns. ¤braise: feib atféd mo bhélbraisi `eloquence', Leb. Cert.² 164 § 9. ¤deirge: beildeirge redness of lips, Prolegomena 43 § 26 . ¤étan: (of a charioteer) dara béletan mouth and forehead (?), LL 24905. ¤mod manner of speaking (?): caistidh ria bēlmod, ACL iii 307 § 28 ( Measgra Uí Chl. 153 ). ¤proicept traditional teaching, tradition : bēalphroceapta nó teagusg bheōil na n-absttal, Mac Aingil 5949 . béulphroicheapta asbaltha ┐ eagalsa, Desid. 4942. With vnn. ¤chengal: ar mbélcengal a mbeochréchtadh when their fresh wounds had been sewn up, Caithr. Thoirdh. 124.7 . ¤tuidme: fiacuil .i. fia figo . . . fiacuil didiu bēl-t. fastening for the mouth, O'Mulc. 507.

With adjj. ¤balb: do piastaibh bel-balba `dumb-mouthed', Ériu iii 164 § 20. ¤binn: longphort . . . bíthe bēilbhinn melodious (?), Butler Poems 556 and n. ¤blasta of excellent sound : (of `Gaedelg,' the language) in berla b.¤ bind, LL 17716. B. blaith belblasta well-spoken (of a hand-maid), BB 237a2 . ¤buide yellow-lipped : (of a famine-stricken appearance) ina n-ímágib b.¤ nochtḟiaclacha, LB 154b61 . In n. pr.: Eochaid Bēlbuidi, ZCP viii 274.1 . ¤chamm crooked-mouthed : la hUnchi mbrúachda mb.¤(-mall, v.l.), Metr. Dinds. iii 98.6 . ¤cherr: in senBodb Barchi b.¤ `wry-mouthed', Metr. Dinds. iv 338.20 . ¤chert: mo dhaltán búilid béilchert `right-spoken', SG 190.7 . ¤chorcra crimson, red-lipped : belchorcra banamla detgela, TTebe 730 . ¤chráibhthech hypocritical : Content. vi 270. ¤chumang narrow-mouthed, having a narrow opening, entry : a crocan (leg. corcán ?) belchumang narrow-necked, Lia Fáil iii 122.20 ( 23 P 10 ³, 11b7 ). ar na bernadhaibh bélchumhgaibh, AFM v 164.22 . ¤derg red-lipped, red-mouthed (in good and bad sense): buriud berna Baidbi béldergi, LL 10872 ( = TBC-LL¹ 4024 ). na brithemain bēilderga `red-mouthed brehons' ( = severe in judgement ?), Ériu iii 30 § 7. cáinead in barrchais béilderg `the curly-headed red-lipped fellow', iv 216.20 . F. file m. Oengusa Bēlde[i]rg, ZCP viii 326.1 . ¤dub black-mouthed : comairge b.¤ becenech `a black-mouthed guarantor of small honour', Tec. Corm. § 33.2 . a curaig blaithe belduba `black-prowed', Ériu viii 10.36 . sgéala libh go báirc mbéalduibh `tidings to your black-decked barque', RC xlix 173 § 32. ¤ḟairsi(u)ng wide-mouthed, having a wide entrance : .l. bléide buabaill belḟairsiuṅg, LL 7292. ro cóirged bruidin brotla bélfairsing `wide-doored', Fianaig. 70.31 . ¤ḟota long-lipped : D. b.¤ , LL 354c64 . a mbíala belfhoda `wide-edged', Hugh Roe² 174.24 . ¤ginach: na trī badhbha bēl-ginacha three witches with gaping mouths, ML² 1585. ¤glicc: mo bhreath bheilghlic gan bhine `my skilled oral judgement', Keat. ii 1287. ¤lethan broad-doored : ós bruidin béllethoin, SG 230.24 . ¤lúath hasty of speech : 'ná bheith baoth beul-luath aig teagasg cách, De Imit. 13.24 . ¤maith: C. b.¤ `C. Fair-lips', Metr. Dinds. iii 324.11 . ¤mall slow of speech : la hU. mbruachdha mbelmhall, BB 365b37 . ¤remor thick-lipped, big-mouthed : belremur bolcsuilech, LU 8516 ( FB 37 ). badhbh béil-reamhar, TSh. 6623. ¤ṡalach foul-mouthed : Badb birach belsalach, RC xxiv 52.1 . ¤scaílte wide open; split open ; scattered : i mbrudin bronnḟarsing bélscailti, RC xiv 414 § 28. ina mbuidhnib bega bélsgāilte, Fianaig. 54.4 . (of a cast-up ship) go ndéantar blogha béal-sgaoilte dhi, TSh. 735. ¤tais with soft, moist lips : an chuideachta chuanna bhuadhach bheóltais (of fair women), Hackett xxvi 57 . ¤tana: go mbiailibh blathsnaoighte b.¤ `thin-edged battle-axes', AFM vi 2126.25 . ¤tirim: bérla breganta beoiltirm (spoken) with a dry mouth, O'Gr. Cat. 518.30. ¤trúag: na bid fri baisi ṁbeltrúaig poor-mouthed (?), SR 3890.

See béillic, bélaites, bélscál, bélscálán, bélscáth.

buiderad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. buiderad or dil.ie/7363

n (1 buide): crem . . . ┐ sobairche ┐ buiderath `golden fern ', RC x 220 § 10 ` buttercups ', Contribb. 288. comba samalta . . . ra b.¤ ris taitni grian (of hair), LL 13918. Cf. buideréid s. 1 buide compds. ?

céir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. céir or dil.ie/8485
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: céra, cíara, ciarach, chéir

n (Lat. cera? See Éigse xxxiii 71-74 . Cf. 1 cíar) f., IGT Decl. § 42 . g s. ¤e, céra, cíara, ciarach wax (somet. also of other malleable substances): cēir a cera , Corm. Y 254 . cera .i. ceir, ACL i 332.51 . haec cera c.¤ , Ir. Gl. 225 . iar n-aisṅdis dun cér (rectius chéir, edd.) `after speaking of the wax', Ml. 76b7 . cian ┐ ceir ┐ uull ┐ aball, Auraic. 982 . dia nderna donchríaid ch.¤ / comba rosc roglan roréil plaster(?) ( John ix 6 , 15), SR 7683 . ola ┐ cheir fo chomlés (of tapers), 4370 . ceir do legad na cluasaib, LL 198 . mac na cerda cosin c.¤ `let the potter's son take to the clay', Ériu ix 49.6 v.l. ( LL 18785 ). do pic ┐ do geir[id] ┐ do c.¤ , CCath. 2144 . tapar cíara i n-a c[h]luasaib, Anecd. iii 1.18 . acht da nubhall chiara `two balls of wax', BNnÉ 92.25 . c.¤ ag tál le slatchoill slimfheoighe sap(?), DDána 83.17 . baladh céire, IGT Decl. ex. 1206 . mar táithtir truaill cuilg re c.¤ as sword scabbard is welded with wax, DDána 119.35 . bít ag imchar chéri as chopán, IGT Decl. ex. 101 . a comdhathadh do chíaraigh, 1175 . lasuidh c.¤ ghorm `a blue taper gives light' (notes), O'R. Poems 2543 . scribenn i ceir `writing in wax', Lism. L. 4050 . amail ciaro (sic) tré línanairte sicut cera per pannum (gloss.), Aisl. Tond. iv § 2 . imdēnomh cíera `a coating of wax', Fl. Earls 50.17 . ris an cciaraigh mbuig, Desid. 2590 . coinle ceire ┐ geire, Luc. Fid. 3252 . For phr. cúach cera (céra?) see 1 cir.

cloth

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cloth or dil.ie/9602

Forms: clotha, clotha, cluith

n o, [n., Meyer Contribb.] n s. clóth nell, IT i 78.13 ( LMU 17 ). n pl. clotha, LL 20494 . a pl. clotha, Ml. 129a13 . ZCP xi 86 § 43 . Anecd. iii 11.11 . BB 299a24 . ? Also: n pl. cluith, ZCP x 53.25 . Blathm. 993 (cloth, MS.: ¤croich). Usu. pl., esp. in early texts.

(a) report, rumour, tidings : airisen oll a clotha / tomaidm lond Locha hEirne, BB 37b29 . topur . . . / feib arslunnet a clotha / ar a (for asa) mbruinnet .uii. primṡrotha, LL 20494 . In pejorative sense: clotha gl. (manet aduersus omnes) rumores (interritus), Ml. 129a13 .

(b) fame, reputation : ní ria clotha ar bíad [ar is ferr dín c.¤ oldás dīn bíd], ZCP xi 86 § 43 . c.¤ glangel, Thes. ii 353.7 (Hy. vi). comba luiet mo gnima eter clothaib neirt n-erred, LU 10272 . for réli do chluith / biat forscailtech raith, LL 18547 (perh. in meaning (c)). ni bia ainech . . . na c.¤ ac neoch contuasi ri drochmná, 345a4 . Crīst na c.¤ , BColm. 100.18 . c.¤ co mbúadhuibh, ZCP viii 197 § 13 . mac flatha dorat cul fri clotha, BB 299a24 . cen chlotha do chāemrannad `his fame was unshared', Ériu xvii 48 § 52 (? without attaining to his fair share of fame) see note. ferrdi c.¤ cuimhniughadh, MR 158.x . an ben robe ferr clu ┐ c.¤ , Ann. Conn. 1403.6 .

famous (perh. an old part. but g pl. acc. to Contribb. 393n. ): rop cathāer c.¤ Connacht do chrīch, Corp. Gen. 317.y (line hypermetric). ? dígrais c.¤ `excellent the fame', Thes. ii 344.3 (Hy. v) (.i. clothach in gnim). Cōemgen c.¤ , 331.4 (Hy. v) (.i. clothach .i. airdirc). medhamhain c.¤ , Ériu xiii 24.2 . Hence: c.¤ .i. oirrdric, Stowe Gl. 260 . ? arad c.¤ caín in réim riadait bí (.i. ut dicitur i nImacallaim in da Túarad .i. altram c.¤ .i. foglaim ecse. cluith do thur .i. intí ica mbí a enech do thúr), LU 358 . Cf. árad clod .i. enech, RC xx 44.24 (ACC) (`ladder of hospitalities', Stokes).

Hence (c) generosity : do-llēce dochell do chlothaib, ZCP xi 96 § 54 f. cluith do thúr .i. in lucht in mbí enech do thúr, LL 24406 .

? seissiur for coe, caemthuit cluidh `scholars of renown', Auraic. 2233 . ifirt cloidimh c.¤ cen ḟaighdhe (immirt cloidib clud faigdi, v.l.), IT iii 14 § 29 . bat finna ic tocht issin loch / corcra co c.¤ ciṅgtís uad, LL 28310 (perh. for ro cloth) (`famously', Metr. Dinds. iii 328.56 ).

Compds.

(a) With nouns usu. in meaning famous . tri athchomairc cech doruis, / . . . / fri cach clothalt (1 alt), SR 463 . fo chéimim chlothalt, LL 769 . Mo Chua . . . clothbarr, Gorm. June 4 (-bair, MS). Cr[ist] cain ar clothbile, IT iii 56 § 105 . ina c[h]lothbili chongbāla catha, Fianaig. 86.7 . at clúm claisse co clothblad, LL 2566 (to Emain Macha). Clothchu, epscop . . . Cluana Ioraird, AFM i 398.10 . clothdelgg n-unga[e] `precious brooch' (Gloss.), Críth G. 346 . Concobair . . . / clothrig clothEmnae, Ériu viii 172.22 (rhet.). cloitherr, Leb. Gab.(i) 108.8 . athesc clothḟir, LL 20724 . cloithghein, BB 37b7 . clothgnima C., MR 150.23 . for Coin Culaind for clothmaccaem Croebruade, LL 12567 . os cach clothmaig, SR 7031 . Cloithnia, comharba Ailbhe, AFM ii 852.20 . macc do Chairind cloth-Níall `famed Niall', Ériu iv 92 § 6 . clothond oc buaid (.i. robo ail [i cath] he oc breith buada do cach no clothond .i. cloch cloithi), LU 922 ( ACC 77 ). do clothand chineoil Fheargna, Hard. ii 288.z (cloth (eadhon) clú, clothonn (eadhon) carrtha cliuthech). clothrī Insi finni Fáil, Rawl. 88b9 . Erc mac Cairpri clothrí Herend, LL 6435 . fri Conall clothriatha (1 ríad), LU 8908 ( FB 68 , rhet.). clothruire (of Christ), Blathm. 144 . clothruire Tuaighe Inbhir, AFM ii 572.2 . nirbat dergnat chormthigi / nir ḟacba do chlothuide your wonted way(?), LL p. 124 marg. sup.

(b) With adj. im Concobur clothamra, LU 8404 ( FB 28 ). hua Conaill Cuirc clothamri, ZCP viii 307.13 (rhet.). cáemṡenchas Carmuin chlothaird, LL 25124 . coemainech clothbán (sic leg.) (of Derdriu), IT i 70.2 ( LMU 5 ). Clothbeo ingen Conchobair, LL 373a1 . co clú clothbind `of sweet report', Arch. Hib. ii 73 § 55 . dagḟir Cruachna clothbuirre of swelling fame, LL 20331 . o ríg Cruachna clothchóir, 20548 . slóg na Crúachna clothchuirre `eminent in fame', Metr. Dinds. iii 370.60 . ós brúachaib Carmuin chlothmaith `well-famed', 12.134 . Blod mac C. meic Caiss clothmín, ii 54.8 .

(c) With adj. derived from noun. a Chūchulaind clothmīadach, TBC-I¹ 2380 (verse).

combach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. combach or dil.ie/10775

o, n. vn. of con-boing. act of cutting, hewing, crushing, breaking, destroying : comagh (leg. -ch) .i. briseadh, O'Cl. .i. coimhbriseadh, ibid. amal bid hi combuch no hí c[o]mmlith gl. in frictoria confracta, Ml. 118b3 . dia combuch ocind imram `wearing them out', 126a7 . c.¤ gl. fregit, Thes. i 495.1 (Ardm.). acombag forsinmeis corp crist do chombug cocloaib forsinchroich the breaking (of bread), Thes. ii 253.18 (Stowe Miss.), cf. PH 5315 . c.¤ nabla, O'Curry 16 ( H 3.18, 7a ). oc comad conda[id] at the cutting of firewood, Laws v 156.13 . ch.¤ (in list of possible deaths), Cáin Ad. 42 . c.¤ nadma `cancelling a bond' (Plummer), O'D. 1588 ( H 5.15, 8a ). c.¤ tuili overcoming of desire, ZCP iii 449.14 . commach Baili in Duin demolition , Ann. Conn. 1352.9 ( AFM iii 602.6 ). Freq. of wounding in battle: cumach catha, Fianaig. 92.1 . araid . . . / i combuc i croligiu, BB 398a26 . tar éis an comaigh slaughter , Duan. F. i 89 . aga ccumach ┐ aga ccnaimhgherradh, AFM vi 2072.15 .

In concrete sense: ro brised a luirgne comba minch. small fragments, LB 151b44 . cumach cnam heap of bones, MR 284.8 . dona comaighib, Caithr. Thoirdh. 20.34 . ? c.¤ tar aenach, Laws v 486.13 . Appar. of a feature or type of verse in: trefocal . . . cen ch.¤ , ACL iii 293.4 . R. las' cētna dernta commach ┐ fidelidecht (sic) i Temair, Corp. Gen. 363.3 . In n. loc. benaid a chend de for in Licc Commaig Cnám, RC xiii 92 § 177 .

Compd. cruind dothleatan comachlethan barc bhuailteach, IT iii 97.z .

díall, dell,

Cite this: eDIL s.v. díall, dell, or dil.ie/15921

Forms: díall, deall, ndiall, diall, diil, diull, diul, díllib

n o, n. later m.? vn. of 1 do-ella. díall deall (rit) m., IGT Decl. § 95 . Verbs § 80 . n s. issed a ndiall n-inmedónach, Sg. 158b6 . a s. diall, 4b2 , 5 . g s. diil, 91b4 ; 104b1 . d s. diull, 90b2 . diul, 97b1 . d p. díllib, 106b17 .

(a) swerving, turning aside: gl. deuiatio, Ml. 119b9 . diverticulum, Sg. 53b3 . diall .i. diultad, O'Dav. 729 . intan benair clucíne prainntige . . . na brat[h]air cen fodruib cen tairisium cen diall dar oir, LB 261bz . Cf. is mór in rodial doratus forsna focclusa anuas, RC xx 418 (ACC Comm.).

(b) going astray, moral aberration: iar tarmthecht dún is iar ṅdial (spoken by Eve), SR 1559 . diall fri coibdelaig (.i. siair no ingein) sinning with a kinswoman, LB 10bw ( Trans. RIA xxiv 208 ). maircc taircebai ind aimsir a mbia . . . lanamhnus cuiliuch, diall fri coibdilcha, ZCP ix 168 = diall for coibdelcho, YBL 410b3 .

(c) With FRI (RE, LE) act of resembling: o ṡhunn roalt comba trén | diall fri claind mac nIsrahél, SR 3710 (= gach med no erghedh ┐ no foirbredh ba cosmaile sa cosmaile fri maccu Israhel he, YBL 288b1 , LB 117a27 ). is diall réd duthchusaib dilsi bodesin duitsiu . . . na hairrdhena sin d'ḟír-adhradh, MR 302 . dá dhúil gan diall ré chéile, Dán Dé xxviii 38 . tréndamna ag diall re duthaig strong princes taking after kind, Hy Fiach. 268 . clann nDubhgaill ag diall le seabhcoibh, C IV 1, 180b . By extension semblance, similitude: nír cumhain diall ré a ndeinmne | cliar Uladh fa Athairne, 3 C 12, 229 (c. 1572) . With DO: ag d.¤ don diabhal, Desid. 3826 .

(d) With FRI (RE, LE) inclining to, taking part in, cleaving to (?): idir éasga is ghaoith is ghréin . . . | ag diall ruibh, a rí Garmna, TD 21.43 . Féilim Ruagh goibhneoír na ngal | caor bhruithneadh cheardcha ccosgar; | láoch do thairg díall re a ndocruibh | búdh mairg chían a cConnachduibh, C IV 1, 177b (c. 1645) . síol mBriain . . . | ag díall lé háitibh oile | nár áitigh Brían Bóroimhe, A IV 3, 704 .

(e) declension (gramm.): iar ṅdiul tanisiu according to the second declension, Sg. 97b1 . aínsid cetni diil the accusative of the first declension, 91b4 . Auraic. 783 , 1918 .

Compd. ¤choimse: crann . . . ler dhoilghe diallchoimse incomparable (?), L. Cl. A. B. 149.108 .

díallaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. díallaid or dil.ie/15923
Last Revised: 2013

v (díall) turns (to or from), bends, reaches .

(a) diallait for biad in talman (of birds) `swoop down upon the food of the earth' ( PRIA xxxvi 155 ), SR 8128 . ra thrian cach múir . . . reil radiall sech araile, 428 (i.e. each wall (after the first) exceeded the height of the preceding one by a third. Cf. MacCarthy 40 ). rodiallat nad astat `they turn aside what they do not secure' (?), Tec. Corm. p. 32 .

(b) stoops to, submits to (?): cor diallsad fir Alban do R. comba righ Erenn ┐ Alban, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 60.7 . Fig. drem dár diall cādus is cáin, Hy Fiach. 266.9 .

(c) d.¤ fri (re) resembles, imitates: a cheann fri Nár rodhiall, Cóir Anm. 105 . ni re muindtir bur mathar dialtaisi, ZCP xi 40 . na neiche suaichinte risar diall ┐ risar delb-cosmailigiustar D. i reamthus na rigraide reme, MR 118 . ris do dhiall E. idir chorp ┐ anam, 3 C 12, 202 . cumann deise do dhiall ruinn affection of a pair in like case with us, Dánta Gr. 86.22 . dá sgél do dhial re doghraing two tales that smacked of woe, O'Gr. Cat. 400 (`two losses making for grievous sorrow').

(d) d.¤ fri (re) joins with, cleaves to (?), cf. díall (d): cid re cloinn Fiachach diallaid ni dīb dōib (sic leg.), McNeill Pop.-Groups § 95 ; cf. ZCP viii 112 . ler dhial druadh 'whom poet has loved' Celtica iv 120 § 40 . domhan re ndiall ar gcroidhe, Aithd. D. 43 § 28 .

(e) Note also: glantar scíath E. uais | nir diall ēceandāil dā ēis, ZCP viii 229 (perh. to be referred to díall). See also 1 do-ella.

? dodrosar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? dodrosar or dil.ie/17505

ind la Hirial . . . rodfir mac de dodrosar | comba he int sosar uasal, Lec. 33a33 .

doíthenach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. doíthenach or dil.ie/17977

adj o,ā (doíthin) satiated, satisfied: ní dóithanach comraic never has his fill of battle (of Cú Chulainn), TBC-LL¹ 1355 . ní doethanaig (saithech, v.l.) in maccrad do chlessaib cluchi ┐ ni rag-sa uadib corbat dóithanaig (comba saithig, v.l.) cluchi, 990 -1. rodiurad fled forro corbatar daethanaig, SG 384.30 . rocaithset biad ┐ fín comtar dáithnig, PH 846 . rothomailset comdar doithenaich, RC xxiv 196.11 .

1 é, hé

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 é, hé or dil.ie/19325
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: ishé, is hé, hǽ, isé, hǽ, hé, asné, ishe, issé, isé, é, hé, é, hésom, hesom, hǽsium, ésium, esium, eisiu, esiomh, eisim, esim, éseom, eseom, eiseom, esen, ésen, eisen, eisea, eision, essium, eissiu, eissiumh, esseo, essem, essim, eissi, eissin, hisseom, heside, he side, éside, eside, éisidhe, eisidhe, eiside, esede, eisidh, esiden, esidein, eisidhein, esein, éisei, eiséin, eisidei, eiseic, ese, esside, hessidhi, eissid, eissidi, eissideic, eisseic, eissein, es(s)ide, bé, cebe, gibe, cidbe, eside, esium, (h) é, éseom, esium, eissium, é, é

pron. 3 s. m. ; fem. , q.v. (later also í) ; neut. 1 ed, q.v. For pl. see 2 é.

In Glosses with copula : ishé, Wb. 4c3 . 25b2 . Sg. 3b20 . is hé, Ml. 36a32 . is hǽ , 102b5 . isé, BCr. 18b12 . mad hǽ , Wb. 27b6 . ba hé , Ml. 24a4 . Wb. 19c4 . asné, 4d16 . Ml. 31b24 . Mark of length sometimes omitted, as : ishe Wb. 25a24 . Ml. 45b11 .

In early Mid. Ir. with copula 3 s. pr. issé, isé ; independently é, hé ; in later MSS regularly é. Before -som, etc. hésom, Wb. 7c8 . 24d5 . hesom, Ml. 53a5 . 90b13 . hǽsium, Ml. 30c5 . ésium, TBC-LL¹ 1744 . 6050 . esium, 1107 . 1189 . LL 223b14 . eisiu, Acall. 1979 . esiomh, TBC-LL¹ 3883 St. eisim, TBC-I¹ 2444 . BColm. 60.6 . esim, 104 . 12 . éseom, TBC-LL¹ 5971. eseom, LU 12a36 . 126a29 . TBC-I¹ 559 . 580 . eiseom, 1222 . 1543 . TTr.² 1451 . esen Corm. Y 276 . CCath. 2615 . ésen, TBC-LL¹ 2893. eisen O'Gr. Cat. 488 ( : seisen). eisea, Dán Dé xxv 53 ( : móirsheisear). TSh. 5134 . eision, TBC-LL¹ 3883 v.l. TD 34. l. 189 . In early Mid. Ir. freq. with -ss- : essium, PH 281. MacCongl. 55.11 . eissiu, Acall. 6017.6708 . 7890 . eissiumh Metr. Dinds. iv 282y . esseo, Trip. 394.4 . IT i 131.12 . essem, Ériu i 126.12 . ZCP ix 156 ( = TBC-I¹ 1543 ). essim ZCP iii 258 ( = LU 126a29 ). eissi, Acall. 2080.3353 . eissin, 7642 . Cf. hisseom, PH 1513 . Before -side, -séin, etc. : heside, Wb. 3c15 . Ml. 100c10 . 102a20 . he side Ml. 100b23 . éside, LL 219a34 . eside, TBC-LL¹ 2230 . PH 929 , etc. éisidhe, Lism. L. 3429 . eisidhe, 424 . eiside Laws iv 138z Comm. . TTr.² 373 . esede, TBC-LL¹ 4502. eisidh, Laws i 8.6 . esiden, YBL 62a27 . esidein, BColm. 52.18 . eisidhein, ZCP viii 551 y ( = TBC-LL¹ 1874 ). esein, PH 1963 . éisei, Acall. 1463 . eiséin, Studies 1924, 242 § 7 . eisidei, Laws i 4.25 . eiseic, iv 46.14 Comm. v 448.30 Comm. Acall. 5944 . ese, Laws iv 16.17 Comm. With -ss- : esside, LU 22a38 . ZCP viii 302.23 . Auraic. 207 . MacCongl. 3.11 . hessidhi, Lism. L. 3888 . eissid, Corm. Y 276 . eissidi, Do Chupur 56 ( IT iii 237 ). eissideic, Acall. 4833 . eisseic, 6034 . eissein, 5819 . 7982 .

In early Mid. Ir. we sometimes find es(s)ide standing for a fem. subst. : oc siair tharisi do .i. fedb craibdech eside PH 943 ; cf. Laws iv 176.24 ( 178.4 ) ; 226.7 .

The O.Ir. quantity of 1 é before the suffix is attested by the rime glēsom : hēsom, IT iii 44 § 60 . Thurneysen remarks ( Thurn. Hdb. § 447 ) that the length of the vowel in ésom may be due to the influence of 2 é which, to judge from Welsh wy, is long by nature. In late Mid.-Ir. however the vowel is regularly short before the strengthening or anaphoric suffixes. The shortening may be explained by the analogy of 3 mes(s)e, tussu s.v. .

A detailed examination of the use of the independent pron. in Old and Mid. Ir. belongs to syntax and would be out of place here ; we give however some illustrations of the typical uses for these periods. Some special uses are noticed in IX.

I Placed immediately after the copula, in the following types of sentences :

(a) bad he for n-ere (gl. portate dominum) Wb. 9d12 . is heside athir inna mmachabdae (gl. Mathathiae) Ml. 74b6 . ishé a ammus lemm that is my guess at it (gl. cum iam fere centum annorum esset) Wb. 2c27 . ba ed á n-oínbiad (gl. mannae) Ml. 97d8 . Símon Bar-ióne...is e eochair na flatha némdai, PH 1639 . tucus aichne fairsim corb'é Ísu I knew that He was Jesus 3736 . ní hé Cormac beus, TBC-I¹ 13 . In Mid. Ir. the pron. is often repeated after the subj. in sentences of this type : (a1) is é gaiscedach as dech fil díb hé, LU 101a39 = FB 14 (hé om. ZCP iv 153 ). issé mo lennán é, TBC-LL¹ 4560 . corb' e metrapolitan na primchathrach he, PH 189 . as é céd-duine tárla dó hé, Acall. 624 . fa hé céidrí Éireann do ṡíol Éibhir é, Keat. ii 1875 . When the second pron. stands for a subst. of different gender from that of the pred. we get the type : is tocrádh mór marbhnadh Dé | ní hé an brón gan adhbhur í, Dán Dé xxvi 1 . dob é ceirtleath m'anma í, Studies 1924, 428 § 9 .

(b) is hésom doradchiúir (gl. Christo Jesu) Wb. 2b9 . is heside dorárricc báas dúnni, 3c15 . is heside robu rí, Ml. 100c10 . Mac Roth...is e timchellas hErind ind oenló TBC-I¹ 1110 .

(c) is he Dia insin (Quis est iste Deus...? Deus sc. ille qui...) Ml. 83c5 . rii benn ced ara neper? Is he rí tuathi insin lasmbiat .vii. ngraid ḟene, Laws iv 328.24 . is hé rí insin loingside siabrai, LU 99a27 .

(d) ba he a ngnimsom molad Dǽ (quorum...officium) Ml. 24a4 . is sí ind inducbal lesom in molad, 126b17 . corrophed mo indeb Crist (gl. ut Christum lucrifaciam) Wb. 24a6 . is e in cetna herdach celebrad ┐ procept brethri Dé, PH 3600 . dob í m'ḟáilte mo riar, Keat. iii 1450 . issé biadh do buí ag M. uidhe cerc ┐ aran, BCC § 122 . Keat. ii 2687 .

(e) is hé rufiastar cumachtae inna diglae...in tí, etc. Ml. 111c13 . is ed as dulem daitsiu m'etarcnae, 103a9 . is é as fhoghar dá gach eon | moladh Dé, Dán Dé xiv 23 . Cf. is e thainic a n-agaid Patraic .i. Sínell, Lism. L. 248 .

(f) asné Crist in lie asrubart, Wb. 4d16 . issi so a chiall, Ml. 65a3 . is e cētlá na sechtmaine in domnach PH 3584 . int shollsi-so...is e Crist mac Dé sin, 3792 . badh í an úaisle ar n-eólaichne, Ériu ix 163 § 6 . gurbh í Éire tobar draoidheachta iarthair Eorpa, Keat. ii 963 . The pron. is regularly in concord with the follg. subst., but cf. is í ar gceann báidheine an bhean, Dán Dé ii 29 .

(g) When the pred. precedes the cop., the word following the pron. usually decides the gender of the latter : in choss is hé oís achtáil, Wb. 12a23 . Crist didiu issí in chathir, 21c5 . cf. i dteangthaibh nach í an Scoitic in languages other than Scottic Content. vi 19 . Cf. on the other hand Wb. 3b16 , 18 . PH 1639

(h) is hé Dia as eola indiumsa, Wb. 8d23 . ní hé apstal citarogab in testiminso, Ml. 38c3 . comad he Nathi bud choscrach, RC xxiv 180 . ba saeth le M. nach he Brian ba ri, 176 . ce nib ed á ainmsom bes foir, Ml. 23d17 . (In O.Ir. the pron. is not obligatory in this type ; cf. issí ind ainim as airlam...ní incorpp, Wb. 3d11 . ni far mbrónsi immafolngi fáilti domsa, 16b8 . is a indocbál fessin condieig cách, 23d5 . ni Dia dudgní..., Ml. 44d21 .) is é mo chorp ro ádnaicis[s]i, PH 3732 . is é an beo do bhí 'na chroich | doní idir eo agus éanlaith, Dán Dé vi 40 . gurbh í an Ghaedhealg fá teanga dona draoithibh, Keat. ii 964 .

(i) The copula may be omitted : he fessin as choimsid dáu, Thes. ii 294.3 . hé cotnarlaic...doib anisin, SR 3659 . é leth luidi, Metr. Dinds. ii 2 . é domrad a n-éccomhnart, BS 48.16 .

II

(a) After interrogatives : cia hé (gl. quis) Ml. 46c17 . cia hé nundixnaigthersiu, 75c9 . ce hé roscríb, Sg. 197a19 . cóich esein, PH 1963 . cidh esen itir, TBC-LL¹ 3843 St. cuich hé in t-airfidech ut ?, Acall. 7525 . cret eissein in t-abhacc ?, 7982 .

(b) After sechi, sechip, cip (cib) : sechi he (gl. si quis) Ml. 35b4 . sechi é cretes de illis Wb. 15b1 . sechi sí (gl. quaelibet) Ml. 65d2 . sechi sí dia rignaib, 65d8 . sechip hé nodapridcha whosoever he be that preaches it Wb. 14d28 . sechip hé dán tra doberthar do neuch, 13a3 . ciphé ade Ml. 26a1 . ponat ergo lunam (cipé) ubilibet computare voluerit BCr. 31c2 . ciped ní, PH 1520 . gib é dig...ni ba missi, TBC-LL¹ 1223 . cip é imress méla...fort, 46 . So far as can be judged from published material cip é (gib é) is regularly replaced in late Mid. and Early Mod. Ir. by the anomalous gi bé (gidh bé), in which bé is fully stressed and alliterates with b. This form occurs already in O.Ir. : cia bé a mmet however big it be Ml. 61b28 . cía bé (MSS. cebe, gibe, cidbe, etc.) dlug bías duib, Metr. Dinds. iii 42 . gipe ra ṡossed (cía bé roisedh v.l.), TBC-LL¹ 6076 . atú ar bhaois gidh bé nach fuil, Dán Dé ix 8 . gi bé do bhronn a dhá rosg, Studies 1921, 258 § 9 .

It may be noted here that the position of the pron. in copula (or virtually copula) sentences in Mid. and Early Mod. Ir. is not always in accordance with orthodox modern usage, e.g. Tadhg esiomh nó a aithgin he is T. or else his counterpart O'Gr. Cat. 488 (= Ir. Monthly 1921, 291 ).

III With 2 os, q.v. : os hǽ (gl. donorum amicus) Ml. 69c4 . oshé, 122b14 . oshe, 123b4 . osse cona licc fora thairr, TBC-I¹ 891 . Similarly with is (s), s, ocus (┐) : deidghin...ina cinn isse níamdo, IT i 119.27 . a inar bláith ...is é étrom, TBC-I¹ 1871 . mar éan is é gan eitil, Dán Dé vii 22 . in scáilfer...sé tailc, IT i 271.11 . andara hech dibsidi ocus se...luath-lemnech, TBC-I¹ 2557 . ocus se baccach, PH 620 . ┐ se ina shessom, 622 . áráit...si imtromm, IT i 271.36 .

IV Independently : hésom triuss, Wb. 7c8 . tría buith adi innim ┐ hǽsium i talam because He is in heaven and he on earth Ml. 30c5 ....nad cho[m] nech acht hesom fesin 53a5 . cen fis accu he buden ina Cristaige, PH 56 . ni nech aile...acht he buden ┐ Dia, 607 . nachar mhair acht é féin amháin, Keat. ii 4179 . cunnradh eile atamaoidni do dhenamh le hA., acus eisin linne, Ir. Deeds, Trans. RIA xv 87.22 . In affirmation : Ferbaeth an e dothæt... imbarach? Eiseom on, TBC-I¹ 1543 = YBL 31a17 . After indá, in(n)a, ná than ( = O.Ir. oldá(a)s, indá(a)s) : fearr neach ele iná hé féin | dá mholadh, Studies 1924, 242 . do ba sine ioná é féin, Keat. ii 1828 . After cen, eter, 1 amlaid, 1 mar, q.v.

Here also may be noticed the type : is móidi a subailchi sin ┐ is laidirede congmus duine a n-agaid a namatt é its virtues are the greater (for) that and it aids a man more powerfully against his enemies thereby Maund. 139 . do benadh an t-iarann as an crand ┐ nir misde do bhi an tseisrech ag trebad é the iron was removed and none the worse was the team plowing BCC § 76 ; in these passages the pronouns sin, é, are asyntactical. Cf. the exx. in Fasc. i 162-163.

The usages classified under V-IX belong to the Mid. Ir. period, and later. Strachan has shown that V-VII were in use before the end of the eleventh century, and well established before the end of the twelfth ; see Ériu i 176 .

The form sé which arises in this period is treated s.v.

V As subject of the copula, following the pred. In early Mid. Ir. we find numerous exx. in which side is replaced by eside, som by esium, etc. (perhaps on the pattern of is éside x, is ésom x), as : in Fiac sin dano mac eside meic E....(v.l. mac sede), Thes. ii 307.3 . Cf. the O.Ir. types : is Diasom domsa, Wb. 1a2 . ni augtor side uilc, Ml. 44d19 ; these seem parallel to : ba cosnamaid Erenn esside an inbaid sin i n-agaid Cathail, MacCongl. 3 - 5 .

In early Mid. Ir. eside, esium, etc. usually follow the pred. directly, while the copula is unexpressed : dalta esseom do P., Trip. 394.4 . bai mac etorro... .i. Mael D. mac A. esside, LU 22a38 . Necódim...sái rechta eside PH 3677 . dalta do C. beos essium, 281 . Whether this type preceded and originated the use of the simple pron. as subj. of the copula is uncertain; there are numerous early exx. of (h) é etc. where the anaphoric pron. would be out of place.

Nicodemus... .i. cara inclethi do Crist he, PH 209 . ní cubaid bás cosmail doib, uair Pól ennacc he, Petar tra...écraibdech eside, 1865 . With copula expressed: combá mac dond ríg hé, LU 22b29 . is la Coin Culaind... hé, 112a24 ( FB 89 ). ba hairchindech na n-apstal he, PH 1637 . ba hōgshlān he, 468 . ba cumang les he, 64 .

VI As obj. of trans. vb., replacing the O.Ir. infixed pron. (The transitional stage is illustrated in the tautological types: cotgair Lugaid amach hé, TBC-I¹ 1063 . connachrancatár hé, LU 59a33 . roscuirset himmach he, PH 110 ): cona ragbad in galar hé, LU 14b31 . rocharsat hé, 121b35 . rochrechtnaig eseom, 126a28 . co cualutar hé, PH 18 . acall-su fessin é, TBC-LL¹ 1652 . guid he beseech him PH 343 . In reflexive sense: do lecc C.C. ar a gluínib é, BCC 274.29 .

VII As subj. of pass. vb.: robaided hé, LU 41a23 . cf. rogabad hí, 41a33 . is annam fogabar he cen chatha RC xxiv 200 . meni frithalter innocht é, TBC-LL¹ 1352 . nach acaltar é, 1694 . rohindarbad asin cathraig he, PH 949 .

VIII Occasionally as subj. of certain intrans. verbs: mas re ré na fochraice táinic amuigh hé, Laws iv 134.13 Comm. noco bia itir hi, 42.2 Comm. ar nach tisad friss he, LL 217b34 . ní raibe a n-aicned duinde eisseic, Acall. 6034 . ni roerchoidigestar do hí (sc. in lassar), Trip. 392.9 . Cf. as subj. of trans. verb: ni torracht Herinn andsin í, RC xii 78 . In such exx. the pron. is regularly separated from the vb., cf. imridh sé éinbhearta is í, IGT, Decl. ex. 1113 ; but: ór ḟás eision, TD 34. l. 189 .

Here may be noted: ol eissidi, IT iii 237.1 . bar ésium (éseom) quoth he TBC-LL¹ 4568 . 5971 . 6050 . ar esium 1189 . bar eissium , Acall. 4615 . cf. ar si, ar sisi, IT ii2 227.34 - 5 . See ol.

IX There are a few special uses of é in a neutral sense, without regard to gender of follg. subst. (cf. 1 ed):

(a) is e cuit in `acht' and the force of the `except' here is Laws iv 42.1 Comm. is e cuit in dono ann, 136.24 Comm. badh é a chríoch...go mbrisfimni..., Ériu ix 164 § 14 . is é críoch a gcualabhair this is the gist TD 31.8 . an é a reic is damhna dhí, 22a42 . iss é sin ciall in sceil, Acall. 3326 . is é áit..., Keat. iii 5055.5199 etc.

(b) in indef. predication, as: ní hé amháin not only that TD 9.11 ; 22.5 . Ó Héodhusa 34.9 ; 54.5 . Mac Aingil 326 . an é nach faici-sí C.? do ye not see C? BCC § 100 . an é nách easbol meisi ? an é nách fuilim saor ? 1 Corinth. ix 2 .

(c) referring to a statement or fact, etc.: rucad in Dond C....úadib...conid é sin méla ┐ mertain ┐ meraigecht is mó tucad for C.C., TBC-LL¹ 2041 (conadh í sin mela is mó v.l.). a Dhé ní d'anaibhse mh'olc | é nach faghaim-se furtocht, Dán Dé vi 34 . re hinghin Anna is é adearar | Dia an t-eitne agus ibh an chnú, x 22 . as é adeirid...nach treabhonn mé...iad, Studies 1923, 81 . is é chráidheas an croidhe | mé ag áineas tar m'eólchoire, 1924, 88 . See Strachan, Ériu i 163 .

For é with neut. or fem. subst. in Mid.-Ir. see Strachan's paper on Middle Ir. Declension, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1905 .

éccaíntech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. éccaíntech or dil.ie/19388

adj o-ā lamenting, plaintful, doleful: an eachlach...osnadach ecaintech, YBL 177a35 = BB 257b28 . ba buaidertha ecaintech batar or ni fess cia croch sech a cheli accu, LB 233a25 . comba hoengleo écnech ecaintech uaimnech uathbásach in cathair, 155a17 . eccáointeach atú-sa anocht, BS § 67 . co huchfadhach écaintech, CCath. 2245 . Acall. 4048 . trésan méirṡeang bhfial bhfaoilteach | fian Éireann go héagcaointeach, GF., Ir. Monthly 1919, 3 . gul ┐ geran atruagh [sic leg.] egaintech, ZCP vi 66.20 . nach dleaghair dhúinn bheith íogmhar éagcaointeach querulous TSh. 8220 .

éccomlonn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. éccomlonn or dil.ie/19440

n o, m. (neg. of comlann) an unequal combat, unfair odds, hence a strait, distress, oppression : fochicher curu im do chosa isinn ath comba hecomlond mor duit, IT ii2 246.65 . gāir mo maicse re n-ēccomlonn TBC-I¹ 2977 . buadrugud a meic ac comrac ra écomlond TBC-LL¹ 4691 ( = b. a meic Con C. fri dā mac dēc Gaile... TBC-I¹ 2975 ). ni po mmachtad cia chon-bosa[ds]ide for ecomlond tho' he were victorious against odds TBC-I¹ 730 . com-boing tar écrait n-écomlund ( = c. tar é. n-écrait triumphs over the foe in spite of odds ?) FB 52 (n-eccomlaind v.l.). brister ar Laignib... | úair fuaratar ecomland, LL 299a37 = SG 368 . re heagcaoine an éagcomhlainn do bhí ar Chonchubhar, Todd Lect. iv 88 . mor fer...rofoirrgit tre imforcraid in eccomlainn etarra, CCath. 6022 . erreda egcomlainn warriors capable of sustaining a fight against odds, champions Ériu viii 8 . i n-aitt n-écomlaind, Acall. 3768 n.

im-beir é.¤ for plies the odds against, oppresses, wrongs : combad airsein no imberthea écomlund i tosaig i nHerinn LL 115b27 ( RC viii 56 ). búridach na míled ic immirt écomlaind forru, TFerbe 334 . rohimredh eccomhlann fair la a mhuinntir feisin, AFM ii 946 . tréna n-imreann (an bás) d'olc ┐ d'éagcomhlann ar na daoinibh, TSh. 1178 . a héagcomhlann the odds she contends with 2966 . i n-é.¤ outnumbered, overpowered, helpless : airm itorchair i n-ecomlund, LL 123b12 . TBC-I¹ 3388 . rofallsiged do M.... F....do bith i n-ecomland ic mnaib Ulad, SCC 45 . int-í rocharus co holl | dom-rat sund i n-ecomlond ib. do forcomét na féinde...atait a n-éccomlann ac allmurchaib, Acall. 3156 . co roistis dia foirit[h]in in tan bae i n-ecomlund ┐ i n-uaiti sluaig, BB 429a35 . YBL 317a21 . Injustice, tyranny : écomland in popuil Romanaig for in popul I., LB 154a24 . ré mbeith don phobal Iúdaidheach fá éagcomhlann, TSh. 6103 . gáir écomlaind the cry of one overmatched, outnumbered; a cry of distress Metr. Dinds. iv 36 . iachtad écomlaind, TBC-LL¹ 2961 . Ériu viii 46.12 . osnadh eccomhlainn, ITS v 140 . o. egomlaind, YBL 340b23 . taom éagomhlainn, TD 2.34 . Cf. éccland, écclond.

ecraid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ecraid or dil.ie/19641

v ā (ecor)

I Fixes, arranges, disposes: tri hanairt...ecortar im chorp nAdaim, SR 2222 . do hegradh [sic MS] na mic riogh sin amach ar sleasoibh na bruighne, ITS v 84.19 . ro hegradh ┐ ro hordaiged a mílid...a n-urthosach in imbúalta, Fianaig. 88.18 . ra hecrait áine ┐ urluachra fóthib, TBC-LL¹ 114.998 . in cnairseach, da dorn deg itir a hiarann ocus an baile a n-egarthar a hadharc fuirre, Laws iv 226.10 . cu ra ecair búale di chollaib...ar bélaib a chatha, LL 237a12 . ro heagradh aencath adhbhal...d'fearaibh Erenn i n-aeninad fa dreich nDomnaill, MR 140.13 = doronsatar aencath dib ...fa D., 142.1 . do heagradh agus do horduigheadh an cath eatorra ┐ dochuadar do láthair an iombuailte, Each. Iol. 72.10 . Here, perhaps: luid in mac bec issin cluchimag etorru ar medón ┐ ecrais cid in liathróit in dib cossaib uadib ┐ nis arlaic sech ard a glúne súas ┐ nis arlaic sech a adbrond sis...┐ ros comdluthaig in dib cossaib...┐ ros fuc dar brúach mbaire uadib, TBC-LL¹ 900 .

II Equips, fits out; adorns (with di or ó of material, etc. supplied): ra ecratar a munter in carpat imme do chlochaib ┐ chorthib, TBC-LL¹ 4605 (= linais a charpat, TBC-I¹ 2935 ). tanic Cu rúi...ra ecratar a munter é de chlochaib ┐ chorthib furnished him with stones (for combat) 4659 . 4641 . ro línadh ┐ ro heagradh é...d'óccaibh (of a siege-tower), CCath. 1823 . ro hecrad in tech sin do ōr...┐ do ghemaib comba comṡolus i llou ┐ i n-aidci in tech sin, BB 396b44 (= Dinds. 91 ). Metr. Dinds. iv 106 . do-gniset fianboth...┐ ro egratar hí do ṡeisc...o féici co fornosc (i.e. roofed or thatched it), Acall. 1544 n. ro hecairthea airm...┐ erredh catha in tslóigh la A. do derg-ór ┐ do gema[ib], BB 494a3 = Alex. 623 . aen dona fearsaib rundaib o n-eagairthear in salmsin with which this psalm is adorned (?) YBL 154b40 . in choer comraic ro hecrad o thaillnib ┐ o danuibh ecsamla in Spirta Nóim .i. Colum Cille, Lism. L. 737 . Hence, without second object, makes ready, arranges: ra hecrad tech n-óil leis i nDún Delga, CRR § 11 . YBL 334b8 . Acall. 1636 . corop fa dreich ríg L. ecairther in tech óil-seo, CRR § 13 . ecraid Midir in fidchill, LU 130b40 .

Cf. ron-ecrand do bráthbemmennaib...co torchair leis marb plied (?) him with deadly blows TFerbe 424 .

III In Laws sometimes representing O.Ir. in-cuirethar puts in (esp. of putting or bringing into a territory the symbols of taking possession, making entry; see ZCP xv 347 and cf. ecor): nocon iumpaither a fastad ar in fine inní ecairter chucu cu hindligthech, gl. on ni sai for fine nach ecur n-inndligtech, Laws ii 306.6 (see ZCP xiv 379 - 380 ). in tiag cusaní ecarthar innti the thing which is put into it (gl. on: iadag cona ecortaig) i 152.24 . tuinede la fer n-ecoir...ar nī bbuī dīlse...la fer for n-ecrad in whose despite the entry was made ZCP xv 346 § 37 . dia n-[e]acraither ZCP xiv 379 § 43 (= Laws ii 306 ) is a prototonic form from in-cuir-, and -ecrad in previous ex. may be used as prototonic form corresponding to in-rolad.

The follg. exx. may belong to this section: cethri mara ...as cech aird ecrait ille | teclait isin sáebchuithe (of currents meeting in a whirlpool), Metr. Dinds. iv 80.7 (Coire B.). teinnusnach tucaid na sluaig | eagraid Magh Nia co neartcruaid, Ériu viii 42.19 ; 32.9 .

éicen

Cite this: eDIL s.v. éicen or dil.ie/19711
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: égean, éigean, éicin, écen, éigean, lucht éigne

n ā, f.; later also o, m. égean fem. IGT, Decl. § 54 . éigean masc. § 53 . TSh.

(1) In the earliest recorded exx. the meaning is usually necessity, compulsion; cf. ēcin .i. cin ēca. no ēc cána. i. ēc riagla `ecin' i.e. `crime of death' or it is `death of law,' that is `death of rule' Corm. Y 547 : hi cumcai no innecin (gl. in angaria) Tur. 134 . ni écen dob imchomartt ach[t] is dúdract lib, Wb. 3b21 . conabad éicen doberad ní domsa huaitsu act combad tol (gl. ne velut ex necessitate bonum tuum esset, sed voluntarium) 32a12 . soit a n-écin i toltanche convert their necessity into freewill FA 23 . ma egin fo ruair gan a denumh, Laws ii 292.23 Comm. ni heiccen beires ó thoigh | acht do thuillemh tuarastoil ZCP viii 116 § 10 . dena idpairt dona deeib...┐ logfaid do Dia fen duit, uair nosfitir conid écen doberar fort, PH 729 . do ghuidh é fa lamh leis chum síobhail rómhóir do bhí 'na éigean air do dhéanamh a very long journey which he had to make ZCP ii 558.23 . Freq. in the sense of adj compulsory, needful, necessary ; ( éigean .i. dligheadh, O'Cl. refers to Metr. Dinds. ii 2.18 , see Hermathena xiv 468 ). egin .i. dhigthech, ut est is egin mór do thuirimh isin trefocul focra, O'Dav. 806 .

(a) abs.: is hécen ainmne occo patience is needful in it Wb. 4a26 . is hecen sainecoscc leosom for accrannaib innaní prechite pacem they deem it necessary to have a special appearance... 5a5 . ní ecen a thodiusgud asreracht cene, 4d27 ; 26 . 16d7 . Ml. 127d8 . na bad écen for cúrsagad in fechtsa it should not be needful to reprove you Wb. 14d1 . arnap éicen a ngóire i n-æclis, 29a10 . mat anmann adiechta emnatar and is écen comacomol hisuidib, Sg. 189b4 . nípa hécen tene bratha dia nglanad, Mon. Tall. § 6 . § 37 . ni heigen ime riu, Laws iv 162 n. 1 . Asia... tír innach éicen fúr fled, LL 135a45 . ba hecen fer cechtar a da slabradside either of those chains required a man (to hold it) Rawl. 131b26 . as écen do thabairt foraib (gl. indignatio severitatis motus est peccatoribus necessarius) Ml. 49b6 . h[u]are as n-ecen condib oinson tintá in son n-ebraide cosnaib ilchiallaib techtas, Ml. 37a10 . atait tri neithe is ecean cum na coimriachtana, Ériu ix 63.28 . is ecen co n-icthar cech ní, PH 7538 . mac bec doringni in gním sain...nocorb éicen...ingantus de, cia nothísed..., TBC-LL¹ 949 . Cog. 62.24 . ota imad na n-inad anna n-eirginn si...as egin co fuil an talam comcruinn it must be that the earth is round Ir. Astr. Tr. 32 w . ní fhuil ainm oile...ionarb éigean sinne do shlánughadh `non est aliud nomen...in quo oportet nos salvos fieri' TSh. 2088 .

In this use often written éicin (éigin), but the form intended is usually doubtful; the follg. metrical exx. may be noted: in cédḟer ór slondadh sind | ollamh darb écean uirrim, IGT, Decl. ex. 658 . budh éigin trá a thocht asteagh | lá éigin ar ghort nGaoidheal, TD 1.9 . bas dar éigin umhla, 33.15 (but see varr.). an chríoch ḟionnsa ón héigin troigh | a ciomhsa d'ḟéigin d'ardaibh, 41.18 . In mainbad éicin (gl. subjecta est non volens) Wb. 4a20 , the word is acc. after mainbad, cf. Ml. 111b28 , etc.

(b) with dat. pron. or do of pers.: issum ecen precept I must needs preach Wb. 10d24 . níb écen log ye need not pay ( Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 143 ) 16c17 . 22d12 . isim écensa techt I have to go TBC-I¹ 221 (LU). ZCP x 293.14 . Ériu v 209.40 . atabairecen techt ye must go FB 7 . is ecen dam (gl. compellor) Ml. 21b9 . is hecen doib ingremmen do foditiu, Wb. 30c23 . in tan na fádbait a mbiad díles, is écen dia n-anmannaib bás d'fhaghbail, PH 7476 . dó ba hecen (: tēitgel) biathad Echach, LL 183b26 = Arch. Hib. ii 70 . comba hecin di usce...da tharraing, RC xxiv 190.7 . in bocht dana hégen dul fó breith, PH 7520 . ba heiccen doip gan a snámh do dhermat, Fl. Earls 76.12 . is éigean dó cúntas...do thabhairt, TSh. 793 . Attrib. gen.: áine écni, in tan na fagaib nech ni romelad, PH 8366 .

In concrete sense: treb Leui...batir-side soer ó cech écin acht frestal eclaisi Dé exempt from all obligations LB 124a31 .

(2) In a slightly different shade of meaning, force (i.e. exercised by persons upon others); violence; tyranny: écen (gl. violentia) Sg. 51a1 . cisi ecin det-birt as in tir? nim tucc acht ...m'anuabhar fesin, RC xii 72 x . tre ēicin sāruighthe, Laws ii 376.6 Comm. uli eccen ┐ écomland in popuil Rómanaig for in popul Iudaide , LB 154a24 . Freq. in attrib. gen.: forcomul n-ecne `violent seizure' (occupation by force) Laws ii 376.1 . iv 270 z . lanamnas eicne (.i. donither ar eicin), ii 404.14 . connmedh égne forcible billeting RC xviii 194.24 . ni da deoin dochuaid-sium and, acht tre aslach eicni, TTebe 1501 . masa targud eicne tucastur orru do denam in marbtha...ma targud aisi if he led them out by force...if with their consent Laws iii 114.19 C. sí le héigean go n-aghar | ní héidear í d'átaghadh, TD 17.3 . dá mbhentá a chuid tré éigion do dhuine shouldst thou take his goods forcibly Mac Aingil 266 . éigean `violentia' TSh. 7783 . lucht éigne `violenti' 10812 .

In concrete sense, an act of violence, an outrage: is mō .. in écen iná 'n goit, PH 7559 . o fhir na hécni the perpetrator of the outrage 7561 . fer éicne, 7600 . ag agra goidi...ocus saraighthi ocus egni, Laws v 42.19 Comm. cia dobeir inn eicin ┐ inn imluadsa orumsa ?, TTebe 372 . ba hiat eicne doghnítis an loingius-sin...port gacha luingi do loscud ┐ crechad gacha tuaithi..., Lism. L. 2945 . co nderna éccne iomdha i ttuathaib ┐ chellaibh `acts of violence' AFM ii 1150.17 . Cf. éicni fastuda, TBC-LL¹ 5837 . menimthistais écne éc, Ériu v 210.2 . a gcumus...ar éigean ┐ ar mharbhadh daoine, TSh. 1723 . ar an éigin do-rinne Críost ag buain anma an duine dhe, 10515 . cia do lemadh an eigean sin ar a athair CF 310 .

Of a disaster, calamity: roshocht Adraist ar an ecein sin (i.e. the earth swallowing Amphiaraus) TTebe 2972 na heicnea-sea do lecun ar na Tiabandaib, 1616 .

Violation, rape: ecen mire `violating a madwoman' Laws i 176.2 . cu n-aithreosad a heicin muna dernad a toil, ZCP xiii 183.11 . ar bithin eiccni tuc Tir ar a derbshiair .i. Pilomena, TTebe 1862 . adubairt eiccen do thobairt fuirri, 1690 . dá ttugthá éigion mná, Mac Aingil 266 . Here probably belongs: ro órdaig Brigit banfili ...gol ┐ caine marb ┐ eigem fri hecin screaming when violence is offered Dinds. 159 = LL 170bz .

Cf. rucad laeg mo bo a purt éicne uaimse from a place whence it could only be taken by force (?) LL 171a35 = CRR § 3 .

(3) In phr. ar éicin (éicen) by or under compulsion or force: ar écin (gl. coactum) Ml. 18b7 . (gl. invitus) 42a15 . ar ecein, 68b3 . ar ecin nos bered (Simon, qui crucem in angaria portabat) Tur. 134 . ciatasode lat ar écin though thou keep her with thee perforce Wb. 10a10 . fochidi ar écin ...fochidi o thuil compulsory tribulations...voluntary tribulations 15d33 . ceni thaisid ar ois daregaid ar ecin, Ml. 33b15 . mina this ar ais rega ar eigin, YBL 121b11 . LB 228a46 . tabuir ass hi ar áis no ar écin, IT i 130.4 . ar éiccin no ar áis, Ériu iv 228.5 . co tuc Ogeth huad tria chath | ar écin iarna marbad, SR 5292 . IT i 130.21 . berid ar écin Murni for aithed leis, LU 42a12 . RC xxiv 186.16 . at-ib loim ar eicin and, Laws iii 82.8 . dream timairciter ar ecin do denam thole Dé, FA 23 . a furail air ar eicin dul ina coimlepaid, YBL 63b23 . ciall ar éigin d'fhoráil ort, Dán Dé xix 11 . gur gabsat ar eiccin i nDuibhlinn `forcibly landed' Cog. 34.19 . co ndigsitis...ar eicin co port na Troianna, BB 428a25 . ra airgg Hercoil .. in Troí ┐ ra chúaid ḟurri ar ecin, LL 224b39 . 226b8 (= TTr. 556.686 ). co ndeachaidh Cesair ar eiccin for an caistiall, CCath. 6053 . in daim téit ar eigin a tig in airech, Laws v 164.22 Comm. elaid in gilla asa laim ar eicin, YBL 63b30 ( SR 3213 ). Maelir...do dul ar éccin ar Luimneach, AFM iii 146.12 . a marbhadh dhoibh ┐ é ag triall ar eccin uatha `trying to make his escape' 340.14 . The sl. ending is usual in this phr. in early exx., but exx. of the masc. dat. are also common in Mid. Ir. and Early Mod. verse: fala Dhé ar tí mo thréagaidh | gur mhéaduigh mé í ar éigin, Dán Dé vii 11 . MR 54.16 . do bhiadh oirrim Bhanbha Breagh | ag coinnill Annla ar éigean of necessity TD 7.50 . ní ḟuil do cheart ar chrích bhF. ... acht sí d'ḟagháil ar éigean (: gheabh), 17.4 ; 25 , etc. ag dénamh imechta ar eigen d'ionnsaigh an doruis, Rel. Celt. ii 190.3 . ratréta ┐ imghecht ar eigen acasan ga ghenamh `a forced retreat' 198.8 ; 10 . Later also a-réigin: na gnais ach ger decair dul | teit a reicin rig ulad, Lec. 185rb17 ​. ón ngurt a-réigin 'sní ad rioth | o luchd éididh ┐ each, 24 P 8, 212 . Dánta Gr. 39.40 .

adv Hence: with difficulty, hardly: da roib an eslainte so arrsaidh is a reigin foirther hi, YBL 343b4 . as ar eiccin terna an tIarla fein iarna ghuin, AFM vi 2076.13 .

d' é.¤ by force, compulsion: d'éigin nó d'áis, Dán Dé ix 6 (where éigean would improve the metre). d'áis no d'éigion, Each. Iol. 56.2 .

(4) Difficulty, need, trouble, strait; in relation to war: ras nert ┐ ra greiss in rí...im ḟulang cach éicni ┐ cach imnid, LL 219b24 = TTr. 185 . díscart dín in n-ecin fil fornd, LU 63b9 ( TBC-I¹ 742 ). TBC-I¹ 323 . in trén...ro dingbad cach éicen dind, Acall. 6976 . airc na écen, TBC-LL¹ 2896 . don tí d'ḟoirfed sib assin n-éicin sin (of voyagers adrift in a storm), Acall. 3779 . TTebe 2007 . isin moréicin moir sin, Acall. 3775 . i n-écnib ┐ i n-urgalaib, LL 230a10 . Esp. of stress of battle: bai obair cach oen dib a fis a tuiruchta fen ar met a ecni so hard was he pressed Cog. 186.2 . [i] n-eigin irgaili, TTebe 4483 . in ecen engnoma i roibi, 3438 . a n-éigean ḟeadhma, IGT, Decl. ex. 1358 . fa deācair leó Goll do bheith san éigean sin, ML 136.22 . AFM iii 576.9 . do bhí éigean mór ar E. mun amsoin, eadhon sluagh Chuinn go huile, agas urmhór mhaithe Mumhan uile...iona aghaidh agas dobhí éigion budh mó iona sin air, eadhon Goll...dhá thuargainn, ML 30.7 ; 10 . a n-eigen ag Sagsanachuibh sorely pressed by the English Rel. Celt. ii 202.6 . Of a state of strenuous endeavour: bhíos i n-éigean ag gleic = qui in agone contendit TSh. 10610 . Cf. do ṡloig, gídh ar lór d'éigeann | Iaoich idir éide agas airm, Oss. vi 118.23 . Grievous plight; hardship: in ecen ele boi ann, .i. in tan no roinntea in biad...nos bered in tii ba tresi dib a chuit on anbhánd, LB 155b32 . do innseadar a n-éigean agas á n-anbhḟorlann dhó the distress and oppression they were suffering from ML 82.11 . críoch Mhidhe uile a móir-éigean, ina lasrachaibh leathna 84.12 . ar aoi a héiginsi d' fhurtacht `for helping her necessity' Studies 1921, 75 . Dán Dé xxi 4 . 'gan tí 'ga dtám i n-éigin, Dán Dé xxi 3 . ri heicin na hitad sin the urgency of that thirst TTebe 1776 . ón éigean tarta ina rabhadar, Keat. ii 4983 . ag faisnéis an éigin 'na mbí (the soul in purgatory), TSh. 4263 . Sorrow, grief: ba mór a uchbad ┐ a eigen (v.l. an egaine) lais an scelsin do chloistecht, TTebe 4558 .

Fig. stress; overpowering exuberance: gach coll úr re heigin innte | léigidh a ghlún fillti fáoi kneels under stress (of its burden of fruit) KMMisc. 172 § 26 . go raibhe an oiread soin d'éigean féile...i nGaedhealaibh nár lór leo nídh do thabhairt do gach aon dá dtiocfadh...gan cuireadh coitcheann do thabhairt..., Keat. i 4 x .

Need, necessitousness; esp. famine, scarcity: i n-aimsir na hécne in a time of scarcity PH 7553 . cara na héigne the friend in need Dán Dé xiv 6 . xxi 1 . TSh. 9829 . do bhádar mórán díobh a n-éigion (through famine) ML 8.11 . díoth orm is éigin orra, TD 44.4 . With gen. of thing needed: i n-éigean a furtachta wanting help TSh. 4835 . Cf. dál éicne a distressing business: scarad friu bid dál éicne, Ériu v 210.1 .

Cf. éicin.

COMPDS. éicen-broit oppressing bondage, hence heavy sorrow: lān d'imnedh is d'éigeanbhruid [sic leg.], Niall Mac Mhuireadhaigh, Rel. Celt. ii 266.6 .

¤chless violent feats (?): Caille Con Ruí... | fris' fertais óic écen-chless, Metr. Dinds. iii 308.66 .

¤dál a stiff encounter; a distressing position, dangerous strait: airc na écen na écendál, TBC-LL¹ 2896 . cf. 3030 . egindail ainfine `stress of weather' Aen. 1571 ( Aen. vii 199 ). tugadh éccendáil forra, AFM ii 1042 x . comhaonta do chengal doibh im freccra a cheile im gach n-eiccendáil do bhenfad friú, iv 1214.5 . Ua C....d'foirithin as an airc ┐ as an eiccendail i mbaoi ag Ua D., vi 2122.17 . tánaicc an President go marcsluagh ┐ go saighdiuiribh, uair roba cuimhneach lais an eiccendail i mbaoi la Dál cC. an bliadhain roimhe, v 1654.18 . Tadhg mac Eidighain ḟailidh | go hegeandail nir ḟennigh never showed himself a champion save when he met a dangerous encounter ZCP viii 226 § 17 . ba bes do Romanu fāithi...do tocairiud ina ndocum in gach am no tomaithead egendail forru, CCath. 925 . go ndligheann duine éigean-dáil ┐ anfhorlann a chomharsan d'fhóirithin, TSh. 1838 . cechip tan nó tomaithedh égendail ghabhaidh fair, Hugh Roe, 212.5 (f. 56b) . san éigean-dáil ghábhaidh se, TSh. 2083 .

¤gal strenuous valor: TBC-LL¹ 1666 .

1 éicnech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 éicnech or dil.ie/19723

adj o-ā (éicen)

(1) forcible, violent; oppressive; grievous: éicnech ra imluaid a bais | ar a ḟindgruaid Enecglais , LL 49a43 . ríge n-ecnech, 147a40 = PRIA iii p. 550 . aidedha ecnecha, CCath. 6105 . co n-urailtis co heiccnech fair comfaicsiugud do talam, 3943 . doig eignech a distressing pang YBL 389a20 = Ir. Monthly 1921, 159 . ar chathbhuaidh éignigh `hard-won victory' TD 24.40 . don bróin anfaltaig éigneig (of venomous serpents), Ó Heódhusa, O'Gr. Cat. 461.11 . iad lán d'aindícheall éigneach ...ag creachadh a gcarad, TSh. 5411 . anfhlatha éigneacha, 6997 .

(2) distressful, impatient; urgent, importunate: tucsat a muinter gáire...écnecha ina diaid, LB 143a32 . gáir guil ┐ basgaire co serb écnech etuailngech, PH 394 . no gabtís glés do chloidmib ┐ d'echlascaib...doib...comba hoengleo écnech ecaintech uaimnech in cathair uli, LB 155a17 . gabhuid na hoirfidigh go heigneach ag iarraidh bídh, BNnÉ 163.25 . crodh na cruinne 'sa maoine | cidh éigneach daoine iompa, Dánfhocail 49 .

(3) difficult(?): do ceimnigh a spirad co feignech ann, Aisl. Tond. 121.12 (= co henirt, 94.7 ).

As npr.: Eicnech mac Colggen, AU 721 = Eignech YBL 206b17 .

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