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ad-cosnai

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ad-cosnai or dil.ie/403
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: at-cosna, -ascnai, adcosnat, ascnam, adcosnain, atcosnaitis, adcosnae, -ascnae, adcosna, adcosantae, adruchoisséni, ascnam, ascnaide, ascnaid

v (* ad-com-sní-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 634 ) Indic. pres. 3 s. at-cosna , Fél. 156.11 . -ascnai, Laws iv 366.13 . 3 pl. adcosnat, Thes. ii 6.29 . Ipv. 1 pl. ascnam, Fél. Dec. 31 . Indic. impf. 1 s. adcosnain se, Thes. ii 2.26 . 3 pl. atcosnaitis, Fianaig. 10.19 . Subj. pres. 2 s. adcosnae, Ml. 56b39 . -ascnae, Ml. 56b31 . 3 s. adcosna. Ml. 51b6 . Subj. impf. sg. pass. adcosantae, Ml. 115d13 . Pret. and perf. 3 s. adruchoisséni, Ml. 69d4 .

Vn. ascnam.

Part. ascnaide.

Later also as simple vb. ascnaid.

(a) makes for, strives for, seeks (trans.): ni moa adcosnat bete in secundo genere . . . quam `they do not strive more', Thes. ii 6.29 . ní etaigthersu immanisin .i. ni ascnae ┐ ní charae, Ml. 56b31 . cach gell cona [ḟ]ritgill do di[a] nascnai coir `on the basis of which he attains his right', Ériu xii 48.2 . athlaech . . . nad nascnai sacarbuic `a lay-recluse who does not go to the sacrament', Laws iv 366.13 . nech atcobra dul for nemh, atcosna (atcosnae v.l.) in flaith, ZCP vii 310 § 1 . is ech buada dar mag réid / fer adcosnaid flaith Dé móir, Goid. 180.22 ( LL 284b42 .) is treothu adcosnaigther flaith nime, LB 12a46 . atcosnatis bidbad būaidh `they strove ever for victory over their foes', Fianaig. 10.19 . ascnaid Ériu seach inis Breatan sets out for E., BB 203b38 . in port adcosnaidís, 39a23 . gur bo hi an conair i ttudchad . . . don tir nó asgnáifedh, Hugh Roe 80.19 (fo. 21b) .

(b) proceeds, goes (intrans. with various prepp.): atchiu churach dar Muir Mend / ascnas i n-iathaib h-Erend, LL 12642 . adcosnat hi crich Ciarraigi . . . co Ath Féne, IT ii2 213.33 . ro-asgna Luguidh cona mhaithibh . . . i ccomhdhāil Conaill marched against, ZCP xiv 249.3 . ascnait assaide d'ardchathraig in tíre, LL 220b11 ( TTr. 246 ). ro asccna assaidhe co ros Comáin, AFM vi 1954.7 . ascnais A. co Poll Ruadhain, BNnÉ 322 § 31 . ro asccna ó D. tar Sruthair . . . ar fud tire hamhalghaidh, AFM iii 390.x . do easccna ara aghaidh he went forwards, v 1574.4 . ro asccnatar rempu they advanced, CCath. 4898 . ascnait . . . tria fort `they passed through a fort', Fl. Earls 104.27 . ascnaidhit a n-iermoracht Uī Nēill `they set out to overtake O'N.', 164.10 aon léig[e] dēg issedh ro ascnaidset in lā sin, 166.29 . ascnam . . . iarsin slicht let us go over the account (of a tale), Arch. Hib. ii 54 § 1 . asgnaidh esti a h-ainim life departed from her, Aen. 2869 . ra ascná uadib a mbruth, LL 244b42 .

Cf. ascnamaid.

2 áige

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 áige or dil.ie/917

 

Forms: ága(e)

n also ága(e) io, m. Perh. same word as 1 á. post, prop, pillar: braga .i. bir-āga. āige ainm bir, Corm. Y 161 . aighe .i. sail no gabhal, O'Cl. dún . . . dorus umaide fair ┐ ágai umaidi and, LU 1793 . bertais . . . inna hágu umaidi, 1799 . cach aga cach airenach (of the Tech Midchuarda), LL 3704 . Extended uses. Of a person: cach óen nad beir genelach cosna cethrib agaib arddaib seo .i. co Niall la Hu Nēill, co hEochaid Mugmedoin etc., Rawl. 140b28 . imme, maith in taighe, / suides flaith cech tiri (of the king of Tara), Ériu v 232.16 . ba háge immairic cach fer dib seo pillar of battle, LU 1602 ( IT ii2 214.52 ). ?dal armairc gan all n-āighi / as tairgsin āirmhe ar nionaibh, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919 v 93 § 33 . inmain áighe sútt `beloved chief', BColm. 36.16 . Frequ. in Fél. of saints: Pól apstol, ard áge, Fél. Prol. 119 (.i. calma, Fél.2, where Stokes suggests reading colma. Hence aighe .i. calma, O'Dav. 69 , O'Cl. citing Fél.). Benedict balc áge (: Árne), March 21 (.i. tuir, ib.). Pátraic prímdae áge, Nov. 2. comdíre do rig ┐ epscop ┐ agu rechta litre ┐ suid filed an authority in literary matters, ZCP xvi 175 § 4 . age rechta dilgetha .i. int og-ae aca mbi dirgidetu dilgeda, in fer leiginn .i. sai chanoine, Ériu xii 12.2 . a.¤ fine head of the family: cor focerdcar (leg. -tar) seach aga fine ada cora do beith oga, Laws iv 60.12 . co tuca cach a cond .i. a aige fine, i 80.29 Comm. leth coibche cach ingine dia haighe fine, iii 314.9 Comm. a.¤ réire judge: aighe rere .i. brethem, O'Dav. 19 . aighe réire ag breith fírbhreath (glossed aighe .i. sail no gabhal; réire .i. aosda .i. sail sheanoirde re breitheamhnas), Hard. ii 294.8 . Of a high place: fil dam aichne áige . . . benn B., Metr. Dinds. iv 70.1 . rodharcbla . . . isi cric domídigear rosc ┐ adsuighaidter criche frisin, ma rofeisear in da aighe derba bidé iman raind sin `this is the district estimated by the eye, boundaries are defined by these if the two certain heads which are to this division be known' (i.e. the eye fixes the boundary if two points of it remain i.e. by running a straight line between these points), Laws iv 144.5 Comm. is ed tainic a n-aige ┐ a n-ardde ant srotha co rochuired uadha na cairci commora, TTebe 3623 (Ed. takes as 1 aige). aighe .i. cnoc, O'Cl.

airerda

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airerda or dil.ie/1937
Last Revised: 2013

 

adj io, iā (2 airer) pleasant, delightful: an nem niabach na.¤ , SR 112 . flaith úasal . . aererda, LU 2299 ( FA § 35 ). taige arda a.¤ , SG 367.19 . iostadh aoibhind a.¤ , Leb. Gab.(i) 208.31 . cosna bīadaib oirerda[ib], MacCongl. 81.17 . airigthi a.¤ , TFerbe 86 . roba suaic[h]nid a.¤ corp inn oenocclaigh, CCath. 6047 . nirbo soinmeach a.¤ . . . ruccadh ass in adaigh the night was not pleasantly spent, CCath. 4315 . ererda gl. delicatissimus 'refined, sensitive' Ériu lv 8 .

airthríallaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airthríallaid or dil.ie/2449

 

v (airthríall): cosna trenferu roairthriallsat lais techt in turais who set out on the expedition with him, LL 224ay ( TTr. 529 ).

as-roinni

Cite this: eDIL s.v. as-roinni or dil.ie/4483

 

Forms: érnaid, asroinnea, érnam, érnaide

v (* ess-ro-sní-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 634 ) Later also as simple vb. érnaid. escapes: asroinnea gl. euadi, Ml. 31a2 . gudem Críst ara nérnam, Ériu i 195.5 . térnam .i. ro ernam, Lib. Hymn. 126.z . nocon érnaba cerr ná chárnai dít asin taig hi taudchud, BDD² 547 . gidh bé contuasi fri mná / gen guassacht ní ernama, Ériu ii 229 § 5 . bid buide lais dīa n-ērnaba, MacCongl. 5.10 . ní érna acht óenchoiciur díb ass, LU 7956 . ar nír érno in tres fer do feraib hE. cen chnáim lessi . . . do brisiud, 6529 (TBC). ní mór má 'd-róinne sceóla indisen scél dena díberg[a]chaib, BDD² 1491 ( ma doerna, BDD 158 ). nach aen adroindi isin chath, TBC-I¹ 3652 . is ē ōenfer . . . adroindi drochērnam ūad-som, 1606 (adroinni drochternam LU) `who escaped [even] a bad escape', Faraday. cosna huaitib no ernatis leis, Trip.² 522 . do ernatís araile don teidm sin, ALC i 288.25 .

Vn. érnam.

Part. érnaide.

béim

Cite this: eDIL s.v. béim or dil.ie/5566
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: béime

(-mm) n, n. vn. of benaid, see GOI § 735. b.¤ m. and f., g s. and n p. béime, IGT Decl. § 45 (g s. ex. 572, d s. ex. 693).

(a) act of striking; cutting, hewing, taking (off, away), removing, stripping (clothes, etc.): beim a cinn fri cloich gl. capita petrís inlidant, Ml. 139c3 . la beim dom churp cuimnech `at the smiting of my mindful body', Fél.² Ep. 363. fo-loimetar a b.¤ cosna claidbib they threaten to smite him, BDD² 1206. ba b.¤ cride fri cliab leis (of fear), TBC-LL¹ 1038. iarna beím dó asa fremaib (of an oak), Sc.M² 18R . oc bēim ḟeda, TBC-I¹ 778. fertais carpait do bēimim (béim, LU), 780 . a chenn do bēim (bein, v.l.) de, Sc.M² 7. dixit cend Lomnae drūith īarna bēimeim de, Corm. Y 1018 (87.4) . iar mbeim a chind do Ch. `after striking off C.'s head', Ériu ii 30 § 13. a ndrisi ┐ a ndraigne do beim dib (of land), Laws i 128.9 Comm. im beim adbar droichit `cutting the materials for a bridge', 134.27 Comm. b.¤ .i. búain, O'Cl.

Special applications: sesem ic beim in cluic, Thes. ii 346.38 . oc b.¤ tened, BDD² 480. b.¤ spréde, 487 . tene an aonbeime .i. Aodh (see áed), Anecd. ii 52.1 . iar mbēim eiti when he flaps his wings, ZCP vii 310 § 7. dóṡuidigthi .i. cechtar nái foleith cen b.¤ foscdæ innalaill (gl. apposita) without (the one) casting a shadow on the other (of genders of oppidum and Suthul), Sg. 63a15 . íar bēim dei a lēned having taken off his tunic, TBC-I¹ 1387 . a etach . . . do beim do na corpaib, Laws i 176.7 Comm. ní maith lim-sa a manaig do bēim ar L. `to deprive L. of his monks', BColm. 84.16 . ? ni fess mo bunad ria beím `I know not my race to proclaim it', Ériu vii 225.19 .

(b) blow, stroke; cut: bemmen gl. ictús, Ml. 39c17 . bémen dígle . . . nímmalle act is cach ae fo leith .i. coic cethorchuit béimmen `blows of punishment . . . five forties of blows', Wb. 17d2 . ind mbemmi a glancing blow, LL 11091 ( TBC-LL¹ 4285 ). fer benas dam óenbeímmim `at a single blow' (Vocab.), Críth G. 557. is ē nobenfad a crand ōen bēim (óenbéimim, LU) dia bun, TBC-I¹ 339. b.¤ búirid fri teora sústa iarnae they strike a blow with three iron flails, BDD² 1270. co tarat beim ( la tabairt beimen, FB 39 Eg.), LU 8536. dobert b.¤ dind echfleisc dó, 3287 ( SCC 8 ). benaim bēimend ágmara / for slōg síabra, TBC-I¹ 1686 ( LU 6170 ). roben a teora mǣla Midi da thrī bēmennaib, TBC-I¹ 3603. in treas beimennd Fergusa . . . .i. na tri maola Midhi, it e na tri beimenna, Anecd. ii 52.13 . dá cét mbéimen for láma (of penitential exercises), Ériu i 197.5 . cin coisi, di bemium `crime of foot, by kicking', Laws i 238.11 . doradad iarsin b.¤ dara munel cor beanad a cheand de, RC xxiv 56.1 . beim co commus (one of Cú Chulainn's feats), Ériu iv 30.12 . beim fo clos `some kind of military exploit' (Plummer MS. notes), BB 488b22 . co mbeim léoman (rhetoric), LU 5442 , TBC-I¹ 966. bēimm dobeir nathair do neoch an adder's sting for someone, Bruchst. 22 § 48 ( IT iii 78 § 48 ). fri b.¤ n-aéla thrust (of a fleshfork into a cauldron), LL 38376 ( RC xiii 58 ). ráinic b.¤ ǽile fon choire do Conall, RC xxix 219.19 . B. breo betha buadaig / beim in æl airimh ænuigh, Lism. L. 3464. rus-bean bem da heirr `struck . . . with a stroke of its tail' (of a serpent), TTebe 2074 . gearraidh sí (i.e. a scythe) d'aon-bh. an feóithne ┐ an fochnagán, TSh. 2644.

Extended applications: Bemenda Branduib i mBreghaib (i.e. ` seven battles', ed.), RC xvii 163.12 . Bemenna B. i mBreaghaibh, AFM i 222.6 . brogais Bernsa b.¤ don maig `advanced a pace', Metr. Dinds. iii 92.39 . bēim graece bemandro .i. pasus (leg. passus), O'Mulc. 140. bēim didiu .i. césad nó foditiu (through confusion with Lat. passio ?), ibid. b.¤ .i. céim, O'Cl. bēim, cēim `a step', Eg. Gl. 717 (see Ériu xi 119) . beim beg do breathaibh crolighi annso (title of passage consisting of extracts from commentaries on Bretha Crólige, see Ériu xii 2 ), O'Curry 305 (H 3.18, 167). Cf. beimm cenelach lessom anisiu `this is a general remark (?),' Thes. ii 39.22 .

(c) In legal contexts determination, decision, definition, rule, statement (?): b.¤ .i. cinneadh, O'Cl. beim tuathi do nartaiched aicne .i. in cinnedh doní in tuath on aigne dia toirithín, O'Curry 444 (H 3.18, 238b). beim naillech nad nertad tuatha deter- mination, assertion (?) by oath, Laws i 232.1 (and 234.6 Comm.). beim nailliuch . . . .i. noill cinnti . . . .i. in luighe cinnedh (in tuath), O'D. 105 (H.3.17, 86). b.¤ sét ro slanaige tuathband, 576 (443). beim .i. cinne (leg. cinned, Stokes), beim sochaidi ro sluagaigh (leg. slanaigh) tuathbann .i. is cinne sochaidhi, O'Dav. 311. beim sochaidh ro slanaigh tuathbann .i. ro slanaigh in dliged so co obund is na tuathaib. Cail mar cuirfidh in bec sin re cheile. In beim annsa roscadh inand he ┐ in dliged ata sa fasach. In tobonn ata sa fasach is inand ┐ in beim mar in cetna, O'Curry 2113 (H.4.22, 79a). beim sochuir ro slánaigh tuathband ┐ do garar nos la curaibh cosmailsi, O'D. 533 (H. 3.17, 431) `the striking [?] of a good contract which public law validates', Plummer MS. notes. beim tairbe na tarrathar .i. bem so tairben cluais na tarruith nech adidceth, O'Curry 879 ( H 3.18, 394a ).

(d) In various special phrases: b.¤ n-asclaing see asclang. b. císa a rate (?) (levying ?) of tribute: ben do beim císa orainn, Lism. L. 3195 . Cf. (c) supra. b.¤ n-écndaig, cf. (e): ba ussa . . . a dilgud sein oldaas beim n-ecnaich for Dia `blasphemy of God', Ériu ii 122 § 63. See écndach. b.¤ forais (see forus): b.¤ foris inso sís uile all that follows is a laying down, or statement, of rules, Wb. 25c18 . aphorism: forus .i. forismus graece sermo breuis latine ipocrāit (?) no excerptio interpretatur unde dicitur adcomced beim foruis fair (see Gwynn, KMMisc. 183 ), Rawl. 108b36 , O'Mulc. 578. b.¤ súl(a) (see s.v. súil): gebis galur Dauid . . . tria béimm súla ┐ tria aídcell anfhoill, LB 129a15 . treisi an b.¤ súla iná sin the evil (?) (envious ?), eye can go further (lit. is stronger) than that (?), Bard. Synt. Tr. 219.17 .

(e) Fig. blow, stroke of feeling, emotion; reproach, offence (with FOR, AR); blemish, fault, disgrace: beim di omhon, Ériu ii 134 § 118. in bem dimecin dorat L. fair, BB 416a16 . dorat . . . aithis ┐ beim forsan coicedh n-uili, Sc.M² R 14 . benais M. b.¤ n-aisce fair reproached him, TBC-LL¹ 472. beim ar a ecna `offence à sa science', RC xxiv 377.29 . b.¤ .i. égnach no toibhéim, O'Cl. , Eg. Gl. 718. is b.¤ ar inchaib na h-atharda, MR 300.31 . fagail beime ni dual di she should not receive reproach, ZCP ii 337.22 . ní b.¤ ar Bh. `no reproach to B.', TD 6. 17 . le a dtréithibh gan bh.¤ ar bioth, Hackett lv 13 . ná bíodh 'na bh.¤ air ar n-obadh, IGT Decl. ex. 693. buain béime ar mo bhogha-sa `that you have undertaken to revile my bow', Content. xxiv § 22 .

Compd. ¤scrisad: do bhéimsgriosadh . . . le tréan-thuile mhóir violently snatched away, O'Rah. 44.5.

1 cenn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cenn or dil.ie/8622
Last Revised: 2020

 

Forms: cend, ch., cenna, ciunn, cinn, cenda, cinnu, cind, cind, cinnu, cionn, ceann, cionn, cionn, ceinn

n o, n., later m. n p. cend, LU 9385 . ? a p. ch.¤ , Sg. 54a11 . n a p. usually cenna. On d s. ciunn, cinn see GOI 177 . For masc. infl. in pl. cf. a p. cenda, TBC-I¹ 483 = cinnu, LU 4970 . n p. cind, FA 22 LB. cind `chiefs', Laws v 440.23 . a p. cinnu, LL 8132 . In later lang. both cionn (O. Ir. ciunn) and ceann occur in d s. (see Donl., Párl. na mB.), the former mainly in fixed prepositional expressions (ós cionn , etc.). a s. cionn, Beatha S. F. 2567 . g s. ceinn, Párl. na mB. 535 , n p. Keat. i 196.15 . IGT Decl. § 65 .

Note also: for ar ceinn, Vita Br. 24 . in ch.¤ cleasach . . . Tesifóne, MR 168.6 . iar ndenamh creiche chinne maghair (n. loc.), AFM iv 1356.6 .

I The human head, head of an animal .

1 cend a uerbo graeco .i. gennome (γίνομαι) .i. nascor, O'Mulc. 217 . donchind gl. capiti, Gild. Lor. 102 . du-uic in foiltne i ndiad in chínn, Ml. 84c24 . mani roima fora c.¤ ní mema forsna bullu, 89c11 . beim a cinn fri cloich, 139c3 . ammi corp do Crist et is c.¤ som duunni, Wb. 5d2 . airmitiu féid in chinn, 7d14 . cen chaille fora ciunn, 11c9 . in boill dó ass ón chiunn, 22a17 . adart foch., Sg. 198a10 . dim chinn, Blathm. 95 § 17 . oc folcad chinn a athar, Vita Br. 15 . airecc cinn Iohannis, Fél. Feb. 27 . contt cēill ciunn curp in sense, reason, head and body , ZCP vi 258.10 . rochromsat a ccinnu, ZCP xiv 234.5 . imruidbed mo tenga as mo chind, Ériu ii 102 § 9 . madit a shuili inna cinn, 122 § 61 . amhuil chinn ina bhalluibh, Luc. Fid. 3454 . Of a head of hair: ceinn-fhionna (sic) do bhíodh ar fhearaibh Éireann re n-a linn `white heads', Keat. i 196.15 (see cenann).

2 In phrase with follg. gen. forming n. pr.: Coirpri Cind cait Cathead , Cóir Anm. 241 . C.¤ Fáelad Wolfhead , see Corp. Gen. 541 - 2 . Cend Ghegain, IT iii 101 § 183 . Finguine mac Laeghaire Cenngégain, Cog. 18 (see also s.v. cinnchucán). Eochaidh cendmhairc Horsehead , Miscell. Celt. Soc. 6.8 . da ingin dec ailella cind nathrach Snakehead , Rawl. 134b18 .

3 Of the head cut off in battle: fris-cithsead far cenna díb, BDD² 869 . tri laíchcind . . . im chend do chétmeic, LL 13149 (Sc.M2). co fargaibhset xl c.¤ lais, AFM i 498.2 . So in phr. ár c.¤ = ár: co fargaibset ár cend aicce, LL 2536 . cor' ben a ngabala dib ┐ ár cend leo, RC xvii 354.4 .

4 Attrib. g s.: na heónu / cosna ceólu cinn-sin (sic leg.) shrill notes, Metr. Dinds. iv 214.68 . Cf. gotha cinn . . . ag báinealtoin, Ir. Syll. Poetry 71 § 5 . See Études Celt. iv 397 . iter chosa cinn ┐ cos[a] tóna front legs , Thr. Ir. Gl. 26 . nocha bán-bhéim acht cneadh chinn head-wound, serious wound , Miscell. Celt. Soc. 162.9 . ? secht ccumala cinn, Ériu xiii 22.24 . gilla cinn eich gl. auriga, Ir. Gl. 17 . laicce chinn, RSClára 4a . go mbeith rith chinn ré fānaidh aco ar gach n-aon eile would completely outdistance, would utterly rout(?), Párl. na mB. 99 .

Vendryes, Études Celt. iv 397 , cites BDD² 886 and We. parallels in support of a meaning mouth.

5 In various idiomatic phrases: ro héige in ben nert a cind at the top of her voice, SR 3215 . conā fāgad inad a chind for bith that he might find no abiding-place, TBC-I¹ 2214 . o cionn co fonn from tip to toe, Blathm. 152 . nom-loiscc eter chend is choiss completely , Ériu vii 223 § 34 . dia cennaib ┐ cosaib utterly, entirely , LB 115b42 . bein cinn fri hald `striking a head against a cliff' (of wasted labour), RC xii 96 § 127 . co ro benad a tech dia chind `unroofed his house', RC xxiv 46 § 4 . roloiscedh . . . a ndúin . . . ina cendaibh, Ériu v 158.215 . a ndiaidh a gcinn headlong , Donlevy xviii 25 . an ceann fá dhruim head first (coffin lowered into grave), Dán Dé xxix 7 . co mbiat cend ar díb cendaib (of a fierce battle), TTr.² 907 . ar ba `c.¤ i mbolg' . . . do ṡil Adhuimh were in complete ignorance, Ériu ii 98 § 1 = ba-c.¤ a-coim, RC xxiv 369.6 , cf. Études Celt. vi 201 . cend i cotlud a peaceful death(?), Ériu ii 118 § 54 . ? ní bheinn teann ar chlíabh a cill / sní bhíadh mo cheann a cuigind, IGT Decl. ex. 1400 . c.¤ a ngabal `head in fork' (bad behaviour in a horse), Laws iii 180.18 Comm. c.¤ i láp see láp. c.¤ i, fo muine see 1 muine. ? fír, ol Óengus, Fergas cend fo raithin, Trip.² 1495 .

6 Of a single animal, etc.: do mac Loigsiu pa mōr ngō / ar in āincend an cēt mbō, ACL iii 2.12 . Note also: aon bhuaidhreadh amháin . . . an dara ceann, De Imit. 29.23 . ? robii cosnom im oenchend `there may be strife about one head' (Faraday), TBC-I¹ 1730 .

7 Various: ceann cait owl , Párl. na mB. 1452 . go dul tar ceannaibh cuan, Measgra D. 48.8 ` billow, breaker ', Gloss.

8 In various idioms with prec. vb.: ni mo tarrthus cend furre no forin gaeth `it was no more possible to get hold of her than of the wind', Aen. 649 . do-fócaib c.¤ appears see do-fócaib (D 269.36 ff.). ? immicurtis iarum cenna sechaiseom darsi ṅGairb sair ┐ siar eter Laigniu ┐ Ossairge, LL 36728 . tug a ch.¤ a n-inisle iomagallaimhe orra `entered into converse', ITS v 112.17 . no indsaiged in Troianda . . . congebead cend in Grecdai ┐ no indsaiged in Grecda . . . co ngebid cend in Tr. ┐ combdis cind ar cind, BB 435b22 .

9 Of buildings roof: ni rabi cenn for tempul Fidnacha in tan-sin, Ann. Conn. 1244.5 . c.¤ co claradh oir for tor dibh, Marco P. 117 . c.¤ Frangcach `a ribbed vault, a groined roof ' (Meyer Contribb.), AU iii 161.8 . don chend luaidhe boí for tempall an bhaile, AFM vi 1956.16 . Note also: roclúdadh na lestra fóa ccennuibh covers, tops , Ériu xiii 24.22 .

II End, end-point, termination.

10 In concrete applications: c.¤ cridi gl. uiscus, uisceris, Sg. 111b5 . nóe cend nine tips(?), LU 9835 . achind dochnama, IT iii 103.19 . a-cinn a-cruibh, RC xxiv 377.1 , .3 . cennæ na ngái, Liad. and Cuir. 12.9 . ceand muilind `the head of a mill', Ériu xvii 70 § 12 gl. 3 ( Laws iv 214.29 Comm. ). laim re ceand in droichid, Ériu xvii 72 § 13 gl. 10 . comrad chindcherchailli, TBC-LL¹ 3 . mó ná cliab co cendaib dés ` sheaves ', Metr. Dinds. iv 138.81 . do bhalad cinn én coinnle, RC xxiv 383.33 . dealg do chennaib óigsgech, IGT Decl. ex. 1082 . Metr. aisde cind tṡinte, IGT Metr. Faults §§ 48 , 49 . co casbairn chinn truim, Decl.ex. 623 (see cenntromm).

11 Of territories: a tá isin chionnsa thes (of a hill), SG 118.10 . isin c.¤ ba nesa dó don tír, AFM vi 2056.19 . i cind Maige Dála at the end of Magh Dala, Ériu i 132.74 . Of journeys: a gceann uidhe their objective, O'Hara 1241 . ceann bhar gcoimhleanga, DDána 74.56 . is iomdha slighe . . . / 's a ceann go magh nimh a-nonn, Dán Dé xxiii 4 .

12 Abstract applications: ceann m'aradhna ná léig lim let me not hold mine own bridle, IGT Decl. ex. 311 . sa chionn cunntuis in the account, Fl. Earls 90.13 . ní ricfa c.¤ scéoil úainne tar tech not a whisper of it will get out of this house, TTr.² 1796 . Of time: ar c.¤ fri c.¤ Enair `our end against the head of January' (i.e. 31 Dec. and 1 Jan.), Fél. Ep. 8 . c.¤ do shaoghail, BNnÉ 293 § 12 v.l. For sa cheann cháol etc. see cáel. do cheann don dáil `what you shall get in this affair', Content. xxvii 15 .

13 Of the end or completion of an affair, etc.: foruirmed c.¤ forsnaib cotarsnaib gl. aduersa nostra . . . constant inpleta, Ml. 74c20 . ni tucthar c.¤ essib gl. genelogís interminatís, Wb. 27d22 . oc tabairt chind for airimmeirt sluaigh ┐ shochaidhi, TTr.² 310 ( LL 400b10 ). cend ┐ forcenn air sin that's enough of that(?), Acall. 5361 . ní bia cend for th'ermitin `there shall be no limit to thy dignity', Celtica iv 16.180 .

III Of persons, chief, head person, leader.

14 Legal: nad cennaib coirib comallat, ZCP xiv 379 § 43 `cond . . . den voll Geschäftsfähigen. Die andern haben einen cond als c. `Haupt' über sich, der sie `unterstüzt', für sie in ihren Sachen spricht, etc. ', 380 . rí bunaid cach cinn, Críth G. 447 `caput, head of family, individual', Vocab. fortét cech c.¤ ba tressa(i) inní bes étressa, 474 . c.¤ caich iar nduinib i fine besid sruithe, ZCP xiv 369 § 31 ( Laws ii 278.21 ). cend cartus a memar a chief who rejects his tenant, Laws v 164.19 Comm. dlegaid cind cuindreach `the chiefs are bound to rectify', 440.23 . cach cind (sic MS) a chonrach, ACL iii 227.31 .

15 In non-legal contexts: cend do ḟeraib Herenn Patraic, Thes. ii 326.32 (Hy. iv gl.). for bélaib a cind ┐ a tigernad, Alex. 274 . M. . . . fa chend ar clēirchib, ZCP viii 120.5 . na cinn clāena cin crābud `the wicked, impious chiefs', Ériu iii 30 § 8 . a cheann féin `his Master', PBocht 11.20 .

16 With follg. noun in gen. indicating category of persons: c.¤ bocht almoner (?), AU ii 32.4 . c.¤ cáid caillech n-Érenn, Fél. Feb. 1 . cend degban is deorad, SG 64.35 . c.¤ fedna see fedan. c.¤ fine head of family or clan: lochdach an Róisdeach achd ón chionn fhine, IGT Decl. 7.14 . da ch.¤ fhine ina ionad, AFM iv 1146.16 . i ndioghail a ccind ḟine, iii 404.z . i ndegaid in chinn manach the abbot, Ériu iii 100 § 25c . c.¤ in réclessa, Ríocht na Midhe viii 15 . c.¤ sluag fer Fáil, Trip.² 1793 v.l. Cf. also: is cend daim for dartoid [.i.] mōrpersan for becphopul, O'Mulc. 753 .

17 With follg. gen. of abstr.: c.¤ athchomairc see athchomarc. ar gceann bāidhei-ne an bhean our chief love (of Mary), Dán Dé ii 29 . cend cathaigthe as chalma ro bai do Leith Mogha battle-leader , RC xviii 11.24 . a Chind, coisc na crích (a chind coisc ?), Ériu vii 221 § 22 . c.¤ comairle cuindrig muintire fri comairle comneirt, ‘a “head of counsel” who controls the household with advice of equal strength’, CL 240.3 . nach ben forsa-mbe c.¤ comuirle, ZCP xiv 375 § 38 . cenn comuirle ┐ adchomairc fer mBregh n-uile, 'chief counsellor and consultant of the men of all Brega', AU² 374.6 . in fer ba húasle ┐ ba mó rath issin túaith iss e ba cend comairle do chách, LL 118 . co tech ar cind comairle, ‘to our counsellor’s house’, Éigse vii 77 §11 . cend crabaid ermoir Erenn paragon of piety, RC xxvi 362.2 . gan chend cundraid na comairle rempo, LL 12344 (TBC). uair robesin cend gaili . . . sluaig, Cog. 194. 29 . c.¤ ecna . . . iartair domain, CS 320.9 . c.¤ cech erais, Fél. Apr. 23 . in bandea ingen Terrae cend scaílti scél in betha chief disseminator of news, LL 31001 (TTr.). a chend sochair slúaig Ulad chief benefactor, MU² 58 . In follg. perh. headquarters, centre : uail (= bhail) itā ceand in cogaidh, ZCP viii 115.18 . baili i mbai cend ídlachta ┐ druídechta na Héirenn, Trip.² 431 . flaitheas Dé is ceann chomhsanta dhúinne, Eochairsg. 98.25 ( end, goal ?).

IV Used in a wide variety of adverbial and prepositional phrases.

18 cinn at the end of (see 33, 40, 52) (ciunn, cinn, dative without preposition, GOI 537 ): cinn rehe gl. secundum hoc tempus, Wb. 4c11 . cinn blíadnae at the end of a year, Fél. Sept. 17 . cind .ix. mís, LU 1662 . cind in tres laí, 7977 (BDD). cind cethri ndíni `at the end of four genera- tions', Arch. Hib. ii 48 § 1 . cind mile bliadan, Ériu ii 132 § 109 .

19 In phr. cinn chomair: nó huachiunn chomair gl. e rigione `or, from before', Ml. 119a9 (`von dem Anfang der Richtung', Ped. KZ xxxv 435 ). fri re mis cind comar, AU ii 88.x . Usually of place (see 28, 31): cinn chomair gl. contra (solem), BCr. 33c17 . for in phurt cind chomair dó `opposite to him', RC xiv 406.1 ( LL 12675 ). cind comair frissin ṁbeist n-amnais, LL 398b18 = cinnchomair, TTr.² 148 . i cinncomair friu opposite them, CCath. 5561 . ro badhusa cind comraic riusom, Acall. 6795 . Cf. i comair chind airtherthuascertaig, LL 3865 = hi comardus cind, etc., RC xv 283 § 29 .

Usually with prec. prep. In the follg. sections the arrangement is according to the preceding preposition, with which an adverbial in addition to a prepositional phrase is frequently formed. In a number of cases meanings under various prepositions coincide.

With A.

20 In sense of ós ciunn (60): asa chind guarding him, Metr. Dinds. iv 358.94 . ata M. . . . asa mo chind-sa oc fúr m'anma, PH 806 . batar a cind na cathrach who were over the city, 2488 . In diff. sense: as a cheann féin `of his own Head' (of his own accord), Donlevy 330.16 . The follg. are obscure (leg. ar for as in one or more of the exx. ?): cen ascur sáitha asa chiunn `without remission of tribulation from His presence(?)' (in store for him ?), Wb. 25d16 . conid ari rogabad al-lam a pardus dochum gortæ ┐ bochtæ . . . ┐ bais ┐ hifirn asa cind `thenceforth', Ériu vii 164 § 8 . ? gidh bé do cuir asa chionn `it matters not whom he drove from his head' (Notes), Duan. F. i 32.20 . Perh. in literal sense: in t-ēolus-[s]a rádi rimm, / ferr duit nā cloisti as do chínn, ZCP xiii 3 § 2 .

With AR (see also 42).

21 ar chenn with vbs. of motion towards, in the direction of, to meet (see 39, 45): ceni esǽrsitis in choirp ara c.¤ `to meet them', Ml. 15c8 . condaáerset do failti ar ch.¤ a rríg to welcome their King, 46a12 . ara cénn gl. occurrentes, 60d5 . do-luid in biail arithissi ar ch.¤ inna samthige came back to the handle, Tur. 131 . techt ar ch.¤ Crist, Wb. 25d25 . co toracht Emain Macha ar cend Conchobair, LU 8073 ( FB 4 ). ní-s-cuirfind techta ar dho chend-sa, PH 450 . canat biet in alltair / ar ch.¤ clocáin don phroindtig at the sound of the refectory bell, Ériu iii 102 § 28 . gearr go dtiocfa teachtaire / . . . / ar do cheann, DDána 56.1 . docuaidh . . . arcinn na conuire a ticcidh aran sliabh `went to the road', ZCP vi 56.8 . Cf. airg ┐ áird-leasdair . . . do chomdhlúthúghadh ar cheann na céd aimsire do thairrngir D. . . . dhóib `against', ML 6.25 .

22 Of going to meet in battle: ara chend dait a Fergus, LU 6698 . rotbīa F. . . . ar ndul ar c[h]end ind ḟir ucut, TBC-I¹ 1247 (LU).

23 In sense of going or coming for, to fetch someth.: is ar ch.¤ focheda dodechommar `to meet suffering', Wb. 25a12 . tecat ar ch.¤ in chon co sochruid to fetch the hound, Sc.M² 4 . dula uaimm ar do chend-su to fetch you, PH 446 . teacht ar ceand cind duine isinn ārmuig, RC xxiv 58 § 18 . in lind ara tánac c.¤ the water for which thou camest, Ériu iv 106.7 . ? ochd bhféinnidhe as ḟearr a n-ágh / ar ceann t'éindighi d'fúarán, IGT Decl. ex. 1333 . socraiti do dol . . . ar cend artraige dochum Domnaill, Ann. Conn. 1248.5 . Note also: do lleblaing int écne ara chend (ref. to ordnasc f.), TBFr. 208 , cf. Meyer Contribb., Fraech p. 35 .

24 In meanings of tar c.¤ (66-70) (confusion of prepp.): cuirtha cumtaige ara cend `buildings were overthrown', KMMisc. 152.62 . ar cinn a chesta ┐ a caingne, Anecd. i 42.9 . tagra . . . do thagras ar cheann Mumhan on behalf of, Content. xviii 12 .

25 ar chiunn of time in the future, afterwards, later : frisnaccai archiunn gl. ad aliquam rem, Ml. 53b23 . artha ciúnn són gl. in posteram, 132a3 (see note). ar chinn gl. adhuc, Wb. 2a9 . archiunn . . . diéis gl. siue ante seu retro, BCr. 31b4 - 5 . ar oman imtormaich ina pecad ar chiund future sins, Ériu xix 58 § 6 . in maith iar cind future good, LU 9889 (for ar ch.¤ ?). rogabsat flaith ar chiund from then on, ZCP viii 313.21 . doairchaintis . . . anno bíth ar chind dóib, Trip.² 327 . ? mod airchiund di lubair a disposition ready for work(?), Rawl. B 512, 40c (Plummer MS. notes).

26 ar chiunn as quasi-adj. of points of time next, following, ensuing (in later lang. somet. with (i)ar in this use): san aidhchi ar chínd, BB 39b6 . co belltaine ar cind, BColm. 92.2 . an bliadhain ar ccionn, Leb. Gab.(i) 56.4 . isin laithe ar ccind, 146.2 . In later lang. also as prep. with poss. in this sense: go medhōn oidhche buī ar a gcionn, Fl. Earls 8.20 . go Bealltaine ar a gcionn till the following May, Keat. ii 3137 . See 38 .

27 ar chiunn in textual reff. below, in what follows; later, following : forsin canoin ar chiunn `on the following Scripture passage', Ml. 54c34 . trachtad . . . forsa nouit ar chiunn `on nouit that follows', 64a7 . in testimin ar chiunn `the following text', 104b3 . titul in dligid ar chinn, Wb. 10a12 . ata ní ar chiunn, Sg. 39b10 .

28 ar chiunn in front of, before (see 19): córus dúne ríg . . . ar chi[u]nn a thúaithe, Críth G. 566 `vis-à-vis', Vocab. bui siom oc huamim ara cind `before her', Mon. Tall. 149.18 . co nacca ara chind in fer, TBC-I¹ 448 . Cf. muir ara cendaib, in nem huasa ṁbennaib, 3006 . amail nobeith beo ar a chind as if he were alive in front of him, ACL iii 5.5 .

29 ar chiunn awaiting, ready for, in anticipation of (someone or someth. arriving): biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg gl. eliuamini, portae aeternales, Ml. 46a7 . ni farnic-sede nach maid ara chiun isin domun, Wb. 2a21 . ar ar ciunn-[n]i `against our coming', 25a33 . anais ar cionn antsluaigh `waited for', Blathm. 102 § 41 . co fuaratar a cele isind apdaine ara cind `on their arrival', Mon. Tall. 162.30 . aínínbuidh na fuair acht triur ar a chinn thall isin fíne (of a man who has joined or rejoined the tribe from outside), Laws iv 294.26 Comm. ar cinn ṡamraid at the arrival of summer, ZCP vii 310 § 8 . dá rabh a Rí na glóire / . . . / do mhaor ar chionn na coinnmhe / liom if Thy steward receive the company, Dán Dé xiv 11 . ar cinn chamhárach before daybreak, IGT Decl. ex. 1195 . ar cinn in lae, Fier. 135 . With petrified masc. poss.: arna beith ar a chind `in her way', RC xi 452.2 , cf. Meyer Contribb.

30 ar chiunn of time in store for (see 51): a fil ar mo chiunn gl. ad destinatum, Wb. 24a15 . cén bes fine ar a cinn as long as he has descendants, Laws iv 240.19 Comm. a n-airchend fil ar ar cinn the destiny which awaits us, Ériu i 68.12 . fuair Poimp bas ┐ fuair cidh Cesair ara cind afterwards, CCath. 8308 .

31 ci(u)nn ar chi(u)nn face to face, at grips (see 19, 54): atraig cach fer di alailiu . . . co m-bátar cind ar chind is taig, IT i 67 (LMU). fíal tened ┐ fíal d'aigriud . . . cind ar cind, LU 2067 ( FA 14 , cf. RC xxvi 148 § 27 ). inn-uair dobímmis cind ar chind, RC vii 302.1 . as and baoi Laogh ┐ a brathoir ciond ar ciond, ZCP x 295.27 . cind ar cind fri Dunchad, Ériu v 242.153 .

With co.

32 co c.¤ to the end, to completion (see 43): berthi leiss co c.¤ gl. perficiet, Wb. 23a19 . ní dernad in cnocc co c.¤ , Metr. Dinds. iii 44.79 . is co cend in cuidbiud the mockery has come to a head, Ériu i 118 § 10 . Cheville: céim co cend, Metr. Dinds. iv 26.9 .

33 co c.¤ with nouns indicating periods of time till the end of, for the duration of (see 18, 40, 52): co c.¤ blīadne, Thes. ii 319 ( Hy. ii 56 ). co c.¤ cairdi, Críth G. 366 . co cend trédenuis, PH 1859 . go ceann cóig n-aimsear, DDána 6.9 . go ceatra ceand[a] raithi `for four quarter-years', Magauran 804 . Note also: in fer co cind a chéli, MU² 991 `against', Gloss.

With DI and/or DO.

34 di chennaib of poetical composition appar. extemporaneously (see however Thurn. cited below and compare aisnēis do c[h]ennaib a chnāmae, Corm. Y 756 , which may point to a ritualistic procedure of some kind): canad do chennaibh, Ériu xiii 17.5 . ailges do ceanduibh, O'D. 2208 (Nero A vii, 144a). dligedh do feghar saor daor do chennaibh, Ériu xiii 25.30 = fedhair .i. dorenar, ut est dliged dofedhar sóer, dóer dochennaib .i. continuo , O'Dav. 828 . do . . . suid filed for-can di c[h]ennaib `von (seinen Knochen-) Enden', ZCP xvi 175 § 4 ( Laws i 40 , co ndenand rand can smuainedh, 42 Comm. ). is dochennaib . . . ro trial Dallán a duain do denum `extempore', RC xx 122.z (ACC). Also in phr. díchetal di chennaib, see díchetal. cetal do chendaib (a metre), IT iii 61 § 123 . See Ériu xlviii 45 .

35 intan tét a laithe di chiunn `passes away', Ml. 21c3 .

36 di and/or do chiunn in return for, for the sake of, instead of, on condition of, because of, for , etc. (see 68): do chinn a mbíd, SR 3406 . do c[h]inn loghaidh `in return for remission of tribute', Ériu xvii 22 § 16 . dúais do chionn chomáoine a quid pro quo , KMMisc. 346.28 . sgēl do chinn chummaéine, Anecd. i 36.3 . dia chind an tsréin in return for the bridle, BColm. 38 § 40 . nech . . . do cathugud di chend Crist for, PH 789 . do tairgeadh bó aile dí da cind, Imr. Brain 58.30 . berair-siu mac díachinn in its place, Cóir Anm. 133 . do chinn mo claidhem fen instead of my own sword, Fier. 60 . ragtais dia chind i comrac on his behalf, Metr. Dinds. iii 446.88 . do chionn a seachna `on condition of' (notes), Dán Dé x 12 . ró-mhór fuaramar d'a chionn too much we have got from it, Ériu i 96 § 52 . do chionn ubhaill, DDána 26.6 . do chionn an tshaoghail do thréigean through abandoning, Beatha S. F. 748 . dá chionn on that account, TSh. 1942 . do cind ced cennaighechta do denum in order to get leave, ZCP vi 90.15 . ar ngellad a marbtha d'Ulliam Burc do chind luaigi in consideration of, Ann. Conn. 1310.5 .

37 Of soliciting or having intercourse with a woman in spite of or unknown to her husband, etc. (see 70): comrac frim dot chind-so, Fing. R. 114 `in disregard of', Vocab. ben-side Ch. . . . co rustoirrchestar E. do chind a cēile, Corp. Gen. 139.x . a breth di-a chind (another man's wife), PH 833 . luid . . . F. . . . do thochmarc a mnā do chind Oilella, Fianaig. 6.16 . docomraiced-som fria mnaib aili dia cind si in disregard of her, ZCP i 104.10 .

38 Various: cia ruslā dia c[h]ind . . . T. . . . is he rosla(n) dar a chend, ZCP xiii 7.24 . conom thí de chind chúarda till it is my turn(?), LU 6699 ( TBC-I¹ 2158 ). ar chuir dá ceann all he added to it(?) (cf. 48), DDána 91.14 . ó Inid go Cáisg dá gcionn till the following Easter (see 26), Aithd. D. 75.18 . ? nior cuir dha chionn do bhí ag Fionn, Duan. F. i 32.20 .

With FO.

39 fo ch.¤ towards, against, for (see 21, 45): teacht fam cheann `(to) attack me', Content. xviii 1 . éirghid fo cend mo c[h]reiche they go for my booty, ZCP viii 226.22 . Note also: gabh fád cheann mo chonmharccsa `take upon thee my quarrel(?)', Studies 1924, 243 § 12 .

40 Of time within, during (see 18, 33, 52): fo ch.¤ aimsire giorra at the end of a short time, Ériu v 188.456 . fo c.¤ begain aimsiri, Stair Erc. 258 . fo chionn dā lō go n-oidhche, Fl. Earls 10.16 .

41 fo ch.¤ (less freq. chiunn) about, concerning, with regard to, for the sake of, etc. (see 59): ? craed aderum focheann, YBL 149a4 . fuaire a chách a-taoi fám chionn towards me, Dánta Gr. 86.8 . fa a gcionn because of them, DDána 25a1 . déna . . . fá ch.¤ oirbire t'filedh `to thy poet's objurgation make concession', O'Gr. Cat. 402.20 . mar go bhfuair duadh ┐ doghruing fá a ceann `on her account', Keat. ii 2342 . ? alaind a dath / fa ceand na cuach, IGT Metr. Faults§ 68 .

With FOR.

42 for c.¤ , ciunn. Usually = ar ch.¤ , chiunn (21 ff.): an do lotar for cend conaire, Vita Br. 40 `as they were proceeding on their way', Ir. Hist. Stud. i 132 . dochuaid fóncaillid forcend chonnaid for firewood, RC ii 396 § 33 . ro-fhóidestar P. . . . gilla turusa for cend Ísu, PH 2602 . for bar cind, LU 8388 ( FB 26 ). doluid D. for cuinn (leg. ciunn) a sethar do ḟailte frie, Rawl. 134b1 . co tarrla in muir ina clár comréidh . . . for cinn in catha, CCath. 1927 . for a g-ceann awaiting them, ML 44.22 . gusin dia dardaoin buī dō for cionn `until the Thursday following', Fl. Earls 258.4 . Perh. for orig. tar c.¤ (68 ff.) in: du gabail rigi for ch.¤ á athar `in his father's stead', Ml. 44d29 . cach adaltrach do-t[h]et for ceand cetmuintire, Stud. in E. Ir. Law 49 (`in spite of', note p. 50) ( Laws ii 384.1 ). do accallaim Grigair for cend uird ┐ riagla, LU 3095 (fo ch.¤ ?).

With I.

43 beirid, do-beir i cinn finishes, completes (see 32): doberar opair i cind and sain, LL 32264 ( TTr. 1452 ). maine berthar i cinn, 400b18 . ? focal nāchar thuill a gciond (: rinn), ZCP viii 223.x .

44 do-tuit etc. ina ch.¤ falls down, topples (see 67): a toitim ina chend dorisi, TTebe 1669 . ag tuitim ina ccenduibh do bhedis colamhuin . . . na cathrach, Ériu iv 56.18 .

45 i c.¤ in contexts implying motion (us. with prec. vb.) to, in the direction of, towards, against (see 21, 39): na torcair nemh inna ccent `on them', Blathm. 68 . lotir remib hi cend in Brogo, LU 10575 . co torracht C. i c.¤ in droichit cucu, CCath. 1283 . ben sund i cend for máthar, Metr. Dinds. iii 6.55 . dorat . . . / Conall i cend Chonculaind matched C. against C., Metr. Dinds. iii 446.96 . ro cuired cach i ceann araili dona Romanchaib, CCath. 3159 . an uair chuirid i n-a chionn when they oppose him, DDána 96.33 . connsuine . . . do rachadh na cheann, mur atá so: slat ┐ dearg, slaitearg sin which would be assimilated to it, IGT Introd. 10.2 . do tuit an torc a cend a choss fell forward, BCC 324.30 .

46 i c.¤ with prec. vb. of motion and follg. Vn. etc. in g s. implying beginning or undertaking of an action: o dochotar . . . i c.¤ taispenta ind immuin do G., Lib. Hymn. 63.40 . do chuadar i cend a retha took to their heels, MR 318.4 . notheiged-som ┐ a gilla a cend bleogain na bo, Ériu v 34.22 . ná ragaind i ceand catha ina agaid, FDG² 465 . dochuaid i cend in sceoil (d'innisin, v.l.) `she went ahead with the tale', TTebe 1833 . T. . . . do dol a c.¤ oilithri, Ann. Conn. 1307.18 . lotar . . . i cend séta, TBC-LL¹ 451 . Note also: ra érig in fili ┐ do chúaid i n-a cend ┐ issed ro ráid, LL 39018 ( SG 385.34 `went to work'; `came to them', Stokes, RC xiii 107 ).

47 i c.¤, ciunn in addition to (see 63): foghellta ┐ bleth do dul ina ceand `shall be added', Laws iv 130.27 Comm. Matha a cind Crist ro scrib a shoscéla together with, LB 153a64 . ag flaith Li do chím 'na cheann / ní do gach tír 'na thimcheall also, Ériu v 64.15 . a cc.¤ gach sgéil eile dar innis doibh, Rel. Celt. ii 196.32 . a c.¤ a roibhi aigi, ZCP vi 51.10 . na c.¤ sin in addition, Maund. 15 . hi cc.¤ a chéle together, Hugh Roe² 40.13 .

48 cuirid i c.¤ adds to (see 38): cindus do-chuirfed tuilled i n-a chend, PH 7730 . cuir 'na ceand, O'Gr. Cat. 311.9 . teine do cur a ceann teineadh making bad worse, 23 P 10 ³, 15a30 . Note also: ni fuair Fergus ríam ni do cuirfe a cend Modha do marbadh do Dubthach `anything to compare with the slaughter of M. by D.', Celt. Rev. ii 116.x .

49 i c.¤ in preference to: am cheann do chomóradh 'was given preferential treatment over me', Ériu lxiv 162 § 1.7​​​ . S. . . . do chor i tticcernus . . . hi ccend Ch., AFM iii 360.16 . taisech do denam doib do mac M. . . . ina c.¤ , Ann. Conn. 1262.9 .

50 i ciunn at the head of for purpose of leading: m'anam-sa a Dhé mar budh dall / sé 's an chalann-sa 'n-a cionn, Dán Dé xxiii 13 . bi 'n-a cinn = ducas eum, Smaointe B. Chr. 1050 .

51 i ciunn in store for, destined (see 30): a-tá lá cúirte 'n-ar gcionn, DDána 23.29 . a uilc i gcionn gach chiontaigh his wrongdoings await every sinner (for punishment), Dán Dé vii 15 . i gc.¤ gach baíth a baegul, MR 286.21 . go bhfuil an bás . . . i gcionn gach aoin, TSh. 99 .

52 i ciunn of time at the end of (see 18, 33, 40): a cínd da bliadna onaímsir-si two years ago, RC x 186.1 . hi cind tredenais, ACL iii 309.10 . a cc.¤ a fhichet bliadhna da aois in the twentieth year of his age, Rel. Celt. ii 196.7 . a ccionn trí lá, Desid. 6345 .

53 Various: i mbun na gabla ro boí hi ciund tened over against, LU 9194 ( FB 92 ). a cheann i cind tened, ZCP i 464.33 . gach aon a gceann a dhíre ┐ a dhúthchasa féin in possession of, ML 102.14 . mac S. a cind arrad at the head of nobles, Ériu v 244.194 . in cís d'ícc a cind chruid, LB 133b56 `in respect of', Todd Lect. vi 40.6 .

c.¤ i c.¤ (ceann a cceann is an exception to the rule that the same word may not be used more than once in a line, Bard. Synt. Tr. 24.36 ). ? ceann a ceann, .c. o an doilgheas, 55.24 . Also cionn a ccionn (: fionn), 25.1 .

54 c.¤ i c.¤ = ci(u)nn ar chi(u)nn (31): misi do cur c.¤ i cc.¤ / as Cuchulainn, TBC-LL¹ 3151 . cuirid c.¤ hi c.¤ , Fianaig. 60.27 . is and sin . . . do rancadar Leth Cuind ┐ Laigin ceand i cend, RC xxiv 50 § 10 . go g-cómhraiceam ceann a g-ceann, ML 82.25 .

55 c.¤ i c.¤ together; simultaneously : Conchabor, Aedh cend a cend `head to head' (of kings buried together), Ériu ii 166.47 . cia leitir sin c.¤ a c.¤ / dognīad lethfod is lethtenn, ZCP xii 295.8 . nocor thathaigh ceann i c.¤ / na cuic cuicidh na hEirenn, xi 43 § 31 . cred dorad tu c.¤ a c.¤ / a comhaitreab na catcend?, KMMisc. 315.16 . trí Cormaic theas ceann i gceann / im an seang, DDána 91.33 . do dortsed fair cend i cend (of attackers), Ann. Conn. 1405.15 .

56 c.¤ i c.¤ successively (see Aithd. D. Vocab.): gan a ccloistecht cend i ccend / gabhāla airdrīogh [n]Ērenn, ZCP viii 218.30 . fiss gach catha c.¤ a ceand, Anecd. i 29 § 35 . rob ionchuir é, ceann a cceann / is inghean airdrīgh Éireand point by point, KMMisc. 356.7 .

With IMM.

57 is fachain dá gcar um cheann to make them change their attitude(?), DDána 67.4 . (taken by Ed. as i and mo).

58 imm ch.¤ about, around : tarrassaid inn irgal im chend Connacht, LL 12308 (TBC). doiri crannrabhan mad cheann round thee, Magauran 436 . ní ráidhte um cheann gcomhóla during a drinking-bout, O'Hara 146 . radharc um cheann a calaidh `the sight of its shores' (Gloss.), Measgra D. 52.35 .

59 imm ch.¤ about, concerning, with regard to (see 41): rola B. . . . / ilach im cheand Feargaile (perh. in semi-literal sense), RC xxiv 54 § 14 . imcheand cach formaid bai etarru `for all the ill-feeling', Ériu ii 178.16 . an-scél . . . im-c.¤ deilbe . . . in-domain, RC xxiv 369.5 . t'fhearg . . . um cheann do chloinne, DDána 10.22 . um cheann craos-óil in the matter of, TSh. 7446 .

With ós (see 20).

60 ós chiunn (on as cionn beside ós chionn see Desid. p. xxxv ). In more or less literal sense: in tituil robói huas ciunn Crist isin chroich over Christ's head, Ml. 74b1 . ōs chinn sanct-Brigte, Thes. ii 329.2 ( Hy. v 15 ). Over, above: baí . . . ben . . . oc airiuc dont ṡluág os a cind, LL 259b15 . Cuncha cnoc os cind Life, ZCP xi 41 § 1 . nochtais . . . in claidheab os cind na hingeine, RC vi 175.30 . ós chionn mo leabhráin studying, Content. ii 14 . ōs a ch.¤ , Fl. Earls 66.15 .

61 With prec. vb. of motion: tānic . . . ōs ceann N. made for, Celtica i 116.118 . téighim ós chionn a chosnaimh I undertake to defend it, Content. xxi 12 .

62 in control of, in charge of: os chionn Bhanbha, Content. xxx 26 . sdiobhard ós ceann mhórāin maoine, Mac Aingil 568 . ōs cionn in cholāiste, Fl. Earls 68.25 .

63 over and above, in addition to (see 47): ós c.¤ fhichit each, AFM iv 1134.28 . faoi nó ós a chionn `or thereabouts', Corp. Astron. 4.12 . ōs a ch.¤ sin `besides', Fl. Earls 90.15 .

64 Note also: bun ós cionn `upside down', Psalms cxlvi 9 . más bun os cionn atá sé `if he haue any auersion', RSClára 155a . For fuller treatment see 1 bun.

65 With ré: ria cind tri trath in three days, RC xvii 386.2 .

With TAR (see also 24, 42).

66 fo-ceird etc. tar c.¤ (somet. with possess. before c.¤ ) overthrows, upsets, turns upside down : in cor tar c.¤ gl. euersio, Ml. 36d23 . gl. euertando, 72b12 . tochur tar c.¤ , Críth G. 233 . ro lá in slúag . . . tara cend, LU 9760 . fochichret in Trói dar cend, TTr.² 389 . ro-chuir cend dar cend . . . miassa na monotóri, PH 4392 . is e ro-lá dar cend ar forcetul-ne subverted, 1686 . See fo-ceird. Cf. dos-curedar tara cend 'she collapses', CMMucr. 50 § 43 .

67 With do-tuit (see 44): co torchratar . . . dara c.¤ hi suan, ZCP iii 6 § 20 .

68 tar c.¤ on behalf of, for the sake of, in return for, in lieu of, because of, for, etc. (see 36): dufiastar tara c.¤-som `punishment will be inflicted for them', Ml. 27c4 . deich tarm ch.¤ `take vengeance for me', 72d11 . no oircthe . . . tar c.¤ a p[ecthae] ind aile `for its sins', Tur. 110c . taiccéra cách dará chen fessin gl. pro sé, Wb. 6b28 . oc irbáig dar far c.¤-si gl. de uobis, 16d8 . ? mo ort do gabál darm ch.¤ `that my rank should be taken for me', 23b18 . a setig . . . do pennait tar a cend fadesin ┐ dara cendsom on her own behalf and his, Mon. Tall. 163.18 . dar cend na cāna in return for, Cáin Ad. 25 . ciata glinni con-daigi dar cend frithaisceda?, MU² 65 . do foglaim na Tāna rucc in sái rōmānach a hArdmacha dar cend in cuilmin, ACL iii 5.31 . na feicheamna dara tecait cend, Laws iv 60.18 Comm. tarc.¤ gabhála aigi ┐ tacra tar a ch.¤ pleading in his behalf, CCath. 535 . díol tar ceann a chomaoineadh, Content. ix 25 . tar ceann do chloinne, Dán Dé xxviii 29 .

69 in spite of, in violation of; notwithstanding : ba holc lais dith Fergail darceand a shida, RC xxiv 64 § 25 . tar c.¤ Conoill, Duan. F. i 84.8 . tar a cheann sin nevertheless , Desid. 3220 .

70 Of begetting offspring by a woman in spite of or unknown to her husband (see 37): trī meic Medba fri Fergus dar c.¤ nAilella, Corp. Gen. 279.1933 . mac ruc don Dagda . . . / dar cend ḟir na síde, Metr. Dinds. iii 30.75 . is e doroine in toirrcis sin fria dar c.¤ Cathbaid, RC vi 175.51 .

71 As conj. tar c.¤ go notwithstanding the fact that, although : tar ceann go n-abair an Chóir Anmann gur . . . ní mheasaim gurab . . . , Keat. ii 2344 . tar cheann go n-anann tú feadh do bheathadh san olc, Mac Aingil 1040 . tar ceann gur shaoil . . . notwithstanding the fact that, TSh. 541 . tar cheann go bhfuil mórán etc. even though there are . . . , Párl. na mB. 461 .

Compds. (general composition-form in early lang. cenn-. Later also cinn- and ceinn- before palatals).

With nouns.

72 In dvandva-compds. (see Wortk. 130 ): bidh suī lēigind co cendanim head and soul, ACL iii 231.22 . cend-chossach head and feet (of cooked animal), Ériu iv 124 § 2 .

73 With c.¤ qualifying second member: cu nach fácbadh claidem ar cennadairt, Acall. 1632 = SG 129. 29 `pillow' ( -adart, BLism. 212 rb13) . Fig. cennadart fona fertaib inso, Thes. ii 332.27 ( Hy. v 23 gl .). Of a person: O'M. a cceann adhart, Top. Poems 58.18 . oenball dia curp nó da cendagaid `countenance', CCath. 4700 . gráin catha ar mo cheannaghaidh (sic leg.), Content. xxiii 15 . tria cendairde no tria cendísli doníther in taidbhriudh anuasan, O'D. 908 (H. 3.17, 649) = O'Curry 2164 ( Eg. 88, 4(5)d ) (see O'Gr. Cat. 139 ). cennait muilind `the head (site) of a mill', Ériu xvii 76.10 . cennáit `head residence', AFM v 2082.2 . ? Cf. an chríoch nó an cionnaidh is dúthaigh dhó, TSh. 1775 (chianáit, v.l., Gloss.). ar Chrīst ar cennabaid chief lord, ZCP viii 214.6 . do ghabh clogat . . . fa n-a cheann-bhaithios `head', MR xiv 21 . ¤barr see cen(n)barr. ¤bécc see cennbécc. ¤bert see ceinnbeirt. cennbhile oir na n-ardriog (a prince), LL 394.8 . bheith dheit ad chinnbhile ós coill, O'Gr. Cat. 381.22 . súdh ceannbhracha `malt liquor', O'Hara 4076 . in Cennc[h]at[h]ach ina laimh .i. a bachall, Lism. L. 3103 . ¤chléithe = cenn: scothais a chenn clēithi de, ZCP viii 117 § 12 . ní chuirthear ceannchnaipe óir ar phaidrín mhaide, Mac Aingil 1041 `Pater Noster bead(?)', Gloss. lom[r]aid a cendchongraim din mnái headdress, Hib. Min. 77.9 . ceann cosnamach comegin C. `violent groans', MR 260.6 (leg. ¤osnadach ?). for cenn-cumhdach a choroine ` head-covering ', Misc. Hag. Hib. 43 § 62 . capitolauium .i. cenddīunach, Corm. Y 296 . cend-drong filed fó fírda, Metr. Dinds. i 36.93 . inceindetan gl. gigram, Gild. Lor. 82 . donchendfiacail gl. capitali, 134 . ¤ḟochrus see cennḟochrus. cenngalor (in marg. dolor capitis), Wb. 17b25 . Vita Br. 28 . dia ro h-icad don cheann-galar, YBL 174b23 . ? ni tormaig ni fora notrus . . . a cendgelt, Ériu xii 40 § 51 ; 'tonsure' ZCP xlii 48 . caeca echlosc orda co cendimlaib airgid, IT ii2 191.14 (cennpairtib, v.l.) `end knobs'? Plummer MS notes. ¤ísle see cendairde. ¤lá see cennlá. ¤liter capital letter. Usually metaph. of persons and things: cinn-litre ceall `the capitals of the churches', Content. xv 30 , cf. xviii 73 . dún iona cáir cinnlitre, Ériu v 60.4 . ceinnlitir siodha ┐ coccaidh `arbiter', AFM iv 976.3 . snímcha cendmaisse `head- dress', Tec. Corm. xvi 84 . cendmaisse laime glove, Acall. 5971 v.l. ¤míl name of an ornament: coíca acrann . . . co cendmílaib, TBFr. 31 . fuath . . . [na] cendmila tucsat a coscar catha, Aen. 1563 . Of persons: Ísa Críst . . . in cennmíl cumdachta, ZCP viii 204.34 . ní ba cendmíl muinntiri / nech nach fulaing a hécnach, iv 468 § 17 . a fírchlethe a chendmullaig, LU 6475 . brat tlachtgorm corcarrda hi cennfait impe (i.e. thrown over her head?) (cennḟait, MS), TBC-I¹ 2791 . cendpaite imma cenna `fillets', RC ix 484 n.5 . cinnréallna `stars of first magnitude', Ó Bruad. iii 14.7 . cend-róit `highway', CRR 28 . (Auricula Muris) ceinn-sgethrach do ghenam dhe, ┐ glanaidh an inchinn o na salcar, 23 K 42, 367.5 (see sceithrech). fá cheannsmacht, Oss. iv 274.24 . ` paitric' cennsrián, Metr. Gl. 19 `headstall', Plummer MS notes. dotuit ar a cenntruime topheaviness, O'Dav. 200 . cenntruime .i. gin collad, O'Curry 2598 ( Eg. 88, 50(51)d ). cend-urra a slánaigthe `Captain', Heb. ii 10 .

With adjectives.

74 C. chendalaind, ZCP xi 41 § 5 . cendard cassetnach, IT iii 246.80 . dá ech . . . cendbeca, LU 9257 . na dá chendbricc 'the two piebald-headed ones' TBC-LL² 1086 . cnā ceand-buidhi, ZCP v 22 § 16 . tre cnoccuibh corra cenncæla, ZCP vi 290.22 . ic imbirt fidchilli .i. na Cendchaeme (as subst.), LL 8350 (TBC). ingena cendálli cendchassa curly-headed, 31382 (TTr.). do innsaighi cnuic cennchuirr, ZCP vi 60.12 . cendchrom torsech, LL 12064 (TBC). ¤étig freq. as n. pr., see Corp. Gen. etc. trian a scéith chendfhada comdhualaig, ZCP xiii 211.11 . ar coiciud cendḟind Connacht, LL 3224 . See cenann. cheillínill / ceandfolaim, IT iii 92 § 139 . an fer cendgarb, i 273.29 ( FB 40 Eg.). cairrge ceann-gharbha, ML 34.4 . cranngal cheinngér, IGT Decl. ex. 905 . Eoghan an airm cheannghlais, DDána 99.40 . ar taisbenad a craisigi cenn-guirme catha, MR 196.5 . ¤grúcánach see grúcánach. a muinter . . . cendísel Corccaige `hang-head', MacCongl. 29.22 . arocul becc . . . cendisel low-pitched, Todd Lect. vi 42.2 ( LB 134a35 ). laech caem cendlethan, LL 11824 (TBC). cofacca . . . in deilb . . . cennléith, Ériu iv 102.12 . ocbud . . . chendmas, Anecd. i 60.88 . a dhá chraoisigh ceann-reamhra, ML 112.21 . ar ná ba cennscoilte `lest you get your head broken', Tec. Corm. 38.26 . Cuirrín Cheannsholuis, ML 32.18 . dia sephaind céis cenntoll céol, ZCP iii 7.2 . ¤tromm see cenntromm.

Rarely with verbs:

75 ceannlasfaidh a cró coirrshleagh (of warriors), Aithd. D. 16.28 . gu cennlúbdais na clocha na caolsoighdi the stones turned the points of the arrows, Caithr. Thoirdh. 113.6 .

Freq. as second element in compds.

76 See GOI 219 (nochtchenn, ardchenn). Freq. in this use in form -genn, see GOI 87 , O'Rahilly, Ériu xiii 140 . See cloicenn, cromcenn, corrcenn, 1 dícenn, táilgenn, tollcend (1 toll). Note further: crothid conchend catha ceirp, LU 3629 ( SCC 31 , see note in SC2). teiti tair fo thalmain trell / i nEgiptacthaib láncend (the Nile), LL 16325 . m. Fiachach Uanchind, Corp. Gen. 88.7 . Baccan mac Brain meic Eircc hUbulchind, Rawl. 126b43 .

77 Very freq. in nn. loc., see Hog. Onom.

1 co

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 co or dil.ie/9786
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: cos(s)in, cos(s)a, cosna, cosin, cossin, cossa, cosa, gusin, gusan, cosno, gusna, cuccum, cucum, cugum, chugom, chucumm, chugam, cucut, cuccut, chucud, chuccad, chugad, chút, cuci, cucai, cucci, cuccai, cuici, cuigi, chuci, chucai, chuice, chuici, chuga, cuicce, cucae, chucae, cucai, cuci, cuici, chuice, chuigthe, cucunn, cuccainn, cugainn, cugainde, chucunni, chucund, chucaind, chugainne, cucuib, cuccaib, cuccuib, cucaib, cugaib, cuccu, cucu, chuca, cugtha, chucu, chuca, com, cot, gut, coa, gó, go, cosa, cos-, cus, cosa, cusa, cos, cus, gus, gusa, cosar, gar, góar, at(t)óibi, do-ecmalla, do-inóla, fo-ceird, gaibid, léicid

prep. with accus. See GOI § 829 . Études Celt. vii 478 . In early lang. with occasional doubling of following l, m, n: cu-llae, GOI § 829 . co mmaith, Wb. 7b15 . co nnaue, Sg. 5b6 . In later lang. prefixes h to vowels. Written cu in Ardm. etc., GOI § 829 . In later lang. go. Occasionally with length mark: có, Ml. 52 . Sporadically with d p.: co ulnib, BDD² 747 . go bruachaibh (: chruachain), TD 13.84 . See IGT Introd. § 75 .

With article: cos(s)in, cos(s)a, cosna etc. cosin, Wb. 2a21 . cossin, ib. cossa (n.), 23a17 . cosa, Ériu v 236.60 . gusin, Auraic. 195 . gusan, Stair Erc. 2360 . pl. cosno, Dinds. 69 . gusna, Hugh Roe² 100.4 .

With suff. pron. (see GOI § 829 D for phonology of forms, § 233 for lenited forms, which are generalized in later language). 1 s. cuccum, Wb. 7c7 . cucum, Ml. 108b1 . cugum, Ériu v 148.40 . chugom, Blathm. 148 . chucumm, PH 8285 . chugam, IGT Decl. ex. 1166 . 2 s. cucut, Wb. 32a17 . .25 . Ml. 44c20 . cuccut, 92a19 . chucud, Mon. Tall. 144.21 . chuccad, BDD² 1446 . chugad, DDána 2.3 . chút (: út), SG 389.14 (see ZCP xxv 249 ff. ). 3 s. m. and n. cuci, Wb. 9d14 . cucai, Ml. 38c1 . cucci, cuccai, cited GOI § 433 . cuici, Blathm. 27 . cuigi, BColm. 98.26 . chuci, Fing. R. 27 . chucai, Ml. 46c1 . chuice, Mon. Tall. 154.4 . chuici, BDD² 278 . chuga, Dán Dé xxv 46 . 3 s. f. cuicce, Wb. 9d5 . cucae, Sg. 14b4 (apparently referring to Lat. littera), chucae, 191a2 . cucai, Vita Br. 25 . cuci, 26 . cuici, RC xxiv 190.13 . chuice, BDD² 93 . chuigthe, Donlevy 390.1 . 1 pl. cucunn, Wb. 21a3 . cuccainn, ZCP viii 219.34 . cugainn, vi 47.28 . cugainde, Ériu iii 158 § 11 , chucunni, TBFr. 347 . chucund, RC iii 183.24 . chucaind. PH 691 . chugainne, RC xxix 124 § 27 . 2 pl. cucuib, Wb. 1a8 . cuccaib, Vita Br. 16 . cuccuib cited GOI § 433 . cucaib, Vita Br. 37 . cugaib, Mer. Uil.² 119 . 3 pl. cuccu, Wb. 27c24 . cucu, Ml. 55c1 . chuca, Blathm. 221 . cugtha, DDána 77.1 . chucu, Leb. Gab.(i) 252.19 . chuca, Keat. iii 3231 .

With possessives: 1 s. com ó, Ériu xx 192 § 3 . 2 s. cot écc, ZCP viii 219.23 . gut éc, LL 10918 . 3 s. coa ríg, Fél. Jan. 6 . Fing. R. 93 . gó a charaid, TSh. 8226 . pl. go a n-ēgoibh, Fl. Earls 140.32 .

With rel. cosa n-, cos- (cossa- cited GOI § 829 ): cus, ACC 93 . cosa, TBC-I¹ 328 . cusa, 330 . cos, Ériu iv 150.29 . cus a, Laws iv 294.z Comm. gus, BColm. 80.27 . gusa, Mac Aingil 355 . With ro: cosar, TTebe 894 . gar, Studies, 1921, 76.21 . góar, Hugh Roe² 74.19 .

1 to, till, as far as , etc. (of space and time): cosin n-óin .i. co crist gl. usque ad unum, Wb. 2a21 . cossa laasa gl. usque nunc, 23a17 . có osnada gl. ad susperia, Ml. 31c10 . cu genti gl. ad gentes, 67a10 . cosin caiscc naili `until the next Easter', Mon. Tall. 132.17 co fescor, LU 5135 (see caidchi). ní chotlad i nEmain M. co matain, LU 4903 (i.e. never slept, Hermathena xcix 51 ). co harchaṅgliu Héil, Lib. Hymn. 184.8 . a n-éc cusan āenduini to the last man, ACL iii 239 § 25 . nirbo gnath . . . airisiumh Uí Neill hisuidhe gusan tToirrdelbach hishin `except this T.', Hugh Roe² 44.3 . do-géna cech maith co cumaing as far as he can, PH 8088 . todachaiche chugut int shillab dedenach `the last syllable is future to you', Auraic. 91 . aurlam co bas, PH 390 . Ériu fo Chunn, Conn co Fál, Airne F. 243 . dorigne an láid-so cuigi `for him', BColm. 98.26 . le cungnamh ionmhuis go cogadh `with money to help them in the war', Rel. Celt. ii 166.9 .

2 With Vn. cia airet co tíchtin n-ancrist, Wb. 25d1 . go beith réidh dúinn 's do Dhomhnall, TD 15.170 . co rochtain dóibh tar na múraibh `until they passed', Hugh Roe 290.y . Hence: mad co techt di co fer gl. uiro suo reconciliari, Wb. 9d32 . is deidbhir móidem di suidib mad co moidim etir ref. to si gloriari oportet, 17d19 (see note).

3 Idiomatic uses of 3 s. n.: is cuci far mburpe gl. sic stulti estis, Wb. 19b8 . is cucci a lére ro pridchissid `so great is the industry with which you have preached', 24c17 . ná faighdīs bás chuige acht go mairfidīs choidhche (ar aonchor, v.l.), Trompa na bhF. 5994 . See Gloss., and cf. gan guin duine chuige na uaidh at all(?), Hugh Roe² 252.22 . is é is fáth dham chuige sin `the reason I have for that', Keat. i 82.26 . is é is adhbhar dóibh chuige sin, Corp. Astron. 2.9 . creud chuige why? Donlevy 102.16 .

4 With verbs of motion: co domun dringthiar `he climbed to the height (of heaven)', ACC 68 (see Celtica vi 228 ). amal tiagtae mná hua célib co firu aili `as wives go from their husbands to other men', Ml. 125a2 . dauc cucai inna sairse `he took it to him(self) unto his work', 38c1 . co Críst, cechaing sathe `unto Christ went a swarm', Fél. Jan. 25 . lingthi Mac Da Cherda co sudib `M. leaps into the midst of them', Ériu v 28.7 .

5 With subst. verb: aidchi roboi cucu that night, Ml. 55c1 . do filter chucaind diar marbad, Anecd. i 4.10 ( SCano 92 ). do-filter chucut ón ríg, BDD² 94 . deighenach a bethadh do bheith cuicce was imminent, BNnÉ 265 § 228 .

6 With verbs of reaching, placing, lasting, remaining, etc.: focerdar cin co fergac `is attached to', Bretha 25 . saidid co colainderce cert `extends to', 23 . ad-comaicc húa smech co a imlind, BDD² 1000 . mēraid co dē a īartaige his succession will remain till the day of Judgement, Thes. ii 314.20 . anais co foilc ┐ co fothraic he waited to wash . . ., TBC-I¹ 289 . ro-athascná m'ernaigthe . . . chucat, a Dé, PH 7108 .

7 With verbs of asking: cen chuingid neich co nech, Wb. 26b25 . amal dunthlaichiur-sa cucut `as I ask of Thee', Ml. 44c20 . dóig lim . . . ni cunte nech cuccaib filiam cecam, Vita Br. 16 . Cf. dognitis dibrócoit móir chucai, PH 4056 .

8 With verbs of summoning: dorograd co hangliu / C. `to the angels has been summoned C.', Fél. March 10 . ro-gairmestar tra Pilip chucai, PH 2534 .

See also at(t)óibi, do-ecmalla, do-inóla, fo-ceird, gaibid, léicid etc.

9 Expressing motion without vb. ac-sin chucut do ríg = ecce rex tuus venit tibi, PH 4376 . mac in goband cosin ṅgual (ris an, v.l.), Ériu ix 49 § 28 . a cholann chugat an bás, DDána 1.1 . `chugaibh! chugaibh! gruth is im / éistear linn!' adeir an chuach `here comes' (lit. to you), Measgra D. 7.73 . chugad me aris I have you again, Luc. Fid. 5241 .

10 Hence with verbs of seeing etc. atchīatt na conu cucu 'na rith, BColm. 54.3 . níro airigset na mná chucu, LU 3884 ( SCC 39 ). lá dá bhfacaidh inghin oíg / chuige, DDána 58.11 . o nach facadar . . . comfhurtacht cuca, Stair Erc. 1441 .

11 In comparisons: cruth cách co hÉ. Caem cách co hÉ. all fall short of E. in beauty, BDD² 43 . ait[h]ech cách co hEogan hūais except E., ZCP viii 299.35 . ní crō co cōiccir fo cosmailuis clīaro, Ériu i 215.31 . beag gach peannaid go bás Dé compared with, A. Ó Dálaigh xviii 1 .

12 ó . . . co . . . to denote the ultimate point of measurement: is hó siun co nuie dam far sercc ref. to continuus, Wb. 4b29 . o chund co fond, RC iii 177.7 . a bhfoil uainn go hÁdhamh all that there are (i.e. have lived) from us to Adam, Dán Dé viii 4 . ó Éirne go hÁth gConuill, TD 13.74 . Hence: o ta a uachtar co a híchtar, PH 3365 .

13 With demonstratives. See 1 sin (S 232.83), 1 so (307.30). có sin, Trip.² 97 .

Similarly with petrified forms: cosinnocht until tonight, BDD² 1174 . tricha laithi cusanē 30 days to yesterday, ZCP x 341.21 . gus a-nois, Aithd. D. 89.29 . See also indiu and trásta (b).

14 In phrase co cenn, see 1 cenn (123.43).

15 With cardinal numerals. See fo (F 172.51).

16 In formation of adverbs. See GOI § 381 . co mmór gl. insolenter, Ml. 38c12 . co mmaith, TBFr. 284 . Freq. in later lang.: go spioradálta, TSh. 1582 .

17 Hence in adjectival predicates with subst. vb. replacing constr. with is and bare adj.: bheith go saoghlach séanomhail, TD 19.74 . do bai co hudmall andshadail aínindech `restlessly, uncertainly, angrily', TTebe 929 .

18 3 sg. neut. as adv. since, hence : nī conairnecht and chucai 'it had not been found there till then' Thes. ii 348.86 . bid fotai chucca, PH 5247 . ni ba chian cucai, Anecd. ii 14.13 .

coirén

Cite this: eDIL s.v. coirén or dil.ie/10392
Last Revised: 2019

 

n [o, m.] (coire) little pot : cosna corénaib míne millsén duit festa, MacCongl.² 38.1188 . In n.pr. Lón-Chorén 'Little Food Pot', MacCongl.² 29.907 . Cf. coireán, Dinneen .

cuitred

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cuitred or dil.ie/13745
Last Revised: 2019

 

n o (cuitir). Legal term in meanings close to those of cuit: cuitrid .i. cutruma [ut est] acht cuitriud ro suidhighedh i febaib la Féne .i. acht inní ro samaighed nó ro hordaiged do cutrumugad daib i feb tochusa doreir in fenechais `equivalent (?)', O'Dav. 410 . In various legal phrases: c.¤ corach `vertragsmässiger Anteil', Ir. Recht 22.1 . otha suidiu con-fodlaiter eturru huile aireir i n-ogaltram; ar iss ed c.¤ corach in sen i n-altramaib, § 20 . is ogdire direnar cele cetgiallna . . ., is lethdire direnar cele forgiallna, trian dire ic c.¤ corach `ein Drittel der `díre' (gilt) beim vertragsmässigen Anteil (beim Genossen dritten Lehnvertrags)', § 26 . rath i cuitrid coraib .i. fer giallas do sochaidhi. Fer dia ngialla oro bi mar do coruib is cuitrid coraib do suidiu ar is tir ilcuitib bith a cor, O'Curry 874 ( H 3.18, 392b ). flaith cuitrid `Teil-herr', Thurn. ZCP xiv 337 , xv 247 , third in order of three lords allowed to a client (i.e. after the flaith cétgíallnai and the f. forgíallnai): flaith . . . cuitrigh (entitled only to certain specified returns), 246 § 5 . rath i cuitriud .i. rath da beir flaith cuidridh srathnaighes a rath for curu, O'D. 1007 ( H 2.15A, 15b ). meath mbid treas cuir, .i. in ti chuirius in treas cor ceilsine for in cele, .i. flaith cuitrigh `the chief who got the third securities', Laws ii 278.4 Comm. da bai ┐ samuisg do flaith cuitrigh, 10 Comm. .u. seoit meth bid cuidri .i. fer tresa giallae, O'Curry 877 ( H 3.18, 393ba ). lan logh einech o flaith cetgiallna, ┐ trian logh enech o flaith forgiallna, ┐ nomadh logh einech o flaith cuitridh ar airitin ratha. Lan rath o flaith cetgiallna, ┐ da trian ratha o flaith forgiallna, ┐ leath rath o flaith cuitridh, Laws ii 226.15 Comm. ochtmadh cumaile do flaith cuitridh, O'D. 524 ( H 3.17, c. 425 ). ailid cuidrid curu, Laws v 460.15 .i. airiltnigid no dligid flaith cuitrid curu do, 21 Comm. ailith cuitret .i. forgiallnae isside a les lethcorus cedgiallnai itir gabala ┐ riaru. Ailiter cuitre fer dia cosna a flaith ┐ a fine ┐ a eclais a comarbus .i. ranntait a tri ┐ focerdat crand fair iaromh, conid de ata cuitri coruch. Sed uerius cuidri .i. tres giallae .i. cuidri tres flaith, O'Curry 865 ( H 3.18, 390a ). Cf. noco nuil forgiallna, na cuitrid a saerraethaib `there is no chief of second claim, or chief of third claim in `saer-' stock tenancy', Laws iii 334.18 Comm. = ii 226.23 Comm. See ferchuitred, ferchuitredach.

1 dechraid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 dechraid or dil.ie/14919
Last Revised: 2019

 

v ā. Becomes furious with anger or excitement. Only of persons (of animals: dáistir).

A ACT.

(a) abs. with a pers. subj.: atracht in luan láith ass étun...co rodechrastar oc imbert na sciath, LU 80 a 14 . TBC-LL¹ 1958 LU. TBC-LL¹ p. 375 n. 6 . mórdrech dúr dechrass ar thuru Temrach 'resolute broad-faced one who [will] become furious with anger before the hosts of Tara', B. in Scáil² 47 § 57 .

(b) abs., subj. conn, ciall and the like: na cneslénti bítis fo thétaib fria chnes arnacha ndechrad a chond céille tráth doficfad a lúth láthair, TBC-LL¹ 1709 = LU 78 a 35 (ndecrad a chon nach a chiall).

B PASS. with imm: rodechradh ann im Throil ┐ noberedh báre cosna Grécu, TTr.² 1423 . is bec ná rodechrad imbi ac neurtad in chathaigthi, LL 401 b 6 . TTr.² 394 . rodechradh impu hic slaighi na sluag, LL 405 b 50 . TTr.² 1148 . dollotar don chath. is bec ná rodásedh ┐ ná rodechrad impu, LL 408 a 20 . TTr.² 1344 . —For the construction cf. dáistir.

derg

Cite this: eDIL s.v. derg or dil.ie/15626
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: derc, derg, deirg, derg, d.

adj o, ā.

(a) Of colour, red, ruddy (used of colour of blood, flame; also of orange or tawny hue as of ale, gold, etc.): d.¤ gl. luteus, Sg. 49a3 , gl. lutea, 7 . derc gl. rufus, 37a5 . flann gach nd.¤ , ZCP ix 167.z . tene d.¤ , SR 8294 . dobiur lim cóer ndeirg do ibur, Ériu iv 134.4 . folt d.¤ lais, LB 181a11 . fil lenid ndeirg . . . immi, TBC-I¹ 61 . braena fola derge, Todd Nenn. 206.7 . suile derga eyes red with weeping, PH 584 . Cf. A. Ó Dálaigh viii 10 : bríogh a guidhe 's a déar ndearg `her blood-red tears' (= ardent ). Of animals: ech d.¤ , LU 8630 ( FB 47 ). hirricht bó deirgi, Ériu iii 141.2 . guth gadhair dheirg, Duan. F. i 83.28 . mor ndamh ndearg (of stags), ib. mucca derga, Metr. Dinds. iii 150.14 . Of liquors: lind d.¤ .i. flaith d.¤ red ale, Thes. ii 337 ( Hy. v 38Comm.). um chomhól ndeoch ndearg, TD 20.55 . Cf. derglaith. Of gold: di or d.¤ , SR 529 . dind ór d.¤ , 4150 . d'ór dhearg, TD 17.36 . Of earth or clay turned up, dug up: reilge derga (portent of the end of the world), ZCP viii 196 § 18 . do-chífe dearg druim tar ais | . . . | gach leath dot ghormfhaithche ghloin, | ó chomhghraifne each, Studies 1922, 411 § 11 . Cf. don taobh thiar thuaidh d'Eirinn dheirg, Atlantis iv 122.z . do cherdaib in domnáin deirg `the vile rude world's estates', SG 51.y . Hence of persons, of ruddy complexion or red-haired: oclach . . . d.¤ = iuvenis rubicundus, PH 7030 . ben d.¤ cona dib braaib dercaib, IT ii2 242.17 . red ghnúis ndeirg, TD 3.19 . Equative: deirgither losa liac, TTebe 479 . dergithir re corcair, Acall. 6636 v.l. brecdergithir síon spotted with crimson like a foxglove, BDD § 97 . Compar. nir bo dírga grís inna ind aiged (sic leg.), IT iii 298 § 34 (Cóir Anm.). As subst.: scripthar int psailm tria dub ┐ in tituil tria derg in red (ink or pigment), Hib. Min. 244 . derg g s. deirg, d s. derg, IGT Decl. § 15 . dearg a grúaidh the red of his cheek, ex. 1240 .

(b) Transf. red with blood; bloody, sanguinary: imatuarcat doib combo d.¤ cach dib di arailiu till each was red with the other's blood, YBL 118b17 . fuidel fir deircc di duinib of one red with (the blood of) men, Ériu vii 150 § 17 . atre in rí . . . cona chroich deirg . . . fria aiss, SR 8269 . red-handed (i.e. a shedder of blood): náma ┐ esgcara láime deirge do, SG 268.33 . atú mar láimh ndeirg ag Dia God looks upon me as His foe, Dán Dé ii 30 . claidebderg red-sworded , Metr. Dinds. iii 340.38 . Of a criminal: dul dá guin eisi (i.e. asin chill) no taidhecht d.¤ indti red-handed , O'Curry 985 ( H 3.18 424b ). Hence of meat bleeding, raw, fleshy (as oppd. to fat): d.¤ cach n-om, Laws v 432.2 Comm. dergcarna ┐ saill, ii 202.19 . da mer dia d.¤ `two fingers in the lean of it', 254.11 .

(c) red-hot, incandescent: iarnn d.¤ = candens ferrum, Lat. Lives 96.1 . cloch d.¤ a ndabhaigh fhuair, 3 C 12, 6.13 . lecca derca fo chossaib (of hell), RC iv 252 . co slabradu derga . . . tentigi, PH 8309 .

(d) In fig. sense, full-blooded, flushed with pride, overbearing (?): fri dīmmus nd.¤ ndocht (one of the capital sins), ZCP vi 271.11 . derg . . . cach n-indligthech, Laws i 54.2 Comm. , v 432.2 Comm.

As subst. o . d.¤ , m., IGT Decl. § 15 . don d.¤ redness , ex. 701 . gan crecht . . . gan d.¤ wound , TBC-LL¹ p. 387 n. 5 . math glas nō d.¤ 'if it be a bruise or an abrasion' Cáin Ad. 28 § 44 , Ériu lii 127 (Di Ércib Fola) . In phr. derg dásachtach a blood vessel located in the head: bídh a fis agad co fuil inadh (sic) ann nach dlegar do crechad mar atáit .. dergdásachtach ocus ruadhrasach ocus gach uile a mbí gluasacht ocus bualad in pulsa know that there are places which may not be cauterised such as the derg dásachtach and the rúad rasach and everywhere in which there is movement and a beating pulse​, O'Gr. Cat. 269.11 . derg dasachtach ┐ rúadh fhrasach, Ériu lxiv 6 n. 22 ( G11 289b28 ). cidh fodera duine do thērnamh ōn derg dāsachtaigh dā letarthar eidir ūainibh an cinn, et duine ele gan tērnamh? 'why does one person recover from the derg dásachtach if it [he?] is wounded between the sutures of the head, while another person does not recover?', Ériu lxiv 7 ( 72.1.2 fo. 59v7 ). in derg dāsachtach, Ériu lxiv 10 ( 72.1.2 fo. 62v14 ). muna baca an derg dāsachtach no cuislí ele 'if the derg dásachtach or another vein does not prevent it', Ériu lxiv 11 ( E 4.1 120b28 )​​​​.

pn In names: na trí Deirg do thig Deirg, BDD² 296 . in Derg Drúchtach, name of Colum Cille's curach , Reeves Ad. 274.13 . forsin Deirg Drúchtaig `the Dewy Red' (of Conall Cernach's horse), RC iii 183.30 . dofeccai secha a gabuir .i. in Deirg ṅdruchtaig, 184.30 .

Compds.

(a) Of colour, in sense (a) above. With adjs. ¤aigthech red-faced : ba derrscaithec (deargaighteach, v.l.) a delb, Cóir Anm.² i 95 § 72 . ¤buide reddish yellow: taraill a lám leiss in gipni ndergbudi, TBC-I¹ 1879 . ¤chorcra crimson: dí gáe d., Ériu iv 102 § 43 . ¤domal dark red: alaile dath cruanda ┐ alaile dergdomla, ZCP xxx 124.3 . ¤lethan broad and red: claideb . . . d.¤ , TBC-I¹ 2341 . ¤ruad: dairedha dergruadha do slegaib ` rud-red ', CCath. 5345 . dragún dearg-ruadh, TSh. 7856 . With adjs. derived from subst.: ¤dathach red-hued: Lomna druth d., LL 48b18 . ¤órda: drochte . . . dergórdai, SR 476 . cosna delbaib dergórdaib, 4360 .

With subst.: ¤ainech red-face (as sobriquet): Maeldúin d., Rawl. 144g42 . ¤chodal red (i.e. tanned) hide: curach nua co ndergchodail, RC x 84.5 . ¤derc: scéo mnáib dergdercaib with eyes red (from weeping), ZCP iii 256.15 . ¤ibar red yew: cét ndabach ṅdergibair, LL 51a22 . ¤lasad: luinech . . . 'na láim ar derglassad glittering like a red flame, LL 120a44 . a dhá shúil ar d. ina chenn, SG 295.14 . ¤lasair red flame: g s. doigh derglasrach, ZCP viii 212 § 60 . ¤loscad: ag dearg-losgadh, TSh. 6627 . ¤ór (see Études Celt. iv 314 ) purified gold (by a de-silvering process) ZCP xxxviii 246-47 n. 13 , Medieval Archaeology xlviii 37 : rond derc-óir, LU 3273 ( SCC § 7 ). ¤rót: a threabh . . . na ndearg-ród red clay roads , Ir. Monthly 1919, 456 § 8 ( DDána 97 ). ¤scé red hawthorn: imar cráibred ndergscíach, TBC-I¹ 1953 = ṅdercscíath, TBC-LL¹ 2617 . ¤theine: i carput dergthened, SR 7136 . ¤thes: d. fola, Ériu ii 102 § 12 . ¤uma red bronze, copper: scieth . . . co mbocoidibh derccuma, TBC-LL¹ 5477 .

(b) In sense (b) above. ¤ár bloody slaughter , SR 5648 . LL 375b27 . ¤béim a blow that draws blood, Laws iv 364.22 ; 'a blow that inflicts bruising or swelling or loss of skin' Ériu lii 125 (Di Ércib Fola) . ¤ḟine family group that has been guilty of `fingal', O'Don. Suppl. derggfine issede cruess, Laws iv 284.10 . deirgfine .i. indiḟíní fíngalach, 286.10 Comm. ? ¤ḟochor: dergfochuru do tuit i ndilsi, O'Curry 881 ( H 3.18 394b ). ¤martra red martyrdom (involving death): dercmartre, Thes. ii 246.31 (Cambr. Hom.). irlam fri dergmartrai, ZCP iii 29 § 9 . Bloody death, slaughter (in general): ilar nderggmartra dogni (of Cú Chulaind), ZCP ix 122.y . derccmartra ┐ dortadh fola, AFM vi 2178.5 . ¤ruathar a bloody onset: dergruathur, TBC-LL¹ 4344 .

(c) As a mere intensive. ¤lomnocht stark naked , TBC-LL¹ 4253 . TSh. 3674 . ¤maith, LL 128b34 . ¤náma a bitter foe: iar ṁbádud a ndergnámat, SR 4036 . do dergnamait, 6368 . amail dergnamait, CCath. 5164 . ¤náimdenas fierce enmity: dobudh créachta gan dúnadh a ndeargnaimhdeanas, ML 30.2 . ¤thruag: rotoccbadh an cenn . . . ina scath dhearccthruagh do Ghaoidhealaibh `a spectacle of intense pity', AFM 1172 (iii 4.6) .

Cf. further: dergfilliud erred náir, LU 9290 and : dergindledhaidh errid nair, BB 248a16 (both names of one of Cú Chulaind's feats). ¤mír `red morsel'. Apparently technical name for property illegally acquired. See Laws v 430 - 4 . amail deirgmir, 434.10 Comm. cach manach . . . dosli disli do eclais a aicsi lee samlaid manup dergmir, O'Curry 871 ( H 3.18 , 391b ). deirgmireanda, Laws v 430.22 ( .i. mirenda omha indligthecha, 432.1 Comm. ).

do-áirci

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-áirci or dil.ie/17132

 

Forms: táirged, táirced, taircid, taírcaid, doáirci, doáircci, duairci, tairci, tárci, dofarci, dofairce, táirci, thairce, tairces, tairges, dunáirceat, táircet, taircet, -taircet, dothairced, taircitis, dunáirrcea, dunaircea, dunairrcea, duaircem, dunaircet, taircither, dunairced, -dairgeba, taircebat, duaircibed, dunaircibed, do-áirgébad, dorárricc, doraricc, doráricc, durairric, do-rairg, doraraic, doraraic, dothairg, ro tairic, rontaraig, tharaic, tharic, táircide, táircidi, tárcud

v (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 553 , Bergin Ériu xi 139 ). Ipv. 3 s. na táirged , Wb. 23c13 . táirced, c14 . 2 pl. taircid, Ml. 48b15 . taírcaid, SR 2624 .

Indic. pres. 3 s. doáirci, Wb. 3d19 ; 15b28 . doáircci, 12c26 . duairci, Ml. 76a16 . tairci (rel.), Wb. 12c31 . tárci, 25a4 . dofarci, Corm. Y 1228 . dofairce, ACL iii 293 = Auraic. 1935 . PH 8378 . ni táirci , Wb. 27a28 . ni tárci, Ériu vii 158 . ni thairce , PH 8385 . ¤tárcend, MU² 693 . Rel. tairces, FB § 73 . tairges, IT i 163 . 3 pl. dunáirceat, Ml. 86c14 . táircet, Wb. 3b8 . taircet, Imr. Brain i 21 . ni táircet, Wb. 30b12 . ní tarcat, 31d10 . -taircet, PH 4232 . Ipf. 3 s. dothairced, SR 4521 . 3 pl. ní taircitis , Ml. 98c2 .

Subj. pres. 3 s. dunáirrcea, Ml. 78b22 . dunaircea, 85c2 . dunairrcea, 130a15 . 1 pl. duaircem, 35b3 . 3 pl. dunaircet, 46b15 . Pass. ní taircither , 17d5 . Ipf. 3 s. dunairced, 35a12 . Fut. 3 s. -dairgeba, Laws iii 266 Comm. 3 pl. taircebat, LL 119b29 (forms infl. by gaibid). Condit. 3 s. duaircibed, Ml. 29c10 - 11 . dunaircibed, 100b7 . do-áirgébad (sic leg., Gloss.), BDD² 196 (infl. of gaibid).

Perf. 3 s. dorárricc, Wb. 3c15 . doraricc, 19b23 . doráricc, 3c29 . durairric, Ml. 33b20 . do-rairg, Sc.M² 22 . doraraic, Fél. Aug. 1 . doraraic, SR 7216 , 7193 . dothairg, ZCP viii 539 . BB 16a30 . ro tairic, CCath. 4390 . ? rontaraig, SR 1524 . ? tharaic, 6367 . tharic, 6741 .

Part. táircide, Verbal of necess. táircidi. Vn. tárcud.

(a) In general sense causes, effects, induces, brings about, brings (a result, etc.); in Ml. usually glosses ferre with some object like adiutorium, 19a4 ; auxilium, 78b22 ; praesidium, 130a15 ; sententiam, 35a12 ; or compd. thereof; afferre (exemplum, rationem), 35b3 , 46b15 ; deferre (servitium), 48b15 ; inferre, 27c20 , 29c10 - 11 , 100b7 ; perferre (of a message), 33b20 ; praeferre (officium), 98c2 ; referre, 17d5 , 18a6 ; and incutere (timorem), 85c2 , 86c14 . `fero' taircim, Metr. Gl. p. 4 . doáirci bethid dúnni, Wb. 3d19 , 15b28 . is heside dorárricc báas dúnni, 3c15 ; 3b8 . Ml. 76a16 . ní óen-torbe doraricc dún crux Christi , Wb. 19b23 . ní tarcat torbe, 31d10 . a mba taircide in todernam gl. illato supplicio, Ml. 27c20 . do chalaind ind Auguist | doraraicc mór mbríge, Fél. Aug. 1 . ni thairce tarba nā somáin do nech, PH 8385 . nocho taircci baa dam does me no good, Anecd. ii 9 . co tárcend suba ┐ sogra dond ardríg, MU² 693 . dothairg dubha ┐ dobrōn d'feraib Erenn, ZCP viii 539 . cia domain doairgebad don ríg in gat `what damage the theft would cause to the king', BDD § 18 . ni rotairic oen lā riem . . . don cinidh doennae sama[i]l in rotairicc in la sin dōib .i. a ndith ┐ a mudugud, CCath. 4390 . rotáirgfedh mor do allud do Grécaib, BB 413b35 . ní tárci [in gó] ni di ulc [d]ondí frisa n-eperar, Ériu vii 158 . trefocal cen scáth dofairce cuitbiud which provokes derision, ACL iii 293 . dofarce, Auraic. 1935 ; cf. Corm. Y 1228 . co tarce toil di cach oen | i mbrēithir, i ngnīm, ACL iii 316 . cia lín dond rīgraid rāin ruaid | Temra co n-uail tarcai trāig that causes decline of Tara (?), Rawl. 137a26 . findṡruth arggait, drepa óir, | taircet fáilti cech imróill cause joy, Imr. Brain 40 . ammiti tuathchaecha taircebat mo milliud, LL 119b29 . aingel Dé tharic cech síd (: rádid?) who hath wrought every peace, SR 6741 . ōs dálaib tharaic [Dia] . . . | fot lámaib do dergnamait has placed thy dire enemy in thy hands, 6367 . With FOR: do-fairce péin ┐ digal for nech, PH 8378 . hiligthir a pennind fo mēt torraraic fora chomnesam di saethur the amount of trouble he has caused his neighbour, Ériu vii 158 .

(b) produces, brings forth: rothairg Dia ┐ rotusim donn ūir in uili crand (= produxit . . . de humo omne lignum, Gen. ii 9 ), BB 16a30 = rothairc, Lec. 529a16 (but possibly here the notion is to draw, suggested by produxit, see below). rorāid Dia: doradus daib . . . in uili ḟér tairceas sil for talmain, Lec. 528b27 = BB 15b51 . co ndat ambrite ┐ co nā taircet torad, PH 4232 .

(c) procures, gains, provides, supplies: comartha tairces churathmír dúib, FB § 73 . cia rontáraig Dia bithmaith though God had secured us lasting good (dia prep., Stokes), SR 1524 = tuc sum cech maith dun, MacCarthy 62 . rí doraraic doib mór slúag, 7193 . ? tairgid scēth . . . ┐ cloidme `provide', Ériu viii 28 . mo chathmerge cenand rothairc ferand fó `that has won good land', PRIA xix 550 ( LL 147a35 ). Cf. also follg. exx. from Laws: ni tualaing rodaselba sanna nech nodoren nade tairce, i 202 . ? nad bi ed ōn donairce `if it be not he that acquires it', iii 48 . munar tairg int athuir somuine cuige amuigh `unless . . . has acquired property', iii 64 Comm. fer conae deis n-athar . . . ┐ do tairchid `who accumulates', iv 348 .

(d) Miscellaneous and doubtful uses: in mias atuaid, taircthi rúin, | cosna bargenaib remuir, SR 4353 ; cf. 4521 . Sárnat ben Chonairi . . . rastuc cen temel mar thaircim | Nemed mac Srabcind na srian, LL 138b44 = Lec. 399a6 (do-fairget?). ingen maic Niad co méite, | Téite, notharcitis (rotairgitis, rotairrngidis, v.l.) tuir `whom chieftains used to guard', Metr. Dinds. iii 234 (referred to do-farcai, Gloss.).

In follg. instances from Laws apparently brings, conducts, leads: masa codnach rotargestur in ech dochum in denta who led, iii 254 . mas ī in t-ech rotairgestar in codnach, 256 . slān dona damaib cach uile ní (uile) dara dairgeba in codnach iad ina certimāin `over which a sensible adult conducts them in proper driving', 266 . masa codnach rotairged isin rē comraic `that is drawn into the combat-field', 296 . slán d'fir in eich na huile neiche dara taircebar `over which it is (lit. will be) brought', 180 Comm. In these exx. perh. influenced by tairngid tairgid, prototonic form of do-srenga draws.

See also do-airicc, do-fairget.

druim(m)

Cite this: eDIL s.v. druim(m) or dil.ie/18862
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: Druim, Druim, dromma, droma, drommo, dromo, ndruimm, drummai, drummaib, drumbaibh, drommaib, dromaim, dromand, drommand, dromanna, druim, Druim

n i, n. n s. Druim nAssail, LL 202a1 . Druim nDían, Metr. Dinds. i 40 . g s. dromma, Ml. 51a8 . droma, AU 721 . drommo, Ardm. 17a2 ( Thes. ii 239.1 ); Fél. May 21 . dromo, AU 728 . d s. i ndruimm , Ardm. 17a2 . a p. drummai, Ml. 26c8 . 100b2 . See GOI 191 , 193 . d p. drummaib, 135d5 . drumbaibh, AU 519 . drommaib, SR 5560 . In Mid.Ir. somet. as n-stem: d s. dromaim, Lec. 42a18 . a p. dromand, Gild. Lor. 171 . drommand, LU 1486 . Later Mid.Ir. n a p. dromanna. druim m., IGT Decl. § 41 , f., § 149 .

I back: gl. dorsum, Ir. Gl. 745 ; Ml. 44a16 , 135d5 (cf. Psalms cxxviii 3 ). tergum, 26c8 , 44a18 ; Gild. Lor. 171 . Back of men or animals: lorc dromma gl. spina, Ml. 51a8 . bai Dauid 's a druim fri fraig, SR 6053 . ní fil druim neich díb fri araile, FA § 12 . cēt plagbemend dar a drúm, PH 1170 . ro cenglatar a láma iarna druim, 2213 . berait Hectoir . . . isin Troe ┐ a druim reme, LL 238b3 ( TTr. 1599 ). a ndromanna rompu, Todd Nenn. 72.20 . claideb . . . iarna thaeb-druimm, TBC-LL¹ 5389 = iarna formna, TBC-I¹ 3276 . claideb iarna cinddruim across his shoulders, 3189 . gur bris a droim dont sháthudh sin, ZCP vi 34.32 . cia . . . frisa laefidis a n-ochta nó frisa saefidis a ndromand (ndromanna, v.l.), CCath. 2684 . techt do leth in droma docum na Cristaidhi to come on the C. from the rear, Fier. 4 . tangadar do leith a ndrumann chuca, AFM iii 320 . do dibraig faga a leith da druim do, TTebe 1016 . laeighi an droma lying on the back, 23 P 10, 3a20 (med.). ar druim ech ṅdond, MU² 442 . fráech a droma (of a boar), Fianaig. 66.19 . dromanna (of animals served up at a feast), Metr. Dinds. i 26 . Transf. of a river (compared to a pers. carrying a burden): ni beir Luimnech for a d.¤ | marban i n-nōi ba fiú do, AFM 661 = Bruchst. i 41 § 96 . Fig.: Banbha do brisiodh a druim 'Ireland's back has been broken', Giolla Brighde 52 § 43 (on death of Maoileachlainn Ó Domhnaill). is and romeabaid a d.¤ isin domun intan dorochair Memnon the world's back was broken, i.e. the world collapsed, BB 488a19 ( IT ii2 95.15 , Alex.). Of a building : mur dhruim thempail dá thógbháil, IGT Decl.ex. 750 . d.¤ fri lias a pent-house, shed in Laws Comm.: druim fri lias laegh `a calf-shed ', Laws i 64.22 , 92.10 , 208.21 . im elodh druma fri lias, 220.11 . Of eyelids : a cur ar dhruim na sūl (of a medicament), 23 K 42, 351.5 .

II By extension back, surface (flat or convex): ar dhruim dhomain, BS 82 . ar dhruim an domhain, TSh. 2659 . ar druim na talmhan, Acts xvii 26 . dar druim machuire maghtsleibhi, Grail 2387 . breth ar díabul úas druim den, Ériu iv 136.1 (printed as n.loc. .i. tuas for neamh, L., cf. druimden .i. in firmuiment, O'Mulc. 349 ). ar dhruim na huaighe, TSh. 5734 . gáir peinn di dromaib duillenn the scratch of a pen from leaves (of a book), MacCongl. 197 , cf. O'Mulc. 815 , ZCP ix 167 . fa dhruim leac under a flag-stone (tombstone), Ó Bruad. ii 130 . d.¤ sgéith convex face of a shield (?), KMMisc. 168 .

III ridge, usually of elevated ground; hill: ar druim Droma Damghaire, Ériu iv 222.12 . trí drommanna hÉrenn, D.¤ Fingín, etc., Triads 51 . um na tri dromandaib as deach bai a nErinn, RC xvi 165 . oc imtecht ind fhid-dromma, LU 3768 ( SCC § 34 ). cosna fiddromandaib Partecda, TTebe 696 . i slebtib ┐ dromaib ┐ díthreba, Alex. 392 . tar druim Breatan, Keat. iii 2283 = trans Dorsum Britaniae (a range of hills betw. shires of Perth and Argyle), CS 713 . Common in place-names with follg. gen., see Hog. Onom. Transf. of ridge, crest of a wave: tógbhaid uisgeadha aigianta . . . 'na ndromannaibh diana, TSh. 2073 . Of a sword-blade: claideb . . . cét nathrach n-óir iarna druim, Metr. Dinds. iii 122 . Fig. (as allegorical n.pr. m.): Druim Suithe `Ridge of science', RC xvi 277 ( Dinds. § 160 ), cf. druimne.

Hence, in Ogham, techn. term for the ridge or solid angle from which letters were drawn; see Auraic. 947 , 986-90 .

IV In prep. and adv. phrases.

(a) d.¤ ar d.¤ one above (after) another, in succession: secht clāir druim ar druim, Marco P. 145 . fuaras mór corp druimm ar druimm, Anecd. i 36 . dochuaid certga C. tres na tri sciathaib druim ar druim, MR 152.16 . na techta druim ar druim uaidh, CCath. 3320 . secht ccatha dóibh druim ar druim, ZCP viii 224.4 ; Ériu iv 222.17 . ionann chaoinid druim ar dhruim | eoin is ceathra, Arch. Hib. i 84 § 14 . glóir an domhnāin, druim ar dhruim 'constantly' Celtica iv 112 § 6 .

(b) d.¤ tar d.¤ (tar ais) upside down, topsy-turvy: dorochair in drolmach . . . dochuaid druimm dar druimm, Lat. Lives 80 = druim thar ais, Lism. L. 1516 . ro chuir cend dar cend ┐ druimm dar ais miassa na monotóri, PH 4393 . an long d'impodh druim tar ais, ZCP vi 294.20 . claochlodh, gluasacht ┐ neithe druim ar ais things topsy-turvy, Corp. Astron. 112.9 . Backwards: do theilgis mo ráitte-se druim tar ais (= proiecisti retrorsum), TSh. 1596 .

(c) ar d.¤ following, in succession (addition) to: co maithfidh [Dia] do chinta duitt do torad na faisidi ar druim na torrsi, Lib. Flav. i 21vb21 . tri gepta ar druim a cheile three gates one behind the other, Fl. Earls 78.31 . do bhí ar dhruim a dhúthchasa `in the succession to his patrimony', Miscell. Celt. Soc. 170.6 . a leanmuin ar a ndruim closely pursuing them, Rel. Celt. ii 194.30 . go mbí Dia ar dhruim na druinge do-ní an t-ithiomrádh, TSh. 7278 .

(d) de (do) d.¤ on account of, by means of: do druim do leanna-sa, TBC-LL¹ p. 21 n. 5 . do druim a doirre on account of her wrath, Metr. Dinds. iii 56 . do dhruim degretha by dint of hard running, SG 283.29 . ród na haithrighe de dhruim na faoisdine, Eochairsg. 88.24 . do dhruim aontuighthe don olc by consenting, TSh. 7030 . do dhruim coinghill upon certain conditions, AFM vi 2176 . Away from, off from: cuirther iad do druim a ttire ┐ a n-uile maithesa they are driven from, iv 1018 ; v 1338 . teilgidh do dhruim a mheanman gach bagar he casts from his mind, TSh. 1943 . le saothrughadh na n-ealadhan go nach cuirfeadh bochtacht d'á ndruim iad, Keat. i 72.6 .

(e) fo-ceird (cuirid), do-beir d.¤ fri abandons, abjures, renounces (for lit. sense cf. Ml. 44a19 ): doralsat a ndruim ro Dia, Rawl. 79b20 . cuireas Niall . . . a dhruím riúm, KMMisc. 366.22 . cuir-si druim red' baistedh, Fier. 55 . do chuir druim re dubhailcibh ┐ tugsad ucht ar aithrighe, Eochairsg. 103.17 . gur chuireadar Romhánaigh druim ré teacht had refused to come, Keat. ii 6093 . druim re hIosa . . . tucc ant ōglach, ZCP xii 381.4 . tucsat . . . a ndruim fri daeine (i.e. have died), vi 265 § 19 . nā tabrad a druim fria Ríg, BColm. 100.20 . Similarly d.¤ láime, see lám. With vb. omitted: druim re deman he shunned the devil, ACL iii 306 § 5 . aged re Dia, druim re mnai, § 8 . druim re díomus, BNnÉ 282.30 . ba druim re saegul leisan ḟein giving up hope of life, CF 631 . eacht go ndeacha druim re béas `contrary to good manners', Ó Bruad. ii 44 . cūis droma ris gach nduine, 3 C 13, 833.9 . a druimm fri sognímaib! thou who turnest thy back on good deeds, PH 8227 . a druim re seisi, IT iii 93 .

Compds.

(a) With adj. ¤derg: díglaib demnib drumdergaib, SR 5656 . secht [m]bliadna déc druimderga years of slaughter (?), Lec. 51a15 . ¤dil: fon talmain d., 3 C 12, 192.16 . ¤lethan broadbacked: ech drúimlethan, FB § 47 . damh druim-leathan, Ériu viii 139.18 . ¤remor (of a pig), Fianaig. 54.19 . Loch Munremuir | dremuin dromremuir daingin, LL 7a6 .

(b) With subst. ¤den, O'Mulc. 349 , see II above. ¤iall a strap passed over the back (top) of something: of a caul, Oss. iii. 126 , 128 . ¤lerg: for druimleirg in talman, TFerbe 86 . ¤lethar ` back-leather ', CCath. 5207 , 5227 . ¤lia: dromlia tombstone , Ó Bruad. ii 114 . ¤rith (mod.) hasty retreat, Ó Bruad. iii 154 . ? ¤scoilt. As n.pr. gen. co trī macaib Dromscailt mic D., TBC-I¹ 3030 . ¤scríbinn (mod.) `superscription', envoy (of a poem), Ó Bruad. ii 226 . ¤script id., iii 28 . ¤ṡelg ` back-spleen ': in druimṡeilg (gl. dorsum), Gild. Lor. 172 . ¤ṡlat: co drum[ṡ]lait ridge-beam (of Noah's Ark, cf. MacCarthy 14 ), SR 2454 . Of the cornice of an altar (?): deil telchinni . . . fri torgbáil na drumslaite, 4272 , 4277 , 4283 , cf. LB 120b and Exodus xxx 4 . co tuidmib na drumslaite (of the Tabernacle? But perh. of the altar, cf. Numbers iv 26 ), 4892 = dromṡlati, LB 123a37 . ¤thimchell, of the raised rim of a shield, Aen. 1959 .

(c) With vb., in purely locative sense: doidi arna ndruimgerradh `arms . . . shortened to the back' (hands slashed on the back?), CF 733 . dóide dromghonta, TSh. 6614 . ón ngairm do dhruimléanuigh na dreama sin crippled , Ó Bruad. iii 22 .

emnach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. emnach or dil.ie/20025

 

adj o-ā (1 emon) pertaining to a pair; double: ogam eamnach .i. da fidh inunda ar in fhid .i. da bethi ar b, Auraic. 5907 . cosna lubdiabulta émnaigibh .i. caelanu caerech `the double-looped twins, sheep's tripe' MacCongl. 99.31 (or for emnaidibh ?).

eneclann, aineclann

Cite this: eDIL s.v. eneclann, aineclann or dil.ie/20074
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: enechlann, enechclann

n. (?) later f. and m. IGT, Decl. § 12 , §10 . Thurneysen ( ZCP xiv 342 , xvi 206 ) brings the word from 1 enech and glan, the original meaning being face-clearing (cf. Laws iv 318x , cited under 1 enech II). According to Hamp 1 enech + clú, Ériu xxv 266-67 , see also Études Celt. xxxii 220-21 . In later MSS. enechlann is sometimes found. enechclann, Rawl. 118b39 , etc.

(a) compensation for insult, loss, or injury, for anything constituting a violation of enech (see 1 enech), pro- portionate to the status of the person to be compensated. In Laws Commentary it frequently renders lóg n-enech (e.g. Laws v 516.10 ). When the injury consisted in the death of a relative the eneclann was proportionate to the status of those to whom it was due, thus, although it occasionally renders díre (e.g. Laws i 42.14 v 50.5 Comm. ), it was in its early technical meaning distinct from corpdíre, which was proportionate to the status of the deceased. Distinguished from smacht: cach uair i[s] smacht ictar ann, is a ic fo aicned inti icas, ┐ cach uair is eneclann, is a ic fo aicnedh inti risi n-ictar, Laws iii 496.10 . From díre: is lomm a díre, is toll a eneclann (of one unworthy of trust), Tec. Corm. § 33.6 . eneclann, arindi clantar i n-inchaib duine do neoch bess dīleas do beodil ┐ marbdile nad cosna ala lām fris, lān-lōg einig cāigh fo miad is ed atroillither and, Corm. Y 531 . teora fodla fuil for inchaib duine .i. enicland ┐ enechruice ┐ enechgriss (...enecland .i. i lan ┐ i leath), Laws v 96.5 . cetheora eirca...aithgin ┐ dire, tairgille ┐ enecland...it cetheora primfodlai fil forsuidib .i. lan ┐ leth, trian ┐ cethramthu, i 258.26 . secht cumala do righ tuaithe ina eneclainn, ocht cumala do ri mor-tuaithi, etc. H 3.18, 509 (= O'Curry 1260 ). Laws v 50 . ZCP ix 171 . comdire do rig ┐ epscop (.i. comeneclann do rig tuath ┐ d'epscop), Laws i 42.30 ( O'Gr. Cat. 475.11 ). in t-ollam filead .uii. cumala a eniclann, ┐ .uii. cumala log a aisde v 58.5 Comm. (see also 116 ). e.¤ of craftsmen, minstrels, etc. 98 ff. Comm. Of persons in holy orders: nach fer gráid oc na bí dlighed na eolus timthirechta a gráid...ni dlig saire na eneclainn ḟir gráid i tuaith na i n-eclais, Ériu i 218.13 . See also Laws i 54 ff . ZCP ix 171 . For persons of a certain status their eneclann was determined by that of their lord and patron: aes ciuil ┐ oirfidid oilcena...is a hincaib oga mbiad, is as direnaiter (.i. is as sin erniter eneclann doib), Laws v 108.35 ; 516.13 . cipé imress mela ┐ mertain...fort, ní ḟuil díri no eneclann duitsiu ind, acht na fil dam-sa, dáig fer ar tincur mná atatchomnaic you are not entitled to any compensation-rate or honour-price except what is due to me, for, etc. TBC-LL¹ 48 . Cf. fer cen selb cen thothchus, lasmbi bancomarba, a inchuib a mna direnar side (.i. a dualgus einig a mna eirnither enecland dosaide), Laws v 516.5 - 18 .

is andsin dorimgartseom | a eneclaind for Midir (for carrying off his wife), Metr. Dinds. ii 4.50 . ro dligustur Buide eineclann a marbhadh a ingine .i. aire foirgill meodunuch he ┐ sé cumula do ina eineclann. ro dligustur a derbbráthir eineclann do ina marbadh, aire ard hé, ┐ ceithri cumula do ina einuclunn `B. was entitled to honour-price for the killing of his daughter, he was an a. f. of the middle rank and was entitled to six cumhals as honour-price. Her brother was also entitled to honour-price for her death, he was an a. a. and was entitled to four cumhals as his honour-price' Laws i 76.19 . dlighidh O Néill íoc 'na ḟuil | gibé da mhuintir mharbhthuir | 's ní théid eineaclann uadh d'ḟior, TD 7.6 .

Some kindreds had the privilege of having their eneclann valued in precious metals: Hui Dergmosaig...ór a ndire enechclainne, Rawl. 121a25 . Dal Messiṅ Corb...argat bruinte dire a n-enechclainne, 118b40 . athich cacha slointe di ṡhund huma a n-enechclann, 118b39 . e.¤ for injury to property: smacht a fidh neimhedh no co mbentar uile ┐ eneclann ind o bentar, Laws iv 150.17 .

Claims involving eneclann were urgent: ni dam enecland anad `honour-price does not admit of stay' (of distress) Laws i 120.19 ; but cf. 228.17 ; ii 100.7 , and cases of: eneclann ar treisi stay of eneclann-claim for three days i 162.19 Comm.

In certain cases only fractions of the full value of eneclann were due: ac so sis...na heneclanna fuil isna cneadaib, in aenmad rann fichet d'eneclann isin mbainbeim aicenta, sechtmadh eneclainne isin cnocbeim, etc., O'Curry 694 < H 3.18, 336 .

For eneclann due in regard to literary compositions see Laws v 230 ff .

im log n-enech n-oige .i. in inuclund dlighus in oig [sic] ina sarugha, Laws i 132.17 Comm. ni fuiben enecland arain dar daim techta `when the company is above the lawful number refusal [to entertain] does not lessen one's honour-price' ii 388. 1 . da fichit décc bó tugadh i n-eneclann do Mac M. (as satisfaction for the usurping of his abbacy) AFM ii 910.5 . rucadh da fichit dec bó fo tri, i n-ainechlann Muircertaich Hui Briain, for Desmumain (M. Ó B. had been slain by the king of Desmuma) AU 1168 . In these two exx. it is not clear from the context whether the word is used in the strict legal sense, or in sense (b).

(b) in wider sense compensation, satisfaction: nach bíodh ar chumas carad an tí do marbhthaoi cúitiughadh ná eineaclann do bhuain don ti doghníodh an marbhadh, Keat. i 68.37 . i n-e. in requital for (cf. (a), final citt.): i n-eineaclann an ubhoill in requital for the (sin of the) apple Dán Dé xxi 18 . déra 'na n-einecluinn úaim, IGT, Decl. ex. 536 . bríogh a mball ┐ a gcéadfadh do chaitheamh ré foghnamh do Dhia i n-eineaclann na n-olc do-rinneadar, TSh. 2187 .

escmon, escoman

Cite this: eDIL s.v. escmon, escoman or dil.ie/20457

 

Forms: æscomuni, escomuin, n-escoman, escomnaib, escomna

adj polluted, unclean: (a) commone aut inmundum (es)cmon nó coit(ch)enn, Ardm. 177b1 = Thes. i 497.10 . pullutum...is ainm...du cach escmun aslentar hua drochgnimaib (gl. pollutum non semper immundum vocat sed commune) Ml. 92d12 . nidat n-escmana (gl. non sunt polluti [panes] 92d13 . Cf. ba fír ba hescmon fri scor ZCP viii 333.17 = bæscmon, BB 153b40 . ba escmond LL 331c24 ( CRR 56 n. ). ba hescond (ar scor), Rawl. 158.4 . ba escnom, Lec. 284c30 = ZCP xiv 60.3 . (b) escoman .i. inglan, O'Dav. 769 . .i. anidhan, 462 . eascoman .i. aithesc nemglan an impure answer (?) 815 . eascoman .i. salach, O'Cl. ba háth heascoman lesiom in t-ath for a dtorcair a bhrathair, TBC-LL¹ 2287 (esgong ┐ éisidhan v.l.). nipa isind áth escomon-sa condricfem, áit hi torchair Long, TBC-I¹ 1710 LU. ba escomun a cerd their profession was defiled (dishonoured, of filid found guilty of a false judgment) Laws Introd. i 24.32 . mad fuba...di nach rét escomun, Ériu vii 148.17 . g s. ce cotri lám æscomuni (leg. escomuin) fri biad the hand of one polluted 146.26 . g p. ic urnaidhe a fola ┐ a n-apaige n-escoman d'fagbail, CCath. 5002 . i n-ocmadh escoman .i....a tadhall cosna hinglanaib, O'Dav. 1333 . d p. col-lamaib escomnaib , Ériu vii 148.16 . iar n-echtaib escomna , O'Dav. 462 . Cf. eascoman .i. salchar dirt, defilement, properly excommunication P. O'C. (< O'Cl. ? See cit. above).

escra

Cite this: eDIL s.v. escra or dil.ie/20480
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: esgra, t-escrai, escrai, escra, esgradh

n m. esgra, IGT, Decl. § 2 . a vessel for dispensing water, wine, or other liquids (apparently intermediate in size between a large jar and a drinking cup, but small enough to serve as the latter occasionally): escra .i. core mbis ag dail usci, Corm. Y 565 . escra tomais fīna, 539 . escræ .i. ab æs ┐ ærea .i. uma-dailem, 569 . escræ o ess ┐ ære, O'Mulc. 427 . escra .i. soithech, ┐ deifir eitir eascra ┐ cingit .i. cos gairit asin escra ┐ cos fada asin cingit, ZCP xvii 267.20 . escre ł sciathrach gl. scutras, Études Celt. xxii 211 § 35 . quoddam argenteum vasculum unde potentibus personibus potus hauriri soleat quod hybernica lingua vocatur escra, Acta Sanct. 172 . bó bainne domite a bleoghan a n-escrad da orlach dec, Laws ii 176.17 Comm. dorochair a escra féig finn-argait al-láim in daleman isin dabaig, TFerbe 198 . in t-escra, BColm. 52.29 . cilarn umha a laim dhi, eascra arguit isin laimh eli a pitcher...a goblet RC xiv 46.20 . dabach aircid...escrai oir fora ur, copan di ór for a beolai, MS. Mat. 619.8 (= ZCP iii 459.23 . escra ...airideog, xiii 373.6 ). in t-escrai orda, 619.25 (= ZCP iii 460.17 ). co ngeibed in n-escra, co ndaled isna curnu RC viii 150.15 . adbert Ioseph...escra in airdrigh do thobairt i mesc sacraigi na Candanda, YBL 64b16 = escrai nargait, 287b20 . esccra nargait, LB 116b10 = scyphum... argenteum Gen. xliv 2 . g s. ind escrai-se, SR 3584 . don fleisg bís re beal in escra, O'Dav. 884 . flaithemh oen-escra (a designation of rank), Laws iv 344.4 . cos escrae the shank of a goblet (fig.) O'Mulc. 464 . a c[h]os escra, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 71.3 = Bruchst. § 73 . cos escradh, O'Gr. Cat. 91.6 . abartach escrai (a kind of dispenser), Triads 231 . pl. escra, Laws iv 322.2 . Marco P. 72 . na miasa ┐ na hescradha, 52 . esgradh, TFrag. 8.11 . eirgidh foireann...cosna tunnaibh ┐ eascrada dimhora do dergor léo...┐ linaid cuach nó cupa asna heascraibh sin... do gach aon, Marco P. 79 . rogabad fledol...leo a cornaib ilbreca ecoir ┐ a hescraib forórdaib, YBL 329b31 = TMoméra 160 . d'easgraibh óir, TD 25 § 19 . g p. ced eascra n-airgit fri dail leanna, MR 56.23 = FDG 474 .

fáes(s)am

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fáes(s)am or dil.ie/21032
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: faesaim, fóesama, foesma, faesma, faíseamh, foesmaib, f., fáesam, f., fáesam, f., faesam, faesam, f., saíre, fáesam

u, o, m. (vn. of fo-sisedar. Cf. Mid. W. gwaessaf, gwayssav, Loth, RC xxxviii 300 ): g s. faesaim, BDD 162 (foesma Y). fóesama (for this form see Hessen, ZCP x 321 ) LU 4871 = foesma, TBC-I¹ 383 . pl. faesma, Laws v 48.20 Comm. n s. faíseamh (o, m.) IGT, Decl. § 28 (fáeisimh proscribed as incorrect).

I

(a) in lit. sense `standing under,' hence bearing up under, supporting (?): úair nach fóisam in lind, berim-se maccáem ... tarsi, TBC-LL¹ 1305 (`Fuss-Feste' Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 629 ; anuair nach roichther in linn la cách St); cf. bói C. forsin lind ... ┐ ni ba faesam cid si, TBC-LL¹ 1945 . Possibly an extended use: trustworthy, safe . In follg. ex. Dr. Binchy would see a metaph. use of the meaning adopting, taking into protection (see below): issi innfine i fintedaib griain a tir i fuissither; ar i[s] sruithiu la Feine in foesam andsen oldás a tir as a tairidnither, Laws iv 206.9 (glossed: f. .i. in línd, 208.17 ), i.e. the land in which water is collected in a standing pool or reservoir ranks higher than that in which it has its source. Here the four adjacent holdings are in the matter of water-rights likened to the four categories of affinity, viz. gelfine, deirbfine, iarfine and innfine. See ib. p. 166 .

(b) in the literature usually protection, safeguard: co nach fagbad foisam lat | cid do mac nothaesad fritt, Ériu ix 45 § 5 . is ... essamna mór do T. toidecht cen ḟaosam cen chomairche ina tíre, TTr.² 246 . faosamh .i. comairce, O'Cl. `faosamh' is cuime [ = coimge?] ... dhá ainm cumairce, Metr. Gl., Ff. 31 . luid epscop Erc do thig Ḟ. ... ┐ coṅgab in mac ina ucht, ┐ focheird a ḟoesam ┐ a oentaid fris (i.e. bp. E. placed himself under his protection. Cf. the parallel passage: gabh misi cucat amail mhanach ndilius, Lism. L. 3359 = suscipe me monachum tibi obedientem Lat. Lives 102 ), Fél. 132.25 . With prep. DE, FO and esp. FOR (AR), folld. by subj. gen. under the protection (of): for foísam ríg na ndule comairche nachanbēra [ = -mēra ?], Thes. ii 306 ( Hy i 53 ). cor marbad a ri do fáesam Bachla Issa while [i.e. in spite of being] under the safeguard of RC xviii 28.21 (Tig.) = dar comhairge na bachla, AFM 1109 . A. do marbad la T. ... do ḟaesamh na bachla Isu, AU 1015 . pl. in concrete sense: Cinaedh ... demersus est. ... di foesmaib degdoine nErenn ┐ comarbhai Patraic in spite of the guarantees of AU 850 . in cath bar th'oesam ┐ bar do chommairge, LL 176a43 ( CRR 38 ). iar marbad mac nUsnig for a ḟaisam ┐ for a chommairgi, TBC-LL¹ 464 . ba for a foesam boi Fergus F. was under their protection LU 1619 . is ed doroachtmar fort foesam sunn `'Tis for that we have come hither under thy safeguard' BDD 3 . co ndigset som uili ar m'o(e)sam-sa ┐ ar m'imdegail feib dochuadusa ar a faesam sun ..., TBC-LL¹ 941 . rogab indala n-ae for foesam mBuidb ... gabais araile [for] faessam Ochaille placed himself under the protection of Dinds. 57 . Cf. dia ngaba for faosum `wenn er unter den Schutz gekommen ist' Ir. Recht p. 51 . gur bhó heiccen dona bárdaibh tocht diairm for faesamh an Iustís, AFM vi 2272.1 . ar fhaosam nó ar ionchaibh Íosa, TSh. 2716 . do muirbfedh ... fer ar faosaomh bfer talman would slay a man (even though he were) under the safeguard of everyone ZCP xiii 12.19 . Freq. in ellipt. optative sentence: for a [ḟ]óessam dún innocht may we be under His safeguard Hy i 2 . ar th'faosamh dhamh, a Dhé..., Aithd. D. 73.1 . for a foísam dún ar talmain, LL 364 marg. ( Mart. Tall. 122 ). for foessam duit na saille !, MacCongl. 83 . Less freq. with obj. gen.: ced ná ro nass do foessam-su forsna maccu? why were not the boys pledged to protect you? LU 4894 . téit cosna maccu cen naidm a fóesama [foesma Y] forru, LU 4871 . do chor th' aesma ┐ t'imdegla for in maccraid, TBC-LL¹ 881 = do comairci St. can chur a fáisma foraib, 911 . geib-siu fort faesam na macraide, 944 . O. rogab fóesam ḟír-Ḟoebair | oc Síd B. ... fo frith fóesam do R. O. undertook protection of R. Metr. Dinds. iii 272.38 (cf. Dinds. 57 , above). cuirim m'ḟaosamh ar a ḟuil I entrust myself to His blood Ir. Monthly 1928, 439 .

(c) legal uses. In Law texts f.¤ is common in the meaning protection: ni techta nach foessam ar na tegat ratha fine no `f.¤' is lawful which the sureties of the family do not warrant Laws iv 206.17 . ni bi acraidi faesam (nocha bi acra ... don ti bis ar foesam neich) `no person who is under protection is qualified to sue' [can be sued ?] i 102x (104.24) .

The maxim: cach faesam co fognam, Aib. Cuigni 54 ( ACL iii 227 ; ZCP xvii 56 ) is obscure, and has not been found elsewhere. cisa Mumhan ... do Chaisil ... cach bliadhna dobearar .i. smacht ┐ biathad ┐ turgnumh [turtugud v.l.] ┐ faesamh, Leb. Cert. 60 . nocha nuil eneclann na faosam do he has no honor-price or power of protection (Binchy) Laws ii 24.4 .

Sometimes a different meaning is implied: in the following legal expressions the original meaning seems to be acknowledgment (cf. coibsena .i. confessiones .i. comfaesaime, Thr. Ir. Gl. 11 = chomfaoisitin, Corm. Y 292 , and see fo-sisedar): aicc macu hi foisam do raithe frisin fiach so find sureties for assuming thy guarantee of this debt Bürgschaft 28 § 76 . cf. luid iarum i mMumain co ndeirgene foesam a ingine fri (nō for) Oengus. dobert iarum Oengus ferann do mac a ingine, Rawl. 119a26 = co M. do cuinnighid faesam [sic] a ingini for Aengus, BB 121a37 . ro chuindigh ... faosam a ingine for Aonghus, LL 381a24 (Oengus was the father of the girl).

In the sense protection, privilege , `f.¤ ' is found in connexion with entertainment of the lord and (or) his followers, and in connexion with distraint, seizure of cattle for unpaid dues, etc. "`fáesam' often denotes the immunity from legal process which a person of high rank confers on an inferior, usually a client (céle), who has entertained him and his retinue in accordance with the obligations of clientship. This immunity lasts for a certain period after the departure of the protecting person, whose status determines the duration of the `f.¤ ' During this period the `protected' person has `saíre' (= `f.¤ ' from his point of view) i.e., no legal claims which others have against him may be enforced by the process of distraint." (Dr. Binchy). In these passages the phr. `facaib f.¤ fair,' etc., is common. The meaning is evidently `leaves' (i.e. `confers, bestows on') though the translation `relinquish' often appears in the published Laws. The use in connexion with stay of seizure may be the origin of the later sense relief in illness, passing of the crisis, see II below. A satisfactory definition of this legal `fáesam' would involve a concurrent discussion of the terms `comairce, snádud, turtugud, turbaid' and `saíre,' some of which are often equated with `f.¤ ' by the commentators. All that can be done here is to quote a few passages illustrating the usage. See Ir. Recht 73.1 ff . turtugadh ... ré fedh urgnamha in bidh ┐ comairche in aired bes a caithemh a mbaile ┐ faesam ... iar fagbail in baile, uair is a n-ecmais nech bís a faesam ┐ ina coimitecht bis a comairce . amail atbeir a n-edgidh: .c.c. a caemachta .c. faesma a n-ecnairc, O'Curry 1386 (< H 3.18, 630 ). Here, as Dr. Binchy points out, the reference is to the `faesam' bestowed by the lord on his host while he is entertained, and for a period (see below) after his departure. But the note seems somewhat confused, as `comairce' regularly refers to an escorting safeguard. In the following version `comairce' is replaced by `turbaid': dethbir itir turrtugh ┐ torbaidh ┐ faosamh: in turrtugh .i. re ollmuithe an bidh . in turbaid .i. re a caithme . in faosam .i. iarna cathamh, O'Curry 2651 (< Eg. 88, 55b ). Cf. foesam .i. fo-sisithar tar crich, Ir. Recht p. 6 (no context). The lord, when he takes refection from the `céle,' thereby postpones any such impending seizure. While the meal is being prepared `turtugud' comes into force; while it is being consumed `comairce' (or `turbaid'); for a period after consumption and departure of the guest `faesam.' intí aca mbí tech, is fair facabar faosam, O'Dav. 999 . In some passages in Commentary `f.¤ ' is loosely equated with `turtugud,' e.g. throughout the Uraicecht Becc, Comm.: turtugud mīs dō (.i. mī a lānḟaesam bid ┐ fonadma), Laws v 46.25 ( 48.8 ; 50.7 ; 56.17 ). aenlā a t. (.i. aen-lā a lānḟ.¤ bīdh), etc. 58.16 (19) . athgabail tar turtugad cach duini bes tualuing a turtugad (.i. dar f.¤ cach duine is cuimgech f.¤ do gabail uirre), 256.31 (258.19) .

The time for which `f.¤ ' was valid varied with status (see last quot.): cred do beir cona commór faesamh ┐ turtugud ┐ dama fechta feile ┐ foluch n-othrusa do ri tuaithe ┐ mortuaithi ┐ nach commor enech what is the reason that the king of a territory and the king of a great territory are equal as regards `f.¤' and `t.' and followers on a free visit, and sick-maintenance, while their honour-price is not the same? O'Curry 1383 (< H 3.18, 629a ). faosamh na righ so .i. mi do righ tuaithe ┐ morthuaithe. tri caoicthis do ri tuath . raithe do rí cuicidh . bliadhain do ri Erenn, O'Curry 1260 (< H 3.18, 509 ). faosum na tri n-airech forgill .xx. laithe cechtar de na deisi si is taire . mi don fir is ferr, O'Curry 1261 (ib.). See also discussion on periods of `f.¤ ' in connexion with distraint, Laws i 100 .

Fractions of `f.¤ ' are referred to: masa lainbiathad cu fodnaidm, is lanfoesum fagabhar ara sgath . masa lain-biathadh cin fosnaidm ... is lethfoesum fagabhur ar a sgath, Laws ii 28.22 Comm. in t-ainmrainne don biudh ro caith curub é in t-ainmruinne sin don lanfoesumh fagbus ara sgath ib. 31 . miter foltaib .i. dus cia foessamh, in ōgh, in leth ... nō mitear ┐ rl. .i. in ndlighe foessamh etir ... nō ... in ndlighe fosister itir, O'Curry 510 (a fragment in H 3.18, 258 ; unfortunately the context has not been found).

If the guests fail to arrive, a fraction of `f.¤ ' is still valid: ca hait a faghbas [leg. fāgbhas ?] duine faosam fair budein ┐ a biadh do caithem dō ? ... an inbaid ro dáilestar dámh na tainic fechtus aile dia saigid, madh ro faillidhedar in dámh bodeisin, no mad docuadar re tosca deithbire ┐ ro chaithestar biadh, is a lethfaosam fagbus air, ┐ ise sin aon ina[d] isin mberla Feine ana fagbann nech faosam air ┐ a biadh budein do caithem dó, O'Curry 2448 (< Eg. 88, 36b ) = Laws ii 30x Comm.

The following refer specifically to prevention of distraint , i.e., seizure of cattle: a tabairt do snadud as tualaing a turtaigthi (.i. faesam d'facbail uirri, .i. crui) mad cen airis snaite, mad don snadud rongabthar asrenar log n-enech in snaite (.i. is uais ernither log enech fir in faesma don athgabail do lecon fon caill), Laws i 92.1 (98.13) . f.¤ sin tainic re re n-apaidh ┐ troiscthi, 100.1 . man ro airbertnaig a faesam cur gabadh athgabail de is anadh dechmaide ar in athgabail, 100.5 Comm. mas a n-aimsir lobtha [tainic in f.¤] nocha saorund ar fogelt na ar bleith na ar lobad hí, uair ni téit an faosam amach 'na deagaidh, ┐ téit in turbhadh, 102.4 Comm. cach baile atáit dá foesum no a tri ann, deghuidh i ndeghuidh tangatur na foesmhu ann, ┐ damadh i n-aínḟecht, nocha bia acht in foesumh bu sia . ┐ i bforbad ré anta táinic in foesam ann, ┐ dama[dh] re ré n-anta, isedh budh anudh di re ré in foesma uili, ii 102.15 Comm . mad ro urfaem in bidbaidh apadh, ┐ troscadh i faesam, cia no airberedh a faesam ria ngabail athgabala de, teit turrtughadh la fogail ann; is slan athgabail do gabail de, Laws i 98x . cf. téd turrtugh la fogail .i. téd an comairce deisim la fogail do denamh do mhuin na comairce ... no dno, téd de an turrtugh ┐ bí fair in faosamh, O'Curry 2441 (< Eg. 88, 36a ).

Cf. ní féith [ = féich ?] faosam fo chaoill .i. an faosam ar dibail ma ro thairmisc apa ┐ trosca, O'Curry 2650 (< Eg. 88, 55b ).

In some passages `saíre' and `fáesam' seem to stand for different aspects of the same process, e.g.:

Leath saire mad fuit notfuide neach fri fothugh[adh] tēchta (.i. leth foesum fagbus masa neach eile fuidhius uadh i[n]neach sin do caithiumh bid céilsine flatha) `Half free-quarters if another person sends [some] one upon lawful entertainment (that is, he loses one-half of protection if it be another person that sends him to consume the food which is due to the chief from his tenant)' Laws ii 26.16 . In H 3.18, 332 (reading: no da fuidhe) this is expld.: .i. leath faesam facbaith mad fuidet fuides neach iad do chaithem ineich na fothaigend co dligech biad celsine na flatha, ┐ leathfaesam no fuicfed fein for a ceile, ┐ isseadh facbaidh in coindem cuirter dia cathem fo aicned na flatha, fáesam imorro fon aicned [féin ?] facbaid in coindem for in flaith, O'Curry 682 . In Eg. 88, 36 , which gives of the text only the last four words, the commentary reads: .i. biadh ceilsine na flatha sin, ┐ in flaith do chuir a dam [feachta] fele da caithem, ┐ faosamh na flatha do facbail doibh ar in ceile, ┐ a lanfaosamh do facbail dona damhaibh ar in flath fo aicne [fon aicniudh budein ..., Laws ii 28 ] ar ise tuc biadh doibh . Ocus is ann sin ataitt da faosam a dualgus aonbidh, O'Curry 2446 (also Laws ii 28.1 ff . with slight verbal variants). `saíre' in this passage surely = exemption ? On the same page it is 6 times rendered "`saire'—exemption." See also footnote on p. 18 .

In these passages `saíre" apparently = the exemption due to the presence of `fáesam.' Cf. also fír faosma fosearnathar saire, saoire biata, saoire foghnuma, saoire faosma do cach fo miadh miter cach coir cirt, O'Curry 2443 (< Eg. 88, 36 ) = Laws ii 20.15 , where the rendering of the text, fir foesuma `true protection' cannot be right. Leg. fri faosma (or -am) fo-sernatar, etc., exemptions are arranged according to protection ? ni tuaslaige nach saire no nach faosam bes isle agra bes uaisle enech .i. ... ní is mo na logh enech fir in faosaim don athgabail do legan as re ré in faosaim in inbaid is dar an fis faosma i n-ecmais ro gabadh an athgabail .i. lubra ┐ bidh, ┐ fonadma, O'Curry 2657 ff . (< Eg. 88, 56 ). ni fil saire fri dithim iar n-eagar. ata imorro turbuidhe ┐ faor ┐ faosam, O'Curry 2728 (< Eg. 88, 61 ).

(d) Attrib. gen. :

cēle faesma (foissmad LB) a tenant under the protection of his lord Corm. Y 532 (see ZCP xv 247 and cf. faísitiu). cele faesma .i. in cele faoismither [sic leg.] ac neach, O'Dav. 1327 . Of taking into protection, adopting: seoit foesma the `seds' paid for the admission of children of doubtful origin into the `fine,' apparently to the more legitimate children whose shares in the family property might be diminished thereby: conic in t-athair mac na mban aititin do gabail re re budein cen fír ┐ cen ṡeotu foesma ┐ nocho roindind se dibaid in athar iar n-ēc an athar ris na macaib aile co tuca seotu faesma dona macaib aile, ┐ fír da mberait amarfis fair. Na huile meic taide uile conic in t-athair a ngabail re re no iar re cin fír, ┐ nocho coinig cen seotu faesma, ┐ inti no berad dibaid an athar otha na mic taide amach curab e beris na seotu faesma rl., O'Curry 702 ( H 3.18, 338 ). mic na mban taighe, ce nogabhta a oen no dedhe dibh docum na fine co fīr no co setuibh faoesmha, ma ro forbridar co bfuilet coimlín fine is ecin fīr Dē anosa dia fastadh, Laws iv 294.5 Comm. (of certain classes of women :) Ni berat comperta for fine .i. nocha berait ini comairbertnaigter uathuib for in fine can fīr ┐ seotu faosma leo don fine amach, v 276.25 Comm . cain-berad meirdrecha ... .i. is taitnemach berait na mna is merdrech in ní donither riu i lanamnus ... acht co tucait fīr ┐ seoit faesma leis .i. a altram do denam di, 452.24 Comm .

cin log faesma (.i. cen log ar a faisitnighudh .i. secht cumala), 456.23 (of admission of illegitimate sons to tribe). i taidhe dorinnedh na mic so ... ┐ fior ┐ seotu faosma doberaid lais dia fastadh for in athair amach, O'Curry 2236 (cf. 2235 ). cor faesma `a contract of adoption ' Laws iv 60.13 (.i. in cor curtar risin mac faesma an fine `a covenant which is made with the adopted son of the tribe' 62.3 ). mac fáesma adopted son : in cutruma bias o duine do mac faesma du geilḟine no do deirbḟine ar dénum a gaire ... uair nugu roich in trian no in leath cu cóir acht re macc faesma d'anḟine, O'D. 2255 (< Rawl. B 506, 20a ). fine taccuir .i. na meic foesma `adopted sons' Laws iv 288.14 . fine taccuir issede domberat cuir bel a foessam `who give verbal contracts in adoption' Laws iv 284.16 . `mac fáesma' is distinguished from `dalta': dighail daltadh na fine .i. dalta coitcenn na fine, ┐ dighail fir foseisiter fine .i. dighail in ḟir ḟaoismighes in ḟine don ghaire in tseanorach .i. in mac faosmadh, O'Curry 391 (< H 3.18, 219a ). in dalta ┐ in gormac ┐ in mac faosam [leg. —ma or —aim] eneclann dleghaid in fine ina marbad sen ib. See Thurn. ZCP xiv 371.27 . aitire fáesma a supporting guarantor (?): the guarantor of acceptance (?) (dist. from a. luigi and a. nadma), Bürgschaft 22 § 64 . caide aitire foisma ? fo-sisithar side smachta dam in fasach sin, 25 § 68 (passage corrupt, in Thurneysen's opinion). fath faoisimh (ni fáth fáoisidh v.l.) `cause of protection' BNnÉ 249.15 . Cf. co bér breth for ḟáth faosmha, fer fotha ... fer faosmha, fer foghnamha, Ériu xiii 16.12 (expl. : faesamh .i. foghlaim ut est co ber breith for fátha faesam [fath faesma v.l.], O'Dav. 859 ) = cotober breth fo[r] fath faesma ib. Ériu xiii 59w (< H 3.18, 207a ). cis lir ó ndleghaid filidh faosmha raith ? easpuicc righ saoi, file fireon ..., Ériu xiii 34.9 .

II In Early Mod. Ir. relief, assuagement (cf. the use in c above which sometimes approaches the meaning relief), esp. recovery (from illness): fiabhras ar nach foil faoiseamh 'a fever for which there is no relief', Celtica xxvi 98 § 13 . an tan gheibhid na heasláin faoisiomh, 23 K 42, 19.1 . a ttosach an ḟaoisiomha, 20.15 . an uáir fúair sé fáoiseamh = when he began to amend John iv 52 . gan fortacht gan faoiseamh, Keat. Poems 1585 .

? fairse ?

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? fairse ? or dil.ie/21165

 

ind Octauin ... cosa tuidchetar Indecdai ┐ Scethecda ... cosna fairsib cona réir d'Octauín co Roím, Alex. 1115 ( LB 213a25 ) = fairnibh BB (perh. the right reading).

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