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bélrae

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bélrae or dil.ie/5638

 

Forms: bérla, bélre, bellrae, mbéelre, mbélre, bélri, bérli, belrai, bélru, belru, il-bélre, mbélre, il-béelre, il-bélrib, béarlaoi, berla

n io, n. also bérla (note -rl- in Wb. ex. cited below, see GOI 113 ). Later m.(bél). n s. bélre n-echtrann, Wb. 12c46 . cech mb.¤ , Ml. 42c12 , bellrae, 53d3 . a s. a mbéelre , Wb. 12d6 , mbélre, 13a2 . g s. bélri, Wb. 12a10 . bérli, 12d4 , belrai, Ml. 31b23 . d s. bélru, Wb. 12b23 , Sg. 31b13 , belru, Ml. 42c14 . a pl. il-bélre, Wb. 12c19 . g pl. inna mbélre , Wb. 13a26 . il-béelre, 12d7 . d pl. il-bélrib, 12b24 . Cf. a pl. béarlaoi, Timth. 1916, 38 , 38 § 14.

I

(a) speech, language: in belrai gl. ling[u]æ, Ml. 28b13 . máel dub fair ┐ belra formend leiss `stammering speech', BDD 114 ( LU 7599 ). ro chren a berla cach ṁbrúit his words (?) provided every history, LL 4424. bídh . . . / sbéis ag mnáibh i mbēarla mBriain, Magauran 230 . aslinge .i. absque linga .i. cen bērla nó tengaid, O'Mulc. 66. dúil bélrai glossary (belonging to the curriculum of the eighth year of poetic training) : duili bélraí (berla, v.l.) sicut est duil dromma cett (see 3 dúil) `Glossare' (182.21), IT iii 50 § 92.

(b) Of specific languages: ataat ilchenéle bérli isin biuthso gl. multa . . . genera lingarum, Wb. 12d4 . du cach belru la grecu `to every dialect among Greeks', Thes. ii 226.23 (PCr.). cech deidbli fil i mbērlæ is -ān nō -ēne dofūarusccuib, Corm. Y 1301. ced belrai inso (i.e. Latin), Trip. 128.7 . cen berla i tirib aneóil, SR 3448. gach son fordorcha gach berla `every obscure sound of every language', Auraic. 11. na dá bérlai (berla, v.l.) sechtmogat, Ériu iv 136.16 . ro fogluim an berla nEgebtacca, Laws i 20.9 Comm. tresan mberla Scoiteagdha, BB 38a30 . isin berla Grecdaí, ZCP xxx 101.6 . condat lia na cenela inaid na berlada, BB 3a9 . gen bérla in tíri i ndechatar, Celtica iv 18.10 . in berla i-n ro-genamar our native language, PH 5380. na berla ro cúmscaigit . . . ico'n tur, 5456 . o'n berla Ebraide, 5487 . o bélraib aingel (= 1 Corinth. xiii 1 ), 5909 . in Tenga Bithnua labhrustair o berlu angelacda `in the language of angels', Ériu ii 104 § 15.

Of the noises of animals: do berlaib cech mil bladmair, SR 7263. belra dligthech (spoken by birds) rational language, Ériu ii 118 § 54. béarla na n-éan, Measgra D. 56.23 .

Hence people, nation : ceneel na [= ná] belre, Wb. 28b1 . tuucthar hi cech belru gl. cunctis gentibus nota est, Ml. 42c2 . in lín catrach in cech threib ┐ in lín mbélra in cech cathraig, ┐ in lín doine im (leg. in ?) cech mbelra, LB 132b30 .

(c) In the mod. period specially of (the) English (language) : 'san mbérla, RC xxv 388 § 2. a hucht a bérla `relying on . . . her knowledge of the English language', AFM v 1530.12 . riaghail . . . S. Clára arna tionntúdh i ngaoidhilcc as bérla, Ériu xv 6 title. croinic Bhéarla Stanihurst, Keat. iii 5462. i Laidin i Scoitic ioná i mBéarla, Flower Cat. 574.z ( GJ xiv 714.67 ).

II In various technical phrases of special forms of language. Of the five divisions of Gaelic: cia lin cenel n-anmann . . . forsin ngaeidilg ? . . . a cóic .i. gaeidelg ┐ bérla teibide ┐ bérla Feni ┐ bérla n-etarscartha iter na feadaib aire[g]daib ┐ in gnath-bérla fognus do chach olcheana, Lec. Gl. 209. an Ghaedhealg . . . 'n-a cúig codchaibh, mar atá Béarla na Féine, Béarla na bhFileadh, Bearla an Eadarscartha, Béarla Teibidhe is Gnáithbhéarla, Keat. ii 140. b.¤ (Féine) (the language of) the Laws ; law, the legal enactments : epscop ┐ saoi berla féne, AFM ii 636.12 . brathchai .i. bretho Cai, ainm aicepta bēlri `a reading of law' (Index), O'Mulc. 125. condelg mbélri (mbearla, mberla, v.ll.), O'Dav. 843. roslá bérla breithemhan, LL 386a36 = sós la . . ., Leb. Cert.² 160.2 . suí Berla a doctor of the `Bérla Féine', Laws i 16.23 Comm. (of a Leinster king) ba hollom berla Féne, Metr. Dinds. iv 344.29 . Crith Gablach graece crisis .i. iudicium, nomen aiciuchta bēlrai, O'Mulc. 229. is e sin othrus is luga isin mberla, O'Curry 587 (H. 3.18. 290). Cf. Keat. ii 140 cited above.

For b.¤ (bán) biait see biait. Note also: imróefet fri berla / o Róim (glossed .i. imrádfit berla Románach), LU 9841.

b.¤ n-etarscartha: berla n-edarscartha etir na feadhaib language of separation between the vowels, Auraic. 210. See etarscarad. b.¤ (na filed) a poetic jargon, an artificial language practised by the poets, `part of the sixth year's course of the student-fili,' fili (for poems in B. na f. see Meyer, ZCP v 482 - 490 ; RC xi 125 , xiii 220 ). (of the ánrad poet) belru na filedh as a naicillidh cách dib aloile, O'D. 1214 (H. 2.15, 84a). b.¤ fortchide see 1 fortchide. b.¤ teipide, tóbaide the selected language, Gaelic , see teipe, teipide, tóbaide: go bhfuilid focail as gach aointeangaidh ar airleagadh san cheathramhadh mír don Ghaedhilg ré ráidhtear Béarla Teibidhe, Keat. ii 948.

críth

Cite this: eDIL s.v. críth or dil.ie/12998

 

Forms: crenaid, crithcaoine

ā, f. earlier vn. of crenaid (see cre(i)cc) act of buying, purchasing : crith .i. íc . . . no cendach ut est . . . dia crith sidhe dia fini, O'Dav. 425 . dogrinn co teora crith comnadma `till it reach the payment of a joint contract', 570 (see s.v. ceirtle ). In title of tract: C.¤ Gablach `the branched Purchase', Críth G. xvii `settlement', Plummer MS. notes. For a suggestion that the original word in this context may be crích (which occurs) see Meroney, Jn. Celt. Stud. ii 192 - 3 . sé aidecha na crithi gablaigi . . . co napair isin crith gablaigh, O'D. 969 ( H 3.17, 679b ). in bó fil isin crith gablaigh, 931 (658b). Variously expld.: cid ara n-eperr C.¤ Gablach? . . . arindí crenas in fer túaithe dia degḟoltaib, Críth G. 1 . crith gablach .i. aigech[t] (= aiccecht ?) .i. ar a ní concerta gabhla na ngrad, O'Curry 96 ( H 3.18, 67 ). crith gablach graece crisis .i. iudicium, nomen aiciuchta bēlrai, O'Mulc. 229 .

Compd. crithcaoine ` exotic merchandise ', Blathm. 120 .

dénum

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dénum or dil.ie/15474
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: dénom, dénam, déinem, dénaim, déinim, denum, dénom, dénma, déineamh, déinimh, dénaim, dénamh, dénamh, rodēnma, denma

u, m. vn. of do-gní. O. Ir. also dénom, Mid. Ir. dénam, déinem, m., dénaim, déinim, f.: n s. denum, Wb. 13a21 . Ml. 2d11 . dénom, 71b2 . Wb. 12a9 . g s. dénma, 12b21 . Ml. 19a10 . déineamh m., IGT Decl. § 101 . déinimh f., § 150 . dénaim f., § 10 . dénamh m., § 100 . Verbs § 1 .

I As vn. of do-gní in all its senses.

(a) act of doing; performing, executing, committing, perpetrating: dénamh gl. procuratio, Ir. Gl. 899 . denum maith ┐ imgabail uilc do denum, Ml. 14c12 . denma tuile Dǽ, 47c13 . mo chomairle do d.¤ , Wb. 10b25 . fri denam na fert, SR 694 . inna dualchi do denum, Ml. 18c6 . oc denum in pectho, Tur. 102 . drúis do d.¤ , PH 7450 . oes denma uilc evil-doers , MR 12 .

(b) Esp. with verbal abstr. or abstr. noun implying activity of some kind, feeling, etc.: ci adcobrinn móidim do d.¤ to boast , Wb. 17d17 . ní cumcat aithirgi ndo denum to repent , Ml. 23a5 . aine ┐ abstanait do denum, PH 4955 . cen bréca do denum not to tell lies, 8133 . íar ṅdenum chomairle doib after they had taken counsel, 3234 . comairci . . . do denum to protect , MR 162 . debaid do denam to fight , FB § 33 . marcachus do denum to ride , PH 4456 .

(c) act of making, creating, etc.: suánemuin do d.¤ to make ropes, Wb. 24d14 . do denum idal, Ml. 130a5 . du denum chlainde to beget offspring, 135b6 . fer dénma bairgine a maker of bread, Sg. 184b3 . tar hési denmo ind libuir, 2a7 . tuccait a dénma the cause of its composition, Thes. ii 298.27 . feiss Temruch do denam, IT i 118 . aiffrind . . . do d.¤ , PH 7407 .

(d) making out, proving: mása teach gadaighe is a dénamh air if it is a thief's house it has to be proved against him, O'Don. Suppl. doberar do Socht denum cor'bo leis in claideb S. is allowed to prove, IT iii 201 . (Of an absconding slave) mas amlaid frith ┐ a cul ri tech . . . is a denam conad ac elod ro bui it must be proved (it is a proof?), Laws v 338.11 . do denum na morgaiti no da seana, O'Curry 286 (H. 3,18, 158).

(e) Corresp. to do-gní . . . di (pers. and impers.) making . . . of, rendering: ainm do denom de to make a noun of it, treat it as a noun, Sg. 26b5 . aís lobor do d.¤ diibsi that you should be treated as feeble folk, Wb. 17b29 . ingen íar ndénam mná dí, Triads 233 .

(f) Intrans. of motion, going, making towards (see O'Rahilly, Celtica i 318-21 ): déinimh duid i mbeirn bhaoghail, TD 10.29 . geall Banbha id dháil ag déanamh, 31 . acc dénamh don luing . . . ar Á., AFM v 1582.10 . Note also: déanamh seice avoiding it, DDána 10.41 . déanamh thart to neglect thee, 32.17 .

II As subst.

(a) form, make, build: buaid delba, buaid ṅdenma, TBC-LL¹ 661 . ba ferrdha denam an laich, CCath. 2932 . claochluidhidh dath ┐ déanamh na hanma, TSh. 1336 . g s. as adj. shapely, beautiful: cromsciathigel . . . co tri radhaib rodēnma , TBC-I¹ 2339 . vii muilt denma , IT i 311.30 (but see Loinges mac nDuíl Dermait 64 ).

(b) behaviour, treatment: ba machtnad leosum an denam baoi for leith for Aban aige, ┐ gin aithne aige fair, BNnÉ 7.23 .

(c) interpretation (of a name), definition: doni dream denam aile | ar Charn Fraich, Metr. Dinds. iii 362 . Cu Culaind .i. dia ro marb coin Culaind . . . no dino is o Cuilinn Murtemni ro hainmnighed . . . acht is ferr in cet-denum, BB 250a46 . Conall Cernach .i. C. buadach . . . is ed sin a firdenam, Lec. 422a33 . dobeurur denum annso ar an anum (= definitur rationalis anima), 24 B 3, 115.6 . dobeir Sanct Augustin in denum so air defines it thus, 16 .

(d) section of a treatise: na briatra cuirter annsa denam so, 3 C 19, 276 rb11 . do cuired in focal so re naburar crisis . . . annsa denam ar tus, 28 .

1 dícenn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 dícenn or dil.ie/16069

 

Forms: dígeann, digind, diginn

n o, m., IGT Decl. § 11 . ā, f., § 12 . (dí + cenn) On the form see O'Rahilly, Ériu xiii 140 .

(a) end, extreme limit (of time or space): mo sherc . . . is dichend nime as remote as the heavens (of a hopeless passion), IT i 124 . co dicend ai until the end of the suit, Laws i 266 . arfeadhur in dicinn dithma `what remains unforfeited', ii 16 . a ndigeand (sic leg.) dechmad at the end of ten days (.i. a forba na dechmaidi medonchi), iv 18 . Legal also in phr. d.¤ slechta, O'Curry 2434 ( Eg. 88, 35 (36)b ). bag ┐ maidem ┐ imarba test ┐ dicend slechta . . ., 2422 ( 33 (34)b ) = dicinn set, 2435 ( 35 (36)c ). ma rugastar slicht uatha gach duine uil iman dicinn set cuigi, ib. Plummer MS. notes suggests `place where track (left by criminal) ends'. co treathan commuir cach ndicend, ZCP xii 363 . ni fuil comairem ara fad acht muna faghadh a dígend fuirre the length (of India) cannot be reckoned unless one should find (determine) its limit (?), Maund. 251 . cu diceann in domhain, Oss. v 108 . do mhūin bás Í Domhnaill dáibh | eolus diginn an domhnáin O'Donnell's death has taught (how narrow are) the boundaries of this poor world, Book of O'Conor Don 180b14 (? but see (e) below). bréid sídeingi ar slios gach luingi | d'fios díginne an chruinde cuir to visit the farther shores of the world, IGT Decl. ex. 504 . Of a wound: da mbia an cnead domain, cuirtear gacopa . . . conuige a digenn ┐ glantar fa dō gach laoi hi, 3 C 19, 46 ra16 .

(b) issue, outcome: annē diceann bias do de | sesem beo ┐ bās duaine shall this be the end of it for him? BB 259a27 . bidh olc dígeann bhias duit de (dighenn, v.l.), BS § 80 .

(c) culminating point, climax, acme: roforcaill forro diciunn a saeirsi ┐ a n-ealadan do chaithimh fris he enjoined on them to spend for him their utmost skill and science, Marco P. 17 . dobēr dígeann mo comurli duid I will give thee the best advice I can, ZCP vi 92 . dígen a drithlenn mbroide | ceilt ar chaill do shochraide it is a strengthening of her pangs of sorrow to conceal the number of the host she lost, Columban Record 1914, p. 40b25 (elegy on Niall Garbh, 17th cent.). dol go digenn a bforais | lēigfed d'eagla an fhaltanais to the fullness of their story I shall not go for fear of enmity, 43b1 . torchair Tomás i ruaig Rois, | ag so díghean ár ndonois 'tis the climax of our misfortune (leg. dígeann), Keat. Poems 1058 . is diginn leigis é a non-plus-ultra cure (?), 3 C 19, 46 ra26 . digind micheille utter folly , ITS xxix 144.24 . Of a crisis , quarrel: rogab ga fhiadnugad orro a dígenn bodein re D. how matters had reached a head between D. and himself (?), MR 216.z .

(d) In phrase d.¤ daingin stronghold, fastness: bá do dicenn daingin Uí Suillebháin an glend sin one of O'S.'s most impregnable retreats, AFM vi 2312 . rob é an baile sin digenn daingin chóiccidh Connacht, v 1846 . gid é diginn daingin don chúicceadh, ii 1820 . dun nó digenn, Cog. 188 . dín no dígenn, 253 . Cf. cuimrechta nó tecailse (sic leg.) no dígen gl. alligatus, Sg. 39b13 .

(e) In g s. as attrib. extreme, final, utmost: drumcla digind dilind in beatha, BB 431a29 . i n-aiccéin domain diginn na haibéise `the deep illimitable ocean', SG 345.27 . fada ó threibh lígḟinn Lugaidh, | neimh dhiginn a docamhoil the last drop in their cup of sorrow, A IV 3, 639 . ba drong daithius druing digeng (leg. diginn ?) | i comflaithius for Erinn, Lec. 583b20 . See dígenn.

2 díles

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 díles or dil.ie/16404

 

(subst.use of 1 díles)

(a) private property, possession: ni bíd nach diles ic neoch díb nemo ibi sibi quicquam proprium habebat, Lat. Lives 92 (= RC ii 392 ). mórán do daeinib . . . do rec a ferann ┐ a selba ┐ a n-oigrechta ┐ do-beridis a luach dona hapsalaibh da tabairt don coitcenn ┐ ni lamdais fein diles neich do beth aca acht an coitcenn oir is as do-geibdis a riachtanus a les uile, 3 B 22, 26av . ní bíodh d.¤ etir acca acht inneoch dogheibhedh dobeiredh do bochtaib . . . , SG 19 ; similarly RC xii 340 : tri cét manuch gun nach (sic leg.) diles ag nech dib; Anecd. v 5 (= Alex. 935 ): ni gaibem forba nach diles isin bith. Temair Breg . . . d.¤ Néill, Ériu iv 92 . diles gac enduine a eidhrecht, RIA MSS. Ser. i 51 . ro gaib a righi do dhiles co brath do féin ┐ dá chloind, Todd Nenn. 192 . comad le fein do dilius an ferann do idbair dhó, Lism. L. 980 .

(b) possession: do bhronn bith-d.¤ na Midhe do Hugo is da ṡliocht 'n-a dhiaidh, Keat. iii 5399 .

(c) property, characteristic function: ase as dilius don luibh so (Germander) oibriughadh a n-aghaidh easlainte na seilge, 23 K 42, 383.13 . Of symptoms preceding crisis: madh follus comurtha in dileghtha rompa so, ┐ a ngluasacht do ueith la diles in ḟaoithighthi, criochnuighter in faoithiugad cum maithesa, 3 C 19, 271vb25 .

Contrasted with ruidles on one hand and coitchenn on the other (gramm.): caiti ruidhles ┐ diles ┐ coitchend indles isna deachaibh? Ruidhles doib a n-anmand fein do rad friu amal ata dialt. Diles doib dialt do radh fri cach n-ai dibh air is dialt duformaidh gach n-ae dib for araili. Coitchend doib deich do radh fri cach dib. Indleas do dhialt immorro deach duna seacht ndeachaib ele do radh fris, air ní fil alt and, Auraic. 773 . See also 833 , 841 , 848 .

fáes(s)am

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fáes(s)am or dil.ie/21032
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: faesaim, fóesama, foesma, faesma, faíseamh, foesmaib, f., fáesam, f., fáesam, f., faesam, faesam, f., saíre, fáesam

u, o, m. (vn. of fo-sisedar. Cf. Mid. W. gwaessaf, gwayssav, Loth, RC xxxviii 300 ): g s. faesaim, BDD 162 (foesma Y). fóesama (for this form see Hessen, ZCP x 321 ) LU 4871 = foesma, TBC-I¹ 383 . pl. faesma, Laws v 48.20 Comm. n s. faíseamh (o, m.) IGT, Decl. § 28 (fáeisimh proscribed as incorrect).

I

(a) in lit. sense `standing under,' hence bearing up under, supporting (?): úair nach fóisam in lind, berim-se maccáem ... tarsi, TBC-LL¹ 1305 (`Fuss-Feste' Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 629 ; anuair nach roichther in linn la cách St); cf. bói C. forsin lind ... ┐ ni ba faesam cid si, TBC-LL¹ 1945 . Possibly an extended use: trustworthy, safe . In follg. ex. Dr. Binchy would see a metaph. use of the meaning adopting, taking into protection (see below): issi innfine i fintedaib griain a tir i fuissither; ar i[s] sruithiu la Feine in foesam andsen oldás a tir as a tairidnither, Laws iv 206.9 (glossed: f. .i. in línd, 208.17 ), i.e. the land in which water is collected in a standing pool or reservoir ranks higher than that in which it has its source. Here the four adjacent holdings are in the matter of water-rights likened to the four categories of affinity, viz. gelfine, deirbfine, iarfine and innfine. See ib. p. 166 .

(b) in the literature usually protection, safeguard: co nach fagbad foisam lat | cid do mac nothaesad fritt, Ériu ix 45 § 5 . is ... essamna mór do T. toidecht cen ḟaosam cen chomairche ina tíre, TTr.² 246 . faosamh .i. comairce, O'Cl. `faosamh' is cuime [ = coimge?] ... dhá ainm cumairce, Metr. Gl., Ff. 31 . luid epscop Erc do thig Ḟ. ... ┐ coṅgab in mac ina ucht, ┐ focheird a ḟoesam ┐ a oentaid fris (i.e. bp. E. placed himself under his protection. Cf. the parallel passage: gabh misi cucat amail mhanach ndilius, Lism. L. 3359 = suscipe me monachum tibi obedientem Lat. Lives 102 ), Fél. 132.25 . With prep. DE, FO and esp. FOR (AR), folld. by subj. gen. under the protection (of): for foísam ríg na ndule comairche nachanbēra [ = -mēra ?], Thes. ii 306 ( Hy i 53 ). cor marbad a ri do fáesam Bachla Issa while [i.e. in spite of being] under the safeguard of RC xviii 28.21 (Tig.) = dar comhairge na bachla, AFM 1109 . A. do marbad la T. ... do ḟaesamh na bachla Isu, AU 1015 . pl. in concrete sense: Cinaedh ... demersus est. ... di foesmaib degdoine nErenn ┐ comarbhai Patraic in spite of the guarantees of AU 850 . in cath bar th'oesam ┐ bar do chommairge, LL 176a43 ( CRR 38 ). iar marbad mac nUsnig for a ḟaisam ┐ for a chommairgi, TBC-LL¹ 464 . ba for a foesam boi Fergus F. was under their protection LU 1619 . is ed doroachtmar fort foesam sunn `'Tis for that we have come hither under thy safeguard' BDD 3 . co ndigset som uili ar m'o(e)sam-sa ┐ ar m'imdegail feib dochuadusa ar a faesam sun ..., TBC-LL¹ 941 . rogab indala n-ae for foesam mBuidb ... gabais araile [for] faessam Ochaille placed himself under the protection of Dinds. 57 . Cf. dia ngaba for faosum `wenn er unter den Schutz gekommen ist' Ir. Recht p. 51 . gur bhó heiccen dona bárdaibh tocht diairm for faesamh an Iustís, AFM vi 2272.1 . ar fhaosam nó ar ionchaibh Íosa, TSh. 2716 . do muirbfedh ... fer ar faosaomh bfer talman would slay a man (even though he were) under the safeguard of everyone ZCP xiii 12.19 . Freq. in ellipt. optative sentence: for a [ḟ]óessam dún innocht may we be under His safeguard Hy i 2 . ar th'faosamh dhamh, a Dhé..., Aithd. D. 73.1 . for a foísam dún ar talmain, LL 364 marg. ( Mart. Tall. 122 ). for foessam duit na saille !, MacCongl. 83 . Less freq. with obj. gen.: ced ná ro nass do foessam-su forsna maccu? why were not the boys pledged to protect you? LU 4894 . téit cosna maccu cen naidm a fóesama [foesma Y] forru, LU 4871 . do chor th' aesma ┐ t'imdegla for in maccraid, TBC-LL¹ 881 = do comairci St. can chur a fáisma foraib, 911 . geib-siu fort faesam na macraide, 944 . O. rogab fóesam ḟír-Ḟoebair | oc Síd B. ... fo frith fóesam do R. O. undertook protection of R. Metr. Dinds. iii 272.38 (cf. Dinds. 57 , above). cuirim m'ḟaosamh ar a ḟuil I entrust myself to His blood Ir. Monthly 1928, 439 .

(c) legal uses. In Law texts f.¤ is common in the meaning protection: ni techta nach foessam ar na tegat ratha fine no `f.¤' is lawful which the sureties of the family do not warrant Laws iv 206.17 . ni bi acraidi faesam (nocha bi acra ... don ti bis ar foesam neich) `no person who is under protection is qualified to sue' [can be sued ?] i 102x (104.24) .

The maxim: cach faesam co fognam, Aib. Cuigni 54 ( ACL iii 227 ; ZCP xvii 56 ) is obscure, and has not been found elsewhere. cisa Mumhan ... do Chaisil ... cach bliadhna dobearar .i. smacht ┐ biathad ┐ turgnumh [turtugud v.l.] ┐ faesamh, Leb. Cert. 60 . nocha nuil eneclann na faosam do he has no honor-price or power of protection (Binchy) Laws ii 24.4 .

Sometimes a different meaning is implied: in the following legal expressions the original meaning seems to be acknowledgment (cf. coibsena .i. confessiones .i. comfaesaime, Thr. Ir. Gl. 11 = chomfaoisitin, Corm. Y 292 , and see fo-sisedar): aicc macu hi foisam do raithe frisin fiach so find sureties for assuming thy guarantee of this debt Bürgschaft 28 § 76 . cf. luid iarum i mMumain co ndeirgene foesam a ingine fri (nō for) Oengus. dobert iarum Oengus ferann do mac a ingine, Rawl. 119a26 = co M. do cuinnighid faesam [sic] a ingini for Aengus, BB 121a37 . ro chuindigh ... faosam a ingine for Aonghus, LL 381a24 (Oengus was the father of the girl).

In the sense protection, privilege , `f.¤ ' is found in connexion with entertainment of the lord and (or) his followers, and in connexion with distraint, seizure of cattle for unpaid dues, etc. "`fáesam' often denotes the immunity from legal process which a person of high rank confers on an inferior, usually a client (céle), who has entertained him and his retinue in accordance with the obligations of clientship. This immunity lasts for a certain period after the departure of the protecting person, whose status determines the duration of the `f.¤ ' During this period the `protected' person has `saíre' (= `f.¤ ' from his point of view) i.e., no legal claims which others have against him may be enforced by the process of distraint." (Dr. Binchy). In these passages the phr. `facaib f.¤ fair,' etc., is common. The meaning is evidently `leaves' (i.e. `confers, bestows on') though the translation `relinquish' often appears in the published Laws. The use in connexion with stay of seizure may be the origin of the later sense relief in illness, passing of the crisis , see II below. A satisfactory definition of this legal `fáesam' would involve a concurrent discussion of the terms `comairce, snádud, turtugud, turbaid' and `saíre,' some of which are often equated with `f.¤ ' by the commentators. All that can be done here is to quote a few passages illustrating the usage. See Ir. Recht 73.1 ff . turtugadh ... ré fedh urgnamha in bidh ┐ comairche in aired bes a caithemh a mbaile ┐ faesam ... iar fagbail in baile, uair is a n-ecmais nech bís a faesam ┐ ina coimitecht bis a comairce . amail atbeir a n-edgidh: .c.c. a caemachta .c. faesma a n-ecnairc, O'Curry 1386 (< H 3.18, 630 ). Here, as Dr. Binchy points out, the reference is to the `faesam' bestowed by the lord on his host while he is entertained, and for a period (see below) after his departure. But the note seems somewhat confused, as `comairce' regularly refers to an escorting safeguard. In the following version `comairce' is replaced by `turbaid': dethbir itir turrtugh ┐ torbaidh ┐ faosamh: in turrtugh .i. re ollmuithe an bidh . in turbaid .i. re a caithme . in faosam .i. iarna cathamh, O'Curry 2651 (< Eg. 88, 55b ). Cf. foesam .i. fo-sisithar tar crich, Ir. Recht p. 6 (no context). The lord, when he takes refection from the `céle,' thereby postpones any such impending seizure. While the meal is being prepared `turtugud' comes into force; while it is being consumed `comairce' (or `turbaid'); for a period after consumption and departure of the guest `faesam.' intí aca mbí tech, is fair facabar faosam, O'Dav. 999 . In some passages in Commentary `f.¤ ' is loosely equated with `turtugud,' e.g. throughout the Uraicecht Becc, Comm.: turtugud mīs dō (.i. mī a lānḟaesam bid ┐ fonadma), Laws v 46.25 ( 48.8 ; 50.7 ; 56.17 ). aenlā a t. (.i. aen-lā a lānḟ.¤ bīdh), etc. 58.16 (19) . athgabail tar turtugad cach duini bes tualuing a turtugad (.i. dar f.¤ cach duine is cuimgech f.¤ do gabail uirre), 256.31 (258.19) .

The time for which `f.¤ ' was valid varied with status (see last quot.): cred do beir cona commór faesamh ┐ turtugud ┐ dama fechta feile ┐ foluch n-othrusa do ri tuaithe ┐ mortuaithi ┐ nach commor enech what is the reason that the king of a territory and the king of a great territory are equal as regards `f.¤' and `t.' and followers on a free visit, and sick-maintenance, while their honour-price is not the same? O'Curry 1383 (< H 3.18, 629a ). faosamh na righ so .i. mi do righ tuaithe ┐ morthuaithe. tri caoicthis do ri tuath . raithe do rí cuicidh . bliadhain do ri Erenn, O'Curry 1260 (< H 3.18, 509 ). faosum na tri n-airech forgill .xx. laithe cechtar de na deisi si is taire . mi don fir is ferr, O'Curry 1261 (ib.). See also discussion on periods of `f.¤ ' in connexion with distraint, Laws i 100 .

Fractions of `f.¤ ' are referred to: masa lainbiathad cu fodnaidm, is lanfoesum fagabhar ara sgath . masa lain-biathadh cin fosnaidm ... is lethfoesum fagabhur ar a sgath, Laws ii 28.22 Comm. in t-ainmrainne don biudh ro caith curub é in t-ainmruinne sin don lanfoesumh fagbus ara sgath ib. 31 . miter foltaib .i. dus cia foessamh, in ōgh, in leth ... nō mitear ┐ rl. .i. in ndlighe foessamh etir ... nō ... in ndlighe fosister itir, O'Curry 510 (a fragment in H 3.18, 258 ; unfortunately the context has not been found).

If the guests fail to arrive, a fraction of `f.¤ ' is still valid: ca hait a faghbas [leg. fāgbhas ?] duine faosam fair budein ┐ a biadh do caithem dō ? ... an inbaid ro dáilestar dámh na tainic fechtus aile dia saigid, madh ro faillidhedar in dámh bodeisin, no mad docuadar re tosca deithbire ┐ ro chaithestar biadh, is a lethfaosam fagbus air, ┐ ise sin aon ina[d] isin mberla Feine ana fagbann nech faosam air ┐ a biadh budein do caithem dó, O'Curry 2448 (< Eg. 88, 36b ) = Laws ii 30x Comm.

The following refer specifically to prevention of distraint , i.e., seizure of cattle: a tabairt do snadud as tualaing a turtaigthi (.i. faesam d'facbail uirri, .i. crui) mad cen airis snaite, mad don snadud rongabthar asrenar log n-enech in snaite (.i. is uais ernither log enech fir in faesma don athgabail do lecon fon caill), Laws i 92.1 (98.13) . f.¤ sin tainic re re n-apaidh ┐ troiscthi, 100.1 . man ro airbertnaig a faesam cur gabadh athgabail de is anadh dechmaide ar in athgabail, 100.5 Comm. mas a n-aimsir lobtha [tainic in f.¤] nocha saorund ar fogelt na ar bleith na ar lobad hí, uair ni téit an faosam amach 'na deagaidh, ┐ téit in turbhadh, 102.4 Comm. cach baile atáit dá foesum no a tri ann, deghuidh i ndeghuidh tangatur na foesmhu ann, ┐ damadh i n-aínḟecht, nocha bia acht in foesumh bu sia . ┐ i bforbad ré anta táinic in foesam ann, ┐ dama[dh] re ré n-anta, isedh budh anudh di re ré in foesma uili, ii 102.15 Comm . mad ro urfaem in bidbaidh apadh, ┐ troscadh i faesam, cia no airberedh a faesam ria ngabail athgabala de, teit turrtughadh la fogail ann; is slan athgabail do gabail de, Laws i 98x . cf. téd turrtugh la fogail .i. téd an comairce deisim la fogail do denamh do mhuin na comairce ... no dno, téd de an turrtugh ┐ bí fair in faosamh, O'Curry 2441 (< Eg. 88, 36a ).

Cf. ní féith [ = féich ?] faosam fo chaoill .i. an faosam ar dibail ma ro thairmisc apa ┐ trosca, O'Curry 2650 (< Eg. 88, 55b ).

In some passages `saíre' and `fáesam' seem to stand for different aspects of the same process, e.g.:

Leath saire mad fuit notfuide neach fri fothugh[adh] tēchta (.i. leth foesum fagbus masa neach eile fuidhius uadh i[n]neach sin do caithiumh bid céilsine flatha) `Half free-quarters if another person sends [some] one upon lawful entertainment (that is, he loses one-half of protection if it be another person that sends him to consume the food which is due to the chief from his tenant)' Laws ii 26.16 . In H 3.18, 332 (reading: no da fuidhe) this is expld.: .i. leath faesam facbaith mad fuidet fuides neach iad do chaithem ineich na fothaigend co dligech biad celsine na flatha, ┐ leathfaesam no fuicfed fein for a ceile, ┐ isseadh facbaidh in coindem cuirter dia cathem fo aicned na flatha, fáesam imorro fon aicned [féin ?] facbaid in coindem for in flaith, O'Curry 682 . In Eg. 88, 36 , which gives of the text only the last four words, the commentary reads: .i. biadh ceilsine na flatha sin, ┐ in flaith do chuir a dam [feachta] fele da caithem, ┐ faosamh na flatha do facbail doibh ar in ceile, ┐ a lanfaosamh do facbail dona damhaibh ar in flath fo aicne [fon aicniudh budein ..., Laws ii 28 ] ar ise tuc biadh doibh . Ocus is ann sin ataitt da faosam a dualgus aonbidh, O'Curry 2446 (also Laws ii 28.1 ff . with slight verbal variants). `saíre' in this passage surely = exemption ? On the same page it is 6 times rendered "`saire'—exemption." See also footnote on p. 18 .

In these passages `saíre" apparently = the exemption due to the presence of `fáesam.' Cf. also fír faosma fosearnathar saire, saoire biata, saoire foghnuma, saoire faosma do cach fo miadh miter cach coir cirt, O'Curry 2443 (< Eg. 88, 36 ) = Laws ii 20.15 , where the rendering of the text, fir foesuma `true protection' cannot be right. Leg. fri faosma (or -am) fo-sernatar, etc., exemptions are arranged according to protection ? ni tuaslaige nach saire no nach faosam bes isle agra bes uaisle enech .i. ... ní is mo na logh enech fir in faosaim don athgabail do legan as re ré in faosaim in inbaid is dar an fis faosma i n-ecmais ro gabadh an athgabail .i. lubra ┐ bidh, ┐ fonadma, O'Curry 2657 ff . (< Eg. 88, 56 ). ni fil saire fri dithim iar n-eagar. ata imorro turbuidhe ┐ faor ┐ faosam, O'Curry 2728 (< Eg. 88, 61 ).

(d) Attrib. gen. :

cēle faesma (foissmad LB) a tenant under the protection of his lord Corm. Y 532 (see ZCP xv 247 and cf. faísitiu). cele faesma .i. in cele faoismither [sic leg.] ac neach, O'Dav. 1327 . Of taking into protection, adopting: seoit foesma the `seds' paid for the admission of children of doubtful origin into the `fine,' apparently to the more legitimate children whose shares in the family property might be diminished thereby: conic in t-athair mac na mban aititin do gabail re re budein cen fír ┐ cen ṡeotu foesma ┐ nocho roindind se dibaid in athar iar n-ēc an athar ris na macaib aile co tuca seotu faesma dona macaib aile, ┐ fír da mberait amarfis fair. Na huile meic taide uile conic in t-athair a ngabail re re no iar re cin fír, ┐ nocho coinig cen seotu faesma, ┐ inti no berad dibaid an athar otha na mic taide amach curab e beris na seotu faesma rl., O'Curry 702 ( H 3.18, 338 ). mic na mban taighe, ce nogabhta a oen no dedhe dibh docum na fine co fīr no co setuibh faoesmha, ma ro forbridar co bfuilet coimlín fine is ecin fīr Dē anosa dia fastadh, Laws iv 294.5 Comm. (of certain classes of women :) Ni berat comperta for fine .i. nocha berait ini comairbertnaigter uathuib for in fine can fīr ┐ seotu faosma leo don fine amach, v 276.25 Comm . cain-berad meirdrecha ... .i. is taitnemach berait na mna is merdrech in ní donither riu i lanamnus ... acht co tucait fīr ┐ seoit faesma leis .i. a altram do denam di, 452.24 Comm .

cin log faesma (.i. cen log ar a faisitnighudh .i. secht cumala), 456.23 (of admission of illegitimate sons to tribe). i taidhe dorinnedh na mic so ... ┐ fior ┐ seotu faosma doberaid lais dia fastadh for in athair amach, O'Curry 2236 (cf. 2235 ). cor faesma `a contract of adoption ' Laws iv 60.13 (.i. in cor curtar risin mac faesma an fine `a covenant which is made with the adopted son of the tribe' 62.3 ). mac fáesma adopted son : in cutruma bias o duine do mac faesma du geilḟine no do deirbḟine ar dénum a gaire ... uair nugu roich in trian no in leath cu cóir acht re macc faesma d'anḟine, O'D. 2255 (< Rawl. B 506, 20a ). fine taccuir .i. na meic foesma `adopted sons' Laws iv 288.14 . fine taccuir issede domberat cuir bel a foessam `who give verbal contracts in adoption' Laws iv 284.16 . `mac fáesma' is distinguished from `dalta': dighail daltadh na fine .i. dalta coitcenn na fine, ┐ dighail fir foseisiter fine .i. dighail in ḟir ḟaoismighes in ḟine don ghaire in tseanorach .i. in mac faosmadh, O'Curry 391 (< H 3.18, 219a ). in dalta ┐ in gormac ┐ in mac faosam [leg. —ma or —aim] eneclann dleghaid in fine ina marbad sen ib. See Thurn. ZCP xiv 371.27 . aitire fáesma a supporting guarantor (?): the guarantor of acceptance (?) (dist. from a. luigi and a. nadma), Bürgschaft 22 § 64 . caide aitire foisma ? fo-sisithar side smachta dam in fasach sin, 25 § 68 (passage corrupt, in Thurneysen's opinion). fath faoisimh (ni fáth fáoisidh v.l.) `cause of protection' BNnÉ 249.15 . Cf. co bér breth for ḟáth faosmha, fer fotha ... fer faosmha, fer foghnamha, Ériu xiii 16.12 (expl. : faesamh .i. foghlaim ut est co ber breith for fátha faesam [fath faesma v.l.], O'Dav. 859 ) = cotober breth fo[r] fath faesma ib. Ériu xiii 59w (< H 3.18, 207a ). cis lir ó ndleghaid filidh faosmha raith ? easpuicc righ saoi, file fireon ..., Ériu xiii 34.9 .

II In Early Mod. Ir. relief, assuagement (cf. the use in c above which sometimes approaches the meaning relief), esp. recovery (from illness): fiabhras ar nach foil faoiseamh 'a fever for which there is no relief', Celtica xxvi 98 § 13 . an tan gheibhid na heasláin faoisiomh, 23 K 42, 19.1 . a ttosach an ḟaoisiomha, 20.15 . an uáir fúair sé fáoiseamh = when he began to amend John iv 52 . gan fortacht gan faoiseamh, Keat. Poems 1585 .

fáetham

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n o, m. relief, recovery (after the crisis of a fever) : ó nach faghthar faothamh go fagháil bháis nó shláinte don othar, TSh. 7919 . i ló an fhaothaimh, 1701 . aonluibh bhur bhfaothaimh níor fhás, Hackett xv 43 . Contamination of fáethugud and fáesam ? See Measgra D. p. 251.26 . Cf. fáethugud, and fáes(s)am.

fáethugud

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n u, m. crisis , turning-point (in a fever or illness) : leabhrán do'n faothugud ┐ dona laeithibh faethaigthi (= libellus de crisi, de criticis diebus), O'Gr. Cat. 210.32 . ma tiucfa in faothugadh an .uii. la, Rosa Angl. 26y . da mbia an eslainti ... ar duine arrsaidh ┐ gan faothugad no folmugad ele do techt cuige fo cenn .xx. la, 184.6 . gearr uainn am an fhaoithigh[th]e, Measgra D. 144 (see note ib. p. 251 ). faoithiughadh dēighenach spiritālta an anmo 'alleviation', Celtica i 187.840 . Cf. oíthigud, oíthigid.

See fáetham.

grís

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Forms: grís, gríss, grís

n ā, f. m. and f. in Mod. Ir. grís (= gríos) f., IGT Decl. § 39 . gríss (with slender -s-) f., ib. § 14 . grís (= gríos) m., ib. § 38 .

I heat, fire, embers, hot ashes: tene taidlech co ngris goirthi ... na macc mbethad, Trip. i 256.23 . hi tellach ... coratgori a grīss `that its embers may warm thee,' MacCongl. 95.26 . crābud in buirb co n-indmus | los diūit, nit goire a grīs `the piety of the wealthy churl is a flame without fire, whose embers warm thee not,' ZCP vii 311 § 16 . Of the heat of the sun: ó gríis imurcrach na gréine, RC xxiv 378.10 . Of the searing of fetters: roscacht i ngrísaib gemlig | fri tri mísaib mór-gemrid, Metr. Dinds. iii 370.55 . Of the burning of fever: gríss bronngalair glanas broinn, Triads 224 . go gcaomhnann sí grís gan mhúchadh ar feadh bliadhna, TSh. 385 . fá ghrís ndeirg `under lurid glow,' O'Gr. Cat. 451.11. Mac Aodha aighne go dtreoir | gríos oireas dfhuacht fhear n-aineoil `a fire fitted [to warm] the coldness of ignorant men,' Content. xxv 10 . a ghluine mar néimh nuaighrís, Dánta Gr. 16.68 . luaith-ghrís ashes: m'inginí is gruag fa luaith-ghrís d'fhágain, ZCP v 212.298 .

II Fig. glow, ardour, valour, passion: clanda Cēin co ngrís, KMMisc. 266.15 . Of Colum C.: ūasal a grīss (: chíss), ACL iii 217.24 . o rofersat a ṅgriss ṅglain | a ndíss ocan-imressain, SR 1881 . ri cen grain, cen gris, cen greiss, 2561 . a pl. cen grissa, ba cain intṡluaig, 3959 . Of the Ark of the Covenant: robai ann fo gris grada | secht mís ..., 5423 . grís ghrádha Dé ┐ na comharsan, TSh. 1707 . ó ghrís an chreidimh, ó ghrádh lasamhain, Parrth. Anma 331.12 . an tshacramuint ... do bheith na béoghrís gacha subhailce dham, ib. 381.15 . re digail an grisa n-imdergtha doberar air a n-a mhnai, Laws v 298.2 Comm. co ro bhethaidhsiot béoghrís a sengomh doridhisi a ttús samhraidh na bliadhna so they requickened the ancient flame of their hatred, AFM vi 2054.2 (an. 1598). gris a crisi. crisis graece, iudicium latine , O'Mulc. 664 . In phr. fo grís aglow, alive (?): nī bía fo griis ... acht noí mís dar m'hēsse-se you will be only nine months ... alive after me, SR (Adam and Eve) 96.2047 ​​. hed beit 'mo-le fo grīs grinn | a ndīs do chorp is t'anim, SR (Adam and Eve) 52.1435 . ? As epithet ardent: re Domnall nglonnmar ngris, Celt. Rev. iv 216.30 .

Compds. ¤ainech adj. with ruddy face, TBC-I¹ 3186 . ¤bhéilín a rosy little mouth, ITS xvii 213.158 . ¤beó: Murchadh ... grisbheó gan bhádhadh `a burning coal,' AFM v 1636.7 (an. 1570). ¤goradh burning heat: tré ghoimh an ghríos-ghortha, TSh. 4071 . ¤leaca a rosy cheek, ITS xvii 120.225 . ¤maileach with shining mail: gormluireach grismaileach, CF 475 . ¤nim glowing virulence: íslig ... | grísnimh anfuid th'intinne, O'Gr. Cat. 457.12 . ¤taitnem burning glow, brilliancy: grístaitnem na narm nglanórda, TBC-I¹ 1777 . gristaitnem ┐ taidlenach na tuag ┐ na claidem, CCath. 5881 . re gristaitnem ┐ re gleordealradh na greini, ib. 4986 . ¤taitnemach burning, glowing: la ruithen na greine griostaithneamhaighi, FDG 255 (note). san ghrianán ... ghríos-taitneamhach úd na glóire, TSh. 2714 . ¤te: tar muir ngríste nguasachtaigh `over the raging, perilous sea,' Studies 1921, 75 § 16 .

snaidm

Cite this: eDIL s.v. snaidm or dil.ie/38123
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Forms: snaidhm

n Mid. and Mod.Ir. form of naidm(m), q.v. snaidhm, m., IGT Decl. § 41 . See also Verbs § 68 .

(a) knot : no tesccadh . . . snadmann na ngad, CCath. 3980 . fri síned na snadmand, LB 120b55 . s.¤ ar théid, IGT Verbs ex. 818 . do ben slatt . . . findchuill . . . ┐ tuc s.¤ ara barr tied a knot on the end of it, Comp. CC 120.15 . snaidh[m] retha noose, ZCP vi 297.4 . ? a coíg do seangand ba s.¤ | gu rosmarbh Fiacha, BB 31a1 . act of knotting : súainimh re sleaghaibh dá snaidhm, IGT Decl. ex. 440 .

(b) Extended meanings. Of the coils of a serpent: nathair noi snadhma[nn] a serpent of nine coils, Manners and Customs ii 280 , l. 17 of note. Berbha o bruth nat[h]rach neimneach, | s.¤ dibh 'ma muinel meic Uair, Ériu x 82 § 58 . Of holds in wrestling: tugadar cuir borba ┐ snadhmanna arrachta, Stair Erc. 2396 . Of building, etc.: snaidhm na bruighne `the building of the hostel', Content. xxx 13 . snaidhm díamhair ar tháobh na táibhle (an architectural feature?), IGT Decl. ex. 1385 . snaidhm na gceathra gclár (of the making of the Cross), PBocht 5.7 . Of composing a poem: tuitfid lé sáer a snadma | mé red marbhna, IGT Decl. ex. 153 . In phrases: rosfaide 'na snadmaimm chatha do chathugud fri T. in battle-array, TTr.² 1460 . gur cuiretar snadmanna curad ar na corpaib, Celt. Rev. iii 204.6 . See cúach(ṡ)naidm. tri cealla | . . . | meince s.¤ druadh 'na timcheall, Acall. 938 (`magical contrivance for the defence of fortresses', Stokes). See V. SS. Hib. clxi n. 1 . Of rhyme : snaidhm gaídhilge agus a glas | créad bhriseas nó créad chláenas? 'what causes the binding of pronounciation and its clasp to be imperfect and what causes it to be incorrect?', Celtica xxvii 58 § 1 .

(c) act of binding by an agreement, contract, etc.; bond, pact, obligation: ar s.¤ a cor when his agreement had been bound, Ériu iv 226.9 . cach s.¤ co fiadnaib, ACL iii 227.44 . ni coir ben do s.¤ doib to bind a woman to them (in marriage), in gloss on: morseisir . . . arcuile coir urnadhma, Laws v 132.1 , 10 . a ts.¤ féin do cengal cáich = unusquisque in suo nodo alligatur, O'D. 626 ( H 3.17, 465 ). immar nascfe-su do ṡ., Ériu iv 106.13 . ainm an lissi cen lagad: | nách s.¤ dissi a derlagad? `obligation' (Corr.), Metr. Dinds. iii 62.116 . geibh ort a snaidhm sin aile, bur C. undertake that bond, ZCP viii 550.28 . fán snaidhm nár réidhigheadh ruinn the bond I did not loose, TD 30.16 . snaidhm rer námhaid, DDána 21.13 . Freq. with qual. gen., etc.: snaidhm caradraidh a pact of friendship, CCath. 1643 . do sgaoil snaidhm a síorchogaidh `undid the bond of their long war', Aithd. D. 60.22 . do réidhigh . . . | snaidhm cogaidh Chloinne U., DDána 101.54 . ro righneadar snadhmanna cuir ┐ ceangail, Oss. iii 78.13 . mé do bhíodh ag snaidhm na ngiall binding the hostages (i.e. by oath), Content. i 9 . gan snaidhm giall i ngeubhtha an chumha, L. Cl. A. B. 200.105 . ro daingnighset snadhmanna a sidha etarru guarantees for peace, CCath. 2569 . tráth chora snadhma ar an síth, IGT Decl. ex. 86 . snáth snadhma gacha síodha (the Cross), Aithd. D. 88.9 . snadhma sloinnidh bonds of kinship, DDána 40.20 .

(d) difficulty, strait, extremity, perplexity : dorinne C. gach s.¤ acasin do reidhiucchad (of three difficult tasks), Anecd. iii 2.23 . crann . . . | do fhóir soin ar snaidhm, PBocht 5.2 . O. as ainm don chlár | [gá] nach snaidhm lámh leam `which can easily help me', 5.5 . budh snaidhm don domhan do dhíon `it would be difficult for all the world to shelter thee', TD 20.26 . ráinig sí snaidhm a fulaing `she has reached the crisis of her suffering' (Ireland), Gleanings from Irish manuscripts 29 § 1 . do réidhigh . . . na snadhma `difficulties', Aithd. D. 6.27 . Of verbal difficulty puzzle, obscurity : atbér cen s.¤ co solus | a hainm without beating about the bush, KMMisc. 194.2 = Metr. Dinds. iii 292.3 . gibe do sccriobh, ní s.¤ sunn, | ainm gach riogh diobh aderam there is no difficulty here, BNnÉ 254 § 212 . ní snaidhm ar Bhrian a bheurla, | suil theurna giall airm órdha, L. Cl. A. B. 92.135 . Note also: do sgaoil d'fhádh snaidhm seantarngaireadh loosed the knot of (i.e. fulfilled) old prophecies (of a prince), DDána 89.18 .

Compds.: ¤cheist difficult question : d'fhúasgladh gach snaidhmcheasda don ogham, IGT Introd. § 102 . ¤chinnid `enounce as a binding doctrine', Desid. Gloss.: mar do shnaimchinn comhairle Triont, Mac Aingil 378.7 (cf. Desid. 4966 ). do snáimcinnedh é leis an egluis, 446.4 . gach ní dar snaidhmchinneadh inta (sc. in the Councils of the Church), 481.4 . vn.: dochum gach neith . . . d'órdughadh ┐ do snáidhmchinnedh, 499.2 . ¤ṡlige: feadhna re snaidhmshlighthibh dréacht do bhraith `involved ways of song', Ó Bruad. ii 206.3 .