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Cite this: eDIL s.v. ar-biatha or


Forms: airbiathad

v (biathaid)

(a) feeds, nourishes: arbiathim gl. lacto, Sg. 145a 5 - 6 . ur . . . arbiatha ith ┐ meas the ground nourishes corn and mast, O'Dav. 1611 . arbiathad sluagu . . . clostecht frihae to listen to her nourished hosts, Ériu xii 152.z ( TE 17 ). bi sund, ar in mathair. Acc, a mathair, ni (ar added under i) erbiatha nannoidiu (nach n. ?) a oenur, YBL 140a23 .

(b) Legal supplies food-rent (to): no t[h]urcreicc dia n-airbiat(h)ar `a fief for which food-rent is supplied', Ériu xvii 66 § 7 ( Laws iv 210.6 ). cia ruibdither (leg. ar-[r]uibdither, ed.) in flaith .xx. bliadan though the lord has received food-rent, ZCP xv 248 § 6 (see Ériu xii 206 n.3 ). muine airbiathar chuice in tuilledh if the surplus is not supplied to him as food-rent, 240 § 3 . athgabail raith don aurbiatar distress for stock for which food-rent is due(?), Laws i 216.1 . rath dinaurbiathar, 230.23 . flaith ar-a-mbiatha is i icas a cindta the prince whom he feeds, v 512.3 ; 512.7 . fuidir laisa mbiad cuic treaba . . . is tualing . . . arambiatha a flaith, v 514.18 .i. is cuimgech he a [f]laith do biathad, 28 Comm. flaith argialltar ┐ flaith arbiathar a prince to whom food rent is paid, O'D. 2234 (Nero A vii, 156a). As deponent: fuidir . . . arbiathar side a flaith, Laws v 520.1 .

Vn. airbiathad.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. cuimgech or


adj o, ā (1 cumang) able, capable (with follg. gen., accus. etc., cf. s.v. túalaing): noch[a] c.¤ breithemnachta capable of giving judgment, Laws v 246.12 Comm. cuimhgeach imertha arm, BNnÉ 10.10 . cen co c.¤ thu a thaithmech, Laws iii 56.26 Comm. niptar c.¤ a fostad, RC xiii 222.25 . ni tualaing . . . .i. ni coimgech comscailedh in feraind, Laws i 206.x Comm. is c.¤ he a [f]laith do biathad, v 514.28 Comm. With follg. prep.: ni dam cuimgeach-sa for dul let, MR 48.8 . nīmda cuimcech-sa hi suidiu, ZCP viii 310.11 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. fáes(s)am or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: faesaim, fóesama, foesma, faesma, faíseamh, foesmaib, f., fáesam, f., fáesam, f., faesam, faesam, f., saíre, fáesam

u, o, m. (vn. of fo-sisedar. Cf. Mid. W. gwaessaf, gwayssav, Loth, RC xxxviii 300 ): g s. faesaim, BDD 162 (foesma Y). fóesama (for this form see Hessen, ZCP x 321 ) LU 4871 = foesma, TBC-I¹ 383 . pl. faesma, Laws v 48.20 Comm. n s. faíseamh (o, m.) IGT, Decl. § 28 (fáeisimh proscribed as incorrect).


(a) in lit. sense `standing under,' hence bearing up under, supporting (?): úair nach fóisam in lind, berim-se maccáem ... tarsi, TBC-LL¹ 1305 (`Fuss-Feste' Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 629 ; anuair nach roichther in linn la cách St); cf. bói C. forsin lind ... ┐ ni ba faesam cid si, TBC-LL¹ 1945 . Possibly an extended use: trustworthy, safe . In follg. ex. Dr. Binchy would see a metaph. use of the meaning adopting, taking into protection (see below): issi innfine i fintedaib griain a tir i fuissither; ar i[s] sruithiu la Feine in foesam andsen oldás a tir as a tairidnither, Laws iv 206.9 (glossed: f. .i. in línd, 208.17 ), i.e. the land in which water is collected in a standing pool or reservoir ranks higher than that in which it has its source. Here the four adjacent holdings are in the matter of water-rights likened to the four categories of affinity, viz. gelfine, deirbfine, iarfine and innfine. See ib. p. 166 .

(b) in the literature usually protection, safeguard: co nach fagbad foisam lat | cid do mac nothaesad fritt, Ériu ix 45 § 5 . is ... essamna mór do T. toidecht cen ḟaosam cen chomairche ina tíre, TTr.² 246 . faosamh .i. comairce, O'Cl. `faosamh' is cuime [ = coimge?] ... dhá ainm cumairce, Metr. Gl., Ff. 31 . luid epscop Erc do thig Ḟ. ... ┐ coṅgab in mac ina ucht, ┐ focheird a ḟoesam ┐ a oentaid fris (i.e. bp. E. placed himself under his protection. Cf. the parallel passage: gabh misi cucat amail mhanach ndilius, Lism. L. 3359 = suscipe me monachum tibi obedientem Lat. Lives 102 ), Fél. 132.25 . With prep. DE, FO and esp. FOR (AR), folld. by subj. gen. under the protection (of): for foísam ríg na ndule comairche nachanbēra [ = -mēra ?], Thes. ii 306 ( Hy i 53 ). cor marbad a ri do fáesam Bachla Issa while [i.e. in spite of being] under the safeguard of RC xviii 28.21 (Tig.) = dar comhairge na bachla, AFM 1109 . A. do marbad la T. ... do ḟaesamh na bachla Isu, AU 1015 . pl. in concrete sense: Cinaedh ... demersus est. ... di foesmaib degdoine nErenn ┐ comarbhai Patraic in spite of the guarantees of AU 850 . in cath bar th'oesam ┐ bar do chommairge, LL 176a43 ( CRR 38 ). iar marbad mac nUsnig for a ḟaisam ┐ for a chommairgi, TBC-LL¹ 464 . ba for a foesam boi Fergus F. was under their protection LU 1619 . is ed doroachtmar fort foesam sunn `'Tis for that we have come hither under thy safeguard' BDD 3 . co ndigset som uili ar m'o(e)sam-sa ┐ ar m'imdegail feib dochuadusa ar a faesam sun ..., TBC-LL¹ 941 . rogab indala n-ae for foesam mBuidb ... gabais araile [for] faessam Ochaille placed himself under the protection of Dinds. 57 . Cf. dia ngaba for faosum `wenn er unter den Schutz gekommen ist' Ir. Recht p. 51 . gur bhó heiccen dona bárdaibh tocht diairm for faesamh an Iustís, AFM vi 2272.1 . ar fhaosam nó ar ionchaibh Íosa, TSh. 2716 . do muirbfedh ... fer ar faosaomh bfer talman would slay a man (even though he were) under the safeguard of everyone ZCP xiii 12.19 . Freq. in ellipt. optative sentence: for a [ḟ]óessam dún innocht may we be under His safeguard Hy i 2 . ar th'faosamh dhamh, a Dhé..., Aithd. D. 73.1 . for a foísam dún ar talmain, LL 364 marg. ( Mart. Tall. 122 ). for foessam duit na saille !, MacCongl. 83 . Less freq. with obj. gen.: ced ná ro nass do foessam-su forsna maccu? why were not the boys pledged to protect you? LU 4894 . téit cosna maccu cen naidm a fóesama [foesma Y] forru, LU 4871 . do chor th' aesma ┐ t'imdegla for in maccraid, TBC-LL¹ 881 = do comairci St. can chur a fáisma foraib, 911 . geib-siu fort faesam na macraide, 944 . O. rogab fóesam ḟír-Ḟoebair | oc Síd B. ... fo frith fóesam do R. O. undertook protection of R. Metr. Dinds. iii 272.38 (cf. Dinds. 57 , above). cuirim m'ḟaosamh ar a ḟuil I entrust myself to His blood Ir. Monthly 1928, 439 .

(c) legal uses. In Law texts f.¤ is common in the meaning protection: ni techta nach foessam ar na tegat ratha fine no `f.¤' is lawful which the sureties of the family do not warrant Laws iv 206.17 . ni bi acraidi faesam (nocha bi acra ... don ti bis ar foesam neich) `no person who is under protection is qualified to sue' [can be sued ?] i 102x (104.24) .

The maxim: cach faesam co fognam, Aib. Cuigni 54 ( ACL iii 227 ; ZCP xvii 56 ) is obscure, and has not been found elsewhere. cisa Mumhan ... do Chaisil ... cach bliadhna dobearar .i. smacht ┐ biathad ┐ turgnumh [turtugud v.l.] ┐ faesamh, Leb. Cert. 60 . nocha nuil eneclann na faosam do he has no honor-price or power of protection (Binchy) Laws ii 24.4 .

Sometimes a different meaning is implied: in the following legal expressions the original meaning seems to be acknowledgment (cf. coibsena .i. confessiones .i. comfaesaime, Thr. Ir. Gl. 11 = chomfaoisitin, Corm. Y 292 , and see fo-sisedar): aicc macu hi foisam do raithe frisin fiach so find sureties for assuming thy guarantee of this debt Bürgschaft 28 § 76 . cf. luid iarum i mMumain co ndeirgene foesam a ingine fri (nō for) Oengus. dobert iarum Oengus ferann do mac a ingine, Rawl. 119a26 = co M. do cuinnighid faesam [sic] a ingini for Aengus, BB 121a37 . ro chuindigh ... faosam a ingine for Aonghus, LL 381a24 (Oengus was the father of the girl).

In the sense protection, privilege , `f.¤ ' is found in connexion with entertainment of the lord and (or) his followers, and in connexion with distraint, seizure of cattle for unpaid dues, etc. "`fáesam' often denotes the immunity from legal process which a person of high rank confers on an inferior, usually a client (céle), who has entertained him and his retinue in accordance with the obligations of clientship. This immunity lasts for a certain period after the departure of the protecting person, whose status determines the duration of the `f.¤ ' During this period the `protected' person has `saíre' (= `f.¤ ' from his point of view) i.e., no legal claims which others have against him may be enforced by the process of distraint." (Dr. Binchy). In these passages the phr. `facaib f.¤ fair,' etc., is common. The meaning is evidently `leaves' (i.e. `confers, bestows on') though the translation `relinquish' often appears in the published Laws. The use in connexion with stay of seizure may be the origin of the later sense relief in illness, passing of the crisis, see II below. A satisfactory definition of this legal `fáesam' would involve a concurrent discussion of the terms `comairce, snádud, turtugud, turbaid' and `saíre,' some of which are often equated with `f.¤ ' by the commentators. All that can be done here is to quote a few passages illustrating the usage. See Ir. Recht 73.1 ff . turtugadh ... ré fedh urgnamha in bidh ┐ comairche in aired bes a caithemh a mbaile ┐ faesam ... iar fagbail in baile, uair is a n-ecmais nech bís a faesam ┐ ina coimitecht bis a comairce . amail atbeir a n-edgidh: .c.c. a caemachta .c. faesma a n-ecnairc, O'Curry 1386 (< H 3.18, 630 ). Here, as Dr. Binchy points out, the reference is to the `faesam' bestowed by the lord on his host while he is entertained, and for a period (see below) after his departure. But the note seems somewhat confused, as `comairce' regularly refers to an escorting safeguard. In the following version `comairce' is replaced by `turbaid': dethbir itir turrtugh ┐ torbaidh ┐ faosamh: in turrtugh .i. re ollmuithe an bidh . in turbaid .i. re a caithme . in faosam .i. iarna cathamh, O'Curry 2651 (< Eg. 88, 55b ). Cf. foesam .i. fo-sisithar tar crich, Ir. Recht p. 6 (no context). The lord, when he takes refection from the `céle,' thereby postpones any such impending seizure. While the meal is being prepared `turtugud' comes into force; while it is being consumed `comairce' (or `turbaid'); for a period after consumption and departure of the guest `faesam.' intí aca mbí tech, is fair facabar faosam, O'Dav. 999 . In some passages in Commentary `f.¤ ' is loosely equated with `turtugud,' e.g. throughout the Uraicecht Becc, Comm.: turtugud mīs dō (.i. mī a lānḟaesam bid ┐ fonadma), Laws v 46.25 ( 48.8 ; 50.7 ; 56.17 ). aenlā a t. (.i. aen-lā a lānḟ.¤ bīdh), etc. 58.16 (19) . athgabail tar turtugad cach duini bes tualuing a turtugad (.i. dar f.¤ cach duine is cuimgech f.¤ do gabail uirre), 256.31 (258.19) .

The time for which `f.¤ ' was valid varied with status (see last quot.): cred do beir cona commór faesamh ┐ turtugud ┐ dama fechta feile ┐ foluch n-othrusa do ri tuaithe ┐ mortuaithi ┐ nach commor enech what is the reason that the king of a territory and the king of a great territory are equal as regards `f.¤' and `t.' and followers on a free visit, and sick-maintenance, while their honour-price is not the same? O'Curry 1383 (< H 3.18, 629a ). faosamh na righ so .i. mi do righ tuaithe ┐ morthuaithe. tri caoicthis do ri tuath . raithe do rí cuicidh . bliadhain do ri Erenn, O'Curry 1260 (< H 3.18, 509 ). faosum na tri n-airech forgill .xx. laithe cechtar de na deisi si is taire . mi don fir is ferr, O'Curry 1261 (ib.). See also discussion on periods of `f.¤ ' in connexion with distraint, Laws i 100 .

Fractions of `f.¤ ' are referred to: masa lainbiathad cu fodnaidm, is lanfoesum fagabhar ara sgath . masa lain-biathadh cin fosnaidm ... is lethfoesum fagabhur ar a sgath, Laws ii 28.22 Comm. in t-ainmrainne don biudh ro caith curub é in t-ainmruinne sin don lanfoesumh fagbus ara sgath ib. 31 . miter foltaib .i. dus cia foessamh, in ōgh, in leth ... nō mitear ┐ rl. .i. in ndlighe foessamh etir ... nō ... in ndlighe fosister itir, O'Curry 510 (a fragment in H 3.18, 258 ; unfortunately the context has not been found).

If the guests fail to arrive, a fraction of `f.¤ ' is still valid: ca hait a faghbas [leg. fāgbhas ?] duine faosam fair budein ┐ a biadh do caithem dō ? ... an inbaid ro dáilestar dámh na tainic fechtus aile dia saigid, madh ro faillidhedar in dámh bodeisin, no mad docuadar re tosca deithbire ┐ ro chaithestar biadh, is a lethfaosam fagbus air, ┐ ise sin aon ina[d] isin mberla Feine ana fagbann nech faosam air ┐ a biadh budein do caithem dó, O'Curry 2448 (< Eg. 88, 36b ) = Laws ii 30x Comm.

The following refer specifically to prevention of distraint , i.e., seizure of cattle: a tabairt do snadud as tualaing a turtaigthi (.i. faesam d'facbail uirri, .i. crui) mad cen airis snaite, mad don snadud rongabthar asrenar log n-enech in snaite (.i. is uais ernither log enech fir in faesma don athgabail do lecon fon caill), Laws i 92.1 (98.13) . f.¤ sin tainic re re n-apaidh ┐ troiscthi, 100.1 . man ro airbertnaig a faesam cur gabadh athgabail de is anadh dechmaide ar in athgabail, 100.5 Comm. mas a n-aimsir lobtha [tainic in f.¤] nocha saorund ar fogelt na ar bleith na ar lobad hí, uair ni téit an faosam amach 'na deagaidh, ┐ téit in turbhadh, 102.4 Comm. cach baile atáit dá foesum no a tri ann, deghuidh i ndeghuidh tangatur na foesmhu ann, ┐ damadh i n-aínḟecht, nocha bia acht in foesumh bu sia . ┐ i bforbad ré anta táinic in foesam ann, ┐ dama[dh] re ré n-anta, isedh budh anudh di re ré in foesma uili, ii 102.15 Comm . mad ro urfaem in bidbaidh apadh, ┐ troscadh i faesam, cia no airberedh a faesam ria ngabail athgabala de, teit turrtughadh la fogail ann; is slan athgabail do gabail de, Laws i 98x . cf. téd turrtugh la fogail .i. téd an comairce deisim la fogail do denamh do mhuin na comairce ... no dno, téd de an turrtugh ┐ bí fair in faosamh, O'Curry 2441 (< Eg. 88, 36a ).

Cf. ní féith [ = féich ?] faosam fo chaoill .i. an faosam ar dibail ma ro thairmisc apa ┐ trosca, O'Curry 2650 (< Eg. 88, 55b ).

In some passages `saíre' and `fáesam' seem to stand for different aspects of the same process, e.g.:

Leath saire mad fuit notfuide neach fri fothugh[adh] tēchta (.i. leth foesum fagbus masa neach eile fuidhius uadh i[n]neach sin do caithiumh bid céilsine flatha) `Half free-quarters if another person sends [some] one upon lawful entertainment (that is, he loses one-half of protection if it be another person that sends him to consume the food which is due to the chief from his tenant)' Laws ii 26.16 . In H 3.18, 332 (reading: no da fuidhe) this is expld.: .i. leath faesam facbaith mad fuidet fuides neach iad do chaithem ineich na fothaigend co dligech biad celsine na flatha, ┐ leathfaesam no fuicfed fein for a ceile, ┐ isseadh facbaidh in coindem cuirter dia cathem fo aicned na flatha, fáesam imorro fon aicned [féin ?] facbaid in coindem for in flaith, O'Curry 682 . In Eg. 88, 36 , which gives of the text only the last four words, the commentary reads: .i. biadh ceilsine na flatha sin, ┐ in flaith do chuir a dam [feachta] fele da caithem, ┐ faosamh na flatha do facbail doibh ar in ceile, ┐ a lanfaosamh do facbail dona damhaibh ar in flath fo aicne [fon aicniudh budein ..., Laws ii 28 ] ar ise tuc biadh doibh . Ocus is ann sin ataitt da faosam a dualgus aonbidh, O'Curry 2446 (also Laws ii 28.1 ff . with slight verbal variants). `saíre' in this passage surely = exemption ? On the same page it is 6 times rendered "`saire'—exemption." See also footnote on p. 18 .

In these passages `saíre" apparently = the exemption due to the presence of `fáesam.' Cf. also fír faosma fosearnathar saire, saoire biata, saoire foghnuma, saoire faosma do cach fo miadh miter cach coir cirt, O'Curry 2443 (< Eg. 88, 36 ) = Laws ii 20.15 , where the rendering of the text, fir foesuma `true protection' cannot be right. Leg. fri faosma (or -am) fo-sernatar, etc., exemptions are arranged according to protection ? ni tuaslaige nach saire no nach faosam bes isle agra bes uaisle enech .i. ... ní is mo na logh enech fir in faosaim don athgabail do legan as re ré in faosaim in inbaid is dar an fis faosma i n-ecmais ro gabadh an athgabail .i. lubra ┐ bidh, ┐ fonadma, O'Curry 2657 ff . (< Eg. 88, 56 ). ni fil saire fri dithim iar n-eagar. ata imorro turbuidhe ┐ faor ┐ faosam, O'Curry 2728 (< Eg. 88, 61 ).

(d) Attrib. gen. :

cēle faesma (foissmad LB) a tenant under the protection of his lord Corm. Y 532 (see ZCP xv 247 and cf. faísitiu). cele faesma .i. in cele faoismither [sic leg.] ac neach, O'Dav. 1327 . Of taking into protection, adopting: seoit foesma the `seds' paid for the admission of children of doubtful origin into the `fine,' apparently to the more legitimate children whose shares in the family property might be diminished thereby: conic in t-athair mac na mban aititin do gabail re re budein cen fír ┐ cen ṡeotu foesma ┐ nocho roindind se dibaid in athar iar n-ēc an athar ris na macaib aile co tuca seotu faesma dona macaib aile, ┐ fír da mberait amarfis fair. Na huile meic taide uile conic in t-athair a ngabail re re no iar re cin fír, ┐ nocho coinig cen seotu faesma, ┐ inti no berad dibaid an athar otha na mic taide amach curab e beris na seotu faesma rl., O'Curry 702 ( H 3.18, 338 ). mic na mban taighe, ce nogabhta a oen no dedhe dibh docum na fine co fīr no co setuibh faoesmha, ma ro forbridar co bfuilet coimlín fine is ecin fīr Dē anosa dia fastadh, Laws iv 294.5 Comm. (of certain classes of women :) Ni berat comperta for fine .i. nocha berait ini comairbertnaigter uathuib for in fine can fīr ┐ seotu faosma leo don fine amach, v 276.25 Comm . cain-berad meirdrecha ... .i. is taitnemach berait na mna is merdrech in ní donither riu i lanamnus ... acht co tucait fīr ┐ seoit faesma leis .i. a altram do denam di, 452.24 Comm .

cin log faesma (.i. cen log ar a faisitnighudh .i. secht cumala), 456.23 (of admission of illegitimate sons to tribe). i taidhe dorinnedh na mic so ... ┐ fior ┐ seotu faosma doberaid lais dia fastadh for in athair amach, O'Curry 2236 (cf. 2235 ). cor faesma `a contract of adoption ' Laws iv 60.13 (.i. in cor curtar risin mac faesma an fine `a covenant which is made with the adopted son of the tribe' 62.3 ). mac fáesma adopted son : in cutruma bias o duine do mac faesma du geilḟine no do deirbḟine ar dénum a gaire ... uair nugu roich in trian no in leath cu cóir acht re macc faesma d'anḟine, O'D. 2255 (< Rawl. B 506, 20a ). fine taccuir .i. na meic foesma `adopted sons' Laws iv 288.14 . fine taccuir issede domberat cuir bel a foessam `who give verbal contracts in adoption' Laws iv 284.16 . `mac fáesma' is distinguished from `dalta': dighail daltadh na fine .i. dalta coitcenn na fine, ┐ dighail fir foseisiter fine .i. dighail in ḟir ḟaoismighes in ḟine don ghaire in tseanorach .i. in mac faosmadh, O'Curry 391 (< H 3.18, 219a ). in dalta ┐ in gormac ┐ in mac faosam [leg. —ma or —aim] eneclann dleghaid in fine ina marbad sen ib. See Thurn. ZCP xiv 371.27 . aitire fáesma a supporting guarantor (?): the guarantor of acceptance (?) (dist. from a. luigi and a. nadma), Bürgschaft 22 § 64 . caide aitire foisma ? fo-sisithar side smachta dam in fasach sin, 25 § 68 (passage corrupt, in Thurneysen's opinion). fath faoisimh (ni fáth fáoisidh v.l.) `cause of protection' BNnÉ 249.15 . Cf. co bér breth for ḟáth faosmha, fer fotha ... fer faosmha, fer foghnamha, Ériu xiii 16.12 (expl. : faesamh .i. foghlaim ut est co ber breith for fátha faesam [fath faesma v.l.], O'Dav. 859 ) = cotober breth fo[r] fath faesma ib. Ériu xiii 59w (< H 3.18, 207a ). cis lir ó ndleghaid filidh faosmha raith ? easpuicc righ saoi, file fireon ..., Ériu xiii 34.9 .

II In Early Mod. Ir. relief, assuagement (cf. the use in c above which sometimes approaches the meaning relief), esp. recovery (from illness): fiabhras ar nach foil faoiseamh 'a fever for which there is no relief', Celtica xxvi 98 § 13 . an tan gheibhid na heasláin faoisiomh, 23 K 42, 19.1 . a ttosach an ḟaoisiomha, 20.15 . an uáir fúair sé fáoiseamh = when he began to amend John iv 52 . gan fortacht gan faoiseamh, Keat. Poems 1585 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. faísitnigid or


Forms: faisitnighther

v g (faísitiu) in Laws Comm. acknowledges, makes acknowledgment (?): pret. nocha cuimgech nech a astad ar in aite on meit is diailtir ma (= di-altrama ? cf. dialtrom, ZCP xvii 54 § 46 ) in dalta ro foisitnighestur chuice, Laws ii 174.1 Comm. whom he committed to his (the fosterfather's) charge (?). Pass. (fuisitiu cach rath) .i. is fo is maith faisitnighther cach rath, 216.20 ( .i. can rath do breith do michorach, ZCP xvi 212 ). is iadsaidhe faesidnígthir ar trebaire (gl. issede domberat cuir bel a foessam) Laws iv 288.15 . acht íní [leg. ní i ?] faeisidnigter e .i. in ní gelltar doo (gl. acht ni i fuisedar cuir bel) 288.16 . ? ( tir i fuissither) .i. fearand i fuisidnigthir ... int usce, 208.15 . = i fuisnither ib. 17 (see fáesam).


Cite this: eDIL s.v. féchemnas or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: féicheamhnas, -ais, -asa

n u, o, m. (féchem). féicheamhnas (féitheamhnas v.l.), g s. n p. -ais, -asa, IGT, Decl. § 38 . Some examples below probably belong to fethemnas indebtedness Celtica xi 21 n. 16 , GEIL 57 . (Laws, Gloss.): fechemnas (with gl.: .i. lucht tagartha. nó oificc na bhfeithemhan), Triads 170 . a filidecht, a fechemnus, Ériu iv 148.15 . ic feichemnus im a caingin, Laws v 100.26 Comm. log a feichemnusa no a breithemnuis 212.20 Comm . intí nach cuimgech fuighill fethemnuis tar a cenn unable to advocate his suit (?) Laws i 296.19 Comm. ra(i)th fechemnes[a], v 340.17 . raith gabhus rathachus ┐ feichemnus urri; sech is raith is feichemh, codogeibh uile dib linaib 'a surety who undertakes both suretyship and indebtedness; he is alike surety and debtor, he combines both of them', Celtica xi 21 n. 16 . conā fuiglidis fiacha na feithemnasa na coicearta cosin feis n-aili debts or pleading or adjustments Leb. Cert. 6.19 . fechemnus féig (one of the tokens of good pleading), Tec. Corm. p. 55 § 22 . maithim daoibh ... cairde i n-uair an fheitheamhnuis, L. Cl. A. B. 162.12 . budh forderg ... na fuighle feichemnuis dogen-sa friu `the debtor's speech' Fianaig. 84.20 . tarrla frithrusc feicheamnuis ┐ fergi eturro `mutual recrimination' 56.12 . ni feidm flatha ... aiscc feicheamnais do thabairt ar mac deighfhir `to cast reflections on' MR 284.15 . Protection, patronage: adbur righ ... ar feicemhnus coitchend do dāmhaibh Erenn, AU 1443 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. foma or
Last Revised: 2019


cip dune lasimb asu tairgille n-airiu oldáte smachta; is foma do cach recht oca mbiat 'whoever should think a fore-pledge in respect of them more convenient than fines, the choice (?) belongs to the person on whose land they are', Bechbretha 64 § 26 . foma gl. .i. is fo a mhaith [no is rogo] no is foemhta, Bechbretha 64 § 26 gl. c . foma i. coimgech, ut est cip duine lasa n-asu tairgille n-airriu ... is fomu do cach recht lasa mbiat .i. is cuimgech .i. is fo a maith. Nó is foemtha nó is rogu nó is cuimcech do cach richt duine oca mbit beich, O'Dav. 985 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. fúaitriud or
Last Revised: 2013


n u, m. (vn. of fúaitrid;).

(a) the act of opposing or hindering (a person or proceeding) : fuaidredh .i. crosadh ut est : is mian lium f.¤ do chur air, Ériu xiii 70 ( H 3.18, 625b ) = fúadradh, O'Cl.; in Laws Comm. freq. of impugning (a contract, etc.) : frithcathugud .i. fuaitred [fuaidri v.l.], O'Dav. 912 . do fir in fuaitreda the opposing party 1398 . ni segar deimin tar indeimin .i. nocha n-innsaigter a deimin o fir na tuinide tre indeimin fir in fuaitertha, H 3.17, 463 ( O'D. 622 ). baoth cor cluinither .i. is baoth don ti no cuirenn re ḟuaitred, H 3.17, 463 ( O'D. 622 ). fer an fuaitreda, H 3.18, 195a ( O'Curry 354 ). slan d'fear an fuaidirtha gach fuachtain dogni og edarsgara a ferainn, O'Curry 2306 ( Eg. 88, 23a ). is cuimgiuch é eim fuaitriudh na cor do niat, Laws ii 282.19 (gl. is mesi imusfuich curu a fine). ima fuaidriud cen co cuimgech thu a thaithmech (i.e. thwarting a contract which you cannot dissolve) iii 56.26 (gl. fo eige cenni ro taithim). a n-aititin na ndrochcur ... can a fuaidredh v 444.2 . Cf. do luid ... do faedredh a feraind don Mac Óc `came to claim his land from the M.' Ériu xii 146.13 (`don' perh. goes with `do luid' here). is asa lim fuaidridh do cur (leg. fuaidriudh (or fuaidredh) dochuir), it is easier in my opinion to raise a cross-suit (?) IT iii 201.3 ; 'to impugn an unfair contract' ZCP xxx 8 . With subj. gen. : mac ... do nithar ri hingin tar apu n-athar .i. tar fuaitred in athar, Rawl. B 506, 57a ( Laws v 198 ). a tabairt do Pirr tar fuaitrid in fir dar naiscidh hi roime, D IV 2, 76 ra3 .

(b) disturbing, harrying (?) : co rancatar ar f.¤ Muman ... co Glenn M. till they reached Gl.M. after having ravaged (?) M., RC xviii 172.30 (Tig.), cf. ro indirset Mumain reampa co rangattar Móin Móir, AFM 1151 . araill do dhaoinibh uaisle a chinidh acc fóccra ┐ acc fuaidreadh fair a ndiaidh an anma sin `vied and contended with him' (over the headship of the clan) AFM vi 2092.16 .

(c) unsettled or irregular movement, flutter, scurry, agitation (late use) : éanlaith ... bhíos ar foluamhain ┐ ar fuaidreadh san oidhche, TSh. 9469 . fuaidreadh ┐ foluamhain na mbeach, 875 . bheith ar fuaidreadh go dteagmhann bualtrach ... ris (of a beetle), Keat. i p. 4 . Transf. of emotion : d'anmuin is fatha fuaidridh, ZCP xii 385.11 .

Cf. fúadar.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. fuirech or


s, o, n., later m. IGT, Decl. § 55 . Verbs § 54 . (vn. of fo-rig).

I In trans. sense restraining, delaying, postponing (a thing), detaining (a person) : ga chan duit a f.¤ ? = what cause hast thou to put it off ? TBC-LL¹ 3068 = TBC-I¹ 2267 . nach cóir f.¤ nā hesnadud na timna ṅdiada cen a comallad, PH 5700 . ni bia dom ḟ.¤ sa ... maroen frit, 8229 . is lugha ro lamhsat f.¤ (v.l. urtuasacht) a breithre to delay (obeying) his word CCath. 1788 . roḟobair [sic leg.] a marbad ; rob í tra comairli a muintire a ḟ.¤ = to keep them captive ZCP iv 240.4 . de tascelad forsna Fomhorib ┐ dia f.¤ go tíostais fir Erenn, RC xii 84 § 88 . lór dom fh.¤ ó eachtra `enough to stay me from travelling' Ir. Review 1913, 624 . cu nach cora eineclunn ... ina ḟirfuiriuch for conuir inas ... ina fuatuch uadh otha a tech, Laws ii 78.15 Comm. (of illegal seizure of cattle `while remaining' transl., but cf. ni cuimgech a fir uirech re re n-anta 'he cannot detain'... i 296.28 Comm . and cin fuiriuch in an obscure text ii 72.8 . na cuir f.¤ ar in comairligh so `make no delay in carrying out this counsel' Fier. 189 . Cf. a díumus cen f.¤ `thou unceasing [? unrestrained] pride' PH 8240 .

II Intrans. delaying, tarrying, remaining ; delay: a tocht dochum nimi fo chetóir ... no a f.¤ in comfot cétna, LU 3128 ( SG 237 ). ni bia f.¤ fort ... do thairisem hi Pardus (Eve to the serpent) SR 1275 = ni bia f.¤ fort ann LB 111a10 ; ni bia f.¤ form (the s. to E.) YBL 157b32 . PH 8229 . ná déanadh fuireach fada, Aithd. D. 8.23 . fuireach laoi a day's delay 21.6 . nocha roibe f.¤ aca gan comrug do denam acht ... only ... withheld them from combat Laws i 252.8 Comm. caitfe me fuireach i measg druinge damanta ... go siorruidhe, ZCP iv 410. 20 . iad d'ḟuireach i mbun ceirt `that they held firm to justice' Content. vi 182 . ag f.¤ san phecadh, Mac Aingil 32 . is fada in f.¤ ina fuil in cabair help delays its coming long Fier. 218 (is truag a fad ata an cobair v.l.). ni dernsad fos na f.¤ co rangadur, etc. ZCP vi 64.7 . F.¤ FRI (RE) waiting for: gur fada les beth ag f.¤ riu, vi 73.30 . do bhádar ann sin ... ag fuireach risan námhaid, Keat. iii 3203 . go mbí Críost ag fuireach rinn go lúthgháireach joyfully awaiting us TSh. 10619 . atá an cloidheamh ag fuireach ris, Job xv 22 . F.¤ Ó keeping away from, abstaining from: go ttuguis tarcuisni dó ag f.¤ uadha, Mac Aingil 31 . ag f.¤ ó aiffrionn, 388 . CEN F.¤ without delay, forthwith: ACL iii 309.2 . PH 1369 . 1695 . dogni ... cen f.¤ cech maith is ail do = nulla mora agitur in omni quod voluerit 5579 . a oided cen f.¤ immediately 2757 . ro soichet ... fo chétóir cen nach furech, LU 2116 ( FA 18 ). gan fuireach, Ériu iv 180.2 . Aithd. D. 94.6 (ḟ.) gan f.¤ , MR 200.9 . In : duthaig dait a rí ruirech | tuirech ic Hí is ic Ailiuch `ein Turmhaus in Iona' Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1912, 439 ( LL 369 marg. inf.) we should perhaps read t'[ḟ]uirech = that thou shouldst tarry.

Cf. nibi lec robuich cach f.¤ forecnech, H 3.18, 233a24 = nibi lec robhuich can f.¤ foreicni, O'Curry 2470 ( Eg. 88, 38aa ). ni hetarscara sealb sarugha ... na f.¤ forēigni (sic leg.), Laws iv 268.21 . Probably both citt. belong to I.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. imm-fuich or


Forms: imfuich, imfuachar, immusfuachat, imusfuichet, imfuachatar, imfuichiter, imusfai, imfo, imorro, imoraei, 'moichestar

v (imb-fo-fich) indic. pres. s. 3 imfuich, O'Dav. 928. pass. imfuachar, O'Curry 1066 (< H 3.18, p. 440a_b ). pl. 3 immusfuachat, ZCP xiii 21.34 . imusfuichet, Laws ii 280.28 . pass. imfuachatar, ZCP xiii 22.2 . imfuichiter, ib. 23.25 . subj. pres. s. 3 imusfai, O'Curry 995 (< H 3.18, p. 426a ). imfo, O'Curry 2474 (< Eg. 88, fo. 38b ). With ro : imorro, imoraei, Laws v 10.20 Comm. ? pret. s. 3 ro 'moichestar (sic leg.), Laws i 64.15 Comm.

assails ; impugns, annuls, abrogates: fer imfuich cis flatha .i. fer emhfuachtnaiges no emfuaitris cis do tabairt da flaith .i. doerchéle elas re dliged flatha `a man who injures the lord's rent,' O'Dav. 928. imus-fuich fine imanetur, imus-fuichet imus-coitcet `die Sippe ficht sich untereinander an,' ZCP xiv 370 § 32 = Laws ii 280.28 . im-fuich cach curu(d) a comfocuis, ib. § 33 (= ib. 282.9 ). imfuich mac gor cach ndochur im a athair nimfuich (=ni imfuich) cach sochur, Laws iii 56.20 . nimfuich glossed : ni imtaithmich `he does not dissolve,' 24 Comm. ar immusfuachat a cenna conna segar forro, ZCP xiii 21. 34 . ni himfuachar eim cor fri flaith no eclais mana raibh acht ala nae fair riam, O'Curry 2224 (< Eg. 88, fo. 16 (17)c ). is meisech imfo cor a fine .i. ís cuimgech é eimfuaidri na cor do niad an finchaire, O'Curry 2474 (< Eg. 88, fo. 38b (39c) ). With ro : bretheamnus sin berar dun filid imorro .i. imoraei (? = imforae) cuccaind no imorae uaind ` lit. it may impugn it towards us or it may impugn it from us ; i.e. `imorro' states an objection either directed against us or made on our part' (Plummer MS. notes), Laws v 10.20 Comm. ? teora bai iar fir ro moichestar (sic leg.) no ro mainestar (sic leg.) Asal (in lit. sense seizes, attacks) the three cows which Asal seized as a distress, Laws i 64.15 Comm. (but = ro imaigestar, O'D. 1705 ).


Cite this: eDIL s.v. imscar or


n [o, m.] mutual parting, separation (used esp. of combatants separating after an encounter): is doig lim-sa debaid [d]uib ria n-i.¤ , TBC-LL¹ 1805. i.¤ badach a nimscarad, D IV 2, 77vb7 . imsgar ┐ imludh na cloinde sin Iba[i]d, Ériu viii 8.2 .

the result of an encounter, the circumstances in which the combatants part: a i.¤ ┐ meic Con asin chath ro boí ar bert oco `the outcome of the battle for him and Mac Con ?', LU 9828. (transltd. PRIA iii 561.12 ). ar rofedar ni bad i.¤ mac mbec im cuail fithiucan a n-i.¤ na da ardmiled, BB 435a52 . robái brón for bantrocht ban | sund 'sin maig mór ria n-i.¤ `at their fatal encounter,' Metr. Dinds. iii 134.2 . trúag a n-aided, a n-i.¤ , ib. 22 . trúag a n-i.¤ imalle | Bláthnat ┐ Ferchertne, 254.5 . tucus cend Fiadmoir ... isin n-iarnoin ar n-i.¤ , Acall. 6519.

In Laws the act of separating from a correlate (tenant and chief, husband and wife, etc.) (involving the recalling or sending back of stock, division of goods, etc. This separation may be from (a) choice, (b) necessity, or (c) the absence of the proper qualifications on either side): tic i.¤ fir ┐ a mhna do i.¤ flatha ┐ a ceile, O'D. 2264 (< Rawl. 506, fo. 22, p. 1 ). in t-i.¤ imtoga ocus in t-i.¤ contethnghatar anfolaid cechtar da lina a mutual separation by choice and a mutual separation caused by the disqualification of both parties, Laws ii 338.30 Comm. is cuimgech in fuidir d'a tabar fearand [amain] i.¤ risin flaith in tan is ail leis, v 362.7 Comm. mas tri indeithbirius mna do rignedh in t-i.¤ , iii 316.17 . atait secht mna la Feine ... it meise i.¤ a lanamnus who are competent to separate from the marriage tie, 292.17 . fogail imscair `a wrong justifying separation' (Plummer MS. notes), O'D. 1627 (< H 5.15, p. 16, col. 1 ). duine nach fuil sailachtain umscair ris `expectation of separation,' Laws iv 230.15 . ni diubur flaith de a lo imsgair `the chief shall not be defrauded on account of it on the day of separation,' ii 316.8 . a fastad no go faccbu lan in iumscair `the full settlement of separation' (of a free fuidir), v 262.17 Comm. mo bis frescuisiu imscair og in daer erennach ina og an daer thairis the Irish slave has more expectation of severance (i.e. of regaining his freedom) than the foreign one, 110.14 Comm. See ZCP xiv 383 .

indsaigid, innaigid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. indsaigid, innaigid or


Forms: innaigid, indsaigid, innsaige, n-innsaidhthe, n-innsaighi, hionnsaighthi, innaigid, innsaigid, indnaigid, innaigid, innaigidh

n i, f. vn. of ind-saig, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. § 805 (6) . According to Meyer (see refs. under ind-saig, above) innaigid is vn. of ind-saig, indsaigid of in(d)-asaig. This would be philologically correct (the preverb ind- leniting in prototonic forms) but the two forms became confused and are therefore treated together. Later also innsaige. g s. re n-innsaidhthe , Laws ii 144.7 Comm. re n-innsaighi , O'Curry 2154 (< Eg. 88, fo. 3 (4)a ). na hionnsaighthi , O'Gr. Cat. 346.23. The form innaigid is early replaced by innsaigid. indnaigid, LU 3517. innaigid, 3588 . CRR § 26. innaigidh, Moling § 26.

(a) act of approaching, attacking; an attack: iar conairibh sunnradachaib ac innsaighid na firinne, O'Dav. 1411. ech fri aige ... .i. fri hindsaig aenaig, Laws i 126.17 Comm. is andam lasin n-anmain ... insaigid ┐ dula co rígsuide in dúleman, LU 2079. na tecar dom innaigid-se ní bas mó, TBC-LL¹ 1767. do rinneadh comhairle leo .i. ionnsaighe a ccoinne Chonchubhair `to advance against C.,' CRR² § 17. i n-éagmais a ndearnadh do ghreasuibh ┐ d'ionnsaighthuibh, Ériu i 80.22 . ō'tc[h]ualaid Eōgan medair cosnama agā c[h]athaib ┐ aigned innsaigthi agā uaislib aggressive spirit, ML² 1097. Concobar ... rí Tuadh-muman ... ┐ fer índsaighe Erenn `an attacker of Erin,' RC xviii 160.25 . ag iarraidh na hionnsaighthi `calling for the charge,' O'Gr. Cat. 346.23. gid am creachtach crolindteach-sa, is ed is ail lium a n-indsaigid a cetoir doridisi `to attack them,' TTebe 1125 . iad féin ... d'inneall go luath ré hucht ionnsaighthe na bearnan soin, TSh. 2652.

d'indsaigid came to be used as a prepositional phrase, to, towards, against: tanicc d'insaigid in airechta i raba Etain, IT i 128.17 . do cuaid d'indsaighi na cleirech, Laws i 6.3 . táet dom indnaigid let her come to me, LU 3517. ragat-sa d'innaigid in tṡlóig against the host, CRR § 26. as d'indsaighi Erenn ... docuiredh hi, Ériu iii 152.11 . co ndichius dia atrebh ┐ da innaigidh `to visit it,' Moling § 26. scríobh dhamhsa litreacha d'ionnsuidhe mo dhearbráthar, Maguires of F. § 21. deoch ┐ gér, digér sin ... d'ionnsuighidh a cháolta féin téid an focal ó dhoníthear comhfhocal de towards, IGT Introd. 32.10 .

d'i.¤ ar is similarly used : dochuaidh Uathach ... d'ionnsaighe ar Coinculainn `came to C.', RC xxix 130 § 43. tángadar teachta ó Laighnibh ... d'ionnsuighe ar Chormac `came to interview,' Keat. iii 3134.

(b) act of seeking: is í comairle dorónsat, a toicthi mara do innsaigid `to try their luck at sea,' CCath. 1906. ré n-innsaigthe an interval of seeking: ma dho chuaitt fechium toicheda do acru bidhbuidh, ocus ro leic bidbuidh elodh, ... do cuaidh d'innsuidhi geill iartain ocus do rat re n-innsaidhthe do ghiall `he afterwards went to sue the hostage-surety, and gave the hostage-surety time to seek (the defendant),' Laws ii 144.6 - 7 Comm. isedh is ecin comardugadh itir a fuil ann don re ninsaighthi ocus inn anadh, 116.21 Comm. no go tucthar re n-innsaighi dó re hiarraid gataigh, O'Curry 2154 (< Eg. 88, fo. 3 (4)d ).

(c) act of suing, claiming, proceeding against: ni rolamair ... iarmoracht no innsaighidh a cruidh forra he did not venture to sue them for his cattle, Anecd. ii 42.9 . fors' na tualuing saigte do slan .i. ... nocha cuimgech tu indsaigid in (? leg. im) lanadh n-erca dligi `you are not able to proceed for the completion of `eric' of law,' Laws v 226.y Comm. secht mna ... ┐ ni diles m'a fir innsaige druisi `whose husbands are not entitled to sue their lechery,' 272.14 Comm.

(d) act of enforcing: dleagar do gach deoraidh dé indsaigidh a nascaireacta side, Laws iv 210.20 Comm. in fuil ferus fer ac indsaige a nascairechta `when enforcing his contract,' v 148.16 Comm.

(e) act of suggesting, putting forward ? : ó do léigeadh dar bhar n-ionnsuidhe é `since it was left to your decision,' Maguires of F. § 77.

(f) aggressiveness, valour: ar rigdacht ... ar treoir ┐ ar airberit ┐ ar insaigid, Cog. 160.15 . rogha Gall ... do mhéin ┐ d'innsoighthe `in disposition and valour,' ALC ii 232.13 .

1 luige

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 luige or


Forms: lugae, luigu, lighi, lige, luig, lui, luidh, lugh, lugh, luigeda, lughedha, luidhedha, lugha, luighi

n io, n. In O. Ir. usually lugae (for the phonetic development see GOI 103 - 4 ). luigu (sic leg. ?), Laws iv 192.9 . lighi, O'Curry 2409 ( Eg. 88, 32(33)b ). lige, Laws v 174.23 Comm ., luig, Laws v 100.23 Comm ., 352.6 and lui, ii 18.4 , 17 Comm. are perh. scribal errors. luidh, Celtica iv 66.59 . lugh (: athchur), IGT Verbs ex. 666 is given as `cóir' in one MS., as `lochdach' in a second (both added in later hand), cf. lugh (ón luighe), Decl. § 95 (127.9) . Pl. attested only in later lang.: luigeda, PH 7604. lughedha, Ann. Conn. 1309.3 . luidhedha, Ériu xi 190.21 . lugha luighi (in leabhuir) m., IGT Decl. § 2 (39.13) .

(a) Vn. of tongaid (see also 1 luigid). Cf. lugha luighe (in leabhair) with tuingfed a .d. neith added by later hand, IGT Verbs § 74 . Act of swearing : imchim . . . fir lais [m]bi cuma fir ┐ go di luga who swears equally to truth and falsehood, SM Facs. 53b = do luga, Laws v 178.5 . etheach do lugha nó do luighe, SM Facs. 53a = eithe do lige, Laws v 174.23 Comm . ? geall feich do luga, 308.18 . cethri haitir do chur crainn, dias dib dia lugha to swear it(?), iii 134.10 Comm . gradh bes comais dia ludhadh in tan adginidhther in colund `when a person of competent rank has proved the delivery of the carcass', i 300.3 Comm . dodechatar día lugu i n-eithiuch do P., Trip.² 2119 `to perjure themselves', Trip. i 181 . ro-gab Petar . . . for a l.¤ (the Denial), PH 3193 . fuil in Rígh do lugha libh if you swear by the king's blood, IGT Verbs ex. 667 . meic ríogh ag luidhe fad láimh, O'Hara 2349 (see Notes).

As cogn. accus. ni toing luidhe fo brechtruib gach fer sacarbuic, O'D. 2190 ( Nero A vii, 132b ). luighi néithigh ní thoingeann, Hard. ii 296.11 . Cf. ispert Medbh o bes lugai: —Tonga, etc., RC x 226.184 , and Ml. 36a20 cited below.

(b) oath: arnate nech tria lugae gl. imperat periurii cauitionem `that a man break not his oath', Ml. 36a23 . corricci lugae son gl. usque ad testationem, 126c5 . fo chénele lugi, Wb. 14c24 . luge gl. iurare, Enchir. Aug. 77a ( ZCP vii 482.33 ). With LA: l.¤ limsa inso gl. ego autem testem Deum invoco, Wb. 14c39 . ba lugae leu insin gl. per erumniarum mearum exempla iurabant, Ml. 118c5 . With pref. fír glossing iusiurandum: áfirlugae nothongad cach frialaile hirecht, Ml. 36a20 . hua fírlugu, 115a18 . afírl.¤ , Wb. 34a1 . hí fírlugu, Sg. 217b1 . iust .i. iusiurandum, unde foruirmed iust fa[i]r .i. luge, O'Mulc. 767 . foirdath loith lun luighe ban (glossed ar duibhe ┐ ar ethech), ZCP v 490 § 17 = fordath luin luath l.¤ ban, Ériu ix 46 § 14 . ind eithchich linib luga with store of oaths, SR 8344 . connach ain lepaid na luge so that neither protection nor oath will preserve it, RC xxvi 40 § 206 . luge ria mbreith, Tec. Corm. § 14.4 (= ria mbreath, BB 63b12 ). lugha mherlig, BB 274b30 . atbertsom o l.¤ lan, PH 99 . na bris ḟorm lugi gan ḟess, TBC-LL¹ 3507 . luighe na leabhar `perjury', A. Ó Dálaigh xxxix 10 . lōr . . . an lāmh mar luighe, Butler Poems 139 (see Notes). ní thicfa is ní tháinic / bhud ḟerr lám na luighe, Acall. 1040 . lugha (luighe) .i. mionna, O'Cl.

With do-beir: doratt cach dibh fo leith a luga nar bo he each swore it was not he, Anecd. ii 16.15 . cen l.¤ do tabhairt, PH 2684 . an brég . . . / créd fa dtabhair lugha lé, IGT Decl. ex. 47 . luighe néithigh dorad . . . fo láimh C. swore a false oath, AFM i 182.3 . Cf. chum a thabartha mar luighe as something to be sworn by, SG 3.5 . With other verbs: beanam luidh dhe um [rūn] do dhēanamh ar gach nī let us swear him to secrecy, Celtica iv 66.59 . cuires l.¤ mar shéla forri, PH 7621 . cech oen dogní luga n-eithig, Trip.² 86. ? saithe cacha lestair, nach laimethar nech luigu bed lais, motat saithe doeit hi thīr [sic] comaithich, Laws iv 192.9 .i. a luighi gonad leis ín saithi, 22 Comm . targad ar luighi fa seach `our oath was offered', MR 132.23 . ro thestaig o luga, PH 6622.

Other legal uses (see Críth G. p. 99 ): secht cenela luigi . . . dithech, ┐ naille, ┐ condacht, ┐ fortach, sena, ┐ forgell, ┐ diunach, O'Curry 1744 ( 23 Q 6, 31 ). im[m]ustoing i ndiaid nach aili aridfe(i)t i llugu, Críth G. 42 . ní íca a luga[e] acht a llugu ḟir midboth(a) he is not liable for anything he swears to the extent of the oath of a f.m.(?), 68 . maith a luga[e], a naidm, etc., 200 . elod iar luighe fo aoth, Laws iii 394.12 . ni tatmei si tath cunnartha iar ngrene go lighi .i. nocha cuimgech é taithmech in cunnartha iar luighi gua don grein .i. uair is go luighi di cia atbertar, O'Curry 2409 ( Eg. 88 f. 32 (33)a ). luga seancha innrice, Laws iv 142.3 Comm . luighe in erluma no in righ fo soscela, O'Curry 2147 ( Eg. 88, 3a ). luighe cundtabartach . . . luighe éithe, O'D. 914 ( H 3.17, col. 652 ). In phr. l.¤ cána (Laws Comm.): smacht i ndul a luigi cana `for violating the oath of law', Laws i 172.20 . a comairlegadh anurraid na tic fo luighi cana `who does not come under the oath of cain-law', iii 388.3 . na (sic. leg.) tiaguit fo luigi cana, v 162.11 gl. tech i mbiat elothaig cana, 160.4 . duine teit al-l.¤ cana, 236.20 gl. cro fir coillis cain, 13 . Cf. iar luga chána `after the swearing of the law', Ériu ii 204.18 . insci .i. luighi . . . luighi an baile, O'Dav. 1112 (see Letter I 283.42 ).

meise, meisi

Cite this: eDIL s.v. meise, meisi or
Last Revised: 2013


, a gerundival form from midithir?) competent, legally qualified, empowered, (legal term) glossed by ` cuimgech ' in Laws; folld. by subord. clause, or gen. meisi .i. cuimgech , Corm. Y 951. O'Dav. 1257. ní meisi flaith doniupra feistide, ib. = ni mesech, Laws ii 212.24 . ni mesi fadesin donaithim curu he himself cannot dissolve contracts, Laws iii 12.15 . it messe imscartha fri flaith able to separate from the chief, v 520.7 . nachat meise recce na crecce who cannot sell or buy, 516.25 . it m.¤ imscar a lanamnus competent to separate from cohabitation, 292.17 . is m.¤ da trian d'eclais de two-thirds of it are awarded to the church, iii 50.4 Comm.

Of physical ability: aes nad meisi gona nā anacal who are not able to wound, i 242.11 . for mu mud cēin am messe 'I am capable in my own service' CMCS lvii 4 .

? ruidbe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? ruidbe or


n reflection? dues payable to a chief? ruidbe .i. biathad, ut est is tualaingg ron-íca a cinta ┐ a ruidbe .i. is cuimgech e a flaith do biathad, O'Dav. 1390 ; by Stokes taken as = ruibde, a formation from enclitic ro-forms of 1 bíathaid, cf. ruibdither .i. biathad, 1385 . Perhaps ro+dibe, vn. of di-ben- cuts away. Cf. `cutting' in Ir. hist. = tallage.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. slaet or


n (a) a swathe, layer, pile : rathócbatar na da ríg forru in bara . . . ┐ dos-berat s.¤ (slatri, v.l.) de i fiadnaisse maic ríg Herenn, RC xiii 60 § 52 . tuc fobairt ndīchra . . . forra gur chuir ina corraitib ┐ ina slaetaeb secmarba dochum láir . . . iat, ZCP xiii 238.8 . ní bí sochar san teach álainn dá dtuitidh 'na shlaodaibh ar lár `in a heap' (Gloss.), TSh. 9128 . a float, raft : ni taircellam damu fo chuinge na carru na sloetu, Alex. 861 . gérfuimne adhmad as Lebanon . . . ┐ beram na sláoduibh iad air an bhfairrge go Ioppa `we will bring it to thee in floats by sea', 2 Chron. ii 16 . Fig. dóid-cleatha meor-laga is séimhe slaoid, Keat. Poems 101 .

(b) illness, disease (cf. slaetán): slaéd .i. galar, amail adubhairt Finn: cia mesa do thṡlaedaib fúithi, ol in inghin, Ériu xiii 82 § 297 = cid as truime slaetaeib (trumu slataibh, v.l.)? ZCP xiii 270.21 . tainic slaod fora, fuaire mairbh ina chosaibh, x 296.27 .

(c) Legal (exact meaning not clear): s.¤ .i. slemain no tairisem, ut est s.¤ tar gach ngait acht aithgin do chach for cach laim co fiach aisneise[n], O'Dav. 1420 . cidh meisech é techt tuidhacht a nurradus, nach meisech a cana, ┐ is e an fath an fer agata ar griún e is e ro escaires cain tara cenn ┐ tic slaed cana air, O'Curry 2560 ( Eg. 88, 47a ). is misech é techt tuigacht re ré trir a nurradus ┐ nocha cuimgech é a cain acht s.¤ do tiachtain tarais nach cuimgech umscar ris in urrad aga fuil ar griun é no go thocaithter cain, O'Curry 2563 ( Eg. 88, 47c ). Note also: s.¤ .i. aslach, no fuilera, 2064 ( H 4.22, 66b15 ). s.¤ .i. slai ét ailbín uait isin cinaid, 1462 ( H 3.18, 650b ).

Compds. ¤buiden: ina sreathaibh ┐ ina slaed-buidnib `in unwieldy groups' (of fallen warriors), Celt. Rev. iv 14.23 . ¤chíallach thick-witted : an spalpaire s., O'Rah. xliii 15 . ¤eire: no tairrngeadh gach slaod-eire da mhéd asa herball piled load, AFM iv 1080.4 . ¤óclaig warriors in layers, prostrate warriors ? imad . . . na slaedoglach sinti secmharbh, AU iii 470.12 . slaod-óglaoich sínte seac-mharbha, TSh. 6615 . ¤teine layer-fire, funeral-pile : trénar dteilgean i slaoid-teinidh = in ignis rogum, TSh. 6761 .

1 tar, dar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 tar, dar or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: dar, tar, dar, tar, dar, dar, tair, thar, tairis, thairis, tarsin, darsin, tarsa, darsa, tar, dar, tarsna, darsna, dar, darna, tarna, tar, darm, tarmu, dar, tar, darth, tart, tardo, tardot, tara, dara, tara, dararn, darfar, dara, torum, torom, toram, taram-sa, tarumsa, thorum, thoram, torut, torot, thorad, tharad, thort, thart, tarais, taris, tairis, tharis, thairis, tarse, tharse, tairse, thairse, tarsi, tairs, tairrside, tairsi-side, tairrsi, tairsdi, torunn, torunni, torund, thoruind, thoruinn, taraind, tharainn, toraib, thoruibh, thoraibh, tharaibh, tairsiu, tair(r)siu, thairsiu, torrsu, tarrsu, tar(r)sa, tharsa, tarsta, thórsa, ta(i)rsib, thairsib, tarstibh, tar, tairis, tairise, thart, tar ais, tar éis

prep. with accus. See Thurn. Hdb. § 843 . In Mid. and Mod. Ir. also sporadically with dat. : dar broinfeirtsib (sic leg.), TBC-I¹ 2525 . t.¤ ... ferannaib, Laws iv 136.26 Comm. t.¤ a cladhaibh, TD 13.11 . t.¤ esccairdibh, Ó Héodhusa 78.13. Somet. leniting in Early Mod. Ir. : t.¤ chlár, Content. xviii 53 . t.¤ Mhac Dé, DDána 22.1 . t.¤ chonair, Hugh Roe 28.23 . t.¤ thoil nDé, TSh. 2012.

The proclitic form dar is frequent in O. Ir. beside tar. It occurs also in Mid. Ir., but in Mod. Ir. only in the meaning by in swearing, oaths, etc. (see B V). In Wb the more frequent form is dar. From Ml on tar is the more frequent, but dar is the only form in SR. Exx. of dar: Wb. 2a4 . 3c36 . 6b28 . 7b5 . 10c11 . 13a9 . 13a20 . 16b4 . 16d8 . 18a14 . 23b18 . 24a3 . 24d13 . Ml. 64d8 . SR 1162 etc. Mon. Tall. 141.28 . Sc.M² 17.y . BColm. 92.27 . TTebe 4011 . O'Gr. Cat. 590.33 (in swearing). Exx. of tar: Wb. 3c37 . 5d28 . 15c16 . 21a8 . 22b5 . 22b7 . Ml. 2a6 . 16c5 . 47a3 . 49d1 . 60c1 . 61d4 . 88a1 . 105d6 . 109d8 . 127a1 . Sg. 172a3 . 200b3 . 217b2 , 3 , 12 , 16 . 218a6 . Thes. ii 311.1 . Fél. Ep. 66 . Mon. Tall. 137.14 . Laws ii 262.2 . Sc.M² 21 h . tair, Sg. 8a7 .

In Mod. Ir. occasionally with lenited -t- thar: RC xvii 154.z . Eochairsg. 26.13 . Donlevy 186.21 . This form is commonest in forms with suffixed pron., see infra. The form with suff. pron. 3 s. is also occasionally found as simple prep.: tairis ar marbhadh dhiobh, Rel. Celt. ii 192.6 . thairis gach ní, Feis Tighe Chonáin 862.

With article. sg.: tarsin, Wb. 15c16 . Ml. 16c5 . darsin, SR 1529 . tarsa, Mon. Tall. 130.7 . darsa, TBFr. 79 . tar in, PH 718 . dar in, TBC-I¹ 2500 . pl. tarsna, Ml. 122a3 . Sg. 217b3 . darsna, FA 29 ( dar na, v.l.). darna, Sc.M² 17.y . tarna, IT i 42.13 . tar na, Donlevy 384.6 .

With poss. 1 s.: darm, Wb. 23b18 . SR 1396 . ZCP iv 39.5 . tarmu, Thes. ii 241.13 . dar mo, IT i 121.22 . tar mo, PH 3825 . 2 s.: darth 'airmitein, SR 6320 . tart, TBC-I¹ 1047 . tardo, Sc.M² 13.y . tardot shuilib, Lism. L. 1420 . 3 s. tara, dara: Wb. 24a3 . Ml. 101a3 (leg. tara). Sg. 218a6 . BDD² 921 . 1 p.: dararn-essine, SR 1862 . 2 p.: darfar cenn, Wb. 18a14 . 3 p. dara ngnussib, LU 2091 ( FA 16 ).

With rel.: taratoissed, Wb. 33d10 . tarateged, Thes. ii 315.26 . dara gaib, Mon. Tall. 141.28 . tarndotuidisa over which I shall lead you, TBC-I¹ 238 . tarsa tochuirther, Ml. 22c1 . darsa tiagu, TBC-LL¹ 481 . cindus tíri dar-si fuiniud, Ériu iv 140.14 . dars' tic, Metr. Dinds. iv 286.51 .

With pron. suff.: 1 s. torum, TBC-LL¹ p. 241 n. 1 . PH 1154 . torom, TBC-LL¹ 4709 . toram, Dán Dé ix 8 . taram-sa, TBC-LL¹ p. 115 n. 2 . tarumsa, ACL iii 235.1 . thorum, 242 § 6 . Studies 1934, 434 § 6 . thoram, TSh. 4211 . 2 s. torut, Sg. 217b4 . torot, LU 8139 ( FB 10 ). thorad, DDána 114.7 . tharad, TD 2.32 . thort, DDána 52.39 . Corp. Astron. 6.6 . thart, Content. v 186 . Dán Dé ix 11 . 3 s. m. and n. tarais, Wb. 33d10 . Ml. 28c12 (sic MS.). Goid. 94.16 . taris, Mon. Tall. 136.22 . TBC-LL¹ 1644 . tairis, Mon. Tall. 151.15 . LU 5937 . O'Gr. Cat. 442.y . TSh. 2696 . tharis, BDD² 790 . LU 2150 ( FA 22 ). thairis, Anecd. i 3.10 . TD 20.2 . TSh. 4300 . 3 s. f. tarse, BDD² 978 . tharse, RC vi 183.15 . tairse, LU 3794 ( SCC 36 ). thairse, DDána 52.29 . tarsi, TBC-LL¹ 1600 . tairs, p. 359 n. 7 . tairrside (? leg. tairsi-side), 3727 , cf. TTebe 505 . tairrsi, RC xvii 144.4 . tairsdi, ZCP vi 290.15 . 1 p. torunn, Wb. 15a1 . 15d1 . torunni, 27a14 . torund, Thes. ii 299.37 . thoruind, Fianaig. 68.21 . thoruinn, DDána 95.7 . Donlevy 392.1 . taraind, IGT Decl. ex. 664 . tharainn, DDána 24.19 . 2 p. toraib, TBC-I¹ 281 . thoruibh, DDána 7.4 . thoraibh, TD 14.31 . tharaibh, DDána 53.13 . 3 p. With acc. inflexion: tairsiu, Ml. 121b1 . 123d3 . tair(r)siu, SR 4285 . Laws iv 214.6 . BDD² 142 . thairsiu, TBC-I¹ 150 . LU 2167 . ZCP xi 83.7 . torrsu, Laws v 270.y Comm. tarrsu, iii 424.15 Comm. tar(r)sa, Content. xxi 19 . Ann. Conn. 1342.11 . TSh. 295 . tharsa, DDána 18.2 . RC xxix 220.9 . tarsta, Mac Aingil 576.17 . Eochairsg. 36.32 . thórsa, Ó Bruad. ii 226. With dat. inflexion: ta(i)rsib, SR 4297 . LU 2961 . Laws v 382.21 Comm. DDána 107.21 . Fl. Earls 22.4 . thairsib, TTebe 2705 . DDána 30.24 . tarstibh, TD 3.30 v.l.

The meanings of tar may be divided roughly into concrete and abstract. But it is frequently difficult to assign an example or group of examples to one category or the other. For the sake of convenience a somewhat arbitrary division has been adopted in the following.

A In meanings of a concrete or physical nature.

I over, across, covering , implying rest rather than motion (see ZCP viii 60 ), including exx. where the meaning is that of coming and remaining across .

(a) cona roib temel ... t.¤ rosc for nanme, Wb. 21a8 . fri nech tarsa tochuirther sciath, Ml. 22c1 . mar dlúm dar dreich, SR 6959 . fri hōrsnath īar ndēnam a datha dar or nindeōna, TBC-I¹ 2567 . drochet ... darsin nglend, LU 2148 ( FA 22 ). co ro-thib tond tairis `so that a wave laughed over him,' CRR 34.21 . slicht meōir epscoip dar a ucht, ACL iii 307 § 26 . cro[i]theas a lúireach t.¤ a cheann amach brandished his breastplate above his head, Ériu i 88.1 . tuc sciath t.¤ lorg do maithib Muman covered the retreat of, ML² 274.

(b) Of covering with clay, burying: focheird úir ... taris, TBC-LL¹ 1491 . ó doradadh úir t.¤ Aedh, ACL iii 304.z . ní cóir cré na talamh thorum, Studies 1934, 434 § 6 .

(c) Of wearing, being covered by clothes: ind etaig bruinnidi .i. bís t.¤ bruinniu ógae, Ml. 144c7 . in ṁbrat ... roboi tarais, Goid. 94.16 . ragabsat fial falaid tairsib, TTebe 4159 . deich gcéile ... | t.¤ ar shín Éire a hionar, DDána 113.17 .

(d) Of wearing a belt: a cressa dar a n-áirnib, PH 5103 . rogab tairis in cloidem he girt on the sword, D IV 2, 45d4 .

(e) do-beir lám t.¤ seizes, takes hold of: tabraiter láma tairis, TBC-I¹ 1471 . fochertar lama tairis, LU 5941 . Cf. co tarat láim dar hIffern, SR 7772 . lám Emeire ... dar a brāgaid, Ériu i 118.6 .

(f) With cros a cross: dobér-sa anosa | a crosa darm'aigidh, ZCP viii 110 § 5 . Cros Críosd thorad, DDána 114.7 . tabair cros Crist ... tardot shuilib, Lism. L. 1420.

II over, across implying motion (`motion over a space,' ZCP viii 59 ).

(a) ní tirga tara trachtu, `it will not come beyond its shores,' Ml. 121a17 . t.¤ crích innunn, Sg. 217b12 . doloddursom ... tarsa ceim `came over the stile,' Mon. Tall. 130.7 . im cert filid t.¤ crich the right of a poet to cross a territory (?), Laws i 184.17 . is muir dar crícha, TBC-I¹ 3290 . in uair tra nobenadh bainne don gemlóichet dar a aighidh whenever a flash of lightning struck him across the face, ACL iii 4.28 . tairrsech darsa fuineann grían, Ériu iv 140.16 . ní lamdais ... eoin ... cromad dar craebaib na caillead, TTebe 910 . re comhfhlaith t.¤ chlár anonn from across (?), Content. xviii 53 . tugadh léim t.¤ líne leis `he has now crossed the line (i.e. taken his decision to act),' Aithd. D. 30.12 . Gramm. cumscugud e t.¤ i co ndéni ei deogur (e.g. adeibam for adiebam), Sg. 191a3 .

(b) Of crossing rivers, the sea: dia tanic ... | dar Iordanan, SR 6938 . t.¤ sál sidi, Fél. Sept. 10 . comainm ind atha dar a sredestar, TBC-LL¹ 1463 . don fhéin ... tar tuinn `from beyond the wave,' TD 18.36 .

(c) over the wall of a city, rim of a vessel, etc.: cenn meic B. immach | rolad dar múr na cathrach, SR 6988 . ba léim ro leblaingseom tarsin cathraig ammuich, LU 9077 ( FB 82 ). dar bil in sceith, TBC-LL¹ 3779 . t.¤ luing amach `over the ship's side,' RC xv 294 § 5 . in cetna dabach i tét fichid tairse boils over, LU 3794 ( SCC 36 ).

(d) 3 s. tairis as adv. across: tainic neill diamair ... tairis, TTebe 3758 . dognīd oircne ┐ crecha ... tairis sair i crīchaib cīanaib, ACL iii 224.20 . do ghabhas thairis `transiui,' TSh. 4300 . an duine dorinde an glaedh do tabhairt tairis `to bring the man who raised the cry into his presence', BCC 202.32 . Of crossing the Irish Sea: co n-darafnetar Ulaid tairis i crich n-Alban, IT i 73.z . ar ttecht thairis (.i. tar muir), AFM iii 306.4 . Iarla D. demersus est ac dol taris, Ann. Conn. 1357.4 . Hence in Laws Comm. of stranded persons, etc. alien, foreign (opp. to Érennach), `(über die See) herübergekommen,' Ir. Recht 39 . do murchuirthi .i. tairis .i. dair, Laws i 162.1 . cid fodera conid mo doib ina ndaeraib thairis na ina ndaeraib Erennchaib, v 110.12 . trian eneclainni do daor tairis na nisil, ┐ cethraimhe don daor Eirennach, H 3.17 col. 525 ( O'D. 720 ) = tairise, H 3.17 col. 426 ( O'D. 525 ). in da murcurtha ... más do aon chinel tairis dóib, H 3.17 col. 526 ( O'D. 722 ). Cf. bráighaid-comhal, tairis `an hostage, pledge ,' Eg. Gl. 73.

(e) 2 s. thart as adv. past, around: tar thort `come hither,' TD 2.4 . thort thiarain `over west,' 3.8 . tabhair suil thart ar gach taoibh `examine the subject in every way,' Content. v 186 . léigidh thart an tsláinte pass the health round, ITS xvii 114.96 .

(f) In descriptions of fights: conna torgethar sechut na treót na torot, LU 8139 ( FB 10 ). tēt an fer tarat amal tēti bott t.¤ catt, TBC-I¹ 2680 . laóch bas tualaing th'ergaire ┐ techt thorut `overcome thee,' TTr.² 767 . roling darna laechv, 1076 . regaid fer dar fer, Sc.M² 15.8 . do cuatarsom foithib ┐ trithu ┐ tarrsa, D IV 2, 45a44 .

(g) In phrase buille t.¤ : do-rat cách díb builli dar sróin a chēili riam, Sc.M² 7.10 . ro boí trá buille dar áo i suidiu (builli t.¤ cluáis ┐ t.¤ cend, v.l.), 17.8 .

(h) t.¤ sét, slige, etc. astray: ná léig sinn t.¤ an slighidh do not allow us to stray from the path, DDána 25.4 . cuir inn t.¤ eol mearachaidh keep us from a wrong path, 25.1 .

(i) fo-ceird súil t.¤ : caní ralsid súil torunn? `have ye not cast an eye over us?' Wb. 15a1 . do chor súlae taris, Mon. Tall. 136.22 . nī rolāim sūil toraib isin fid, TBC-I¹ 281.

(j) fo-ceird tar cend overthrows, upsets: is mór ríg ralā dar cend, Hail Brigit § 20 . co corastar na daíni ... tar cend, TBFr. 274 . cend dar cend ┐ druimm dar ais, PH 4392 . See 1 cenn.

(k) With certain verbs: cid siu dothised thairis before she met him, Anecd. i 3.10 . tar doirr troide na tairche `come not into the wrangle of battle,' Content. xxii 19.

III past (i.e. leaving behind).

(a) ulcha ... co soiched dar māethīchtar a māethimlenn sīs, TBC-I¹ 2336 . rochechaing iarum tairsiu it then stepped past them (of the sun), Ériu iv 140.12 . beith t.¤ gach anbhuain aige `to be with him beyond all trouble,' Ériu v 54.45 . dochuaid tarrsa ar tarad a lama laitiri got past them (i.e. defenders), Ann. Conn. 1342.11 .

(b) With léicid (frequently in more or less abstract meanings): im legud ina tāna dar Tailtin, TBC-I¹ 2964 . ro léigedar sin thársa go maidin `they let the matter stand over till morning,' RC xxix 220.9 . far léig mé toram dod thoil, Dán Dé ix 8 . nach lēigfidīs tocrādh a tigerna tairsib that they would not leave unpunished, ML² 1527.

(c) With téit misses, escapes: t.¤ rachuimhne ó ghrásaib Dé nar deachaimne `may we never be forgotten,' Studies 1932, 433 § 7 . a ndeachaidh thorainn `all our shortcomings,' Aithd. D. 97.33 . ar an mbás gcorpordha, ┐ gan dul tairis ag aon-duine, TSh. 2696.

(d) do-icc tar mentions, refers to, treats of: tāinic t.¤ brīathraibh Frōich do Mhidhir, ZCP xiii 174.28 . fada ó tángas t.¤ an ainm `long ago has the name been written of,' Content. v 35 . ní tháinig thar dhortadh fola said nothing about shedding of blood, Eochairsg. 26.13 .

(e) With certain other verbs, frequ. in abstract senses. cuirid: uair ni rocuir ... ailges na acobur e t.¤ a modh gnath roclecht cosin did not cause him to deviate from, D IV 2, 78a22 . fan Páis do chur tairis `to put it past Him,' Maund. 87 . mór do chuir don triallsa thort `has driven ... out of thy mind,' Aithd. D. 31.36 . tar ēis forlonn na faichthe do c[h]ur tairsi when she had got beyond, Feis Tighe Chonáin 984 . do-gní: t.¤ nach éidir dénamh which cannot be done without, IGT Introd. 1.11 . 2.y . gaibid: ma gabthair tairis `if a man gets clear of it' (of carnal thoughts), Mon. Tall. 151.15 . trebaid: Muire ó nach treabhann tharainn since she does not neglect us, DDána 24.19 . ni fhuil cumadh ná siosmadh na seoladh | ... nár thimcheall thórsa `every shaping ... he hath compassed completely' (of an expert shoemaker), Ó Bruad. ii 226 .

IV through, out of (an aperture). Cf. II (c) supra.

(a) Of doors, gates, etc.: coro-m[a]idhetur secht srotha do fhuil ... amach darna secht ndoirrsib, Sc.M² 17.y . tanic an bás t.¤ doirsib mo chuirp is-tech, PH 7805 . Bernais Tana bo Cualnge ... dáig taris rucad in tain, TBC-LL¹ 1587.

(b) Of parts of the body, etc.: in mac imlesen. Fand iarom ainm na dére dothaet tairis, LU 3377 ( SCC 17 ). connách tic focal a corai tardo chend so that you cannot speak properly, Sc.M² 13.y . ní ticfa gāire tar a bél co brách, RC xxiv 374.9 . crechta doimne ... ┐ siat ic tipirsin fhola tairsib, D IV 2, 72b10 .

V through (clothes, etc.): co lluid (sleg) tarsin tlacht ... baí im Ailill, TBFr. 238 . bricht comga ... Ro gonadhsan cach tairsí ┐ treithi ┐ séici, TBC-LL¹ p. 359 n. 7 .

VI In phrases.

(a) tar ais back: in ced do cur tar aís to withdraw the permission, RC xix 28.2 . rathsill ... dara ais, TTebe 4011 . gairm thar ais ` appeal ,' Donlevy 186.21 . See ais.

(b) tar éis on behalf of , etc., see 2 éis.

VII Of time.

(a) Prospectively: nat ṡasai aena t.¤ aile `that one day should not be extended beyond two days,' Laws i 120.18 . Cf. 150.17 . má (sic leg.) téis immurgu t.¤ domnuch `if however it pass the Sunday,' Mon. Tall. 137.14 . tairis sin ` from that forth ,' Laws iii 370.2 Comm. go dtéid t.¤ tráth codalta, TD 20.59 .

(b) With téit is imminent, falls due: do-chuaidh thort mo tháirriochtain it is time for you to save me, DDána 11.23 . 52.39 . dá ndeachadh thoruinn if I was put to it, 95.7 . rachaidh thoruibh tráth oile | bláth toruidh na trócoire, 7.4 .

(c) Retrospectively: noco cuirem in bliadhain-si thoruind `till the year is ended,' Fianaig. 68.21 . atáid re hathaigh d'aimsir ... thart thall `for some time past,' TD 3.2 . an bioth go dtairrnge tharaibh till your life is over, DDána 53.13 . na faoisidineadha do chuaidh thort ` past ,' Donlevy 320.4 .

(d) tar éis after , see 2 éis.

B In meanings of a more abstract nature.

I Denoting increase, excess, etc.

(a) in addition to, besides: dá bfuirgedh dia ... | tairis in chuid do chaithemh `yet farther to consume the meal,' O'Gr. Cat. 442. y. tairis ar marbhadh dhiobh `besides those that were killed,' Rel. Celt. ii 192.6 . tairis sin `besides,' Donlevy 218.14 . tairis so, Corp. Astron. 2.29 .

(b) in excess of: rath t.¤ airdig `over-plus food stock,' Laws ii 262.2 . troscad t.¤ dliged `fasting in excess of what is legal,' iv 58.10 Comm. a mbeith t.¤ a riachtanus `aught over and above his needs,' TSh. 7105.

(c) With téit exceeds: ni conraga tairis it will not increase, Laws i 48.10 . co ndechaidh t.¤ airem a n-esbadha `their losses exceeded computation,' RC xviii 173.2 . téid t.¤ fhine Éireamhóin ` excels ,' Aithd. D. 18.26 . do chuaidh mo shúil t.¤ mo chuid, Dánta Gr. 88.1 . Cf. nā ticidh taris do not exceed it (of a stipulated number of men for a fight), ZCP xiii 228.9 .

II Denoting preference, comparison, distinction , etc. between two objects or between one and several others.

(a) excelling, surpassing, beyond: ar Chríst cóem t.¤ folaid (sic leg.?) excelling, Fél. Apr. 10 . debaid dar dā bran `combat fiercer than two ravens,' ZCP iii 45.9 . rainig a theisd t.¤ ghniomh ghaoidheal `excelled,' Rel. Celt. ii 218.31 . thairis gach ní above all, Feis Tighe Chonáin 862 . a neart t.¤ an gcóir do chuir `He has set Her power higher than any rights,' Aithd. D. 86.18 .

(b) in preference to, rather than: ar adradh Dē dó tairsibh in preference to them (the druids), RC xviii 382.19 . do thogh Dia ... gnúis í Néill ... t.¤ féin ... Gaoidhiol, TD 7.43 . a ghnaoi t.¤ nar bh'iarraidh Art (i.e. when we have you we no longer look for A.), DDána 106.31 . diomoladh na neolghach d'fulang, t.¤ a bheith dorcha air chách (of simple writing), Donlevy xxii 17.

(c) Approximating to of in Eng. of all things, persons, etc., above all: do Laighnibh t.¤ tir oile | níor dhligh buain na bóruimhe from Leinster of all countries, Content. vi 236 . buachoill mo bhó féin | t.¤ gach duine dá dtéid uaim `of all those that deserted me,' TD 22.18 . t.¤ gach arm ... dhíobh sin nachar bhfer feadhma do dhéanamh re clogat é `a helmet, above all ... accoutrements whatsoever, he was not the man to use,' O'Gr. Cat. 510.25.

(d) in comparison with: ní fhuil ann acht dia díomhaoin | t.¤ Mhac Dé (of wordly goods), DDána 22.1 .

(e) aithnid x t.¤ y distinguishes x from y: budh feidhm aithne ar an ngréin ghil | tar néimh aighthe gach aingil to distinguish the bright sun from the radiance of the angels' faces, DDána 29.34 . ionnus nach aithnighedh an dubh t.¤ an mbán, ZCP xii 396.22 . fios an sgrioptuir choir ... t.¤ an leabhar nach sgrioptur, Luc. Fid. 257.2 .

III In meanings with the underlying idea of substitution:

(a) on behalf of, for the sake of (?): is tríd trá do rádhusa | ... | t.¤ chach `on behalf of the others,' Content. vii 6 . níom comhghaol níom cara dhuibh | tarsa ná tathaoir Lughaidh `do not blame L. on that score,' xxi 19 . trúag gan mé is taraind ar thuit, IGT Decl. ex. 664.

(b) tar cend on behalf of , see 1 cenn.

(c) tar éis, see 2 éis.

(d) in return for: t.¤ cais cain-denam (in return) `for hate, well-doing,' Lib. Hymn. 173.358 (ACC). lecid in mnai ass ┐ tabar slan dúib taris in return, LL 276a36 . t.¤ gach leathtrom ... | malairt urchair uaim tar ais | do bhéar `in return for the harsh words,' Content. xvii 10 . Note also: is tairside dochuaid A. ua cleith `through her A. went in secret ...,' TTebe 505 .

IV in violation of, against, generally governing a noun meaning law, treaty, etc.

(a) With téit, do-icc, gaibid etc. transgresses (see also tairmthecht): ho luid adam t.¤ réir, Wb. 3c37 . tairmthtecht t.¤ timna, Laws i 10.3 . raghaidh cech recht t.¤ araile every right will run counter to another, ZCP viii 195.6 . berar coma úan don laech, | mad dia ti taris is báeth if he reject it, TBC-LL¹ 1644 . dias doroine cundradh ... is cuimgech cach fer dib masech tiachtain tairis `withdraw from it' (Plummer MS. notes), H 5.15, 8a ( O'D. 1589 ). riasind aurd dara gaib `the orders which he transgressed,' Mon. Tall. 141.28 . dá ngabhthar linn slighe t.¤ a síorghuidhe, Aithd. D. 19.14 . Cf. t.¤ láimh an ríogh ... | do-chuaidh sinn, 66.28 . ni failmet darth'airmitein, SR 6320.

(b) against, in violation of: dar timne recto dognither int immarmus, Wb. 3c36 . dar brethir Colum Cille, BCC² 233.334 . tar breithir an tṡenaire ┐ an druadh, RC ix 462.14 . toirched t.¤ apud `getting a woman with child notwithstanding being forbidden,' Laws i 176.1 . is t.¤ menmin lim `es geht mir gegen den Sinn,' ZCP viii 175.27 . is t.¤ ghealladh do mhaoidhis `against your promise you boasted ...,' Content. v 183 . faill do thabhairt i ngrádh Dé, t.¤ mar budh dlightheach dhó, TSh. 8613 . t.¤ mo shárugud, PH 3825 . dar sāruccud Dē, ACL iii 308.19 .

(c) in spite of: in ti troisces t.¤ taircsin reir do, Laws i 118.4 . a ngabail t.¤ a n-ainme cipē cruth i mbeid taking them in spite of their defects, ZCP viii 113.10 . robudh thochmarc t.¤ lóegh mbeo sin that were a wooing despite a living warrior (her lover Fróech being alive), ZCP xiii 173.5 . t.¤ a mbí dá dhocracht dó, TD 15.22 . Hence tairis sin yet nevertheless: rodlesaighes thairis sin and yet I have befriended thee, BS 20.27 . bíodh nach tabhair an t-aifreann éin-ní nua dona naoidheanaibh ..., thairis sin ... dleaghair a rádh, TSh. 4831.

V In asseveration = Eng. by (perh. from practice of placing hand over object sworn by, Fraser ZCP viii 60 ): ducuitig tarais fadeissin ... nech taratoissed he swore by himself, Wb. 33d10 . t.¤ ioib gl. per Iouem, Sg. 217b2 . dar mo bréthir, IT i 121.22 . tongu-sa fom chumachta ┐ t.¤ in mac n-oengine, Ériu ii 196.18 . dar an bpeann `by the pen,' O'Gr. Cat. 590.33.

tárcud, táirciud

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tárcud, táirciud or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: táircthe

n u, m. vn. of do-áirci.

(a) (in O. Ir.) causing, bringing about: manip ar tháircud fochricce duib `unless it be for the purpose of preparing a reward for you,' Wb. 10b14 . ar far táirciudsi i nindocbáil `for bringing you into glory, 13c9 . 14c9 . oc táircud raith spirito dúib, 14c42 . i tarcud indocbalae domsa dia brátha, 23c29 . ar thairciud ermiten feid do dia `to produce honour to God,' Ml. 47b4 . in clóini nísin du tairciud doib `that that iniquity should be caused to them,' 61b17 . amal nibad cen cinta dugnetis in t.¤ sin damsa `that infliction,' 74a1 . amal as soirb lat tairciud cech laithi i ndigaid alaili `to bring every day after another,' 111a5 . huan tárrciud gl. oblatione, Études Celt. xl 72 ( Ml. 72b10 ). in tairciud ón gl. uini oblationem, 121c2 .

(b) providing, preparing: tárgud amra isin taig do cholcthechaib, LU 11044 . do breith táircthe cruid o Ailill, 1639 . tarcudh solus providing of lights, Snedg. u. Mac R 13 § 69 . Crist do tharcudh bethaidh ┐ sásadh don domhan, BNnÉ 20.32 . is tuirsech mé ó an targad ingnad sin `with this extraordinary compilation,' O'Gr. Cat. 128.7. tan tairgthe a dtuaslaicthe when their salvation was being prepared (?), 567.5 . tarcud do drochmhái providing for a bad woman (?), Triads 72 . Cf. MacCongl. 73.26 . ? is tochrus im oibil .i. tarcud febe im molc fochná, O'Mulc. 758 . itargo lego (=i targud lega), Laws iv 302.4 Comm. Of feasts, banquets: fledh do thargud do thig C. to prepare a banquet in C.'s house, ZCP xi 61.3 . flead do tharcad dia tigerna, Lec. 185d28 . a fleda, a thairgthi, a tighi, Acall. 2502 . tosach tairc[t]hi (sic leg.) is comhóil cain (: failte), BNnÉ 255.19 .

(c) In Laws provision, hence acquired wealth (?): cia imana boaire cid log secht cumal do tarcud a cuirp fadesin, acht for facba da trian a tarcuda la fine collna seven cumals of his own providing (?), iii 48.17 . is cuimgech eiside ni do timna amhail is carthanach leis dia tarcud budein, 44.24 Comm. an cobeis do targud a laime, 45 n. 3 . fer tathaigte cen urgnam, cen urail, cen tarcud, cen tinol, ii 356.9 (but see Stud. in E. Ir. Law 63 , 65 ).

(d) collecting, leading: targadh .i. tionól, O'Cl. targud índ uisci tairngiter and dar ín fearaind, Laws iv 214.10 Comm. masa codnach do rine in targud tre comraiti `if it be a sensible adult that brought (a horse to the place) designedly,' iii 260.7 . codnach do ni a tarcud mar aen (of the damage done by deer and horse in hunting), 456.24 .

(e) Attrib. g s.: fer táircthe inciter, ringleader (?): fir targuda ... .i. ... fer tairce .i. trian cotach cach fir ro taircistar .i. ro thinoilter in slog cen techt leo, H 3.18, 507 ( O'Curry 1256 ). ised is fer tairci ann, duine tairgis iat co haen inadh, 23 Q 6, fo. 13a ( O'Curry 1692 ). cin aenfir for sluagh ... masa targud eicne ... tucastur orru do denam in marbtha ... ma targud aisi ... icad fer tairce trian na secht cumala a dualgus a tairci, Laws iii 114.17 ff. fear taircthi ... re cach foghail dagentar isin crich ... fear coimhgnima, Rawl. B 506 fo. 53b ( O'D. 2414 ). do nem-chintughadh aosa tairce the people led, incited (?), H 3.17 col. 435 ( O'D. 545 ).

targud aurduirn fri Athirne raising his fist to A. (?), O'Dav. 1088. ? Nuald domain targada (targadaig, v.l.) .i. Domhnall, Anecd. ii 52.3 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. tíacht or


Forms: tíachtu[n], tíachtain, -ana

n [? ā, f.], tíachtu[n], tíachtain [g s. -ana]. Mid. Ir. vn. of do-icc (see also tíchtu) cf. Irske Studier § 105 . The vocalism is perhaps influenced by tíag- in forms of 1 téit, q.v.

I act of coming, reaching; taking place: iar tiachtain Patraic, Corm. Y 883 . fo-chen du t[h]iachtain ... a oighe, 637 . cian rofeas do thíachtu sund, BDD² 359 . atrogell Édaín ... t.¤ úaitsiu, Ériu xii 184.4 . fath a tiachta an-Erinn, Lec. 287a37 = fath a tiachtana, BB 43a35 . bés ní tarissi iar tíachtain, TBFr. 395 . iar tiacht inmadha ... na hingine, Stair Erc. 557 . iar tiacht in lae, 1765 . iar tiachtain doib int shlebe (riachtain v.l.), TBC-I¹ 616 . cia bad dóig diar tiachtain, TBC-LL¹ 823 . dlegar a tiachtain `it ought to be forthcoming,' Laws i 128.6 Comm. cen tiachtain in marbtha though death does not take place, 174.8 Comm. ? don ingin ac ata in tiacht maicne, Laws ii 404.24 Comm. (but cf. Stud. in E. Ir. Law 71 n. 1 .).

II With prepositions.

(a) t.¤ as act of escaping from: na coimgend tiachtain as, Laws v 332.10 Comm.

(b) t.¤ de to be able: gan tiachtain de a tocuala, TTebe 3370 .

(c) t.¤ etar act of going between, ? interrupting: tiachtain itir dilgud ┐ indechad, Laws i 14.2 Comm. ríge ... ocu do gress, cen tiachtain eatarra without interruption? (Plummer MS. notes), Lism. L. 2102.

(d) t.¤ fo act of submitting to; to be liable to; act of impugning: tiachtain fo dliged foltmaisi to submit to , Laws v 122.11 Comm. tiachtain fo lan in ecodnaig ann, ii 70.22 Comm. is coimgech in fine forru im tiachtain fo coruib to impugn , v 130.10 Comm.

(e) t.¤ fri

(i) act of opposing: ar ba haigmeil leis a thiachtain fris ima rigi, Lec. 269vb27 . fonaiscid forro cen tiachtain fris ... co brath, RC xxiv 200.26 .

(ii) act of submitting to: tiachtain ... re dliged submitting to law, Laws ii 16.28 Comm.

(f) t.¤ im: tiachtain ima reir to abide by his decision, Laws v 252.16 Comm.

(g) t.¤ o: tiachtain o leith dire co trian naithgena `is reduced ,' iii 176.6 Comm.

(h) t.¤ tar act of withdrawing from; mentioning; transgressing: dias doroine cundrad ... is cuimgech cach fer dib 'masech tiachtain tairis, H 5.15, 8a ( O'D. 1589 ). nocha chumaing ... tiachtain tairis, H 3.18, 642a ( O'Curry 1434 ). is imarcraid n-imnisen tiachtain dar na nechib to mention , LU 7915 . is tíachtain tar breith senórach tíachtain tar do breith transgressing , Ériu iv 134.21 , 22 . otchonnairc Dia tiachtain doib tara thimna, Lec. 22vb43 .

III In phrase ic tiachtain leigind engaged in learning , later simply tiachtain: ic tiachtain leiginn ┐ proicepta, Lism. L. 2613 . saoi tiachtana leigind, AFM ii 836.19 . logh a tiachtana no a oidechta, Laws v 212.21 Comm. calbh a tiacht .i. cenn saoiechta, ZCP v 485 § 2 (B. na f.).


Cite this: eDIL s.v. tiruairse or


n (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 600 ) remains, relics, fragment : diurtha .i. raet beg, ut est caem cach diurtha .i. is taithnemach gach tiruairsi cruidh big tareis cruidh móir, O'Dav. 689. cona bitís 'na láim acht a terúarsana, TTr.² 1490 . ro theclaim A. ina fuair do tiruarsnibh saignen, CCath. 952 . don tiruair-sin slóigh doarrasair inti, 2591 . adubradar nārbo mebhor acht mādh tiruairsi ┐ blogha beca dhī, ACL iii 4.24 . oc acra tiruairsi in bid, Laws i 186.26 Comm. dia mbed tiruairsi de, BB 240a31 = diambe tiruarsi de, LB 118a19 . ni h-innister sund acht tiruarsi dona piannaib sin, 157a9 . agus aniu (ar n-a ttuitim) ní fhuil acht múta talman da ttioruairsi, Geneal. Tracts i 19.16 . comhmbrecadh taisedh ┐ tiaruoirsi na naomh relics , BNnÉ 266 § 232 v.l. áit a mbia mo thaisi ┐ mo thiomna ┐ mo thiruairsi go laithe an brátha, § 233. ni terna ass dib acht mad tiruairsi mbicc, AFM i 332.10 . tar cenn an tioruairsi do fáccbhadh da h-innilibh il Luighniu, iii 224.10 . don terúairsi doruaradh aca dia ffíon, Hugh Roe 8.22 . ma tarrus tiruairsiu d'a anmain ann féin remnant of life, H 3.17, col. 644 ( O'D. 900 ). cach freiscsin .i. tiruairsi .i. in cach bis a freiscenus in dibaid, H 3.18, 242a ( O'Curry 453 ). ? nochu cuimgech in flaith diubtur na tiruairsi ni is gairdi na ar secht mbiadhaibh, Laws ii 112.25 , 26 .

See túairse.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. tol or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: toil, tuile, tuil, toil, toili, toil, tail, tol, tal, tal, tail, tail

n ā, f. a s. toil, Wb. 11b17a . 4c23 . g s. tuile, Wb. 30c11 . Ml. 53b12 . d s. tuil, Wb. 11b17 . Ml. 42a14 . 124c6 . toil, Wb. 19a17 . 22d5 . Later g s. toili, TTebe 1083 . In IGT Decl. toil, tail ā, f. IGT Decl. § 14 , tol u, m. § 95 , tal o, m. § 95 . tal feirinnsgne, tail a ainm iollraidh sin; tail baininnsge ar énogham ┐ ar éngháoidheilg re hainm iollraidh an fhocuil sin, p. 21.15 .


(a) will: t.¤ dæ do dénum, Wb. 15d11 . comalnatar toil daé, 20d2 . nibo in tain nombeid ar súil tantum dogneith toil far coimded, 27c9 . i tuil dée, 11b17 . móa léu sercc a tuile quam dei , 30c11 . ointu tuile dæ, Ml. 53b12 . denma tuile dæ, 47c13 . inna mmithule gl. malæ uoluntatis, 33d3 . rosoisset a toil hua thuil dæ, 124c6 . iarsin chaíntoil, Wb. 20d19 . is lestar fás is crann crín | nad déni thoil ind ríg thuas, Thes. ii 294.28 . mina dena t.¤ Dé, PH 4112 . is ferr dún trá trell dia thoil-seom | andá a guin-seom a spell of his service, Metr. Dinds. iv 102.26 . a Chríst, dorónam dothal (leg. do thal ?) | Fiadat finn rofinnadar, iii 448.107 . acht na rab toidecht a n-agaid a toili `provided there be no going against their will,' TTebe 1083 . gu ndeach mé san magh neamhdha | mas é tal mo Thígherna, IGT Decl. ex. 1709 . far léig mé toram dod thoil `seeing all Thy wishes I have neglected,' Dán Dé ix 8 . caor charad ar aontail iad, DDána 34.1 . cuir ... do thoil led labhra, 90.24 . co toil aici na nemlesughadh `he having a choice of not settling it,' Laws iii 204.4 Comm. as air tainic toil Grighoir Papa on him fell the choice of Pope Gregory, BCC 256 . a dtoil go léir do thabhairt dhóibh `leave them at full liberty,' Donlevy 338.14 . tug Dia ... don duine neart a thoile saoire `the power of his free will,' Corp. Astron. 60.z . aga raibhe fis tola a thighearna, Luke xii 7 . oir dá ndearna me so do dhruim thoile ... anadhaigh mo thoile, 1 Corinth. ix 17 . rann toile division by agreement (?), arbitrary division (?): roinn toile ní hí is ghnáthach | idir dís más dís bráthar | fa roinn críche is gnáithche tol | idir cúigear nó ceathrar, Content. vi 45 . do dhearbhadh ar roinn toile | do dhéanamh dhóibh ré roile | gach port i dtigdís i dtír | do ansad ann gan eissídh, 46 . na ranna ráidhe roimhe | ranna iad do réir toile | nior gairmeadh díobh romhad riamh | mar ainm ceirtleath nó ccirt-thrian, v 157 . ? guach toile, Laws ii 312.10 Comm.

(b) In phrase is t.¤ (do) is pleasing (to), is desired (by): nanní robu th.¤ do, Ml. 33a18 . ba t.¤ do Dubthach ... inní sin, Lat. Lives 71.12 . sēnfa-su ... t'erlabrai cu mba t.¤ ndoib cach a ráidfi, Irish Texts i 5.y . muna budh t.¤ d'Formorchaibh, Leb. Gab.(i) 76.17 . mása th.¤ duit `if thou art willing,' Trip. 56.29 . da mad t.¤ duib, PH 20 . ropa t.¤ do Mártain sin, Lat. Lives 94.7 . taithmigit na cind na curu sein mani bet tola doib if they do not like them (?), Laws iv 54.18 Comm. noco toil sin `das will ich nicht,' TFerbe 795 . dream ba rothoil i n-iomrádh, Measgra D. 55.30 . With prep LA: go ma toil leat 'may it please thee', Carswell² 31.1012 .

(c) In phrase do-beir toil do consents to: tucatar uile a toil dó cuige sin, RC xix 258.x . nach iad Gaoidhil thug a dtol | re seilbh Éireann do Thuathal `that it was not the G. who consented to T.'s holding Eire,' Content. vi 100 . ar a tug sé féin a thoil `to which also [he] had himself assented,' O'Gr. Cat. 57.y . tugam t.¤ d'imrád Iso, 380.17 . an fhad rug a séan mar sin | a-dir an sgéal nach tug toil, PBocht 11a.9 . tugas mo th.¤ d'fheirg is d'uabhar, Dán Dé xii 6 . don ghalldacht ní thug a thoil | an alltacht rug do roghain, Ir. Review 1912, 471 § 4 . dia tucc toil tairsibh `which he preferred to them,' BNnÉ 4.22 . Also loves (cf. II (a)): cidbé ainder mná dobéra toil do'n fhior gráid, SG 47.31 . ní díol ceana an cholann mheabhlach | gidh mór an toil thugas dí, DDána 36.4 .

(d) In phrase airecc, tairecc tuile waiting on, pleasing, satisfying: ructha tra na techta ina imdai cuci-sium do airiuc thuile dōib `so that they might be satisfied,' Sc.M² § 2 . muc ┐ ag doberthea and ... .i. da airig tuile do chāch `so that all should get their share,' Ériu i 44.z . do denam a menman ┐ do airiuc thuile dó `to meet his desire,' ZCP iii 7.7 . dáig co nderntais oibnes menman ┐ oirecc tuli for rigaib ... mac n-Israel, PH 894 . ic airiuc thuile do oigidaib Buchit, RC xxv 36 § 16 = oc airfitiud in tṡlúaig, 32.2 (cf. ic tuil menman Buichit, RC xxv 36 § 16 ). ba sedh rob aines ┐ rob airecc tuile dóibh, AFM v 1864.8 . See also tairecc (b).


(a) goodwill, affection, love: fuair D. ... t.¤ ┐ dainghen an ríogh ar Ros `obtained the King's goodwill and confirmation of Ross,' Rel. Celt. ii 150.32 . toill a tt.¤ `win their regard,' Studies 1919, 439 § 8 . má atá do thal leam ... budh geall damh ré haithní é, 73 § 6. gibé rabh a rí chonaill | i n-aincheas bhar n-urfhoghaill | go mbé a chroidhe gá chrúdh sin | le rún toile dot thuigsin, 1921, 74 § 7 . ar mbeannacht do thaobh thoile | go cléirchibh Fhóid Iughoine `our blessing in all love,' 1920, 567 § 17 . mná is fir ag tál a dtoile | do ghrádh fir na hionmhoine, Arch. Hib. 98 § 1 . táinic dhínn do chora a crois | do bhrígh in tola thugais, IGT Decl. ex. 1666 . fada atáid gan toil a seathar | síol Adhaimh ..., DDána 26.34 . múr aolbhláth do thobhaigh toil, 68.13 . do fhuluing ... a ghuin iar dtabhairt a thoile, 31.18 . an duas le dtánaig mo th.¤ , Aithd. D. 96.12 . cúis ... do tharroing ár dtola oraibhse, O'Cl. Pref. i 14. do thairreng thoile an athar nemhdha orainn, Ó Héodhusa 91.6 . dar dtoilne i mbaoghal do bhaoi for love of us, Aithd. D. 64.40 . meisde an umhlacht fhuair 'n-a mhacaomh | meisde fós a bhfuair do thail, 25.8 . ní hiongnadh tabhairt tola | dóibh, A. Ó Dálaigh x 3. is tuar tala do thionnsgnadh, 4 . díol taile ... ar fhéaghain an ógh, xii 6 . atá an toil, a Mhuire mhór | 'na tuile thréin, Dánta Gr. 30.5 . fuaire id thoil ni thugas fós, 86.67 . na mná dhíobh ba díol tola | ní h-iad anosa is annsa, 6.3 . an lann chealgas a gcara | ní gann deargas daghthala `the blade which strikes a friend woundeth deeply kindly minds,' Ó Bruad. ii xvi § 2 . lúthmhar gcéine a clann taile `her own dear offspring,' Aithd. D. 50.21 . clann toile gan fáth ag óigh, 63.22 . uaisleacht ar ttoile `our beloved nobles,' Rel. Celt. ii 258.28 . ? an t-ollamh na adhaigh sin | fuair o righ fhreimhe Heoghain | (bos gécshoillseach nar char crodh) | tal dob eccoimseach d'ollamh, ZCP ii 352.14 .

(b) desire, appetite: romrir mo th.¤ cholnide, Wb. 3c8 . ho thuil mo chollni, 3d1 . ced torbe doib etarscarad etir fria tola et a pecthu, 13c5 . non cogitare tola et accobra in betha, 15d9 . temel inna t.¤ domunde, 21a8 . conda marb hó thoil cholno, 19a17 . docotar ... fri tola in betho, 29a8 . do traothad do tole ┐ do accobair `to subdue thy desires and propensions,' Mon. Tall. 152.27 . aos duanat foibdi a tolae, 149.4 . is and fofeiscren ind tol ┐ an accobar, 9 . sūilib tlāithib todēraib | do dīlgud mo thoil (: foir), Ériu ii 55 § 3 . bíad bís iar ndíbdud toile | corp Crīst la fuil maic Maire, 66 § 12. tola fanna feōgaide | freitech domnāin chē, 55 § 4. an tan sercas an tal ndomanda, ZCP iii 455.1 . tal ┐ oeti, ec ┐ sentai, 454.9 . ticfat luaichthi lasracha | ticfat toirne cen tola (: fola), SR 8038 . tabair dam dilgud mo thal | arit Fiadu fírthrocar, 7799 . dom imdegail ... ar tholaib ar thargabalaib ar pecdaib, YBL 327a18 . ni tódúscaither tola o bar corpaib tria choemna `es werden von euren Körpern durch Vergnügen keine Begierden erweckt,' Alex. 986 . intí ... imgaibes tola, 986 . lāntol menman | di cach maith, ACL iii 296 § 42 . saltrad for toil, 311 ix 2 . do thimorcain ┐ do dibad innti na t.¤ collaide, PH 3541 . troethaid (sic leg.) ┐ crochaid bar tola collaide, 2540 . t.¤ na gciontadh im chroidhe, Dán Dé xviii 10 . ba treisi t.¤ aicnidh `desire was stronger than character,' Ériu xii 164.11 (TE). toil na hoileamhna `dúil san oileamhain,' DDána 70.2 . dá oighidh féin fríoth a thail, Aithd. D. 66.7 . Hence pleasure : do gheibh teaghlach tighe an Ríogh ... | toil a gcluas is a gcroidhe | tuas i dtoigh na trócuire, Dán Dé v 34 . toil as a dtiocfa n-a n-éagmhais | d'Iath Oiligh ní fhuigheadh sé, Aithd. D. 28.19 .

(c) sexual desire, sexual intercourse: isi lanamandacht uil ataru, toil ocus genus ocus bangnim uaithisi dosom, Laws ii 350.5 Comm. ni tualuing toile nach ro-chollach, v 132.7 . .i. nocha cuimgech a toil ogh do tabuirt don mnai in ti im a mbi in cholond ro remar, 134.23 Comm. na hairne toile ocus in toil ḟeith, iii 354.17 Comm. āirne toile .i. magarrla, O'Dav. 159. connach fuair si díl a toili isin Eigipt uili, Études Celt. i 80.4 . rob ferr leis na ilimudd maithesa beth a denum a thoili fria, 25 . ag faghail a toile o na feruibh feramhla sin, 81.11 . nach faghait a toil acht ac mnáib a comchineoil féin, RC xxiv 380.13 . ac sirdenum a toile risin righain, Stair Erc. 53 . beris lais annsa leabaidh hí ┐ doní toil a menman ┐ a aigeanta ria, Imr. Brain 65.19 . tuc toil a menman ┐ a haigenta dhí an oidhche sin `he gave her the desire of her mind and her nature,' RC xxix 132 § 46 . bid dino mna mongbuidi isna huscib ... ┐ ... berid leo na firu fon usce ┐ fosreghad leo fon usce og a toil ferda conda marbsat and, IT ii2 105.1 . Uenerech bandei na toili, TTebe 760 . Hence t.¤ a chuirp semen virile: ro thuitt toil a chuirp uad, Fél.² lxxxix 21 = ni do thoil a chuirp, Fél. 134.44 .

III In phrases with various prepp.

(a) ar thoil according to the will of: combad ar thoil doine nopridchinn, Wb. 18c13 . ar toil Dé, Arch. Hib. i 100 § xix . ar a thol ó tá gach dúil | ní lá dhuinn dom chor ó chéim, DDána 38.22 acht go bhfuileise ar mo thol ós aird, Aithd. D. 19.4 . tangattar ... ar a toil fein spontaneously , AFM vi 2076.23 .

(b) as (a) thoil of set purpose: ro choill Oengus elgnaid gein | rosa rig Temrach asa thuil, Rawl. 84a28 . in rag ... | as mo thoil féin ar in sál ?, RC xiii 272.6 . rí dochoid fri crann crucha | as a thoil nir' athrucha, SR 7754 . geb as do thoil fen bás, PH 6631.

(c) do thoil

(i) by the will of, with the consent of: sain ní dia fognai cech luib | dosrósat Dia dia degthoil, SR 7278 . arsaid cach n-áth conid dia thuil targlaí, LU 8312 (FB). do thoil Dia `by God's will,' Études Celt. i 89.7 . guidhim thuas baincheann na mbanógh | fam breith isteach do thoil Dé, DDána 31.26 . ní ghabhaim mo chor i gcéim | dom thol féin anaim uaidh, 38.27 . do thoil a thrócuire `by consent of his mercy,' PBocht 20.14 . máthair Eoin an uair do shir | toirrcheas do thoil an Dhúilimh, Dán Dé xi 16 . ná bíodh 'na bhéim air ar n-obadh | dar ttail féin do hobadh inn, IGT Decl. ex. 693 . is annsin do thoghadur do thoil a chéile Domhnall ... do chur leis an airgead sin don Róimh, PCT 1457.

(ii) in subjection to: mé dá toil congbhaidh an cholann | foghlaidh mar soin oram í the body keeps me in subjection to itself, DDána 36.2 . bheith do thoil na colla criadh | do-ghéanadh Íosa d'aimhriar, Aithd. D. 69.17 . ocht mbliadhna déag ... | Éire tonnṡrothach dá thoil, Content. xxx 16 .

(iii) for the love of: treigther libh na leaptha clūimh | do th.¤ d'eachtra, Rel. Celt. ii 226.34 . ? ni bía tú do toil na córa | a crich meic Nesa ní as sía, Irish Texts ii 47 § 13.

(d) fo thoil according to the will of: a-niodh a Dhé ag tocht fad thol `submissive to thee,' Studies 1933, 139.3 . do dhealbh Dia fa a thoil an teaghsan | ni fhoil 's ní bhia easbhaidh ann, Dán Dé xxxi 2 . rí fa thoil biodhbhadh do bhaoi in the power of , Aithd. D. 63.28 .

(e) fri tuil, toil according to the will of: fria thuil, thoil, thala willingly: tuidecht fri toil dé, Wb. 4c23 . fri toil dée, 11b17a . cia rodelb fria thuil a ndath | cia rath for cach luib fo leith, SR 7875 . o dorala, rúathar ṅglé | frim' thala mac Iessé, 6014 . fri tala ind rig, rúathar mbras | domrala tria tinninas, 6187 . othá Dán, fri tola Dé | co clar broga Bersabé, 6623 . bidsom fria toil `it (heaven) will be at their pleasure,' Mon. Tall. 141.18 . eírgis Elcmaire is teit sair | mar theít techtair[e] ria thail, LL 208b39 . ní don tromdhacht tarraidh sibh | rith teangadh re toil n-aignidh, Content. xxiii 5.

(f) íar tola: bātar na dee iar tola | hic Ethlinn athair Loga `die Götter waren nach ihrem Wunsch bei E.,' ZCP xii 245 § 3.

(g) la toil willingly: cach gnīm dia te bad la cet, | na-ndenad la toil, ZCP vii 310 § 3 . m'ech iomchuir ag triall lé tal | do b'ionchuir srian dá seoladh, Studies 1933, 406 § 1 .

(h) ó thoil with good will, willingly: bad ho thoil in fognam gl. cum bona voluntate seruientes, Wb. 22d5 . intí lasin n-accubur són in bethu ho thuil, Ml. 53c16 . ni fír-adrad hua thuil bís leu du dia, 42a14 . dar gcabhair táinig ó thoil, Aithd. D. 84.12 . gidh bé ar ngar i nglinn na ndeor | seol ó thal inn ar ar n-iul, Studies 1933, 140 § 8 . glacaidh chugaibh ó thoil mhaith an beag-thabhartas so, O'Cl. (pref.).

(i) tar thoil against the wish of: tar a thoil gé táid ag dul, Aithd. D. 68.38 . don tslógh thaghaidhe tar thol | mór an t-anoire a h-iomchar `despite themselves,' Féil. Mhic Néill 172 § 29 . tar thoil nDé, TSh. 2012.

Compd. ¤grád warm love: a Raghnaill a ríg in domnan | a ri da tabraim talgrad, Manners and Customs iii 339 n. 395 .