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7 a

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 7 a or dil.ie/8

Forms: a, a, a, a, a, a, a, á, as, as, assin, asind, as, as, as, as, as, ast, assa, asa, asar, as, assa, asa, asum, essiut, ass, as, es, essi, esse, eissi, esti, eisti, este, aiste, essib, eissib, esib, estib, eistib, asta, asa

prep. with dat., geminating out of, from . In O.Ir. glosses frequ. á (see Celtica ii 239 - 40 ). See Thurn. Gramm. § 834 . The usual form before nouns is a: a corin[tib], Wb. 7c18 . a ppecad, 3b3 . a persin, 4c23 . a rrath, 12a7 . a rrangabáil, Sg. 196b5 . a llatin, Ml. 3a15 . a mmedón, Tur. 72 . á óensonaib, Wb. 12a10 . In later lang. also as(s): as talomh, Fl.Earls 112.29 . as Éirinn, Rel. Celt. ii 182.13 (see Desid. xxxiv ). Before proclitics as(s). With article: assin folud, Wb. 9c10 . asind óinrainn, Sg. 197a17 . as tír, BDD² 435 . as tig, 544 . Note also: as cech ṡét, Thes. ii 320.3 .

With poss. adj. 1 s. as mo chuimriug, Wb. 23b7 . 2 s. as do, Sc.M² 11 . ast, 12 . 3 s. assa, Wb. 2c7 . 20d13 . asa, 25d16 . 1 pl. asar, Wb. 15c24 . 2 pl. as for, LU 8551 (H) ( FB 41 ). 3 pl. assa, MU² 276 . asa, 390 .

With suffixed pron. 1 s. asum, ZCP vi 285.8 . 2 s. essiut, RC xiv 188.z . 3 s. m. and n. ass, Wb. 29b15 . as, Ml. 36c20 . es, RC xxv 346 § 2 . 3 s. f. essi, Ml. 85c14 . esse, 113d2 , 131c14 . eissi, Sg. 196b2 . esti, PH 197 . eisti, BDD² 1405 . este, ZCP vi 81.4 . aiste, TSh. 4477 . 3 pl. essib, Wb. 12a10 , b23 . Ml. 87b18 . eissib, Sg. 190a1 . esib, 51b11 . estib, PH 2878 . eistib, ML² 1478 . asta, TSh. 2791 .

With rel. as(s)a n-: asatoróimed, Wb. 11a19 . See Thurn. Gramm. § 834 , IGT Introd. § 100 (25.12) .

I Expressing motion, out of, from: oc techiud a rroí, Críth Gabl. 539 . co rróimid topar husci ass, Trip.² 93 . fuil totmad (leg. totma(e)?) a crann a wound sustained in falling from a tree, Laws v 362.z . in ti bis for imrama a inad d'inad from place to place, Laws iv 36.12 Comm. coillti an talman do thuitim as a premaibh will be uprooted, RC xxviii 312 § 9 . luid fer a cath, BColm. 94.15 . facbuid-si asin tir-si leave this land, RC xiv 56 § 69 . na fuirighedh a Temraig ach imthiged asti co hobann, Ériu iii 170 § 29 . co cuala géim bó ic tiachtain al-loch Ṡithgail `out of Loch S.', Dinds. 155 ( RC xvi 270 ). rosái assen dia thigh, RC xviii 184.28 . atracht focétóir in marb a bás, RC ii 390 z . no ássad bolgg corcra assa etun a purple blister would grow out of his forehead, Ériu iv 32.3 . With impers. vb. ní thig asta `they do not shrink' (of shoes), E. O'Rahilly xviii 24 . Without accompanying verb: do rigne Dia firt . . . .i. in topur husci asin talmain, Trip.² 96 . cúiseach bind asa bēalaibh sweet piping from her lips, Ériu iv 174. § 8 . asa tuaisciurt inda deiscert `(to go) from the North (of it) to the south (of it)', Mon. Tall. 133. 22 (§ 17) . do chuir se iarraidh ar thigerna A. . . . as Eirinn chuige `sent to the laird of A. to come to him from Ireland', Rel. Celt. ii 182.13 .

In complement of object of transitive verbs: with various transitive verbs (see also under several vbs.): tóbe uitiorum assa anmin `the cutting of vice out of his soul', Wb. 2c7 . aní asatorbatha `that out of which they have been cut', 5b39 . . . . benus do ṡūil as do chinn, Arch. iii 308, z . ni béram ass gl. nec aufferre quid possimus ( 1 Tim. vi 7 ), Wb. 29b15 . dobert . . . dí báe déc . . . assint shíd, TBFr. 6 . an ghairbhiachtach . . . chuirid asta which they emit, TSh. 6705 . tarslaic Petrum a slabreid released Thes. ii 304.1 (Hy. i). is as do leigi iat (of shots), as a ninat . . ., Laws iv 226.17 . atdobrarbadse a tír Hérenn you have been banished from Ireland, BDD² 416 . ar ndichur a nGall esib, Ann. Conn. 1338.4 . hoc a tafonn (ac a cur v.l.) asa gort driving it out of his field, Arch. iii 2.8 . gabais . . . daur . . . assa frēnaib, ScM² 18 . dasrenga ais `drew it out', Mon. Tall. 150.29 (§ 61). is cían rosraeined amach / Iudaich a crīch Rōmānach, ZCP viii 115.17 . dá sraoilleadh . . . as a chéile, TSh. 5696 . di loscud a thige . . . di gait as—a leth di gait ind for stealing from it . . . for bringing stolen property into it, Críth Gabl. 123 . tonindnaig . . . leithi in chon dó assa laim chlí gives him . . . with her left hand, RC iii 177.5 . adetha C. assa láim, 6 . do urail S. a cengal as scotaib ceathra sdet `ordered him to be bound to the tails of 4 steeds', ITS xix 100.7 . gairfidh Íosa uair nó dó / as an talmhain a dteasdó, Dán Dé xiv 9 .

Common in 3 s. n. as adv. with verbs of going, etc. tíagait ass na teachta-sin depart, Sc.M² 4 R . documlát ass do Chrúach- naib, TBFr. 42 . amal ossa is amlaid rorathatar ass they ran like deer, Ériu iii 141.208 . imsái as in mac the boy turns away, Ériu i 116 § 5 . Hence with verbs of going, etc. escapes: 'san domnach dodechaid ass / a broinn in bledhmil Ionas, Ériu iii 144 § 14 . bualadh Tairrdelbaig . . . acht cena terno som ass, RC xviii 35.27 . ní dechaidh as gan gabāil nō gan marbadh acht Sir Gyi . . ., ZCP vi 72.12 . creid nách fhuil dul as ar domhan agad ót olc shíordhuidhe, Mac Aingil 1857 . Related meanings. Dies, comes to an end: dia ndech nech dībh as `departs' (this life), Marco P. 140 . din ló dochúaid Cerball ass, RC xx. 12 § 20 . ni ragha in la-su ass `this day will not go by', CCath. 3573 . na heirig ass co madain / do deacraib rig in richid (sic leg., ed.) do not cease till morning from (recounting) the wonders of the king of heaven, Ériu v 26.22 . co n-erlai [int archaingel] a rrecht ind ríg `forsook the law', Ériu ii 108 § 22 . With other verbs in idiomatic phrases: not-ber as dom' inchaib get thee out of my sight, ZCP i 105.1 . beir as tú `escape' Keat. iii 3246 . tucsat as in oidhchi-sin co himsnímach spent that night, Fianaig. 52.17 . a bheatha do thabhairt as go measardha to lead a life of moderation, TSh. 268 . ruccsatt ass amhlaidh sin ifoimhdin aroile they continued, Hugh Roe 288.17 (fo. 76a) . ni rug og na sen a comfad-so as damh riam gan toitim lium `held out against me', ZCP vi 101.7 . cuir ass na dorchu tuccais expel the darkness thou hast brought, Anecd. iii 35.17 . ata si arna cur as anois `it is now destroyed' (of a city), Maund. 43 . a lecan as, he was set free, RC xviii 283.15 . leicem as ar n-imram let us give up, RC xxvi. 136 § 9 . leig as 'athair cease, father, Ériu iv. 51 § 7 . do lēic ech in rīgh ar a glūinibh hī . . . ┐ nīr fēdadh as hī she could not be got out of that position, ZCP xiii 182.31 . Without accompany- ing vb. (freq. as ipv.) ass, a duine, ar éat `get out, O man!' (be off), Fél. 184.6 . as tír duit get thee out of the land, RC xxv 24.6 . as as bhar Fraoch get hence, get hence, said F. ML 124.13 . asa sin doibh, Rel. Celt. ii 178.3 . aisidhe dhó co Tulaig na C. thence he went, ZCP xiv 259.8 . In phrase: ní has dó there is no escape for him, he has no chance of escape (see O'Rahilly, Celtica i 348 ): ma commhor th'eucht led bhriath- ruibh, ni has dhamhsa if your deeds are on a par with your words there is no escape for me, Luc. Fid. 344.12 . ni has dh'aoinneach aguibh there is no escape for any of you, 284.15 . nach bu has dh'iachtaranuibh no dh'uachtaranuibh, 260.22 . ní has d'Éirinn eatorra between them Ireland has no escape, DDána 92.7 . In phr. as ┐ ind: do ḟeitheam a long . . . as ┐ ind `to watch his vessels (going) out and (coming) in', Dinds. 135 ( RC xvi 142.6 ). cloictheach . . . ┐ eoin duba . . . ind ┐ as `passing into and out of it', RC xvii 394.y .

II Expressing origin, source.

(a) from, originating in: a grec anísiu `from the Greek' Sg. 148b14 . assin tein atgládastar `out of the fire he addressed him', Thes. ii 318.4 (Hy. ii). ba hingnád aisec asind inut sin (.i. a détaib in chon allaid), Trip.² 148 . in port asa n-accai Patraic inna naimtiu, 1500 . bá foderc dó . . . assa imduí, LU 8219 ( FB § 16 ). nír faei i tig as mbi eggna suillsi tenead, BDD² 175 . is hí ro hic súil ind ríg / a topor Locha Dá líg, IT i 131.29 . is a Hérind anair, MU² 513 . secht mile as so `seven miles from here', ZCP vi 295.7 . co fesamar can as tucad till we know whence it was brought, Ériu i 46.10 . ni fes can as tánic `whence it came', RC xviii 302.7 . a tírib hIndía do, PH 820 . niamh ḟíona a hór (drunk) from a gold goblet, DDána 119.25 . from (of a number out of a group): mart as gach creich, muc as gach crú, caora as gach trét, BNnÉ 265 § 230 . sé ar fichit a Huib Neill `six and twenty of the Húi Néill', RC xxiv 202. 14 . Of the ground of proof from: is follus as for ng[n]imaib ni dligthi comardad fris etir, LU 8551 ( FB 41 ). follus asna scélaib-so Colmáin it is clear from these stories about Colman, BColm. 102, 12 . is esti demniges, PH 2185 . créad is iontuigthe as sin, TSh. 161 .

With various vbs.: nī contesba banne ass `not a drop was wanting therefrom', Thes. ii 348.3 (Hy. v). a tír asa tairid- nither `from the land out of which (the water) is drawn', Ériu xvii 68 § 8 . cid asa fordailtea grád túa[i]the? what is the basis of the different grades of the `túath'? Críth Gabl. 6 . rí rodelb eisse cach ṅduil, SR 25 . asnabbrad hi sennathib `whence it was said', Fianaig. 30.13 . rofiarfaigh dib crēd asa fuaradar an cís aingid sin, RC x 185.y . gach ainm eile . . . nach sloinntear as tarbh, Maguires of F. 45 .

(b) Hence introducing the instrument or cause of an action, etc. by, with, because or by reason of: a faill do denam for being neglectful, Laws iv 50.10 . ro bendach Pátraic asa díb lámaib in Machai with his hands, Trip.² 2799 . asa réir budesin of his own accord, Ériu i 219 § 7 . as mothoil féin `of my own will', RC xiii 272.6 . nach maith dogni duine asa chorp isin domun any good thing a man does with his body, Ériu vii 172.y . Cluain maic Nois d'argain . . . a comairle Muirchertaig, on M.'s advice, RC xviii 30.25 . is a radurc atconnairc Ith . . . Slébe Irruis deiscirt, Ériu iv 142.16 . roslen Nél assa lurg, by means of his track, Met. Dinds. iii 404.13 . cia mod as a mbrisend recht in what way, PH 2588 . do-rinne an tshoil cumhachda gáoidhilgi ortha as ar cóir do chomh- ardadh íad by reason of which, IGT Introd. 11.16 . lot mh'anma a silleadh na súl / do rinneadh, Dán Dé ix 4 . a caingean Dé do diúltadh, IGT Decl. ex. 1355 . mellaid mōr duini asa dath / gid buidi in t-ōr is otrach, Arch. iii 238 § 16 . Note also: ragat gussin Rōimh as go ffuilēngat croch ┐ cēssadh, Fl. Earls 206.25 ; whereby they will suffer Celtica ix 117-18 . Cf. 8.18 , 170.8 . With créd: créd dorinne sí asa rabhus di marsin what she had done that they were treating her thus, Ériu v 168.82 . créad as nach adhradh . . . na dée mar chách why, Keat. ii 5393 . With adv. as: is as tugadh Nár air this is why he was called N., 3645 .

(c) Introducing the name of a language: ainm an inaidh sin . . . a Gaeidheilcc in Irish, Maund. 57 . laphruiss . . . assin bérla glan ghrécach in the pure Grecian tongue, Anecd. i 34.70 . berla na filed asa n-acaillit cach dib aroile wherein they all address each other, Auraic. 200 .

III Miscellaneous uses.

(a) In sense of attached to, compos- ed of, in etc. : amal bīs tuir már oc fulang tige ┐ illāma esti, Corm. Y 1224 . ro-lēcis gaī form-sa co-rrabae as mo scíath `so that it stuck in my shield', Sc.M² 11 . cipe [no beth] démnach asa mér no asa brága whoever was possessed by a demon in his finger or in his throat, RC ii 400 § 40 . a edach delradach . . . imi, as a ndenad idbarta do Baich `in which he was wont to offer sacrifices', TTebe 2842 . gu bhfaiceabh asin coluinn-si Dia, ITS xix 92.6 . Cf. rí sithamail asa flaithes in respect of, Rawl. B 512 fo. 69d .

(b) After vbs. expressing recognition, etc. : atgénammár asa samail in fer sin, LU 6805 ( FB 46 ). cinnas do aith[g]ēnmais in degmnái . . . asa deilb ┐ asa costud, a tlás, a fos, a féile, ZCP viii 112.22 . misi do aimsigh Eabha / as a basuibh bairr- gheala / 's as a derc ramhoill raglais, Ériu iv. 112.26 - 27 . ad-mestar asa toirthib talmain, ZCP xi 94 § 33 . ?a samlaib én n-etarlúamain, LU 8628 ( FB 47 ) (rhet.).

(c) After vbs. of bathing, washing: do-dheochaid co mbricht neimhe lé do Frāech corusfothraic ás . . . a arma he bathed his weapons in it, ZCP xiii 175.6 . doluid Cuchulaind dia bualad asna huscibsin, TBC² 2742 . nocho raibi husce ocai asa ndénad in bathis, Trip.² 91 . ro tinsain usce . . . conid as ronig a derc with it he washed his eye, Dinds. 64 ( RC xv 462 ). usce asa negar Grip, ZCP iii 214.14 . roghonais mo dhalta / rodergais as t'fhogha thou hast reddened thy spear in his blood, Buile S. 12.14 .

(d) After vbs. of paying, exchanging, etc. dobertha a chutroma d'or ┐ d'argat ass, Hugh Roe 220.3 (fo. 58b) . diass as in cethramuin ┐ da bho as an bfer nach fuighthi dibh .i. bó as in duine ┐ bo as in éidegh, L. Chl. Suibhne 31 . tainic Ciaran dá fhuascladh, ┐ tucc moran oir ┐ argait ass in return for him, BNnÉ 117.27 . dober braighi maith duit asum fein `I will bring thee a good hostage for myself', ZCP vi 70.15 . dlighe do dhíol as, TSh. 10084 .

(e) After words expressing hope, trust, doubt etc. : go ndearna dall / dóigh as an té do thoghsam, Dán Dé iv 26 . as do thrócuire atá ar ndóchas, xix 21 . thairisi asa degh- gnimradhaibh féin, CCath. 330 . an neimhiocht gnáthach do bhí aige as féin `it was sad that his brother always had a suspicion of him', his usual mistrust for him, Keat. ii 2504 . bith cunntaphuirt agut asi[n] nduine aithenus tu `be on your guard against', Ériu v 136 § 93 . etir cin co fiss / no co n-anfiss ass, Arch. iii.222.30 .

(f) After vbs. of boasting, etc. : dia maide as a shúalchib, PH 4855 . itā mo chorp 'na c[h]amra / cid uaibrech as m'urlabra, Arch. iii 239 § 34 . rom-moltar ar cech feib as mo ghail, ZCP v 503.24 . créad as a ndéine díomus, TSh. 633 .

IV In later lang. also of time from, since: ní nach dearnadh as mo nua ná as mo naoidheantacht ariamh riom, ML 100.14 . fer na dechaid asa naindin riam gan cenn Connachtaig lais `from his childhood', ZCP i 103.1 . asa naidendacht `from his infancy', RC ii 386 § 9 . sé is (leg. as) th'óige ort / [is] móide ar an ḟolt mh'fiafraighidh that thou hast it since thy youth increases my wonder (?) at the hair, DDána 114.2 . asa tosuch from the beginning, Ériu iv 214.18 . nambered cách a huair dena maccleirchib dochum a tige leo `would take him home in turn', Ériu ii 222.24 .

In prep. phrases, see aithle, céile, ucht, etc. In adv. phrase see núa.

2 adb

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 adb or dil.ie/327

n adbh .i. dath , H 2.15, 117 b (cited Contribb.)

1 áe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 áe or dil.ie/604

Forms: áoi, áoi, ó, áoibh, aeghe, aeghibh

n Mid. Ir. form of O. Ir. óa, q.v. IGT Decl. § 180 (in pl. only. n p. áoi. g p. áoi, ó. d p. áoibh). Not used to form adjj. in -amail or -ach, Introd. § 147 : nor as the first element of a compd. § 148 . Later spelt aeghe, Lament. ii 11 . aeghibh, Ezech. xxi 21 .

Liver: feóil fhiadha, ae, ┐ blonag, Rule of Tall. 6 § 8 . mo sháith do bhoin . . . gan ai innti acht geir a n-inat a haei, Oss. v 54.26 . in bo co naib ítha, ZCP iii 218 § 36 . searrach dond ar dath a áoi (háoi v.b.) liver-coloured, IGT Decl. ex. 2068 . ech dond co ndathan a ai fair is é sin ataighsem, RC xxvii 300.7 . is and bit a uighi don circ imo ai, Hib. Min. 47 note b . cum na cuislend cumang bis a ndruim na náo, Rosa Ang. 46.13 . is na cuislennaibh comursanaighes . . . ris na h-aeb, RC xlix 53 § 21 . melancoilia cruthaigther isna haeib, O'Gr. Cat. 262.13 . os cionn na náe, Ex. xxix 13 . In phrase domblas áe, see domblas. In name of a plant, liverwort : a.¤ aba marchantia polymorpha, Rosa Ang. 340 . a.¤ abund gl. epaitica, RC ix 231.13 . epatica .i. na hae abha, 23 K 42, 428.14 .

1 áel

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 áel or dil.ie/618

n o lime, chalk (See ZCP xxiv 93 ): di á.¤ ┐ chrieid gl. onera, Ml. 102d9 . doronad in mur do ael berbthi, Rawl. 74b1 . múr gel . . . amal bad du á.¤ chombruithiu dognethe, LU 1701 . ael Erend all the lime in Ireland, 3147 . á.¤ ná eimer (sic leg.), Cóir Anm. 146 . tuc a inchind latt et cummaisc ǽl air (of preserving the brain of an enemy in lime as a trophy), RC viii 62.18 ( LL 13545 ). findnél na cailce ┐ ind ǽil . . . asnaib sciatha, RC xiii 456.19 . clocha ┐ ael tigi spitel na Trinnoite, Ann. Conn. 1245.3 . foirind ic suathad aeil, `mixing lime', Aen. 305 . clocha chum aoil do denam, ZCP x 22.1 . lucht aoil do losgadh lime-burners, Eochairsg. 114.26 . a dath amar dath an aeil, SG 111.26 . In comparison: aol (aoil MSS.), is rós . . . . . . bhíos ar nós lóchrainn n-a gruaidh do ghnáth, Hackett xxi 34 . g s. as attrib. cloch aeil limestone: cendach na ccloch náoil, ZCP x 22 n.l . cnes amal clochael gen chrūais, Arch. iii 308 § 33 . Of a limestone castle: am chloich áoil. Anecd. ii 72.10 . clach aoil, DDána 119.12 . a mhúir ḟinda áoil, IGT Decl. ex. 688 . tene aoil `lime-kiln' FM ii 1076.9 .

Compds. ¤chinn n.pr. A. Cruachna CF 857 . ¤-chloch limestone: go ro gabsat acc athnuadhucchadh a n-aitreabh aolcloch built of limestone(?), FM vi 2186.12 . a n-adhnaice an Ard Mhacha / Ulltaibh as a n-aelchlacha, Misc. Celt. Soc. 148.6 . ¤-chnes having skin as white as lime: árrachta áluinn aoilchnis, Hackett xxxix 150 . ¤-dorus: ráith na n-ael-dorus n-alaind, ` lime doors (white-washed with lime, or perhaps built of lime-stone)', Hy Fiachr. 254.12 . ¤-ecor: gach ceall i bhfuair áladhdoirse / uaidh as fhearr a haoilegair-se every church in which he found gaping doors he was best at repairing it with limestone(?), DDána 89.27 . ¤-gorad lime-burning . Fig. deatach díomusa ag éirghe ón aolghoradh uabhair, TSh. 7938 . ¤-grennad: ní mhar aoilghreannadh th'aighthe (of a ráth), DDána 68.3 . ¤-lis: a hamharc an aoilleasa, DDána 70.11 . ¤-losgad. Fig. teannáil na toile, bhíos ag aol-losgadh na hanma, TSh. 1857 . ¤-mag: n.loc. Aolmhagh, FM i 50.2 . ¤-ráth: conacadar in aelrāith mōir [ar] a cind, Ériu viii. 157.3 . ¤-tech: aíl-tech emir `lime-white house of granite', Met. Dinds. iv 108.2 . ¤-tor: gan áoltor ngeal no gan gharrdha / nar legh aentadh t'faghla iad, IGT Decl. ex. 544 . With adj.: ¤-chethach: do chíd adhbha aoilcheathach . . . ar ochtaibh áilne an aieóir a building made of gleaming showers, L.Cl. A. Buidhe 180.2 .

aerach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aerach or dil.ie/635

adj o, ā (aer)

(a) airy, pleasant: a n-áit árd aorach, Parl. na mB. 260 . scor raifhérach radharc cnoc / amharc aiérach accat, Studies 1920, 261 § 2 . dath . . . aorach, Parl. na mB. 8 . fāinn' a.¤ `showy ring', Celtica iv 106 § 1 .

(b) light-hearted, gay, frivolous: dligim raed aerach do radh, Fier. 121 n.11 . do ghréirthibh aerach' banntracht, Parl. na mB. 1635 .

aiccidit

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aiccidit or dil.ie/762

Forms: aicíd

n [i, f.] (Lat. accidentia, see Thurn. Gramm. § 918 ). Later aicíd (with voiceless -c- and unlenited -d.)

(a) accident (gramm.): ní a.¤ sibi calléic, non accidens sibi. . . Sg. 71b10, 11 . ní fail nach na.¤ taibsed sainred litre, 6b25 . ataat andsom acciditi coitchenna `there are there common accidents', 71b9 . inna aicciditi gl. accidentia, 190b2 .

(b) accident, quality (philosophical, etc.): bídh . . . ag gach créatúir . . . nádúir ┐ subsdaint . . . ┐ aicíd . . . as é as subsdaint . . . don duine bheith 'na ainmhidhe résúnta . . . aicíde dhó bheith gerr nó fada, láidir no lag, Mac Aingil 2826 . aicíde, nádúir ┐ nuimhir na bpeacadh, 2833 . tri gnée aicídeadh nó circunsdainteadh, 2837 . aicíde an fhíona mar atā blas, boladh, dath. etc., Parrth. Anma 3012 . aicidedha arain ┐ fiona, faoi a bhfuil go firinneach corp ┐ fuil ar ttighearna, Luc. Fid. 249.7 . ona haicidibh ud an arain ┐ an fhiona, 254.6 . mar as contrardha in taicid ┐ in tsustaint da celi, Ir. Astron. Tr. 66.26 . do réir inaid ┐ aicídi ┐ cúise, O'Gr. Cat. 185.15 . aicidi na hanma mar ata fearg ┐ fuasnaid, 23 P 10³, 2b9 . o na h-aicidib noch bis a coimidecht in fiabrusa incidental ailments, RC xlix 4 § 2 .

(c) accident, attack of illness ; disease: is olc ind accidit `the disease is grievous', Aisl. MC 95.14 . do accobar [ícce] na n-aicidi, 83.z. bas, tinneas ┐ aicideadha oile, Luc. Fid. 233.4 . an tan thuitios duine go prab a n-aicíd thindis, Mac Aingil 2556 . ar an aicíd uathfásaicc . . .i. an bholgach Fhranngcach, Parl. na mB. 1285 . taraingios mímheasardhacht bíg mórán aicídíghe ┐ éagcruais ortha, 1197 . drochaicid, Ériu x 153 . lucht na haicīde sin `people afflicted with that disease', Fl. Earls 132.z . Extended use affliction, distress: mo lán-chreach ghéar a haicíd (of Ireland), E. O'Rahilly 14.1 .

ailestar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ailestar or dil.ie/999

Forms: eil-

n o, m. Also eil- (later soilestar, q.v.) flag iris: ba cosmail leó dath ind foiltsin fri barr n-ailestair hi samrud, BDD² 16 . a barr mar bude n-ailestair, LL 4651 . buide n-elestair, Stokes Festschr. 5 § 11 ( YBL 127b44 ). do sil feineil, d'a.¤ , Rosa Ang. 260.15 . ruib ┐ elestuir ┐ carui, 266.11 . As n.pr., Dinds. 20 ( RC xv 317 ).

áilligid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. áilligid or dil.ie/1053

Forms: áilnigid

v (áille). Also áilnigid: do áilnigh th'fholt . . . fionn Nuadha N. has enhanced the beauty of thy hair, DDána 114.25 . āillighter lium iad do chēin / mar dath sneachta for sār- s[h]léibh, ML² 50 (perh. equative of álaind, Notes).

Vn. leighes d'áilliugud na mban, O'Gr. Cat. 210.18 . áillechadh, IGT Verbs § 106 .

airchetal

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airchetal or dil.ie/1707

Forms: aircetal

o, n. Freq. also aircetal. For delenition of -rch- see Ériu xxxii 81 . Later m. Vn. of ar-cain. (a) metrical composition, poem; poetry: bailir .i. urcetal, Goid. 78 § 202 (Dúil Laithne). iomchomurcar dath ┐ tothacht . . . in gach airchedol, Ériu xiii 14.z . dlegar do cach filid nemdiu- bairtce aircedail, Laws v 458.24 . ro facaib [Patraic] acu . . . genelaige fer nErenn, aisti cach aircedail ┐ duili sluinnti, Laws i 44.19 Comm. asi sin in bo dochuindgeas ar is bith- blicht in t-aircetal, Anecd. i 50.13 . a.¤ doroindi seom do D. . . . airg . . . co n-[a]irchedal do rig Erenn, Anecd. i 8.8 ( SCano 234 ). fri snádud neich dothíssad co n-airchetul, LU 5081 (TBC). is dorcha a fidrad inn airchedail the interpretation of the poetry is obscure, Ériu v 32.7 . raind espai ┐ airchetail `idle staves and songs', RC xiv 418 § 35 ( LL 12833 ). buár suád .i. airchetla beca ara tabraiter bae do suid, xxvi 22 § 66 and n. ( LL 187a33 ). et doriṅgni in gló[ṡ]náthi airchetail seo iarsin, TFerbe 99 . d'immbud ēcnai ┐ eōlais ┐ aircetail, Aisl. MC 21.17 . istu[d]loc toghaidhi do ecna Dé ┐ día a.¤ amail Pól apstal, BColm. 104.26 . saoi . . . hi senchus ┐ hi filidheacht ┐ i n-airchetal, FM ii 870.9 . is don chanaid sin atá in t-arcetal sa, Fen. 194.5 . In sense of tairchetal: ro aisneidh doib uili aircetla in catha catharda, CCath. 1062 . Perh. name of a class of metres (descr. as having trisyllabic line-endings): do aistib ind aircetail i coitchinn indso, IT iii 67 . trethsillabach in t-a.¤ , 105 § 208 . See p. 127. toimsiter aisti inn aircetail fri haltaib na ndaeni, Auraic. 1509 . Name of a type of satire: cis lir fodla aire . . . a tri .i. aisnes ┐ ail ┐ aircetal, BB 299a6 (= Jn. Celt. Stud. i 201 ). aircetal aíre dano ataait .x. fodla fair-side, 25 (ib.). do labhair an Tigh- earna ar tus i ngach uile aircheatal trid na faidhibh teaching, ITS xxix 166.11 . (b) ability to compose poetry : in fili nád ḟrithgnai, ┐biid airchetal oca … mani bé airchetal la mac ind ḟiled 'the poet who does not attend a course of study, and has ability in poetry … if the son of the poet does not have ability in poetry' UR 106 § 8 . eter frithgnum ┐ airchetal 'both with regard to having pursued a course of study and having ability in poetry' 106 § 10 . fer lasa mbí airchetal n-án ┐ filedacht án 'a man who has splendid poetry, and splendid poetic standing' 114 § 22 .

As n. pr. maic Ollaman Airchetail, Anecd. ii 47.18 .

aithrigid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aithrigid or dil.ie/2785

Forms: athraigid

v Also athraigid. Late form of ad-eirrig and no doubt influenced by aithrige, q.v., see (b) below.

(a) changes, alters, moves (intrans. and trans.) Intrans. rí . . . / asathoil nir' athrucha who did not turn from his purpose, SR 7754 . re lia gcorr do chuir a shlios / . . . / níor aithnidh do chách an cleas / an treas tráth gur aithrigh as until he moved from it i.e. until he arose (of Christ), Dán Dé ix 29 . do athraigh sén catha cloinne Cais an lá sin, FM v 1572.4 . co natrocadh an seantrom `so that the earth would change', Ir. Astr. Tr. 74.x . do shúil re hanáir nach athraigh / d'fhagháil dúinn i ndagh- thaigh Dé, DDána 17.33 . athraigis in teagh . . . go rānic gusin log so, Fl. Earls 116 z . bídh cuid díbh doní etilladh ┐ aithrighius ón tír co céli (= qui vont de region en region), O'Gr. Cat. 213.9 . gur athruigh sé ó bhás gu beathaidh, John v 24 . anaidh ag bhar n-oidibh féin . . . ná hathraighidh, Content. xvi 83 . ? ó ro lessaig Fiacha in Féind / co ro ath- rígis-si, a Oisséin until you changed(?), Acall. 2492 .

Trans. niaithrégsa he hi céin bam beo, Fél.² li 20 = ni aithreghsa, Fél. Feb. 11 Comm. ro ath[ar]raigh longphort (ath- arraigh, v.l.), CCath. 1331 . tucc D. an baile sin do Déclan ┐ do athraigh fein a bhaile ass go hionad ele, ITS xvi 12.11 . gabhaid daoine is is díobh mé / an ród aimhréidh as fhaide / athraighid is claon céille / raon athghairid eichréidhe exchange(?), Dán Dé vi 3 . ní hathraighthe asa céim `was not changed from his rank', CCath. 80 . dá mbeith . . . go n-aithreōchainn na sléibhthe, Desid. 4244 . arthaigter co minic iad (of plasters), O'Gr. Cat. 193.4 . go nathruighid a mbeusa, Donl. xv 5 . ní athróch-sa in téidedhsa, Caithr. Thoirdh. 107.37 . ní aithrigh síon séis mbuinne `the tempest does not alter the note of the stream', Studies 1921, 75 § 14 . ní háith- reochthar fréamh a nfíréin, Prov. xii 3 . áthruigh do chos ó nolc, iv 27 . athruigh uáimse do bhuille, Ps. xxxix 10 . do áthruigh tú mo thúarasdal, Gen. xxxi 41 .

With nouns indicating form, shape, appearance etc.: connách bia aingil . . . nách aithrébadh delbh lé mét in gábaid sin `qui ne change de forme', RC xxiv 382.20 . athrig- edh (leg. -idh) an topur sin balad . . . cach aenúair has a different perfume, Maund. 147 . tobur J. athriges dath cacha bliadne cethri húaire, 103 . taom asar athraigh aigneadh, TD 15.3 . Cf. dá haighidh do aithrigh gné, DDána 103.4 . datharruigh a dhealbh `his countenance fell', Gen. iv 5 .

(b) repents: mani (manini MS.) aithriged (leg. aithriget, edd.), Mon. Tall. 128.6 (§ 2) . ro faillsige Dia i fiadnaisi na n-uili pobul corom aithriger-sa, YBL 156b49 . Vn. athrugad

alad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. alad or dil.ie/2868

adj o, ā piebald, variegated: a.¤ .i. il a dath ... no a.¤ .i. uile-dath , Corm. Y 87 . a.¤ .i. exsamail ... .i. cid alath in caeru, O'Dav. 24 . aladh .i. breac, O'Cl. cach uan liath, cach uan alath (of Laban's herds), SR 2956 (= allath, Celtica iv 10.60 ). aer a.¤ (: talam) ilar néll (sic leg.), 7927 . milchū alath, TBC² 2758 . marcach eich alaid, LU 393 = aluidh, Lism. L. 315.3 . énaib ... odraib ┐ alathaib, LU 1834 . odor, a.¤ ┐ riabach, TBC 67 . alath, odhar ... irfind, Auraic. 5701 . eter brec, ┐ dond, ┐ a.¤ , TTr.² 881 . corop ech bas talam tíre / a.¤ úane a horse which would be as the ground of a country mottled and green, LL 6497 ( RC xxxvi 263 § 22 ). As subst. in dub ind liath ind a.¤ (of the colours of the winds), SR 61, 79 .

Compds. With adj. ¤-brecc: seol a., Ériu v 156.179 . do sciet[h]aib ... aladbreacca, CCath. 4948 . engacha ... aladbreca, Acall. 3410 v.l. ¤líacánach: a uí airim brocṡalaig amarmíchánaig aladlíacánaig! 'you grandson of a ploughman [who is] filthy like a badger, of unregulated wailing and blotchy like a stone pillar! ' EIS 148 § 40 . With vb. ¤-breccaid: ro aladh- brecsatar in magh, TBC 5624 .

álaind

Cite this: eDIL s.v. álaind or dil.ie/2881

adj i lovely, fine, splendid . Attrib.: briathra aildi, Ml. 31a24 , 55a11 . ális ... óclaig n-á.¤ , Trip.² 2221 . Ioseph ... / aite á.¤ Íssu, Fél. Mar. 19 . gnúsi alle etroctai, LL 12055 (TBC). léni á.¤ óengel, MU² 747 . tochim fossad n-á.¤ , LU 8252 ( FB § 20 ). echrada ... áilde, BDD² 452 . fo grinnib áillib a ḟén, LU 6488 (TBC). Diardaoin aluinn , Eochairsg. 118.22 ; 'Feast of Corpus Christi' Éigse xiv 121-22 , xvi 238 . is annsa Cedaoin ria nDardaoin álainn chuirp Chrisd torchuir Cathal óg ALC ii 444.8 (s.a. 1581). Of a place: Clúana álne (alle, aille, alaind v.l.) hEuis `of beautiful C.E.', Fél. Apr. 4 . i fiad mór- alaind Masten, LL 4126 . a crichaibh glanaille ... na Gréige, ZCP vi 290.28 . 'na thealaigh áluinn aonuigh, TD 28.9 . Of weather: lá n-á.¤ i n-amsir samrata, LU 10791 . lá áluinn don oidhche gheimhridh / do-ghéanta cheana ..., DDána 2.13 .

Pred.: ni alind in ball nád chometig don chorp, Wb. 22a13 . is alind sen sobrich, 31b35 . alind á óiph in forcitil, 7c1 . cid álind cid etig, Sg. 28b6 . alind son, 138b3 . ciaptar áilli ili / maic D., Fél. Prol. 133 . caírthend ... it áildi limm a cháera, TBFr. 214 . gurab álainn oireaghdha bhíos anam an fhíréin, TSh. 1328 . sódh ní hálainn gan fochain `a return purposeless is uncomely', O'Gr. Cat. 352.24 .

Equative: aillither snechta noenaidche, MR 64.z . See also under áilligid. Compar.: is áildiu a mmág rogab súil oldósa, Wb. 12a25 . áilliu cach dath alailiu, BDD² 999 . nach álaind atchíd ba háildiu lee Fróech, TBFr. 217 . aille an aittreabh gusa tteighim (Maedóc Ferna of his approaching death), BNnÉ 272 § 244 . With de: ba háillide sidhe bláth fuirre (of an apple tree), BNnÉ 293 § 14 . Superl.: is hé láech is áildem ro buí, TBFr. 4 . ba sí ... as áildeam, BDD² 1003 . With form of compar. is tú is áilliu i ndeilb duine thou art the fairest in human form, Ériu iv 104.z . clár do b'áilne snoidhe sain, DDána 32.22 . ailli de laechuibh dia slōgaib ┐ dia n-ainndribh `the fairest of fighting men', Marco P. 152 .

Adv. tancatar as co halaind cin daine do marbad dib excellently , Ann. Conn. 1225.10 . doromailt uile co fosadh ┐ co halainn (of eating spoiled food as if it were good), BNnÉ 300 § 3 . is é m'éara go háluinn that is refusing me effectively, DDána 11.31 .

amus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. amus or dil.ie/3234

Forms: amhus, amsa

n o, m. amhus m. (g s. and n p. -uis), IGT Decl. § 17 . a p. amsa, FM iii 290.20 .

Hireling, servant, attendant: amos .i. am-ḟos īarsinnī nāt gaib fos, sed de loco ad locum .i. ō luc .i. ō t[h]igerna dialailiu, Corm. Y 12 . na n-a.¤ gl. satilitum, Goid. 69.5 . amuis ríg a king's attendants, Críth Gabl. 577 . cía lín di amsaib as choir do ríg? 582 . a dhair ┐ a dhicinn ┐ a amhais, O'C. 2500 ( Eg. 88, 40(41)d ). aicde amhus .i. ni hinaitire ┐ ni hinraith, 509 (H 3.18, 258). in t-a.¤ dona fes mathair nó athair, Ériu xii 144.4 (TE2). amhus no rechtaire, BCrólige 22 gl. 5 . a riocht amhois dorīacht Tadhg, ZCP viii 223 § 15 . asbert Feradach ní thibred a ingen do a.¤ , LL 287b2 . otá a.¤ co roich ríg, 204a35 . in tech mór milib a.¤ , 3549 . ? grengsait Laigniu laichaib d'amsaib / assa tírib, 4965 . a trí (sc. dath) i n-éadach an amhais, Keat. ii 1918 . cruadh-dháil na n-amhus crude- litas ministrantium, TSh. 6385 . aon amhus do rachadh im íolchruthaibh (of a poet), Hackett xx 10 . As abusive epithet: a amais anuasail ┐ a muidh modurdha `hireling', ZCP vi 282.10 . amhus `a reprobate' (of an unscrupulous administrator), E. O'Rahilly xvii § 26 . a.¤ aen-tigi indoor or resident servant, Laws v 72.25 Comm. a.¤ ruin no raid no imacallma confidential servant, 24 Comm. , 74.13 Comm. See also under airéirge, ben compds., coímthecht, coindmed, fer compds., 2 leth, mías, ríg, 1 taithigid.

In special sense of hired soldier, mercenary: a Goill 's a amais imdha, ZCP viii 226 § 18 . amais ana imglici co laignib, Alex. 3 . imut Fiann imut amhus, ZCP xi 44 § 61 . iter . . . amsu ┐ anrada, CCath. 4531 . rucsat . . . amhsa righ Muman fair, FM ii 946.13 . bró amhus, IGT Decl. ex. 598 .

Possibly collect. in following: a.¤ urrud . . . a.¤ deorad native hirelings, hirelings from outside the territory , Laws v 74.1 Comm. torchratar a n-a.¤ imdegla `household guard', Fianaig. 92.28 . thusa ┐ do mhuinntir: sgol amhas, ucairí, ghresuidhthe, etc., Luc. Fid. 5031 .

? andath

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? andath or dil.ie/3490

adj ( dath ) lit. ` non-colour'; expld. as meaning black: a.¤ .i. dub, ut est fri hoile ecnam a.¤ doberar, O'Dav. 52 = corp comdatha fri oile ecnam andat (.i. dub) dobertar, etc., O'Don. 2200 (Nero A vii, 139b).

aníar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aníar or dil.ie/3645

Forms: aníarana

(cf. íar, tíar etc.) Adv. of place stressed on second syll., see Bard. Synt. Tr. 25 § 217 and rhyming exx. infra. Also aníarana.

(a) from behind: in fobairthi-si éirgi tairis a.¤ ? Mer. Uil. 60 . occá sirḟegad imme anair ┐ a.¤ anes ┐ atúaid, LU 2028 ( FA 10 ). iter armaib . . . na laechraidi . . . uime anoir ┐ a.¤ `in front and rear', TTebe 983 . In phr. fri x a.¤ towards x from behind, behind x (indicating position rather than motion): condechaid triana chend ┐ co romarb nónbar ris a.¤ behind him, RC iii 179.12 ( LL 13994 ). cethraimthe Taige Midchuardda / bíd fri ríg aniar /teora cethramtha aile / sair co dorus dian, LL 3707 . Perh. also in: fer gill do gíal(d)naib friu a.¤ , Críth Gabl. 586 . triar fris a.¤ ┐ anoir, BDD² 677 .

(b) from the west (very often implying position rather than motion): duimchella son in cathraig andes ┐ a.¤ , Ml. 67d8 . co nn-aca in scath chuci a.¤ , LU 9058 ( FB 81 ). ro-dālsat-som etir a.¤ ┐ anair, Sc.M² 5 . tuc leathtorad maistirtha aniar brought in (i.e. from the kitchen), Lism. L. 1296 = protulit, Lat. Lives 65 . Of the west wind: aniar (anair MS) ind odur engach, SR 72 . i n-aghaidh na gaoithe aniar, TSh. 10718 . With the idea of motion much reduced : coinnm[h]e a-níarana 's a-noir / foirne íarradha eallaigh, Bard. Synt. Tr. 25 § 218. 9 ( Ériu v 56.59 ). bean do ḟréimh Uidhir fa an-iar / ag réir chliar dar dhoiligh díol a woman . . . from the west, DDána 103.2 . inghean Con Connacht fa a-niar, 12 . fa a thuathaibh do iadh 'n-a fhéithleannaigh / gur léircheangail a-niar go Cruachain gcraobhchollaigh, Aithd. D. 4.13 . do fholchadar . . . / . . . / an maghsain a-noir 's a-niar (: Ghailfhian) on all sides, 33.21 . detiu . . . tair . . . aircsiu nama aniar `in the east . . . in the west', Laws i 66.21 Comm. airm itát na laith a.¤ bérait toilg trisin cath sair, TBC 5773 . do-bhir an ghrian fa Lach Léin / a dath féin a.¤ um nóin, IGT Decl. ex. 884 . don taoibhse aniar `to the west', TD 14.20 . In phrase fri x a.¤ west of x (of position): fri abinn a.¤ , Thes. ii 242.3 (Ardm.). fri grecia a.¤ `west of Greece', Wb. 6d17 . fri iordanen anear, ZCP xxi 288 § 42 . (cryptic) aninchiar (MS. aninoibiar) .i. aníar Goid. 78 § 192 (Dúil Laithne) , ZCP xlix-l 612 .

Compds. ¤-dess from or in the south-west: aneordes, Thes. i 3. 18 note c. and p. 715 . adchíad nell a. a ndochum, RC x 72.17 . aniardess (of the wind called Favonius), Hib. Min. 40.10 . ¤-túaid from or in the north-west: a. (of the wind called Circius), Thes. ii 13.30 (BCr.). aniarthuaid (of Pessima), Hib. Min. 40.25 . don aird aniartuaidh, Ériu viii 121.28 . fri Domnach Mór aníartuaith north-west of D.M., Trip.² 2411 . re taobh Themrach aniartuaidh, ZCP xi 44 § 63 .

ar-cloí

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ar-cloí or dil.ie/4023

v a Fhir Diad ardot clae dath you have changed colour, TBC St. 3353 .

asmiron

Cite this: eDIL s.v. asmiron or dil.ie/4458

n (Rom. loanword): araill a ndath a.¤ .i. cloch con dath nglas ` emerald ', Grail 3011 and Gloss.

athálad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. athálad or dil.ie/4636

n (álad) second wound: teinn doigh deilg an atháluidh `sore is the pain of a thorn that wounds a spot already wounded,' O'R. Poems 2846 and Gloss. delg athálaidh othras Taidhg, O'Gr. Cat. 449.4 . trom a n-athálaidh a imtheacht (: dath- álainn) `his departure is another severe wound for them', Ó Bruad. iii 44.4 .

attá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. attá or dil.ie/4927

Forms: attá, Fil, fil, faeilfit, fil, fil, atóo, attó, attóo, ató, -táu, -ttóo, -tó, atái, attái, -tái, adta, ata, atá, atáa, attáa, ataa, attá, -tá, -ta, -táa, -dathar, ataam, attaam, ataid, ataaith, ataaid, ataad, -taid, ataat, ataat, -tat, -taat, tathum, tathut, táithi, táthus, táthunn, taithiunn, tathuib, tás, fil, fil, feil, fel, fail, fil, file, fel, fele, feil, fail, biuu, -bíu, -bí, biith, biid, bíid, -bii, -bí, robīi, -rubi, -rubai, -ruba, bíis, biís, bis, bís, bithir, bither, -bither, -rubthar, bímmi, -biam, bimme, biit, bíit, robiat, -biat, -bíat, -rubat, bíte, -bíinn, -biinn, -bíid, -bíth, -bid, -bith, bithe, -bímmis, -bitis, -bítis, bī, bíth, bíith, bíid, biid, bíd, bithom, biid, bith, biat, beo, beu, -béo, bee, bé, -bee, robhe, beith, beid, bed, beth, -bé, -bée, bethum-sa, robé, robe, rubé, robǽ, robbé, -roib, bess, bes, bethir, bether, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -bem, -robam, beithe, bethe, -beith, -beid, -robith, beit, rubet, be(i)t, -bet, -robat, bete, -beind, -beinn, -betha, nobed, nobeth, -bed, -beth, -robad, -rabad, -bethe, -bemmis, -beimmis, -bemis, -bethe, -betis, -[ro]ibtis, bia, bie, bieid, bied, -bia, -bia, -bia, -bía, bethiumm, bethib, bias, bies, beithir, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -biam, -piam, bethe, bethi, -bied, -bieid, biet, bieit, biet, -biat, -bíet, bete, beite, nombeinn, nobiad, -bíad, nobemmis, nobetis, bá, -bá, bói, bái, -bói, boie, boithius, boíthi, baísu, both(a)e, botha, -both(a), bamar, bámar, -baid, bātir, -batar, batar, robá, -roba, -raba, robá, robói, rambái, robui, -robae, -robe, -rabae, romboth, rombod, -rabad, robámmar, -robammar, rubaid, -robaid, robatar, robbátar, -rabatar, -robatar, -rabtar, buith, buithi, atáu, atú, itu, itó, atú, ataim, -tú, -tái, -toi, taoi, -tá, atá, attá, ata, atá, atáthar, dáthar, atass, -das, itám, tám, ataum, ataim, atamaoit, atámaoid, atám, -taum, -dtám, atathai, atathi, atáithi, -táithi, -dathai, -taidh, itāt, atáit, ataut, táid, -táit, itat, atat, fil, -fhile, -fhuile, -fuili, -ḟoili, -ḟuile, fail, fail, fuil, -fail, -fuil, -uil, -ḟil, -ḟuil, -ḟoil, fil, fail, fail, filter, -fuiltear, fuilemm, -failmet, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, -bhḟuilti, failet, filet, fuilet, -failet, -filet, -fileat, -fuilet, -fuilid, failet, failet, fuilet, filet, bim, bím, -bím, -ruibim, -bi, bíd, bíd, -bí, -bíonn, -bind, bídh, -bí, bither, -bithar, bímit, bídmaid, bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, bíthí, bīd, -bíat, -bít, -bíd, bit, bít, bhínn, nobīth, robíth, bhíodh, bhíoth, bithi, -bithi, bithea, naboitis, nobīdis, beitis, bitis, bhítís, bhídís, bír, bí, bīdh, bíodh, bíoth, bíom, bíthe, bídh, bidhí, bíod, ber, uér, beor, bheith, bur, -rabor, -rabhus, rabasa, bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, bé, beir, -rab(a)i, -rabha, -rabhair, -mbéis, -beis(se), -rabais, beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, beth, -bé, -raib, -rab, -raibhe, rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, bess, beas, bethur, beme, bemmit, bemait, -bém, -beam, -ruibem, -rabum, bheam, rabham, bethi, rabthai, beit, -bet, -beat, -rabat, -rabut, -rabhait, -rabhaid, -rabheid, beinn, rabainn, beithi, beithe, bethe, beitheá, beith, nobith, mbeadh, -mbeath, -rabad, -bethe, -bette, rabtha, mbiadh, nobeitis, nobeidis, mbeith, bíat, biat, biad, bhead, bed, bét, bett, -biu, -bhiú, biad, -biú, bía, biae, biaidh, bía, -bía, bethair, bied, biaid, biáid, -bia, bíes, bés, bes, bess, bhias, biass, beither, beithir, bemit, bemait, -bem(ni), beimíd, -biam, -biaim(ne), -ben, bethi, beitte, bete, -bed, biait, biat, beit, beiti, beti, betit, beidid, -bīat, beidíd, beid, -bíad, no-béind, dobeind, do beinn, -beinn, bheitheá, biadh, -bied, bífad, rot-fiadh, biath, bhiadh, bethe, bheidīs, ro-bádus, bhádhus, bhí, -rabus, -rabhas, -rabadhus, bá, -raba, bádhus, -rabadhas, basa, bhádhuis, bhí, -rabadais, -rabhais, bhádhuis, -rabhadhuis, bae, bóe, baei, búi, -bae, -buí, robai, robae, robói, bí, robuidh, bí, bhói, bhaoi, -rubai, -roibe, -roibi, -roba, -raba, -raibhe, -rabha, -robha, bí, -raibi, baí, -rabha, -rabhustair, boí, bāi, būi, bae, buí, baí, boí, both, rombatha, robās, rombas, robás, -rabus, rabas, -bádus, -bás, bás, bas, -rabas, bas, bhás, bāmur, bámar, bhámair, -rabamar, robabair, -babhair, robadbair, bhábhair, -rabhuir, -rabhabhair, bādar, -bátir, badar, bádar, bídur, -rabadar, -rabhadair, baisit, -rabhsad, bátar, bátar, bheith, beitte

(ad-tá) subst. vb. is . The distinction betw. subst. vb. and copula is in the first place syntactical, and cases are found where there is no distinction of form. Cf. the type, common in ACC: boe sab he was a leader, ACC 26 . See further below, and the discussion by Bergin, Ériu xii 208 - 211 (cia taísiu, cia bé, etc.), who refers to cases like: is uera pictura ro bai sin, Thes. ii 6.32 as emphatic. See also Ériu xvi 46 , Thurn. Gramm. 475 . For nimtha laám, Wb. 12a21 , nímptha fírion, 8d24 (copula ?) see Thurn. Gramm. 487 . Note also the form of the pron. in (later): matait tall iat, Laws iv 86.8 Comm. , atá ar conair é, Arch. iii 216.z . bí N. eices cecinit, RC xvii 175.14 is perh. a mistake. In follg. use of subst. vb. perh. due to infl. of Latin: mar nobéind athair doib = pater eram pauperum, PH 6107 . ata in innsci ordugud etc. = oratio est. . ., Auraic. 591 .

Apart from the ordinary indic. pres. all forms of subst. vb. are from a root beginning with b-. In indic. pres. the stem tá (in absol. position attá) is used in non-rel. sentences without conj. particle, after conj. particles with inf. pron. dat. and when the conj. particle consists of a preposition and rel. (s)a n-. Absolute inflexion of tá- is found in oldaas, indaas, etc. than (is), in meaning is angry, and with follg. suff. pron. The uninflected form fil (with accus.) is used after conj. particles where no dat. inf. pron. is present, in leniting rel. clauses and often in answers to questions containing subst. vb., and in archaic texts in absol. position in meaning there is . For fuller details see Thurn. Gramm. 476 - 483 and exx. below. See also Ped. ii 419 ff. , Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899, 1 - 82 , Ó Máille, Ériu vi 1 ff. , ÉC xxxiv 143-44 . Forms of gaibid, do-coissin, -díxnigedar and ad-cumaing also have the force of the subst. vb. in certain uses, see separate entries.

Note further that attá is usual after hóre (see Wb. 19a19 , 22d14 and compare Thurn. Gramm. § 781 ) and occurs later after amal ( LU 7072 , Laws iii 90.18 ). Fil is somet. found in sense there is in mid. Ir.: fail crois d'ór in cach dorus, SR 361 . TBC² 2561 . Note also: fil derg it is red, Marco P. 173 .

The use of accus. after fil continues into the classical period, see IGT Introd. § 129 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 92 - 93 . A few exx. of forms other than fil with accus. occur: ni raibi deilb, TTr.² 1664 , ní raibi . . . mhnái, 370 , ní bhiadh mnaoi, Ó Bruad. ii 252.z (with assonance). Note also with inf. pron. rosṁbai inna tass, SR 5107 . ? nim tha maith . . . do chath fri firu, LU 3343 ( SC 13 ). From the mid. Ir. period on fil takes personal endings except in 3 s., and occurs occasionally as an independent verb: faeilfit (fut. 3 pl. absol.), Caithr. Thoirdh. 120.26 . In rel. function attá is found side by side with fil from an early period: is heiside attá hi S., Trip.² 534 , a lucht atá istig, RC vii 298.131 , the form fil finally disappearing in this use.

In mid. Ir. fil occurs for earlier -tá with dat. inf. pron.: nichar fail tlacht, SR 1560 , ni-s-fil biad, PH 1310 . Also in rel. clause after prep.: bale hi fail, LU 7516 , fors fil, Im. Brain 43 (see also Strachan, Stories fr. Táin 3rd ed. p. 1 note).

The consuet. pres. 1 s. conj. -bíu has in classical Ir. the force of a future: biad ní biú, IGT Verbs § 7 , see also TBC 882 , Acall. 6179 , Duan. Finn i 43.4 .

Early forms (for fuller lists see Strachan loc. cit.). Indic. pres. 1 s. atóo, Wb. 12a21 . attó, 21c19 . attóo, 26d8 . ató, 26d17 . -táu, 32a10 , -ttóo, 17d24 , -tó, Ml. 92b8 . 2 s. atái, Wb. 5b27 . attái, Ml. 110d15 (sic MS, see Ériu xiv 30 ). -tái, 5b38 . 3 s. adta, Laws v 390.10 (see ZCP xxv 247 ). ata, Wb. 13c26 , atá, 27a11 , atáa, 6a19 , attáa, 32a6 , ataa, 26b31 , attá, 4b11 . -tá, 31c7 , -ta, 2b12 , -táa, 13a35 . Impers. -dathar (see Thurn. Gramm. 477 - 478 ), Wb. 21c9 . 1 pl. ataam, Wb. 15a13 , attaam, 32a28 . 2 pl. ataid, Wb. 4a4 , ataaith, 20b16 , ataaid, 23c28 , ataad, 22d14 . -taid, 19d26 . 3 pl. ataat (trisyll.), Blathm. 471 . ataat, Ml. 55d11 , 37a10 . -tat, 42b10 . -taat, Sg. 71b3 .

With suff. pron. tathum, Met. Dinds. iv 284.3 . tathut, Fél. July 24 . táithi (tathai, v.l.), Críth Gabl. 197 . táthus, Fél. Feb. 5 . táthunn, Prol. 217. taithiunn, Thes. ii 293.19 . tathuib, Rawl. 88b51 .

For rel. s. without preverb (taas, tás) see atás, indaas, 4 ol.

The form fil, etc. As conj. form: fil, Wb. 16b9 , Ml. 92a8 , Sg. 193b7 . feil, Wb. 24c4 . Ml. 60b2 . fel, Wb. 3c38 , Ml. 27d10 . fail, 44b10-11 , Sg. 32a1 . As rel.: fil, Ml. 121c8 , file Wb. 23a5 , Ml. 51d11 , Sg. 151b7 . fel, Wb. 4c1 , fele, Ml. 93c7 . feil, Wb. 33b18 . fail, BCr. 18c4 .

Consuet. pres. 1 s. biuu, Wb. 16d8 . -bíu, 20a3 . 2 s. -bí, Ml. 135d1 . Arch. iii 312 § 4 . 3 s. biith, Wb. 29a26 . biid, 4d33 . bíid, Sg. 150b4 . -bii, Wb. 28b25 , -bí, Ml. 103c3 . With ro: robīi, TBC² 1730 . -rubi, Wb. 11c17 , -rubai, Ml. 20d4 , Sg. 7b3 . -ruba, 3b28 . Rel. bíis, Wb. 13a12 . biís, 28b28 . bis, Ml. 61a33 . bís, Sg. 140b2 . Impers. bithir, Ml. 56b15 . rel. bither, 108b4 , -bither, 100c21 . -rubthar, cited Thurn. Gramm. § 784 . Par. and Gl. 69 . 1 pl. bímmi, Ml. 15a4 . -biam, Wb. 16a8 . Rel. bimme, Wb. 12c11 . 3 pl. biit, Wb. 29a28 . bíit, Sg. 217a1 . robiat, 138a5 . -biat, Ml. 59d7 . -bíat, Sg. 148a4 . -rubat, 138a5 . Rel. bíte, Wb. 9d28 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. -bíinn, Ml. 108b1 , -biinn, 58d9 . 3 s. -bíid, LU 5080 (see Ériu xvii 121 ), -bíth, Sg. 148b6 . -bid, Ml. 33a5 . -bith, Vita Br. 12 . Impers. no bithe , CCath. 3971 . 1 pl. -bímmis, cited Thurn. Gramm. § 785 . 3 pl. -bitis, Ml. 86d6 . -bítis, Sg. 5a15 .

Ipv. 2 s. bī, TBC² 2391 . 3 s. bíth, Wb. 10a8 , 25 , bíith, 8d9 , bíid, 5d33 , biid, Ml. 74d3 . bíd, Wb. 3a14 . With suff. pron. bithom, Fél. Ep. 404 n.17 . 2 pl. biid, Wb. 23c11a . bith, 22b26 . 3 pl. biat, Ml. 51d13 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. beo, Wb. 23b41 . beu, Ml. 53b8 . -béo, Fél. Prol. 273 . 2 s. bee, cited Par. and Gl. 70 and see Thurn. Gramm. 482 . bé, ZCP viii 311.z (see xxiv 122 ). -bee (perh. absol.), ZCP vii 494 (Enchir. Aug.). -bē, Fing. R. 82 . With ro: robhe (restored as ro-bé), Blathm. 92 § 9 . 3 s. beith, Ml. 108a11 . beid, Wb. 14c23 . bed, 3c10 . beth, Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr. Hom.). -bǽ, Wb. 22b14 . -bé, Sg. 29b14 . -bée, Wb. 12c43 . With suff. pron. bethum-sa, Fél. Ep. 384 n.14 . With ro: robé, Wb. 5d30 , robe, 18c4 , rubé, Ml. 20d4 , robǽ, Wb. 28a23 , robbé, Sg. 169a1 . -roib, Wb. 16c24 , Ml. 118c5 . Rel. bess, Wb. 5d14 . bes, Ml. 77d3 . Impers. bethir, Wb. 5d33 . rel. bether, Ml. 107d8 . -bether, Wb. 10a18 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 31c11 . beimmi, 19a16 . -bem, 24a10 . -robam, 26c10 . 2 pl. beithe, Wb. 18b16 . bethe, 24b13 . -beith, Ml. 46a10 . -beid, Wb. 27c9 . With ro: -robith, Wb. 26a28 . 3 pl. beit, Wb. 10b5 . rubet, 26a23 . ro be(i)t , Vita Br. 35 . -bet, Wb. 9d27 . -robat, 11d9 . Rel. bete, Wb. 10c22 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -beind, TBC² 1856 . -beinn cited Thurn. Gramm. § 787 . 2 s. -betha, Wb. 4c24 . 3 s. nobed, Wb. 3b10 . nobeth, Ml. 27b1 . -bed, Wb. 9d1 . -beth, Ml. 88b15 . -robad, Wb. 17a13 . -rabad, 34a4 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . 1 pl. -bemmis, Wb. 9a3 . -beimmis, 29d23 . -bemis, Vita Br. 23 . 2 pl. -bethe, Wb. 9c20 . 3 pl. -betis, Sg. 138a9 . -[ro]ibtis, Wb. 28a1 .

Fut. 1 s. bia, Ml. 137b7 . 2 s. bie, cited Thurn. Gramm. § 788 , Par. and Gl. 70 . 3 s. bieid, Wb. 4d6 . bied, 14c1 . -bia, 5d35 . -bia (disyll.), Blathm. 572 . -bia and -bía, Thurn. Gramm. § 788 . With suff. pron. bethiumm. Ériu xiii 20.6 . bethib, ZCP viii 316.5 (see xxix 174 ). Rel. bias, Wb. 23b38 . bies, Ériu iii 102 § 32 . Impers. beithir, TBFr. 248 . -bether, Aisl. MC 61.4 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 9c10 . beimmi, 21b7 . -biam, 15a1 . -piam, 30b17 . 2 pl. bethe, cited Thurn. Gramm. § 788 . bethi, Trip.² 1589 . -bied, Wb. 9a21 . -bieid, 26d26 . 3 pl. biet (disyll.), Blathm. 472 . bieit, Wb. 4c40 . biet, 9d27 , Sg. 198b6 (also bíet, Thurn. Gramm. § 788 ). -biat, 9c28 . -bíet, 40b14 . Rel. bete, Wb. 13c26 . beite, 4c40 .

Condit. 1 s. nombeinn, Ml. 59a22 . 3 s. nobiad, Ml. 32d5 . -bíad, Wb. 9d1 . 1 pl. nobemmis, Ml. 134b3 . 3 pl. nobetis, Ml. 100c7 .

Pret. 1 s. bá, LU 9407 . 2 s. -bá, cited Thurn. Gramm. § 789 , Par. and Gl. 71 , see perf. 2 s. below. 3 s. bói, Wb. 31c18 . bái, 27a16 . -bói, 17d17 , Ml. 78a4 . Rel. boie, Thes. ii 242.11 (Ardm.). boīe (MS. ba), Ériu xvi 46.10 (see note and Celtica vi 223 ). boíë (MS. baoí) Ériu xxvi 67, 85 . Cf. cech nóeb bói, fil, bías, Fél. Ep. 289 (where six sylls. required). With suff. pron. boithus, IT i 137.8 = boithius, 21 . boíthi, Sc. M² 3 . ? baísu, Thurn. Zu ir. Hdschr. i 37.5 . Impers. *both(a)e, postulated Thurn. Gramm. § 789 , botha, TBC² 1572 . -both(a), Vita Br. 33 . 1 pl. bamar, SR 1558 . bámar, 3286 , Im. Brain i 48.5 . 2 pl. -baid (baïd ?), cited Thurn. Gramm. § 789 , Par. and Gl. 71 . 3 pl. bātir, TBC² 217 . -batar, Ml. 55c2 . Rel. batar, Ml. 123b5 . See Thurn. Gramm. § 789 .

Perf. 1 s. robá, Wb. 28a9 . -roba, Ml. 44c4 . -raba, TBC² 3068 . 2 s. robá, LL 14442 . 3 s. robói, Wb. 5c10 . rambái, 2c13 . robui, Ml. 93c3 . -robae, Ml. 41a5 , -robe, Wb. 18d7 , -rabae, Ml. 28d3 . Impers. romboth, Wb. 19a9 . rombod, 5b31 . -rabad, Ériu iv 146.4 . 1 pl. robámmar, Wb. 20d12 . -robammar, Ml. 105b16 . 2 pl. rubaid, Wb. 3b19 . -robaid, Ml. 46a8 . 3 pl. robatar, Wb. 24c5 . robbátar, Sg. 57b1 . -rabatar, Ml. 100c11 . -robatar, Sg. 45b1 . -rabtar, Ml. 37a16 .

Vn. buith.

Vbl. of necess. buithi.

Later forms (see also Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish, Ériu vi 1 ff. ; Mulchrone, Verbalformen der Vita Tripartita, ZCP xvi 440 ; Falconer, Verbal System of LU Táin, Ériu xvii 116 ; Strachan, Verbal System of SR, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1895, 1 - 76 ; O Daly, Verbal System of LL Táin, Ériu xiv 80 ; Mac Eoin, Verbalsystem von Togail Troi, ZCP xxviii 125 ; Sommerfelt, Le système verbal dans In Cath Catharda, RC xxxviii 41 ; Nuner, Verbal System of the Agallamh na Senórach, ZCP xxvii 272 ; PH Glossary; Lloyd, Impersonal passive forms of the Irish substantive verb, Ériu i 49 ff. ; TD Introd. lxxv ; IGT Verbs § 7 ).

Indic. pres. 1 s. atáu, Trip.² 1412 . atú, 2578 . itu, SR 1187 . itó, TBC 434 . atú, IGT Verbs § 7 . ataim, Fier. 14 . -tú, Acall. 4516 . 2 s. -tái, SR 3102 . -toi, TBC² 937 . taoi, TD 15.48 . cia doaisiu mac? RC xxvi 30 § 128 . 3 s. -tá, Trip.² 744 . atá, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. attá, Trip.² 534 , ata, SR 7708 etc., atá, Acall. 429 . Impers. atáthar, TBC 3316 . dáthar (: máthar), IGT Verbs ex. 99 . atass, Ériu iv 114 § 17 (:as). -das (: as), IGT Verbs ex. 104 . 1 pl. itám, SR 1727 . tám, 3493 . ataum, PH 1556 . ataim, TBC 874 . atamaoit, TBC St. 121 . atámaoid, atám, IGT Verbs § 7 . -taum, PH 1506 . -dtám (: ár), IGT Verbs ex. 111 . 2 pl. atathai, PH 2734 . atathi, 597 . atáithi (: fáithi), IGT Verbs ex. 105 . -táithi (: sáithi), ex. 96 . -dathai, Alex. 190 . -taidh, Ériu ii 118 § 53 . 3 pl. itāt, TBC² 3132 . atáit, CCath. 1215 . ataut, PH 1064 . táid, TD 8.5 . -táit, CCath. 1701 . Rel. itat, Trip.² 882 , atat, SR 7949 . For later forms in meaning than (is) see atás, indaas, 4 ol. See also II (d) below and daas.

The form fil. 1 s. ni ḟuilim, ni ḟoilim, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. -fhile, PH 8116 . -fhuile, 3335 , -fuili, Acall. 3217 . -ḟoili, -ḟuile, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. fail, TBC² 60 , SR 353 etc. ro fail , TBC 263 , fuil, 3072 . -fail, Trip.² 2764 , -fuil, 872 , -uil, PH 3181 , -ḟil, Acall. 3709 . -ḟuil, -ḟoil, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. fil, Trip.² 842 , fail, SR 392 , no fail , 933 . With impers. ending: filter, Aisl. MC 31.25 . -fuiltear, TD 2.42 . 1 pl. ra fuilemm , TBC 2971 . -failmet, SR 6320 , -ḟuilmíd, Acall. 5101 . -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. -bhḟuilti, Acall. 962 . 3 pl. failet, SR 345 . filet, 477 . fuilet, TBC 4739 . -failet, Trip.² 1119 . -filet, TBC² 1848 , -fileat, CCath. 1270 . -fuilet, 427 . -fuilid TD 7.23 . Rel. failet, SR 400 . ra failet , TBC 5225 . fuilet, 4709 . filet, PH 435 . See also do-fil.

Consuet. pres. 1 s. bim, PH 6393 . bím, -bím, IGT Verbs § 7 . ?-ruibim, SG 373.29 . 2 s. -bi, SR 2035 . bí, ní bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bíd, TBC² 1453 (LU). biid, SR 4537 . bíd, 4588 . -bí, TBC² 472 . -bíonn, TD 22.12 . -bind, RC xlix 37.13 . bídh, -bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bither, PH 7441 . -bithar, Laws iv 234.2 Comm. 1 pl. bímit, Acall. 886 . bídmaid, 5481 . bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bíthí, Acall. 6139 . 3 pl. bīd, TBC² 1075 (bít, LU). -bíat, TTr.² 330 . -bít, PH 4189 , -bíd, TD 5.5 . Rel. bit (= bíït), SR 7259 . bít, TBC 1320 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. do bhínn , TD 23.7 . 3 s. nobīth, TBC² 593 (nobíid, LU cited above). robíth, TBC² 1903 (LU). do bhíodh , TD 14.23 . do bhíoth , 26.12 . Impers. bithi, Auraic. 5286 = -bithi, RC xx 150.y (ACC Pref.). no bithea , Acall. 156 . 3 pl. naboitis, TBC² 855 LU (nobitís, Y). nobīdis, 3621 (Y). bítís, 1898 (LU). no beitis , LL 407a27 . ro bitis , PH 1957 . do bhítís , Acall. 830 . do bhídís , TD 15.18 . Rel. tri cnuasa bítís ann, Acall. 455 .

Ipv. 1 s. bír (: gním), IGT Verbs ex. 94 . 2 s. bí, Parrth. Anma 3871 . 3 s. bīdh, ZCP vi 271.z . bíodh, TD 16.2 . bíoth, 17.1 . 1 pl. bíom, Dán Dé xiv 17 . 2 pl. bíthe (: -chíthe), IGT Verbs ex. 95 . bídh, ex. 109 . bidhí, Luc. Fid. 3430 . 3 pl. bíod, TD 16.19 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. ber, SG 172.15 . uér, Ériu ii 92.9 . beor, v 222.46 . bheith mé, TD 8.9 . -ra bur , TBC 1112 . -rabor, ZCP xii 401.30 . ? -rabhus, ZCP v 523.27 = rabasa, Ériu xii 144.12 (TE). -rabar, ZCP iii 32.37 . bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bé, SR 1607 . beir, BNnÉ 288.29 . Acall. 592 . -rab(a)i, BDD² p. 80 . -rabha, Ir. Texts iv 75 § 16 . -rabhair, Fing. R. p. 13 note 86 . -mbéis (: Céis), IGT Verbs ex. 100 . -beis(se) (: meise), Dán Dé xiv 20 . -rabais, Fing. R. 86 , BDD² 363 (see ZCP xxvii 75-8 ). beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. beth, TBC² 270 (beith, v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 101 . -bé, TBC² 1671 . -raib, Trip.² 2753 . -rab, TBC² 1430 . -raibhe, Parrth. Anma 2616 . rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bess, TBC² 1104 (beis, Y). beas, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bethur, Laws ii 36.20 Comm. 1 pl. beme, Snedgus u. Mac R. 9.14 . bemmit, TBC 2137 . bemait, Acall. 5478 . -bém, CCath. 1124 . -beam (: leam), Dán Dé xii 10 . -ruibem, SR 5540 . -rabum, PH 7899 . bheam, rabham, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 1233 . rabthai, PH 1977 . 3 pl. beit, Trip.² 1653 . -bet, TBC² 1053 . -beat, Lism. L. 4702 . -rabat, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. -rabut, PH 994 . -rabhait, BNnÉ 269.4 . -rabhaid, Parrth. Anma 2836 . -rabheid, RC xxix 136 § 51 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. do beinn , do rabainn , IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. no beithi , Trip.² 2972 . no beithe , 2983 = no bethe , Trip. 252.21 . do beitheá , TD 1.44 . 3 s. no beith , Trip.² 2967 . nobith, TBC² 3543 . dá mbeadh , TD 29.6 . -mbeath, IGT Verbs ex. 97 . -rabad, RC iii 184.24 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . -bette, Met. Dinds. iii 382.19 . rabtha, TBC (C) 1675 . 1 pl. dá mbiadh sinn, TD 28.25 . 3 pl. nobeitis, SR 7855 . nobeidis, TBC² 3557 . dá mbeith siad, TD 26.36 .

Fut. (see Bergin, Ériu ii 46-8 ) 1 s. bíat, TTr.² 89 . biat, PH 1244 . biad (bíatt v.l.), CCath. 5137 . bhead, Parrth. Anma 6378 . bed, ZCP vi 41.10 . bét, 69.2 . bett, BNnÉ 52 § 42 . -biu, TBC 882 . -bhiú, Dán Dé xiv 20 . biad, -biú, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bía, Trip.² 1593 . biae, SR 1599 . -bíai, BNnÉ 291 § 2 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . bía, -bía, IGT Verbs § 7 . bethair, ZCP ii 225.4 . 3 s. bied, LU 10362 . biaid, Trip.² 1071 . biáid, TBC² 169 (LU). biaidh, -bia, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bíes, Trip.² 2671 . bés, CCath. 300 , bes, 657 . bess, PH 4666 . bhias, TD 3.50 . do biass , L. Chl. Suibhne 1 . Impers. beither, Acall. 5259 . beithir, ZCP x 415.11 . 1 pl. bemit, LU 9753 , PH 1501 . bemait, CCath. 1467 . -bem(ni), LU 9753 . beimíd, -biam, IGT Verbs § 7 . -biaim(ne) (: siairni), ex. 108 . ? -ben, BCC 396.19 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 3083 . beitte (: eiti) (beththi, bete v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 102 . -bed, Trip.² 1590 . 3 pl. biait, Trip.² 2665 , TBC² 2057 (beite, LU). biat, Trip.² 1288 . beit, TBC² 80 . beiti, TBC² 2078 . beti, SR 8157 . betit, SR 853 . TBC 246 , TTr.² 760 . beidid, ZCP x 338 § 1 . -bīat, TBC² 1132 . beidíd síad, BCC 290.12 . beid, -bíad, IGT Verbs § 7 .

Condit. 1 s. no-béind, PH 6107 . dobeind, 7489 . do beinn, -beinn, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. do bheitheá , TD 19.13 . 3 s. no biadh , CCath. 3754 . -bied, TBC² 504 . ro bífad , TBC 5112 . rot-fiadh, IT iii 320.4 ( Cóir Anm. 70 ). do biath (: sgiath), IGT Verbs ex. 97 . do bhiadh , TD 2.54 . Impers. no bethe , TTr.² 533 . 3 pl. do bheidīs , Parrth. Anma 5227 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. ro-bádus, PH 699 . do bhádhus , TD 23.6 . do bhí mé, 5 . -rabus, Acall. 7913 . -rabhas, 1584 . -rabadhus, 356 . do bá , -raba; do bádhus , -rabadhas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do basa ( : bádusa; proscribed form), ex. 103 . 2 s. ro bhádhuis , CCath. 553 . do bhí tú, TD 28.6 . -rabadais, PH 3725. 8121 . -rabhais, Acall. 123 . do bhádhuis , -rabhadhuis, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bae, SR 7608 . bóe, 6265 . baei, BDD² 127 . búi, CCath. 95 . -bae, SR 4975 . -buí, Trip.² 1505 . robai, SR 2229 , robae, 2262 . robói, PH 2572 . ro bí , CCath. 1302 . robuidh, Ériu iii 198 § 22 . do bí , CCath. 278 . do bhói , Acall. 58 . do bhaoi (: draoi), Dán Dé xii 22 . -rubai, SR 1241 . -roibe, BDD² 498 , -roibi, 1393 . -roba, 251 . -raba, 1533 . -raibhe, TD 2.25 . -rabha, 8.36 . -robha, 1 . do bí , -raibi, do baí , -rabha, IGT Verbs § 7 . With depon. ending -rabhustair, BNnÉ 322 § 31 . Rel. boí, Trip.² 626 . bāi, TBC² 1277 . būi, 630 . ro bae , Trip.² 288 . ro buí , BDD² 287 . ro baí , 1451 . ro boí , 1517 . Impers. both, Trip.² 2264 . rombatha, Ériu ii 20 § 3 (-a added later). -rabad, iv 146.4. robās, TBC² 2147 . rombas, SR 7564 , robás, TTr.² 151 . -rabus, Trip.² 54 . rabas, Laws iv 212.22 Comm. , -bádus, Aisl. MC 43.22 . -bás, 61.3 . do bás , do bas , -rabas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do bas (: as), ex. 98 . do bhás (: fhás), Dán Dé xxvi 9 . 1 pl. bāmur, TBC² 399 . do bámar , Acall. 1283 . do bhámair (: Ádhaimh), Dán Dé xv 17 . -rabamar, TBC² 2495 . 2 pl. robabair, Anecd. ii 14.9 . -babhair, Blathm. 23 (see notes ). robadbair, TBC² 2502 . do bhábhair , TD 22a.1 . -rabhuir, Acall. 114 . -rabhabhair, TD 22a.2 . 3 pl. bādar, TBC² 472 . -bátir, TTr.² 1308 . ro badar , CCath. 573 n. ro bádar , Acall. 75 . do bídur , 5942 . -rabadar, TBC² 3108 . -rabhadair, TD 26.10 . ro baisit , O'Dav. 728 . -rabhsad, TD 16.21 . Rel. bátar, Trip.² 591 . BDD² 505 . ro bátar , 543 . Vn. an bheith , IGT Verbs § 7 . Vbl. of necess. beitte, TD 28.30 .

Cf. cenmothá, íarmothá, óthá.

Used in meaning is in a large variety of contexts. Nor- mally replaced by copula (see is) in certain fixed syntactical patterns (classification, identification, etc.), and when used in these cases exceptional (see above and II below).

I Expressing existence.

(a) Used absolutely is, exists, there is, etc.: ata in coimdiu gl. Dominus in cælo sedis eius, Ml. 30b27 . nabad hed a méit nádmbǽ `let it not be only that it is not' gl. nec nominetur in uobís, Wb. 22b14 . ní fil aimsir nad mbed ref. to fuit et est semper, Ml. 17a15 . ní torménmar-ni ara mbetis in gnimai sin gl. præter spem nostram, etc., 115b1 . ni fil chumtubairt gl. indubitabilia, etc., Sg. 154b2 . ma nubed `if it existed', 31b21 . ro baoi siomh re tuisdinsiú `he existed', Blathm. 632 . as e as soith- cerndomh fil, 773 . ma rombe is maith if it is, it is well, Laws iv 2.14 Comm. ni rabi uair . . . nad ro bai `there was no hour . . . that He existed not', Ériu ii 106 § 16 . a cin for athair .i. uair na bí mac, Laws iv 240.16 Comm. Columb [ro]baoi, Columb bīaas, ZCP viii 198 § 20 . tar ēis a mic . . . / nī raba acht dā aenbliadain `was alive only two years', Ériu iii 198 § 24 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be by saying there is a covenant though there is not, Laws iv 52.30 Comm. ni tha . . . ní a ngeimre in winter there is nothing, 90.1 (with petrified inf. pron. 3 s. n. in dat. sense?). ní bía terca bíd there will not be a scarcity of food, BColm. 52.5 . bid dno maith, ┐ ni bi derrscugud de `yet there is good, and nothing to surpass it', Auraic. 703 . is tré ómun bíid serc, Ériu i 195.1 . céin beti neóil im gréin ngil, Met. Dinds. ii 38.z . i céin raibh nemh is talamh as long as . . . endure, BNnÉ 314 § 8 . bai cocad mor etarro, RC xxiv 186 § 19 . In phrase (acht) atá ní (chena) but, moreover, see 1 ní (e).

In periphrasis when emphasis on some element other than the verb is required: bieid nach dréct diib hícfider, Wb. 4d6 . bieid bes ferr de, 32a13 . do budh cusmail rit co robuis uair ecin, ┐ co n[d]ingenta rét feramail `that thou wert once such an one that thou couldst . . .', ZCP vi 87.13 . ba-sa tan / nī folabrainn ilach gamh, Ériu ii 95 § 3 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud, Ériu xvii 68 § 9 ( Laws iv 210 ). Note further: atāit teora brīathra / ata lōgmaire for nim, ZCP vii 312 § 25 .

With words expressing time: bieid aimser nad creitfider, Wb. 28c14 . aidchi robuī `one night', Ériu ii 222.25 . fecht robai `once', Mon. Tall. 147.2 (§ 52) . biaidh uair 's . . . a time will come when, Dán Dé vii 31 .

Introducing a statement: cia beith ara rogba bóairechas riasíu ropo chúairddulchach though it be that he assume, Críth Gabl. 67 . dá mbeith fós go mbiadh an Fhraingc comh líonmhar ┐ adeir seisean `granted that', Keat. ii 933 . má tá go seachnoid síol Éibhir . . ., TD 29.7 . ci(d), gi(d) bé whatever, whoever (see Ériu xii 210 ): ria flaithaib, .i. rias na flaithib, cibe flaithe iat `whatever chieftains they be', Laws iv 154.17 . gidh bé lá cheannghar an chairt, Dán Dé xiv 17 . cidh bé do bhean díbh an dúthaigh, DDána 26.1 . bíd (ipv. 3 s.) co n- although: admhuim . . . mo pheactha . . . bīodh gomadh é mo mhīan a bhfolach though I should wish to hide them, Parrth. Anma 4625 . bīodh nach gcaoifithea go spesialta fá gach peacadh though you might not weep specially for each sin, Mac Aingil 235 . bíth gur gheallas . . . though I promised, Ó Bruad. ii 212 § xiv . In constr. manibed x ní bíad y were it not for x y would not be, see má II (b).

With CO: atáthar sund chucut your adversary is approach- ing, LL 10300 ( TBC 3316 ).

With CO N-: atúsa com thegluch there is myself and my household troop, TBC 437 .

With DI: im chaingin robui de muintir Tamlachti friss `about a business that arose between the monastery of Tallaght and him', Mon. Tall. 157.7 (§ 72) . masu de chlaind Echdach aird / atāi, ZCP xi 108 § 1 . ní bia debaid . . . de, Ériu iv 108 § 69 . Of materials: an crann dobí na sesam ... dobí sé do cepresus was a (lit. of) cupressus, Maund. 9 . In phrase a.¤ di such is: roboi du meit a pecthae `so great were their sins', Ml. 98c6 . má beth tra do hūaite ind āessa gráid `if the ordained folk be too few', Ériu i 220 § 13 .

With DO: biid do anmmaim cathrach `(Samnis) is as the name of the city', Sg. 104b5 . nád robatar suin do ṡlund in dúildetad inchoisget `there were not words (enough) to sig- nify . . .', 45b1 . manusbeth tenga dia relad `if (the sun) had a tongue', Ériu ii 126 § 81 . ata eric a fogla do dul a ruradh o duine, Laws iv 50.5 Comm. Expressing possess- ion, etc.: con roib core dúib fri cách so that you may be at peace with all men, Wb. 26b30 . in fochricc file do i nnim, 29b29 . cach ngrád asid n-ísliu bíid dó i céilsini, Críth Gabl. 374 . robi timna in ríg don Comdhe, RC xviii 182.5 . nico mbái dó acht bás there was nothing for him but death, Vita Br. 32 . fecht robúi damsae domchaomnacuir `once it happened to me', Mon. Tall. 144.7 (§ 45) . atá damhsa ris an dáimh / gan ísliughadh neith dá gcáil it is my duty in regard to the sages not to belittle . . ., Content. xiv 8 .

With FOR (later AR): as ṅdath glas roboi forsind sl[é]ib the mountain was green, Ml. 84d4 . cech dath is maith ré neach bid forro, RC vi 183.9 . cēin beó ar in mbith mbuide, Ériu ii 92.16 . nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí / ōtú ar sīth mo Rīgh amuigh since I am outside the palace of my king(?), ZCP vii 301 § 10 . scríbend menmman .i. robbói for a innd- ṡliucht-som `it had been in his mind', Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent, Ériu vi 115 § 6 . a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though I greatly desire to do so, Dán Dé xix 6 .

With FRI: nobiad fri femen `it would be (used) with the feminine', Sg. 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them', 215a5 . ni humhal robabair rim cen erghe rónn you were not submissive to me, Anecd. ii 14.9 . ba [mait]h ro mboth friu they were well treated, TBFr. 145 . is throit ra bass risin fer út that man was quickly dispatched, TBC 2986 ( LL 10035 ).

With I: is hi tuaisciurt slebe sióin ata in chathir, Ml. 67d8 . ataam ar ndiis i cuimriug, Wb. 32a28 . is and . . . bieid finis, 13b29 . is sunt bia-sa i n-eilithri, Ml. 137b7 . nach dú i mbí isnaib salmaib iustitia, 109a2 . bēti a scēla il- lāidib, ZCP iii 37.32 . dēna torba airm i mbī, vii 311 § 9 . ro-bas i lurg an madma la clannaibh Néill the Clanna N. pursued the rout, xiv 234.16 . adh bes fiu da trian na samuisce atá isín focreic, issed ata isin fogail doníther ris na ferandaib cétna i fuacht an geimridh `a calf which is worth two thirds of the `samhaisc'-heifer which is paid for the rent, it is it that is paid for the trespass', Laws iv 92.16 Comm. cínta do niad na cethra . . . leth a mbia ina nairlim isedh bias ina tairsci `half of that fine which lies for their `airlim'-trespass . . .', 74.8 Comm. cod a midídar ruire trachta ┐ raite? Nin; co rabadar ocht nurcora dec and do fhleascach, 138.4 Comm. ní bhíadh na ghoin é d'oighedh / toil Dé muna deónaighedh His wound would not be enough to cause His death, IGT Decl. ex. 378 . Common in form with suff. pron. 3 s. n. ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre if there be anyone, etc., Wb. 13a4 . ar atá brithem and cenut-su `a judge is there apart from thee', 6b25 . ataat alaaili interiecta and it coitchena do cach ceniul, Sg. 10a1 . attaad teora bliadna and. Niconcomracamar díoblíonaib `it is three years since we two had intercourse', Mon. Tall. 134.26 (§ 21) . For phr. cid fil and trá see trá. In idiom tá sé i n-a fhear he is a man (see Dillon, ZCP xvii 307 ff. ): is amlaid . . . atá in rigsudi sin inna chathaír chumtachta, LU 2005 ( FA 7 ). cidead bes ina bibdaid `even though he be a caitiff', Ériu v 22.20 . gu raibhe 'na cholum ghel, Acall. 1080 . ce raib se i n-a fhír, PH 7324 . do bí 'n-a mnaí grádaig ac Find, Acall. 2018 . do rígh gion go rabhthá id mhac, DDána 91.15 . Note also: tuc . . . aithne gurbh e righ Eirenn do bí ann that it was in fact the king, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 .

With IMM: ni baitir, ni loisctir cein beit immo `he is not drowned or burnt as long as they are on him', RC vi 183.8 .

With LA: gan bheith le Dia is ann bhus aithreach if we are not on God's side, Dán Dé x 27 . Expressing possession and related ideas: is lib atá a rogu, Wb. 9a23 . is derb lium attá latsu gl. certus sum autem quod et in té, 29d14 . ainmm ninchoisc cenéuil issed file la laitnóri, Sg. 30b8 . is airi nobíth digaimm leo ante ρ. sin, 9b10 . ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter,' Mon. Tall. 151.13 (§ 62) . is dé atá lem, fobíth, etc. this is why I think so (of an assertion), TTr.² 343 . itá a rīgan la cach ríg sund, TBC² 190 . fail leis secht nimi, SR 629 . ar ní ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 14150 .

With ó: báoi alaile anchoire antuaid o sláne `there was a certain anchorite from Slane in the North', Mon. Tall. 159.8 (§ 77) . cech lennánacht fil isin domvn is úadhi atá originates with her, TTr.² 370 . Bressal Ó Tressaig ō' tāit / Hī Tressaig `. . . from whom are sprung', Ériu ii 50 § 7 . ni fil[et] o neoch ┐ ni filter uaidibh `they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them', Auraic. 1507 .

With OC: ar notéighed dīa sathairn init co mbídh oc Cnocc Droma Coblai, ZCP viii 106.29 = Trip.² 2858 . ma no bith . . . mo c[h]laideb acom if I had my sword, TBC² 3543 . co rabat aidmi oc cech altōir . . ., Ériu i 219 § 9 . in ti ac na biat ba, Laws iv 36.10 Comm. in fhil biad ocaib sund? PH 6709 . ná raibh agad ar n-éra `refuse me not', Studies 1918, 99 § 16 . In impers. constr. cindas atathar occat? how are affairs with thee? RC xxvi 368.9 . a.¤ y oc x x has the power to do y: ní bhía . . . ag boigṡín / mo chor tar creich Phádraigín, Ériu ix 163 § 7 .

With adverbs and adv. phrases: céin bett abus `while they are here below', BColm. 98.28 . ní rubai nach cruth ailiu `it cannot be otherwise', Sg. 7b3 . ataat ám in chrut sin, 140b1 . hóre nád robe Tit ar mo chiunn, Wb. 14d29 . na muindtire bís id choimidecht `of the monks that live with thee', Mon. Tall. 128.8 (§ 3) . dá rabh mé ar éanmhagh is í, Dán Dé ix 12 . is bether go hīsiul de, ZCP x 51.6 . bidh co mín michuir ret c[h]airdibh, vi 272 § 3 . is samlaid insin robói a flaithemnacht indibsi, Ml. 18a8 . nī hamlaid beitid na nāimh . . ., ZCP xiii 9.26 . dobadus co subhach rompa, KMMisc. 319.27 . léig mar atāit tall, ZCP viii 202.4 . trath atusa sund, TBC 2379 . ionmhuin uan nar fhás ó mhnaoi / do bhás go truagh ar a thí, Dán Dé xxvi 9 . Note also: dá mbem a-moigh `if we win forth', Ériu ix 162 § 2 . With interrogatives: ceth leth atā E., TBC² 376 . can ata? whence is it? Hib. Min. 8.270 . cāit atā do t[h]igerna? TBC² 789 . ciatā inso? ZCP viii 311.13 . a Findtain, arse, ┐ Éri cía gabad ca rabad inde? `where have things been therein?' Ériu iv 146 § 23 .

(c) Used with inf. and suff. pron. to express possession. With inf. pron.: rosmbia a lóg `they shall have payment for it', Wb. 5d35 . ind indocbál no-b-tá in futuro, 14c16 . ro-n-da- biad cech maith, Ml. 33b13 . rombia-sa la dia . . . a day will come for me when, Vita Br. 12 . roborbē (roburbe v.l.) which is yours, Cáin Ad. 27 . nīmthat asnai I have no ribs, TBC² 2871 . gell cóic sét di neoch rodmbí `of whatever he has', Críth Gabl. 283 and n. uair nach tá tír dia fhulung fri re napuidh because he has no land to support him(?), Laws iv 30.19 Comm. rom be nem may I have heaven, Snedgus u. MacR. 14 § 76 . Femen intan rombai rí . . . when it had a king, RC xvii 148.19 . cia luag nomtha? SR 1165 . rombí lethbairgen, Anecd. i 73 § 211 . atbert Cathair nimthasa ní dhuit I have nothing to give you, LL 386b22 . Note also: nintha do imtecht liumm `I have (lit. we have) no news', RC xiii 222.20 . With cumang (or similar word) and prep. DO has the power to: nímtha cumachtæ ṅdo, Ml. 140b7 . ní- s-ta som . . . cumang domm orcuin-se, 60d3 . nísmbói didiu do chumacc a mmbo do imain they hadn't the strength to, Vita Br. 24 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech cumang rotbé (rodbe, rotbia, v.ll.) dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204 § 22 . nícom thása cumang dia tabair[t], TBFr. 302 . apraind nachimbai-si nert do theacht cucu alas that I had not strength . . ., TBC² 3439 . Used independently is able: nīmt[h]a a dechmad d'indisin / nech doní do maith `I cannot tell a tithe of all the good he does', BColm. 70.6 . nimta-sa sin . . . uair da caithius mo dan re sciathaib Ulad I cannot do that . . ., Ériu v 72.8 . Note also: ango dano for Ingcél adfía basa lecht bas briscium `peradventure I shall be the frailest corpse', BDD 102h ( RC xxii 211 ) = at-mbia basa lecht bas brisceam, BDD² 716 (leg. ro-t-bia?).

With suffixed pron. taithiunn . . . / ni fris tarddam ar n-áthius `we have . . . something to which to apply our acute- ness', Thes. ii 293.19 . táithi caire umai he has a bronze cauldron, Críth Gabl. 197 . tathum rūn, TBC² 848 . bethib sūirsi lim-sa dano ye will enjoy freedom with me, ZCP viii 316.5 . tathat lim logh do áes, logh do sinnsire thou hast with me = I accord thee, xii 365.13 . baíthium anfud mílach mend, LU 3018 . tathuib comram, Rawl. 88b51 . tathum o día praind, Anecd. i 64 § 120 . tāthud ochtar la suidiu / airm hi fail a crōlighe `thou wilt find eight men . . .', Fianaig. 12 § 16 . tathai eolus maith, ZCP vii 310 § 1 . tatos subhae `they have happiness', Blathm. 82 . Pleonastically: tathai erouidh . . . bithbron `Herod . . . has eternal sorrow', 83 .

(d) In nasalising rel. clauses to denote has something the matter, is ailing: ced das in ben maith? `what ails the good woman?', Thes. ii 329.48 . cidh tás do sūil, a clērich? what is the matter with your eye? RC xxvii 280 § 35 . Oengus mac in Dagdai hisiurcc di bliadan. Cid tas or Bodb, RC iii 345.9 . ra[fh]etur sa . . . an daas ind ingen what is wrong with the girl, Vita Br. 5 . ni fetarsa cid no-tó I do not know what is the matter with me, ZCP viii 176.5 . cid no-taí? Sc.M² 3 . roḟetarsa a n-attath[a]i. Ni taam ni or Cano, Anecd. i 9.25 ( SCano 293 ). cid tāthaí, a maccu? . . . oc imresain atām . . ., Ériu viii 157.16 . ni confetatarsin cid rombui hissennath, RC iii 344.10 . dia ḟis cid robái (rombui, v.l.) grían to find out what was the matter with the sun, Ériu iv 140.13 .

With prep. DO feels (inimically) towards, is angry with, worries: propter incredulitatem fracti sunt .i. cani airi .i. badochu lem són is [hed] romboth doib that is the fault found with them, Wb. 5b31 . cren dímsa m'ingin . . . Cid dathir di? . . . Is dichmarcach what cause of annoyance has she given? Vita Br. 13 . fiarfaig Conchobar scēla dō. —Cidh tāi di ṡodain? ol Bricriu why do you bother with it? ZCP v 502.15 . cadai-siu duind? TTebe 424 . In good sense treats in a special manner: ca tāthar dúin do domnach des / sech gach laithi lāndiles? `why do we hold Sunday above . . .?' Ériu iii 143 § 7 . With added prep.: cidh 'ma bfuile dam? ZCP x 10.11 . ná bí réd chathrachaibh dhúinn `talk not to us of your forts', Content. vi 31 . See further s.v. daas. Frequ. in class. verse in phrase gá dtá, dás (acht) what is the use? in short. Either gá dtá or gá tá may be used to suit alliteration, see Ir. Syll. P. 86 . fogus orchra don éigsi / gá ttás cur ré coiméidsi `how can she be saved?' Studies 1923, 421 § 1 . gá dás luadh imdheachta an ḟir? `what need to recount', TD 13.40 . gá dás mé dá mīrbuile / acht sé d'fás ó ÓghMuire, IGT Decl. ex. 200 . gá dtám? —acht torchuir bu dheas in short, TD 3.10 . With follg. prep.: gá dtám ris . . . / acht meise féin foidhidneach, TD 3.41 . ga dtú ris, a rí L.? / ort chuirim mo chomuirghe, 30.12 . ní bhiú ris acht, Dán Dé vi 31 . ní fhuilim dó, xi 30 .

(e) With words indicating number, quantity in sense of accompanied by, having: bí[i]th a th[a]urchreicc cóic ṡétaib, Críth Gabl. 71 . baei Conairi a ceithri cairpthig il-Lifiu, BDD 12 (a cethror cairpdech, v.l.). itó-sa lín do gona, TBC 434 . denam d'ḟiadach na muice in lín Feinde atámait, Acall. 2223 . atáthaoi líon a n-ithte, Keat. iii 4439 . atú-sa caegait fer, MR 248.17 . Later: bed-sa ┐ mili ridiri maraen rium ad diaig, ZCP vi 41.9 .

II Expressing state, condition, kind, etc. with pred. consisting of noun, pron. or adj. (usage more usual with copula, see introd. section above).

(a) With noun pred.: boe sab suithe cech dind, ACC 26 ( RC xx 168 ). boe saegul sneid, 24 . boe dind oc libur leigdocht, 27 . biait betha airchind they will be chieftains of the world, Rawl. 125b9 . With subj. standing between the vb. and pred.: atá dia atach ṅ-dún-ni ais dethrebo God is a refuge to us the people of the two tribes, Ml. 66d1 . bói Fíachnae Lurga athair Mongáin, Im. Brain 42.1 . Cf. Sg. 20b3 .

(b) With adj. pred.: boe seim sáth, ACC 25 . biat slana, SR 4167 (copula?). feib atam nocht, 1347 (copula?). bía slan, LU 3344 ( SC 13 ). Cf. habe . . . (.i. sana sis .i. slán bee), Enchir. August. 82a ( ZCP vii 484 ). dlegar doibsium na be lobtaigh cor (ar dlegar doibsium na bed lobthaig cor, O'Dav. 1191 ) (Atk. in Glossary emends to be[t]), Laws iv 54.10. atámait ainmfesach, RC xxiv 371.7 . bítíss meth (leg. methi, ed.) occ tinntúd, IT iii 235.z . co filim garbliath i rricht, LU 1272 . ro boísium imnedach i tossuch a bethad, LL 7305 . ro-bádus-[s]a dronnach, PH 2788 . céin beorsa beó as long as I am alive, Ériu v 222.46 . is follus co fuilti eaclach, Fier. 69 . maith dīghōltar ant andlocht / bethar taoblom tarrnocht trūagh folk will be, ZCP xii 395.23 . With subj. betw. vb. and pred.: is trissa ndede sin biid duine slán et fírian, Wb. 4d33 . amal mbís tegdís fás [amm]- edón ┐ scópthe gl. sicut domus uacans et scopata, Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485.23 ). arrobói a rígthech lán de rígaib, Im. Brain 1 . amal no beithi féin béo and, Trip.² 2972 . co mbatar na hádnaicti óbéla, PH 676 . bis an puls tonnmur lethan, Rosa Ang. 272.8 . oir dobi se crodha do laim ┐ mor do mét, Fier. 2 .

(c) With part. as pred. Immediately follg. vb. (see Thurn. Gramm. 475-6 ; Par. and Gl. 147 ): amal nombemmis érchóilti gl. tanquam morti destinatos, Wb. 9a3 . biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg `be ye opened before your king' (of doors), Ml. 46a7 . co rabais (rabhdais, v.l.) marbtha mudaigthi, TTebe 854 . With subj. standing between vb. and pred.: ataat mesai Dǽ nephchomtetarrachti the judgements of God are incomprehensible, Ml. 55d11 . céin nombetis inna saigtea tuidmithi inna feuil `as long as the arrows were fixed in his flesh', Ml. 58a9 . órobatar ind liss dúntai, Im. Brain. 1 . co ra-bi in uli demnaigecht fomamaigthi dó, PH 2796 .

(d) In sentences where the vb. stands in a nasalising rel. clause and refers to a pred. expressed in the principal clause: is faittech rond-boi som, Ml. 21d4 . ni ba cian mbias in pecthach, 56c22 . fer . . . nadip romar bed a sommæ a man . . . whose wealth should not be too great, Thes. ii 241.9 . is-gáibthech atátur i-sin-magh sin, RC xxiv 378.12 . is trog robas isin chotlad sin, Ériu v 34.z . ní cás duid madh diomdhach raibh / grása Dé . . ., Dán Dé xix 22 . [is] slán do bhaoi an brat-sain, xii 22 .

(e) In the type of sentence where the description consti- tutes an independent sentence with copula: ego sum uermis et non homo .i. atāim-si conad cruim mē ┐ nāch duine, Corm. Y 211 . ro boi Victor co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic, Arch. iii 10 § 8 = Trip.² 217 . unus non est . . . .i. nochon fhil int aen co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, Auraic. 689 . dom dóigh . . . robadhuis uair ecin ┐ roba díl anora tú `it seems to me . . . that there was once a time when thou wert worthy of honour', ZCP vi 99.5 .

barrán

Cite this: eDIL s.v. barrán or dil.ie/5430

n o, m. (1 barr) tops of trees and flowers, bush; head of hair: barrān beithe, ZCP x 45.22 . dáig ind ḟuilt ro ṡamailser fri dath barrá[i]n sobairchi `the top of the primrose', GJ x 579 § 2 ( = Festschr. Stokes 3 ). b.¤ budi (bude, MS.), buge nglé (of the colour of the pupil of Niall Noígiallach's eye) `the crown of the woad', § 3. barrā[i]n bit[h]chai `perennial bushes', K. and H. 18. barrān cōert[h]ainn `bush of rowan', 19 . co braine barráin bith-rúaid `with a fringe to her poll right red' (`head of hair', Gloss.), Met. Dinds. iii 278.10 .

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