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ad-eirrig

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ad-eirrig or dil.ie/426
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: aitherrach, aithirge

v (* ath-ar-reg-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 593 ).

(a) repeats, reiterates: aderrigsom forsanimchomarc fodí repeats the question twice, Ml. 46a21 . aderriussa gl. adieciam super omnem laudem tuam, 89b3 . atherracht ind co fo trí he repeated it thrice, Laud 610, 117b . nir aitherracht béim do bun chraind díb acht óenbéim co claidiub, LU 9063 ( FB 81 ). Cf. nir aitheraig beim riam do neoch acht oen beim, Cog. 188.26 . roaitherechtha uili limsa they were all re-made by me, Ériu iv 134.16 . quicquid iteratur . . . .i. gach ni athairrigthir, Auraic. 729 = cach ni athraigther, 3485 . Perhaps also in the following: dian ceis imitecht adreis riarra fri ollam nairidhi, O'Curry 1606 (23 Q 6, 5 a) = O'D. 535 ( H 3.17, 432 ). adreis .i. aiterrach, ut est Madnai do tes adres anai adgnai in cach oen bliadain adres .i. aitherrach in aithne, O'Dav. 120 . mad eirr (leg. ma ad-eirr?) ind aithgin iar tres cinud . . . .i. madia naitrigh no madia nairghe cin do denumh. Laws ii 188.9, 11 Comm. = dia naithrighe, O'Curry 2369 ( Eg. 88, 28 (29)d ). Cf. ZCP iv 348 . ? olliarraid a derigar altrum darese araile, Laws ii 176.1 . With prep. I N- in sense of relapsing into sin (possibly in this idiom *ath-ess-reg-): ma atheirr ind = si iteraverit, Ériu vii 146.5 . inge nād n-aithersed inn but that he should not relapse into it, ZCP x 47.10 . cenibad in olc naill naithirsed unless he should fall into some other sin(?), Laws i 10.6 . Cf. aithéirgid.

(b) changes. In O. Ir. glosses in sense of changes for the better, emends, improves: aithirgid bésu diandaithirsid ón isindeseircc . . . rigthir cuccuib, Wb. 9a23 . dúus indaithirset `if perchance they may repent it', 30b30 (see note). intí adeirrig treprecept do `he whom he brings to repentance', 22c2 (` der sich bekehrt', Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 593 ). atanneirrig gl. qui nos . . . emendat, Ml. 114d10 . robu cho adersetar gl. uel emendentur, 30d11 . arna aithirrestar gl. ne . . . emendetur, 32d13 . Cf. no-s-atherraig as a ulc, PH 5583 . mani aithir `if he does not amend', Ériu vii 162.17 . Hence changes, alters in general: ni aithergem na duile, Alex. 884 . ro hathirged a pell fo B. `was readjusted', Cog. 198.22 . nír aithearraigh aigneadh, IGT Verbs ex. 831 . créud far haithearraigheadh . . . saoire an tSathrainn ar an nDomhnach?, Parrth. Anma 2664 .

Vn. aitherrach. aithirge.

See 1 aithrigid, aithirgigid(ir), athairgtar and IGT Verbs § 84 , §106 .

2 aicdech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 aicdech or dil.ie/772

n (2 aicde) craftsman: is dīlmain do gach a.¤ inla aicde, ciped adbar inla inte, ZCP xii 364.10 . `jedem Handwerker, der ein Gerät anlegt', Cóic Con. 12.2 .

aidbsiu

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aidbsiu or dil.ie/853

Forms: aidbsen, , aidbsena, aidbsina

n n, f. g s. aidbsen , aidbsena, aidbsina. Vn. of ad-fét.

(a) Precise meaning doubtful in follg. Perh. relating, reciting, setting forth (see also s.v. aidbse): ecis aidbsin .i. fili comgan bhís la righ, O'Curry 473 (H 3.18, 248). cia céda dar haisnédhedh tre uadh n-aidhbhsion?, Ériu xiii 38.24 . ar dlighidh in arduibh aidhbsion aireachaibh, 39.20 . cingidh adesa dlighidh fria dechmhaidh fria harda aidhbhsiona, 23 . In phr. tús n-aidbsen(a) of a privilege of the flaith geilfine: is é ní dliges inti dlegur d'airitniugud isin flaithes ngelfine .i. in cumal tsenorba ┐ tus n-aibsin ┐ tus n-urlabra the right to expound his views first(?), Cóic Con. 45 § 72 (`den Vortritt bei der Anzeige(?)') ( Laws ii 280.26 ) = tus n-aibsena, 16 § 3 n.8 . Note also: tathat lium dais logh sinnsir tus naidbsina, tus nurlabra, Laws iv 372.13 Comm. = tus naidhbdhen, ZCP xii 365.14 (see aidbden).

(b) showiness, ostentation, pride (see taidbsiu): d'éis bhainnse d'óigh d'ullmhughadh / ní cóir aidhbhse ar anmhuirear one should not be surprised at an excessive number, Aithd. D. 60.7 . atá d'aidhbhse ar Fhionn-ghualainn `F.'s splendour is so great', 18.20 . méad bhar n-aidhbhse is aithne dhamh / ar leith Mogha . . . `I see how excessive is your pride in L.M.', Content. iv 50 . aidhbhsin .i. taidhbsin, O'Cl.

ailte

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ailte or dil.ie/1079
Last Revised: 2013

part. of 1 ailid. In phrase mac a.¤ , technical term in Laws a reared son; a son whose father has granted him legal independence: in mac a.¤, as e in mac saerleicthe in sin hi tuaith huaire nonleice a athair oc neoch adgua .i. im dan fa trebhath, ZCP xiii 23.19 (` der auswärts aufgezogene Sohn', Bürgschaft 11 § 36 ).

ainder

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ainder or dil.ie/1225
Last Revised: 2019

n o ? Later f. Explained by native glossators as neg. of der . See LEIA and ZCP xxv 11 , Jn. Celt. Stud. i 4-6, 131-3 .

(a) non-virgin, married woman: ander .i. ben .i. nī der [.i.] nī hingen, Corm. Y 79 . ander .i. muiler .i. ni der ni hingin. nó ander .i. anfer .i. ni fer acht muiler , O'Mulc. 48 . ander .i. nepingen .i. ben. der .i. ingen, O'Curry 864 ( H 3.18, 390a ). fedb aindir be carna, Laws v 448.1 (`eine Witwe, eine Frau (ander nicht Jungfrau), eine Buhlin', Ir. Recht 5 . Stokes, O'Dav. 528 , takes fedb ainder as a compd.). a Euá a andeir Adaim, SR 1208 . dercaid nad decsenach doirb annir (.i. ben) imnair, LU 10255 . bla aindir ēt, Laws iii 292.1 . cidbé a.¤ mná dobéra toil do'n fhior gráid, SG 47.30 . a.¤ gel Glain meic Carbad `bride', Metr. Dinds. i 46.4 . .l. a.¤ la cech n-aen dibh: claeclother cele la gach n-aindir mad doim he, Marco P. 27 . do mnaib ┐ bantrochtaib ┐ andrib ┐ ingenaib, LU 6537 . roscaindre fo Chrúaich Crea / na haindre, na hingena, Metr. Dinds. iii 464.66 . aebhdhacht re h-ainnrib, MR 116.14 . gnímh Úna tar gach n-ainnir, IGT Decl. ex. 1221 . carais Sccuitin . . . / aindre áille uchtgheala, ZCP i 64.2 . aingir . . . dont síol is áirde fuil, Ó Bruad. i 84 xiv .

(b) virgin, maiden: ander gach slan, Auraic. 607 . ainner . . . ac guidhi Muire . . . ima hoighe do coimet, Grail 2428 . an ainnear i n-uair a thuismhidh (of the Blessed Virgin), DDána 17.12 . ainner aluind, ZCP vi 26.7 .

? Of the war-goddess, in the phr. ainder trogain : lúaidi do gabair ngraifnig ngrip | for faithchib andre trogain tricc 'you guide your fast racing steed on the greens of the war-goddess swiftly', Metrik und Medienwechsel 227 .

ainteist

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ainteist or dil.ie/1543

n (teist) lit. `non-witness', legal term used of a person not qualified to act as witness. See Cóic Con. 67 . caite a lucht fira, da-sentar iat? . . . tri fira testa ┐ tri fira cunntabartach ┐ tri arra antesta airmither ann, Cóic Con. 39 § 57a (die drei (Klassen von Eides-)Gutmachungen der nicht Zeugniskräftigen). ni feas in test no in antest he ┐ is adetche leisin ugdar duine do beith isin crich gan adrud re testaib no re antestaib, 40 § 58 . nocha triar bias ann acht fir fo aicne testa no antesta, 41 § 60 . testaigid in boaire test ┐ antest, O'D. 1659 (H. 5.15, 23a). nach andtest do na fiastar test, O'Curry 241 ( H 3.18, 135 ). ní bi fiadha na bi urconn innruic . . . fora ní deine ainntest fiadnaise isin cáin so, O'D. 531 (H. 3.17, c. 431). fastait fiacha for robaib testa . . . ┐ for robaib antesta, O'Curry 540 (H. 3.18 p. 266b). ar ba teist ar-ānic antestai oc mīdēnam, ZCP xv 327 § 19 (cf. xvi 221). berid anteist test do luga, berid test antesd (false witness?) de fiachaib, Anecd. iii 24.7 . ? coicce fri hantesda, Lism. L. 4537 = coicne fri hantestai, ZCP iii 449.21 .

airdliged

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airdliged or dil.ie/1853

(dliged? or perh. vn. of ar-dlig) Meaning doubtful: uirdlighedh righ ` privilege ', Laws i 76.8 Comm. urdligidh ri iar tri flatha f[laitheamnus] `privilege of (succeeding) a king', iv 384.4 Comm. ní timdiben an flaith na drochfolta urdlighidh righ, O'D. 554 ( H 3.17, c. 437 ). co dibad naurdligid .i. atabaill a naurdligid in fine nerlama, O'Curry 834 ( H 3.18, p. 381b ). ni ro-fiachaigastar dliged no urdliged no airlec ud, Laws ii 342.4 (`was Schulden oder Für-Schulden (Schuldvertretung) . . . zum Schuldgegenstand gemacht hat', Stud. in E. Ir. Law 2 § 1 ). ni aircsenad nech a dliged nach urdliged, Laws i 150.18 .i. cin inbleogain .i. nach aili .i. do rathaib, 156.7 Comm. ni (leg. in?) mug . . . ni gaibther an-aetaim fri dlighidh na urdligid . . . he, 104.z .i. a dualgus neich eile .i. im cintaib a comfocais, 106.15 Comm. aurdliged .i. eiric neich dliges, O'Curry 828 ( H 3.18, p. 380a ) `Vor-Anspruch (oder Für-Anspruch) d.h. Zahlung dessen, worauf er Anspruch hat', ZCP xvi 206 . ma methaid ni dinn reir ┐ dind aurdligid `wenn etwas von der Bestimmung und vom Vor-Anspruch ausfällt', ib.

airlabrae

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airlabrae or dil.ie/2160

adj , f. Vn. of ar-labrathar.

(a) right to speak, act of speaking on behalf of another: ar is lour in fer diairlabri `to speak for her', Wb. 28b15 . briathar nDé dom erlabrai to speak for me, Trip.² 3184 ( Thes. ii 356 ). erlabra dont ṡinsiur . . . ┐ acaldaim, 1486 . tacra im leas mna nad eta urlabra i.e. who has nobody to plead for her(?), Laws v 252.10 . ni tabarta urlabra acht do triur i n-Erinn fer comgne etc., i 18.6 Comm. tus n-urlabra, Cóic Con. 45 § 72 ( Laws ii 280 ) (`den Vortritt der Rede (das erste Wort)'). oc erlabrai Ulad, MU² 985 . fear ḟriotáilte ┐ urlabhra, PCT 725 .

(b) speech, eloquence in general: is erlabra dímaín a ndogníd what you say is vain, LL 14647 . atgeoinsium for erlabrai ind fir combo druth, LU 5874 (TBC). muna tucad aithne ara nurrlabraib unless he recognised them by their voices, CF 835 . iter gaís ┐ álaig ┐ errlabrae, BDD² 1076 . ní éistend-som ra hirlabra neich, MU² 716 . airlabra airard admall aci, 750 . earlaphra caoin do denam to make fair speeches. TFrag. 118.18 . co n-indised som do M. fó cleith ┐ fo irlabra secretly(?), LB 122a38 (fo leith only, Celtica iv 34.4620 ). fóirfidh t'urlabhra mh'imshníomh, DDána 67.42 . Extended applications: inis lán d'énaib . . . oc núal ┐ erlapra go mór, RC ix 492 n. 10 . is binn orlabhra a haibhniodh, Studies 1920, 568 § 22 .

(c) act or faculty of speech: tenga cu nurlabra, Laws iii 348.12 Comm. dobered forminde fora erlabrai she would begin to stammer, LU 3259 ( SCC § 5 ). dimbúaid n-erlabra, BColm. 96.24 . bacaidh si in urrlabra, Rosa Angl. 246.6 . easbaidh urlabhra, TSh. 1753 . Concr. tongue: rind aurlabra cech ḟir . . . aurlabrai na cethrae, LU 3231 ( SCC § 2 ).

airrechtach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airrechtach or dil.ie/2365

adj o, ā (airrecht) aggressive, ready to attack; spirited: a.¤ cecha debtha dūre (addressed to a pig), Ériu vii 6 § 8 ; cf. nirbat taerrechtach debtha, LU 3466 ( SCC 25 ). batar airrechtaig a n-airrig, Alex. 195 . ócbaid erluma airrechtacha fri slait . . . ┐ esorcain, 479 . nipsa a.¤ (tairrechtach v.l.), Tec. Corm. p. 17 n.1 = fomsech, LL 343d50 . eirrechtach imarcaid, O'Curry 1298 ( H 3.18, 539 ab). dligid a.¤ (airechtach, arrachtach v.ll.) a thaīr, ZCP xi 84 § 34 (` der Hartnäckige', 103.2). ech . . . airrechtach beocraide, O'Curry 1863 (RIA 23 P 3, 20a). airrechtga (airrechtai, arrechtaigh, airechtaiss v.l.) ugrai `stubborn in quarrel', Tec. Corm. § 16.20 . airrechtga (airechtaigh, arrachta v.l.) fresligi, 57 .

Cf. arrachtach.

aithgein,

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aithgein, or dil.ie/2656

Forms: aithgin, -ene, -ine, -ena, -ina, aithghin

n. vn. of ad-gainethar. Also aithgin. g s. -ene, -ine, -ena, -ina. aithghin f., IGT Decl. § 13 .

(a) rebirth, regeneration: ? ba hed aithgin ṁbetha `rebirth of the world', Fél. Ep. 240 . comdis ellma . . . fó athgin in erruigh archinn by the following spring, CCath. 169 . tucusa gein ┐ a.¤ duit i.e. enough and to spare, Acall. 7813 . In religious sense (of baptism): in baisted .i. in a.¤ , LB 257b73 . tria aithgin a mbathis, PH 3812 .

(b) likeness, equivalent. With gen. the like of: athgein hūi Luirc the like of O Larc, Ält. Ir. Dicht. 41 § 32 . is uád fessin no bíad a athgein i.e. a warrior such as he could be born only of him (of Cú Chulainn), LU 10167 . th'aidgin-siu a warrior like thee, TBC-LL¹ 4050 . Art Aoínfhear bhur n-aithghin-si you can be compared only to, O'R. Poems 31 . ríg-athgein meic Airt Óenḟir / ní fríth, Metr. Dinds. i 36.104 . ag iomfhuirech la haithghin an dúin bai ann roimhe do thurccbháil, AFM vi 2210.10 . a aithghin oile do ingrinntidh, BS 63 . With DO: aithghin do Eochaidh Mumhó, ML 22.4 . Note also: as nach féidir ál acht aithghin `thence there cannot issue a brood unlike the parents', Ó Bruad. ii 62 xxviii . úir Pharthais nó a haithghin í paradise or something very like it, TD 11.10 . aithgin .i. cutruma, ut est: nicon tarla a mBoinn riam ná iarom a n-aithgin .i. nichor teilgus tar in Boinn roime ná 'na degaid a cutruma ima mét, H 3.18, 62a7 ( O'Curry 80 ).

(c) analogy, comparison: imtha an a.¤ . . . lemlacht la mac . . . imtha samlaidh ben la fer, Leb. Gab.(i) 30.5 . gurab fíoghair ┐ aithghein don tsacraimint so an plúr neamhdha, Eochairsg. 70.10 . aithgin don chomhnaidhe symbolum . . . quietis, TSh. 5287 .

(d) Legal. Technical term translated `restitution', `compensation', Laws; `Rückerstattung oder Ersatz in gleichen Gegenständen', Thurn. ZCP xiv 346 ; `restitution in kind, equivalent', Críth Gabl. The meaning restitution or compensation to the full value of that which has been lost, damaged, etc. is implied by a number of exx. from the text of the Laws: scarait amail condrecat; in da beir cach lais cusanaile, a marthar de issed beres lais fri himscarad, na (nó?) aithgin dia torad muna marathar `an equivalent of its produce if it is not living', Laws ii 394.26 . is aithgin muna marathar feib ro ratha, cen fuilliud leo, 338.18 `Ersatz (der Werte)', ZCP xiv 392 . aithgin do flaith acht trian facaib dib, Laws ii 318.5 ( ZCP xiv 385 ). díre a ṡabaill cóic ṡéoit ┐ aithgein co nneoch robronntar and making good of any damage done, Críth G. 244 (co neoch = neich, Notes). aithgin somaine, Laws ii 332.10 ( ZCP xiv 390 ). trian naithgina ar mifagbail, 56.19 (cf. the smaller subdivisions in follg. Comm.). Also prob.: aithg[e]in tuige making good the thatch, Críth G. 213 . dírech n-imda[e] . . . diam tochur tar cenn, sét ind ┐ a.¤ , 233 . óg n-innraic n-aithgena, 275 `a perfect fullness of equivalent', notes. cach a.¤ iar n-indrucus every `a.¤' in full(?), ZCP xvii 59 § 76 . Note also (Comm.): ba trom re dainib a naithgin ┐ a tintud for culu (of restoring perishable pledges), O'D. 950 ( H 3.17, c. 664 ). aithgin ngnima ro leic in brathair ar a ceili, Laws i 128.9 Comm. (of work carried out on behalf of another). In literary texts: aithgen in t-sheoit fén, PH 7561 . a ṡeacht n-aithghine d'ḟagháil, TD 9.17 . Distinguished from taisec in Laws text: ni faid nech na seotu so cin naidm a taisic no aithgina `without security for their restitution or compensation' (of things liable to be lost or destroyed while on loan), Laws v 278.7 . (`taisec restitution of the actual article, a.¤ the payment of an equivalent', Plummer MS. notes. Cf. taisic .i. cia mairit . . . aithgin .i. muna mairit, Laws v 278.11 Comm. At Laws v 402.19 Comm. taissecc is glossed .i. aithgena). In follg. classed as an `éraicc': cetheora eirca . . . aithgin ┐ dire, etc., Laws i 258.26 . ? Cf. cach diri iar n-aithgenib id laim bodein, ZCP xvii 58 § 75 . The a.¤ could be doubled: ni teid aithgin tar diablad, Laws v 448.17 . ? [dl]igur taisiuc diabul aithgina, ii 80.8 . cach n-aninraic n-anfoit cona diablad aithgene, ZCP xiv 346 § 7 ( Laws ii 232 ). diablud naithgina nech robriathra (leg. -ar?), Laws ii 68.11 . Various: aithgin mblechtai, Laws i 168.5 . fidbretha . . . a naithgin for uin, 182.2 . aithgin gach edge, ii 54.13 . ni lais dire a seoit, acht colainn aithgena nama `das Corpus (der Gegenstand) des Ersatzes' (of a `fuidir'), Ir. Recht 63 § 1 .

In Comm. often treated as name of some kind of fine or mulct. Cf. in the passage in Laws iv 146 ff. the elaborate distinction drawn between díre and (the smaller) a.¤ with regard to different categories of trees. Here a.¤ means `only a diminished amount of fine' (Laws Gl.). Somet. of one of the seven `cumals' which make up the `corpdíre' (wergild) the remaining six forming the `díre', Thurn. ZCP xv 356 , Binchy, Ériu xii 99 . Cf. cumal aithgena, ┐ cutruma . . . do na sé cumala[ib] dire, Laws iv 244.24 Comm. ben tēit di thairr a cāin lānamna, slān cen dīri [no] aithgin i.e. the husband is not liable for `corpdíre', ZCP xv 355 § 43 Comm. Note also: bo a ndire cach ae ┐ ní thuc a naithgin ar aird he does not mention their compensation (of the liability incurred by mutilating certain trees), Laws iv 148.8 Comm. In the follg. there is no indication as to the exact sense: i n-aís ícca aithgina, i 98.3 Comm. ar in athgabail gabar im aithginib na con sin the compensation for each of these herding-dogs, 144.9 Comm. gl. im conbuachaill cacha cethra, 126.8 . nocho nícctar acht certaithghin ris ón fhlaith, O'D. 908 ( H 3.17, 648 ) (Comm.). seachta cach aithgheana every restitution sevenfold, Leb. Cert. 140.1 , see Ériu xvi 182 § 29 .

aitire

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aitire or dil.ie/2810
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: aittire, aidire, e(i)t(t)ire, eidire, itire, oittire

n , f. ( eter, Bürgschaft p. 4 ). Later also m. in sense (b). Also aittire, aidire, e(i)t(t)ire, eidire, itire, oittire. Lit. being between, standing between or one who stands between (two parties to an agreement), see Bürgschaft p. 4 , 34 , 61 . Críth G. p. 74 . Cf. cid ara n-eper a.¤? itir a té .i. itir cich ┐ gruaid; no itir da feichemain, Bürgschaft 22 § 64 . a.¤ .i. iter dēde .i. iter dā fechemuin, Corm. Y 71 .

(a) hostage-suretyship : doté(i)t a.¤ ar ḟer feras in fuil he goes surety for the man who inflicts the wound, Críth G. 52 . cateat a ḟolta córai ó chách fris[s]a cuirther a.¤? for which surety is given, 58 . lóg a enech . . . téit fora naidm ┐ a ráith ┐ a aitiri he may go surety to the amount of his honour-price, 129 . dul tar a.¤ breaking a guarantee (one of the causes of loss of honour-price), Laws v 368.7 .

(b) hostage-surety who guarantees the performance of an obligation with his own person and not (like the ráth) with his property GEIL 172 , Stud. Hib. viii 52 , guarantor `who warrants the execution, not merely of public engagements . . ., but also of some of the more important private agreements', Críth G. p. 74 . ata a.¤ gaibhes gnimu nadma. a.¤ són dobeir laim im brollach feicheman co nadhmaim le[s], saigid riasíu ascomra. assed a slan undertakes the business of giving a bond i.e. an a.¤ who puts a `naidm' in the breast of the debtor, he sues before he himself pays and so he remains free from loss, ZCP xiii 24.11 ( Bürgschaft 13 § 42 ). nugu toibhghenn nech i cairdi acht aitteri, Bürgschaft 63 x . cungnat oittiri in fecheman toicheda riu, 64.7 . slan a.¤ cairde (title of a tract), ZCP xiii 24 (Bürgschaft 32 § 1) (see cairde). corus a.¤ (title of a tract), Bürgschaft 22 § 64 . cis lir a.¤ do-chuisin . . . a tri . . . a.¤ luigi ┐ aitiri foesma ┐ aitiri nadma, ib. (see also fáes(s)am, 1 luige). na huile neiche risa-ndechaid int a.¤ , 68 § 1 . atait secht n-aitiri asrenut la Feine . . . a.¤ teit ar mac beoathar fo-n-ocair a athair, a.¤ tar cend ambui anechtair, etc., Laws v 228.1 . caite a sslan na a.¤? .i. a fomeilt ┐ a imluath ┐ a gnim ┐ log .uii. cumal niath (.i. lóg cimedha, ar is cimidh ind aitiri iar ndithmaim fuirri) what is the indemnity of an `a.¤'? Bürgschaft 24 § 67 . ces do-gníther de muna comrastar fris? Tiagair dochum raite no a.¤ ma beit iar cul ar it he a .u. in sin biti fri heluth .i. naidm ┐ raith ┐ a.¤ ┐ ceilebrath ┐ gell what is to be done when the debtor does not come forward? One goes to a `ráth' or an `a.¤' if they stand behind the transaction, for these are the five (sureties) who guarantee against absconding, 14 § 48 . athgabail a.¤ aslui feile `distress of a surety who violates his honour', Laws i 214.25 (` der sich dem Anstand (der Ehrbarkeit) entzieht', Bürgschaft p. 70 ). in raith uil re aithne na conaire fuigill is techta no int ait[i]re uil re aithne na conaire fuighill is cóir (i) n-athcomairc i.e. it is a `ráith' if the suit is one of `techta', an ¤a. if the suit is one of `cóir n-athchomairc ', Cóic Con. 32 § 27 . is ed is a.¤ ann .i. do ghradhaib flatha uair cid mor do cintaib ┐ do raithiges ┐ do aitires ro-dlecht donn athair, ma ro-fagaib int athair dibadh accu — uair ni tet itire acht co cro, teit raith for comarba co no[m]ud — noco cutrumus in dibaid do dul isna cintaib, 33 § 32 . aitiri De cleric, Laws v 272.8 (see Bürgschaft 73 ). teōra a.¤ cac[h]a prīmegalsa fri Cāin Adomnāin .i. secnap ┐ coic ┐ fertiges ┐ a.¤ cāna deirbḟine fo Erinn uile ┐ dā eitiri cāna ardflat[h]a every principal church has three guarantors to ensure the fulfilment of A.'s law, Cáin Ad. 32 § 53 (see Bürgschaft p. 7 ). sárugud a.¤ nó crossi in domnaig oc saigid na cána in domnaig, Ériu ii 208 § 29 . ma asloat aitiri tobungar cumal ocht n-ungi diib, Anecd. iii 24.18 . do-bert .uii. n-aidirie di trénferuib Erenn . . . fri hasic na flathae uad ma fofertís a mifholtae fesin i.e. he gave seven fighting men as guarantors that he would give back the kingship should he behave in an unkingly way, RC xii 62 § 24 . tucaid huaib etere ṅgle / fri tichtáin doridise, SR 3499 . forbia for n-eitteire fein, 3503 . for cóic aitirib dēac on the guarantee of fifteen men, TBC-I¹ 2919 . ité a.¤ . . . do-breatha do Ingcél ó ḟeraib Hé., BDD² 421 . gabsait na aittiri eturru a fritisi, 866 . togaid aitiri de (ref. to visit of Ulaid to Bricriu), LU 8097 ( FB 7 ). de inchaib na n-atairi, 8184 ( 13 ). trían do flaith, trīan do fine, trīan do etarflaith ┐ do iteraibh (of property of deceased person), Ériu i 215.28 . it .iii. heteri gabar darcend in Choimded fri dingbail cecha tedmma dib . . . .i. Petur Apstal ┐ Muri Og ┐ Michel Archaingel patrons(?), RC xii 428 § 19 .

(c) hostage: nó idnaictís dosom geill ┐ eteri, CCath. 1636 . ní gabthar a n-eiteri a nglas no a slabradh acht lúgha fó láim rígh `hostages', Leb. Cert. 135.x . dia n-elódha in t-aideri, 11 . cor facsat etere ina laim .i. Isacar, BB 238b42 . cen giall cen eteri, RC xvii 354.29 (Tig.). braigti ┐ etiri, Cog. 48.8 . co ttuccsat gialla . . . ass . . . im aidire Ua Néill, AFM ii 712.5 .

COMPD. ¤-mac: do ghuidhetar ind Ógh cona haitirmac (of Christ), Caithr. Thoirdh. 94.35 .

aititiu

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aititiu or dil.ie/2815

Forms: aididi

n, f. vn. of ad-daim. aididi (ón umhla) f., IGT Decl. § 3 . act of acknowledging, admitting; acknowledgement .

(a) Legal meanings. Of recognition of ownership of property: deit[i]u didiu saegal comarba, a.¤ saegal a dó . . . is ann as rudradh o rosaigh co cuiciur, ZCP xii 363.19 i.e. when heirs to land succeed one another d. is the name of a claim to ownership made by the first, a.¤ by the second, see ZCP xv 347 . Cf. aiditiu .i. aith-dēti .i. dētiu iterum īar n-aditiu la nech ele prius , Corm. Y 36 . fuaslaicthi cach rudrad forsna hiadha aititiugh every prescriptive right that acknowledgement does not close is annulled, O'Curry 425 (H 3 18, 232a) = Laws v 496.2 . gellta dib . . . la C. . . . di detiu di comdetiu di aircsiu di a.¤ i.e. pledges were given for them by C. in regard to the various forms of claim (of stolen cattle), Laws i 64.8 . air naisc[id] re ┐ a.¤ ┐ degbal . . . is de ata . . . dilsighther for aititin, ZCP xiii 24.2 `Anerkennung (von der andern Seite) . . . bindet . . . festgehalten werde auf Grund von Geschehen-Lassen (von der andern Seite)', Bürgschaft 12 § 39 . nī bbuī dīlse na a.¤ la fer for n-ecrad ` der Mann, gegen welchen (as) besetzt wurde, hatte weder Eigentumsrecht noch Zugeständnis (des Eigentümers)', ZCP xv 346 § 37 . dechmaid na aititin i.e. a testing period of ten days during which the defect in a purchased article could be brought to the notice of the seller, O'Curry 261 (H 3.18, 151). Of recognising a transaction: is iubaile aititen saire in sain (of the expiration of the term of agreement between lord and tenant), ZCP xv 240 § 3 . baeth cach crecas fri mac mbeoathar i necnairc a athar cen forgaire cen aititin i.e. it is foolish to deal with a son whose father is absent without securing a prior direction or acknowledgement (of the transaction) by the father, Laws iii 8 y . a n-aititin tighi fithi do denam ar a ferand, v 316.9 Comm. duine ro bai a naiditain fogla . . . do denam fris `who was cognizant of the commission of a trespass . . . against him', iv 50.7 Comm. sena iar na.¤ denial after acknowledgement (of a crime), iii 108.8 .

Technical term for a type of marriage where a simple acknowledgement (a.) by the father or family of the girl sufficed. A woman married in this way was known as ben (or bē) (n-)aititen and her status was lower than that of the cétmuinter. See Stud. in E. Ir. Law 109 f. , Ir. Recht 27 f. ben aittiten aranaiscc fine, Ir. Recht 27 § 30 . ben aiteten nad aurnascar nad forngarar, 28 § 31 . mad iarnu urnadmaim no aititen dia finib, 64 § 4 . aititen .i. ad-daimther i nn-aithig tigi ┐ ni bi primben ┐ ni haurnascar, 4 § 2 .

G s. as attrib.: aithne n-aititen, a special kind of deposit , SM Facs. 55b40 ( Laws v 196.3 ). ? eoin aititin (leg. -en) `domestic fowls', Laws v 166.6 .i. cerca ┐ geodh, 19 Comm. aenach n-aiditan (sic) `an acknowledged fair-green,' 484.3 .

(b) In general sense: senae iar naititiu, Gael. 50, 129 ( Blathm. 396 ). co sid ┐ co tairisi do ┐ co n-aididin clemhnusa fris, Aen. 1610 . ferr atitiu acsin, RC xlv 23 § 25 = ferr aicsi aitidin, 86 § 72 . ? a.¤ (aidide v.l.) cech indraic, Tec. Corm. § 15.37 .

(c) act of submitting (do to); recognition, submission: fo dáigh a naitide do M. `because they had submitted to M.,' AFM ii 640.x . gan umhla gan aittidin, vi 2034.10 . do rinne gach uile aiditte ┐ umhla dó, ITS xvi 34.25 . cinuid sin do nach dlegar cis . . . acht atitiu nama `but were bound to give recognition only', Cog. 54.8 . do-beir a.¤ do submits to: tabhraidh aitídín dam-sa ┐ dober ceandus daibh, BB 22a27 . cia toíseach . . . da ttiubrattais umhla no aidide, AFM iii 366.13 . aen ammait . . . da tabratis uile aitite ┐ uaisle (Erictho), CCath. 3954 . ní thabuir cách aididi d'Áed, IGT Decl. ex. 186 .

anechtair

Cite this: eDIL s.v. anechtair or dil.ie/3534

ind ( an + echtair, GOI § 483 ). Adv. from outside: ma do ti eiseart co treabaire lais a nechtair, Laws iv 128.11 (` der von auswärts zu seinem Land zurückkehrt', Bürgschaft 84 ). With idea of motion much reduced outside: amal tegdais foratochar deglí a.¤ ┐ is fás a inchrud ammedón, Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485.21 ). roghabhastair uime thairis sin amuigh a neachtair lúireach throm, ML 112.3 . In combination with prepp. fri . . . a.¤ : donaib naimtib bite frie a.¤ `to the enemies who are outside it (the tabernacle)', Ml. 40c15 . a mbaí C. fri les anechtar, Trip.² 1467 . ardrach forru fría tír anechtar, 2684 . ro buí airther láime din claideb fria trúaill a.¤ outside its sheath, BDD² 1005 . fria chend a.¤ , TBC-LL¹ 1268 . a leth i teinid ┐ a leth fri teinidh annechtair, Ériu xi 46.4 . unsea ra dún anair a.¤ , MU² 526 . foscichret i crandchor íarum. Fáicebthair Lugaid fris a.¤ `L. will be left out of the chance', RC xiii 444 § 24 . ni fil fri hiarraith a.¤ `something in addition to', Laws ii 170.8 . diablad do frisin re sin fil fris a.¤ `the time (during which) it has been taken away from him', v 248.32 Comm. di . . . a.¤ : robdar édghadha dia ccorpaibh aineachtair, AFM vi 1918.9 . for (ar) . . . a.¤ : tromluirech . . . for sidhe a.¤ `outside that', Stair Erc. 244 . Fig. cardes sliasta Medba air sin a.¤ and M.'s friendship as well, TBC-LL¹ 108 .

As quasi-adj. with substantives: ind oís anechtir `the outland folk', Wb. 16d12 . intan mbís rí a.¤ leis inna thúaith, Críth G. 561 . a fot fri dún . . . a fot anechtair on the side nearest the `dún', on the outside (of a rampart), 572 . athgabail ambui a.¤ , Laws v 260.y . in gilla turusa . . . .i. fer a.¤ foas aen aidchid lat, i 160.y Comm. ind óic annechtair donnáncatar, TBFr. 139 . flaith coṅgbála co slúagaib a.¤ , ZCP xi 86 § 44 .

See díanechtair.

anflaithius

Cite this: eDIL s.v. anflaithius or dil.ie/3566

Forms: anḟlaithes

n (flaithius). Later anḟlaithes. lack of legal standing of a `flaith'(?): techta cana caich la derbfine acht aimser imfuigill im a.¤ n-aige fine; is i suide berair cuit forbaig ar a.¤ n-aige fine, Ir. Recht 34 § 36 `wegen der Un-Herrschaft des Sippenvorstehers'. In more general sense misgovernment, tyranny: mad h-e in ri . . . dogne an t-andliged no an tanflaithus, YBL 167b13 . is for a.¤ . . . na rig dogníter na tire . . . condat ambrite, PH 4231 . lochta . . . an anfhlaithis, TSh. 5347 . iad féin d'fhóirithin ó anfhlaitheas `tyranny', Keat. iii 2779 .

1 ar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ar or dil.ie/3902

Forms: ar, air, er, eir, air, er, ar, arin,, airind, air, airnaib, armo, aire, aratobarr, arandéntar, arambiat, ara, armbad, ara, arindepur, aridlabrathar, arna, áirium, erum, erumm, erom, erut, ærut, airiut, airut, airiut, aurut, airiu, airi, airi, erre, airri, airre, airthe, erunn, erund, erond, airiund, airriun, airund, airib, airibsi, airiubsi, airiuibsi, eruibsi, erru, erriu, erro, airriu, airiu, erthu, airthiu, airtho, airib, airaib, or(u)m, or(u)t, air, uirre, orainn, oirinn, oraib, orru, orrtha

prep., leniting, with accus. and dat. See GOI § 823 , Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 150 , Frazer, ZCP viii 5 , Williams, Celtica ii 305 ; IGT Introd. § 130 .

Usually spelt ar. air, Ml. 51c2 , 2d2 ; er, 122a16 , BB 449a10 ; eir, Ériu iv 180 § 39 . The spellings air, er, etc. (more freq. in later lang.) and the modern pronunciation show that O. Ir. ar as simple prep.was replaced by a conflation of airi and fo(i)r (3 s. n. of 1 ar and 1 for).

In Mid. Ir. 1 for and 1 íar are frequently spelt ar. See III, IV below and the articles on these words.

With article arin, -int, -a, etc. Note also airind, Ml. 31b17 , air ind, 53a15 . arndi (= arindí), Ériu vii 138.4 . airnaib, Ml. 110d9 .

With poss. armo (m'), -do (t'), -a, -ar, -far (-bar) etc. Note also ar mh'éigse, Content. ix 26 . aire slicht, L. Chl. S. 2 .

With rel. part. ara: aratobarr, Wb. 12d29 . arandéntar, 2a10 . cid arambiat , Ml. 56b9 . ara n-eperr, Críth G. 1 . With copula: cid armbad , Wb. 11a19 . cidar impotabis, Ml. 56a13 . cid arnabu son, ib. ardott áigthe, LU 5656 = arṅdotāigi, TBC-I¹ 1178 (taking áigthi as vbl. of necess.). ara trēn, ACL iii 239 § 32 . ara n-amra, ZCP vii 312 § 26 . Before inf. pron. arindepur, Wb. 5a31 . aridlabrathar, 7d2 . With neg. arna airecht, Sg. 198b3 . arnach faca, ZCP xiii 169.13 .

With pron. suff. Early forms. 1 s. áirium, Wb. 7a12 . erum, LL 286a25 . erumm, PH 1397 . erom, 1503 . 2 s. erut, Wb. 27d19 , 29d7 , YBL 326b42 , PH 6565 . ærut, Ml. 2d8 . airiut, Blathm. 569 , LL 289b30 . airut, LU 8086 . GOI § 437 also gives airiut, aurut without reff. as `old forms which occur only in later sources' ( p. 272 ). 3 s. m. and n. GOI § 437 gives airiu as the dat. form (cf. airiu, O'Dav. 22 ?), airi as the accus. airi is the usual form passim in the early language. Cf. áiri, Wb. 11b21 . f. (accus. and dat. not distinguished) erre, Irish Texts i 3 § 8 (sic MS. See Ir. Hist. Stud. i 347 ). airri, SR 405 (emended to airre, GOI § 437 ). airthe, LL 286a7 . 1 pl. erunn, Wb. 15d13 , Ériu ii 124 § 65 . erund, LU 597 . erond, 588 . airiund, TBC-I¹ 170 . airriun, ZCP xi 110 § 26 . airund, LU 593 . 2 pl. airib, Wb. 20a3 , 22d25 , 27c19 , Metr. Dinds. iv 232.33 . airibsi, Wb. 14d25 , a33 , 16a26 . airiubsi, 15c1 , 17a5 . airiuibsi, 16c23 . eruibsi, 27d7 . Ml. 2a11 . 3 pl. acc. erru, Wb. 4d20 , 11a29 ; ZCP ii 315.26 . erriu, Wb. 9c8 , 11a20 . erro, LL 289b30 . airriu, Wb. 15a23 , 21d11 , O'Dav. 985 . airiu, Wb. 11d11 , Laws iv 176.7 . erthu, LL 280a1 . RC viii 154 § 5 . airthiu, LU 4915 . ZCP viii 310.22 . airtho, TBC-I¹ 409 . dat. airib, Laws iv 162.2 . airaib, 114.21 Comm.

In later lang. all pronominal forms influenced by those of for, giving or(u)m, or(u)t, air, uirre (uirthe), orainn (oirn. oirinn, O'Gr. Cat. 556.25 ), oraib ( oirb, BColm. 100.3 ), orru (orra, orrtha), etc.

The presumed distinction between ar with accus. when motion is implied and with dat. when no motion is implied ( Zeuss 622 ; with reservations Vendryes Gramm. § 283 ; see also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 73 - 74 , Williams loc. cit.) appears most clearly in the stereotyped phrases ar chenn towards, ar chiunn ahead of, before (see 1 cenn): ar beolu towards, ar bélaib before, in front of (see bél). The dat. is usual in ar cach láu daily (see ) and in ar thosuch ( Sg. 203a7 , see tosach). Usage is less clear outside fixed phrases, and that of the various collections of O. Ir. glosses differs (the available material is also much reduced by the frequent identity of form of a s. and d s. of nouns). The accus. is regular in Wb. in senses of taking away from and counting as , and also in glosses on Lat. ob, the dat. where the meaning is with regard to, instead of and in glosses on Lat. super. Both cases are found where the meaning is for the sake of, because of . In Ml. accus. is constant only in set phrases. The dat. is usual in meaning counts as , do-beir ar (for?) calls and in glosses on Lat. dat. without preposition (ar gentib gl. gentibus, 78a12 , 89c2 ) and where a Lat. compd. noun is treated as two words (arintinmlegun gl. promulgatione, 71c18 ). In general use the meanings saving from, instead of, in meaning of, in return for, on account of, because of, for the sake of, for the purpose of are all found both with accus. and dat. In Sg. the meanings instead of and on account of are found with both cases. See also IGT Introd. § 130 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 2 - 4 , 17 , 20 (where detailed rules are given for accus. and dat. both with simple ar and for compd. preps. such as ar aghaidh, etc.).

I

(a) Much less freq. in concrete or physical meanings than in more abstract ones. Perh. before, in front of in (case of follg. noun not certain): dá [n]dorus [n-]and, comla[e] ar ala n-aí, clíath ar alailiu (-e, MS.) `in front of' (Gloss.), Críth G. 100 . ar Tuatha Dé Danann `before the T.D.D.', Ériu xii 152 § 15 (TE). cethridoruis airri (recte airre) im-mach, SR 405 . ó beit fíanna fer nÉrenn ┐ Alban do Chonaire ar thig, BDD² 1416 . Cf. 1081 , 1400 , 1492 . ? airiu . . . iarmo in front of it . . . behind it(?), O'Dav. 22 . Cf. airber .i. frit anair bere .i. eter do dī lāim, ar is fort muin bere ere [n-]aile, Corm. Y 58 . Acc. to Binchy, SCano p. 33 , frequent in meaning east of, the only example cited being: acon loch ar Mag Aí `by the lake east of Mag Aí', Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 32 § 2 (`on'). Cf. Airbri .i. fri Bri Eli anair, O'Mulc. 70 = Dinds. 16 ( RC xv 308 ). ? a nAicill ar Temair, Anecd. i 17.1 . Cf. perh. Síd ar Femin, LU 7846 ( BDD 140 ), etc. (or for al?). Perh. orig. with concrete force also in: do té(i)t aitire ar ḟer feras in fuil, Críth G. 52 `goes surety for', Gloss. Concrete meaning is perh. also to be assumed in the phrases agaid ar (late, orig. for?), ar agaid, ar amus, ar beolu, ar bélaib, bél ar bél, ar chenn, ar chiunn, ar dorus, ar dreich, ar fed, ar gnúis, ar leth, ar medón, ar ṡúil, ar thosuch, ar thús, ar úairib. See under the nouns concerned. With more abstract force in ar aí, ar apu (see 3 aí, 1 apa). Here may also be included: doire acummisc arúir `of their being mixed with mould', Wb. 13d3 . úachtar ar lemlacht dó mixed with, Críth G. 63 . loim midc do chumasc ar usciu `to mix a sip of whey with water', Mon. Tall. 143.25 . ba fial ṅdō buith arnaib ōcaib, cēin dogēni calma among, TBC-I¹ 1266 = LU 5739 . ? tiucfa in mac cētna ar bar cloind, ZCP viii 563 § 27 (for?). Perh. for for in: ó fó-certa a ṡrúb ar géscoe against a branch, BDD² 349 (= ar gésce, 355 ). conadh ar x. míli cathrach do shiublaighdis techta Magnuis Cam . . . ō maduin co fescor `to ten thousand cities', Marco P. 96 .

Rarely of time. See ariu before .

(b) In the follg. exx. the meaning is also more or less concr., though the precise meaning of the prep.is obscure, and it would be possible to consider them as early exx. of the replacing of for by ar (see III, and fo-ceird III): arnarala for cubus áiri, Wb. 11b21 (see note). Cf. focheird mo menma airi `my mind is set on him', Ériu ii 92 § 2 . ón lá tarrla ar n-airi air, iv 220.27 . torala dia archeill do degnimu su `let God bring to mind thy good deeds', Ml. 43b15 . iscor lame ardodced buith ocairbiathad sainte gl. nam qui volunt divites f[i]eri, incidunt in temptationem, Wb. 29b18 . ? Cf. ni comarleiced (.i. nir cetaig) dó cor lamha aire (.i. dul do sacarbhaic) cin foghlaim, Trip.² 243 . mabeidní dirúnaib dothéi armenmuin indfir, Wb. 13a12 . Note also: arnaib réib ilib gl. et qui ascendit super omnes caelos, 22a8 .

(c) In compd. numerals (with dat., see Celtica ii 312 ): a n-óen ar fichit (fichet, MS) the twenty-one, Ml. 2d2 . cóic míli ochtmugat ar chét one hundred and eighty five thousand, 34b17 . a ocht deac ar chét, BCr. 32d2 . deichinbair ar dib fichtib ar trib cétaib, Trip.² 3104 . secht cathae ar chetharchait / ar secht cétaib is huilliu, ZCP viii 313.34 . cōicer ar ceithri fichtib, 219.29 . fer ar sheisir seven men, Celt. Rev. x 348.23 . fri re tri n-aidhche ar mís, RC xviii 162.32 . Note also: tāinic buiden mōr . . . dōig lim is ar trichaid cēt inti approximately(?), TBC-I¹ 3142 (text perh. faulty).

II In a wide variety of abstract meanings for the most part deriving independently from those given under I.

(a) for, for the sake of, on behalf of, etc. (often gl. Lat. pro) (with accus. and dat. See Celtica ii 309 ): cia dudrigni dia mór di maith erriu, Wb. 11a20 . innahí dorigeni Día ar maccu Israhel, 30 . mirabilia dorígeni Dia ar maccaib Israhel, 28 . massu arinbethid . . . dagníu, 13c11 . mor ní as dénti ní airriu, 15a23 (in sense of mod. déanaim rud ar I obey, see Thes. Suppl. 51 ). niarséuti . . . robcarsi tíamthe, 23d4 . ar erchru gl. pro defectu, Ml. 31a4 . dusrigeni dia erru amal robu thol doib, 54a34 . fri assaru ar maccu israhel gl. rerum gestarum (testimonio), 94d2 . ara bǽsaib som .i. ar denum a thule gl. pro suis ritibus laborantes, 87b20 . a ndorigēnai in rí / do ḟertaib ar ṡanct Brigti, Thes. ii 332.4 (Hy. v). or ar Bran nailither, 286.34 (inscr.). lānamain . . . nī fil etarscarad dōib acht ar Dia, Corm. Y 824 . léicfider cach bean do mnáib airiut thou wilt be preferred to all other women, BDD² 59 . ar ghaol for the sake of relationship, Studies 1918, 99 § 15 . dorindedh mainistreacha ┐ sepeil le ar anmain Gyi `for the soul of G.' ZCP vi 90.11 . See also under meince, 1 pairt. Freq. in sense of (praying) for, see airnigde, guide, guidid, oráit.

(b) for the sake of, by in adjurations and invocations: dilig dam . . . / ar Maire n-amra n-Ingin, SR 7820 . ar do chumachtae . . . tesaircc dam-sa mo chūrcha, BColm. 54.3 . ar do thrīnōiteacht, a Thrīnōit, ACL iii 241 § 2 . ar t'fhírinni riutsa, na furáil etc. by thy honour, CCath. 1659 . ar na deib rib, TTebe 4025 . síol Ádhaimh . . . / ar do thocht díobh slánaigh sinn, Dán Dé ix 22 .

(c) on account of, because of (with accus. and dat. Glossing Latin ob, pro, propter): ar ar comoicsi do bás on account of, Wb. 14b25 . aracethardese gl. quam ob causam, 31b24 . ob mirationem .i. airinn adamrugud, Ml. 61a15 . ar chosmaili ind fochuinn diaragbtha gl. causae uicinitate, 35b24 . ar ét im chrabud gl. pro zelo religionis, 36d24 . arna lithu gl. propter cultús diuini festa, 47b2 . arna pecthu immefolngat guasacht do anmin gl. propter animae pericula, 7 . cid arnaibhisiu .i. arnaib hi forodamarsa gl. ob ista, 58d13 . ní ar pianaib do thabairt forru `not on account of the infliction of punishments upon them', 114b7 . ara foirbthetu fadesin, Wb. 6c19 . tocombaig a ṡlán ara ḟornert because of, Críth G. 415 . ar ṡóethaib because of grievances, 581 . ar ilar a imarbus, ZCP viii 104.7 . Corco Bāiscind ar a nert / nī damaid cert d'Eoganacht, v 500.16 .

With a variety of nouns in more or less stereotyped phrases: ar na h-ádhbharaibh sin for those reasons, ML 58.11 . ar[a] airmitin som through respect for him, Ériu iv 30.23 . ar t'ḟuath, i 97.32 . ni diles ni doberar ar uathbas `nothing is lawful which is given out of terror', Laws iv 286.25 . See also under áis, cairde, 1 cúis, 1 écndairc, éicen, ecla, 1 gart, midlachas, miscais, omun, sant, serc, úacht, etc.

Common with abstr. nouns from adjj. in the construction: nīr fētatar a tōcbāil ar a truma because of her weight = because she was so heavy, Anecd. iii 9.8 . ar dúire a drochdelba, Ériu iv 102.16 . ar ḟebus na cuidechtae because the company was so excellent, BColm. 78.18 . ar a laechdacht, ZCP viii 318.12 . ar cumga in puill nír féd dul amach, Ériu v 49.7 . in senadh ic á adhradh ar a uaisle, CCath. 334 . ar ghoire do ghaoil, Dán Dé xi 11 . Without poss. or gen.: cona tisa . . . in dam tarais ar airdi (a fence), Laws iv 76.19 Comm.

Freq. in advv.and conjj. in O. Ir. glosses. 3 s. n. as adv. on account of it, therefore: fristemlighter cid ind aier airi, Ml. 73c2 . ni bad pronomen airi, Sg. 203b2 . isairi doroigu dia geinti hore . . . this is why . . . because, Wb. 5b12 . is airi inso rogabad som hi rige, Ml. 14a4 . cinid airi doberr desimrecht acht ar atrebthach nand, Sg. 35b13 . With article and i: arindi gl. eo, Sg. 190a4 . ni arindí . . . sed quia not because . . . but because, 5a4 . arindisin gl. ei, Ml. 54c6 . arndi furumai sár for cach toil, Ériu vii 138.3 . With se: ní nád ṁbed arse di chorp gl. ideo, Wb. 12a22 . arse gl. ob hoc, Ml. 18d15 , gl. qua re, 29d1 . isarse gl. quo circa, Enchir. Aug. 70b , 81b ( ZCP vii 480 , 484 ). airechas ceneóil airsiu (leg. airsin? edd. airriu, Ped. MS Index to Wb. glosses) ní airechas fidei, Wb. 1b12 . Later: air sin on account of that, CCath. 2350 . Note also: ar a smuaintighib do beith . . . a mbeat[h]aidh an tigerna so that his thoughts might be in, etc., BCC § 5 (cf. ara).

(d) instead of, in place of, as substitute for, in meaning of (meaning confined to O. Ir. glosses. With dat., occas. with accus.): arnab geintib huilib taken as referring to all the Gentiles gl. Iudeos et Grecos omnes, Wb. 2a15 . foirbthe ar anfoirbthu gl. decem milia, a perfect (number) for an imperfect, 9a10 . corda .i. arin duiniu huli lesom gl. a parte totum, Ml. 53a2 . todochide ar sechmadachtae n-anfoirbthe gl. commotatio . . . temporum `future for imperfect', 62a16 . arnaib bolcaib gl. pro uesicis, 99a4 . fogur cechtar de ar alaliu ┐ fogur na liter naile airriusom, Sg. 4a8 . ni roscríbad ar naill (leg. ar na aill, edd.), 6b3 . a ṡuidigud ar anmmaimm dílius, 27a1 .

Often with as-beir, do-beir etc.: dobeir inso arnab uilib cumactib gl. supra omnem principatum et potestatem et uirtutem et dominationem, Wb. 21a13 . epert innan (MS. inna) aisndisen arnaib gnimaib gl. dicit autem non quia talia locuti sunt Scribae . . . sed quia talia fecerint, Ml. 16d3 . a ndurigni duaid in gnim sin in tengad do airbirt ar gnimaib in choirp, 31b24 . intan asmbersom pes ┐ manus nochis arnaib gnimaib són dungniat som honaib ballaib hisin atbeirsom, 56b3 . tri suidigud dosom inna cluas arin chorp huiliu, 60b16 . arnaib fedaib sonartaib ardaib gl. pro terribilibus arbustís cedros possuit, 146a6 .

The idiom ad-rími ar counts as (with accus. and dat.) is prob. to be assigned to this section: ní ármisom ar chumactte, Wb. 6a1 . cenid ar chomsuidigthib adrímther inna fortórmach so, Sg. 202a5 . See ad-rími. With LA: petra les arin trediusa sís he takes petra as standing for, Ml. 60a7 . in loc lesom híc arnaib aitrebthidib gl. a loco habitatores intellegite, 144c3 .

(e) in return for, in exchange for, as price of, in payment for, as equivalent of (with accus.): airitiu lóge ar mo precept in return for, Wb. 10d31 . rotbīa a lōg airi you shall have a reward for it, TBC-I¹ 585 . is lá cach(a) tíre do-tét dlega(i)r aire `is due for it', Ériu xvii 70.4 . Freq. do-beir lóg etc. ar: ainm indlóge doberr domiledaib armílte, Wb. 3c1 . intan dobera Dia fochraicci ar degnimu, Ml. 90c14 . screpul doberar do gilli . . . ar comaitecht do neuch o pecad `a groat that is given to a lad for accompanying someone in a sin', Mon. Tall. 143.9 . nī tibur-so in tinnscra sin(ee) cid ar Meidb C. feissin I wouldn't give a brideprice like that for M. herself, ZCP iv 39.7 (cf. TBFr. 185 ). ní conrogab terochraic . . . ar forbrissiud fir truaig `reward for oppressing a wretched man', Ml. 36a32 . ni riat na dánu diadi ara n-indeb domunde sell for, Wb. 28c2 . ríthæ . . . ar ech ndonn, Thes. ii 240.1 (Ardm.). tale damsa a log ar epert do firinne lat, Ml. 36a32 . síodh Dhé 'gá ceannach ar chrodh being bought for herds, Dán Dé xxvii 33 . With vbs. of leaving, abandoning: ni dérsid for sóiri ar fognam, Wb. 20b10 . roleicc creitim ar in paganacht he left the faith for paganism, Anecd. iii 72.28 . as uime do trēig Temraigh / ar Chend Maghair, ZCP viii 108.19 . Denoting preference: ragaid duit aire . . . rígi hÉrend in preference to him, BColm. 68.18 . do mholfuinn fear an leithléighinn 'gá mbíadh beatha ghlan . . . arfhear láinléighinn 'gá mbíadh beatha némhthromdha, Mac Aingil 4782 .

(f) for the purpose of, in order to obtain (as far as the exx. serve with accus. in Wb. and dat. in Ml. The exx. from Wb. given here, however, could equally be referred to the preceding section): precept arbiad in order to obtain food, Wb. 10d13 . madarlóg pridchasa, 23 . is arnach nindocbáil móir fodaimim se inso, 23b12 . asberat isar indeb isdénti tol dǽ, 29b12 . arind etarimdibiu (arindetar imdibiu, MS.) gl. pro interfectione aduersariorum, Ml. 36b23 . ar chuindriug pectho gl. instrumentum est divinae iustitiae `for the correction of sin', 49b7 . gabthe dunad les fris arinoillus for protection, 55c1 . asberar ar thormuch pectha for the purpose of increasing sin(?), 76a5 . bliadain lán dano do M. [┐] a muindtir uli for usciu ┐ bargin ar tuaslucud anmae B. `to obtain the release of the soul of B.,' Mon. Tall. 133.29 . serc fochraici ara n-as[c]nam, piana do imchaisiu ara n-imgabail in order to avoid them, Ériu vii 138.28 . is rimsa . . . rohérbad ar eisnéis it is to me it was entrusted for relating, iv 144.21 . annsa lebur tuc sé dóib ar choimét a ndligid feín `for keeping', Maund. 61 . Also perh. in phrase ar olc fri, see olc (because of?).

(g) by virtue of, by means of, through (dat.): condenad fingail ar chuinged soinmige do gl. mercari peccato securitatem, Ml. 39a6 . ? ar gressaib gal / glenaid luch inna línsam `by feats of valour', Thes. ii 293.20 . ni ar lín óc brister cath, Ériu ix 47 § 18 . ar neart a n-engnama by dint of their prowess, ML² 286 . gaibsit tír and ar chlaideb by the sword, ZCP viii 313.21 .

(h) In general sense of in respect of, with regard to, in the matter of, relating to, etc. (appar. with dat.) (the ascription of some exx. to this section is tentative): desmrecht insin ar aimsir deirb that is an example of, Sg. 66b17 , cf. exemplum ara airiuc far diull tanaisiu, 106b20 , exemplum inso ara rangabalda asrubart, 39a5 . annsom hi taurgillib tairgille ar bechaib, Laws iv 162.1 . rucus tairgilli ar bechaib `für Bienen ist ein `tairgille' . . . zu stellen', ZCP xv 319 § 12 . ? isam ómun ar a aisnéis I am afraid to relate it, LU 5349 . is fon samla-sin . . /gníth . . . a cét-chumma / Temrach . . . / ar áibnius in beauty, Metr. Dinds. i 10.64 . fear feadhma deas ar gach ndān in every art, ZCP viii 562 § 16 . bean as ghloine ar ghníomharthaibh `purest in deeds', A. Ó Dálaigh xv 15 . issí eisimplair Crist . . . do lenfadís ar míne ┐ ar buaine, ar deirc ┐ ar trocaire, Maund. 123 . ro derscnaigh d'ógaibh a chomaoisi ar goil ┐ gaisccedh, Leb. Gab.(i) 200.7 . Also in phr. ar chuit, see cuit. For do-beir teist ar see teist. See airbág.

Common in phr. of type: teine . . . ar thes crabaidh (of a person) a fire . . . in heat of piety = a paragon of piety, Anecd. iii 5.19 . Muridach, ba muir ar crūa[i]s, ZCP viii 299.34 . deochain ar grādaib ┐ sacart ar ūaisle a deacon in rank and a priest in reputation, BColm. 82. 15 - 16 . ba laech ar gaisced, RC xxiv 184.4 . a éan choluim ar cheannsa, Dán Dé i 19 . mar lile ar lí, Dánta Gr. 30.14 .

(i) about (of stories, books, reading, etc. In late exx. only. Perh. orig. for in this meaning): iomda ar Lasair ferta amhra many wonderful miracles (are said to have been performed) by L., Ériu v 90.4 . is mebair linn . . . / in seanchus fil ar Mag Ráin the lore about M., iv 156.18 . Leabhar Oiris ┐ An[n]ála ar Cogthaibh . . . Éireann, i 78 . craoibsgaoileadh ar chath Cluana Tairbh description of the battle of C., 16 n. léighmid ar Alexander n-uaibhrech, etc., Mac Aingil 872 . léan ba sgéal ar fianaibh Fáil, Magauran 2790 . Cf. sgriobhthar ortha go . . ., Ó Héodhusa 68.16 .

(j) With verbs of depriving, stealing, hiding, lacking, etc. from (accus. and dat.): tri airchellad donaib sommaib a n-anae airnaib bochtaib, Ml. 90a11 . is amne asruluús airi, Wb. 17d16 . a manaig do béim ar Lommān, BColm. 84.16 . ní bēram-ne t'áthius ort we shall not take thy victory from thee, 74.22 . ni cumscaichthi cumachtae nairi gl. hoc potestatem literae motare non debuit, Sg. 6a5 . ni fil nach díchlith airi, Wb. 1a4 . tesbanat boíll aíriu, 11d11 . in dá ṡét tesbanat airi, Críth G. 130 . ní gette na brithemnachta becca erriu you would not snatch the petty judgements from them, Wb. 9c8 . nī gatar a forgall ar domun degmnā, Cáin Ad. 4 . a tellad errusom, Wb. 11a29 . dives cui (.i. isar) clam tollitur , Enchir. Aug. 76b ( ZCP vii 482.27 .)

(k) With verbs of protecting, saving from , defending against (accus. and dat.): ainsium Crīst ar cech nernbās, Thes. ii 352.4 (Hy. vi). Dīa dom chobair . . . / ar cech ṅgúasacht, 350.16 (ibid.). dia dítin ar in pecthach, Ml. 57c4 . dia diden . . . ar náimdib, Thes. ii 354.2 . airnaib imnedaib doneimni a dǽ, Ml. 110d9 . fri himdegail cuirp . . . ar demnaib, Thes. ii 354.4 . diar snádud . . . / ar gábud, 359.6 . for soirad ar senachrib, Ml. 33b21 . air ni bói numsoiradsa ar chumachtae ṅduini, 74b13 . Continuing a Latin construction: ar thes inna gréne són ┐ ara naimtib gl. quae etiam inumbraret eos et regeret, 97c4 . arnaib cumachtgaib gl. difensionem, 103c7 . arnaib hi sin gl. ut illis eripiat, 117b4 . defensionis . . . ar maccaib israhel, 124b10 . Note also: comad chādus ar cach ngúasacht that it might be a halidom against every danger, BColm. 96.10 . tucc dam a Dē mōir / . . . / ar pīanu na plāg / tonna dīana dēr, ACL iii 232 § 1 .

III In later lang. ar and for become a single preposition (often with surviving difference in follg. mutation, see the examples in Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 2 ff. ). The follg. are exx. of ar for earlier for. Of local relations (for I): imda gol gargc ar a brú many a fierce wail in its lap, BColm. 100.6 . ar saebchoire in a maelstrom, 94.12 . tarrúd úire ar airib / for leccaib ar láech-maigib, Metr. Dinds. iv 232.34 . seóit Cluana maic Nóis do foillsechadh ar Gallaib Luimnigh `were discovered with', RC xviii 53.12 . Of quasi-local relations, etc. (II). Of point of time (c): ar na tri soldomnaib `on the three chief feasts', Mon. Tall. 129.27 . ar notlaice ┐ caiscc ┐ cengciges, Ériu vii 150.30 . Of rule, sway, over (f): ba rī tenn ar Tūathmumain, ZCP viii 119.28 . flaithius ┐ forlamhus ar crichaib . . . na cruinne, CCath. 1 . In addition to (g): cotardda trá ar se mo chendsa ardo chend my head in addition to thine, RC iii 185.8 . credo ┐ pater . . . ar cech m-biait, xv 490 § 26 ( for cach mbiait, § 32 ). Affecting, afflicting, etc. (h): bíd oirb oman Dé do neim, BColm. 100.3 . trom orm a innisi, ZCP viii 200.25 . duaithnid ar dainib in domain incomprehensible to, Fen. 38. 16 . Subsisting on (j): ar geilt féoir feeding on grass, Ériu iv 156.12 . ar usci ┐ bairgin, RC xv 491 § 30 , cf. for usci ┐ bairgin, 490 § 26 . In a state or condition (k): na biad ar in mbreith sin `that she would not abide by that judgement', RC xxiv 196.1 . nírbo borg báeth ar bruidin it was not a foolish castle engaged in brawling, Metr. Dinds. i 32.46 . With vb. of motion: ge deach rī Conaill a ccēin / ar slūaiged rí Temhra tréin, ZCP viii 116.21 . To express the dativus incommodi (m): adbathadar uile thorad parrthais ar Adam `were forfeited by Adam', Laws iv 266.14 . adbathadar ar Aongus a thire, 15 . rogabsat tech air they stormed the house in which he was, BColm. 72.4 . ni cloifithir oirb bar cath, YBL 314b55 . Perh. also: ben clucc ar Cellach against, Cáin Ad. 18 . cogadh mór le Domnall . . . ar Brian, Ériu i 78.5 . In phrases (p): ar bith c[h]é on this earth, BColm. 100.3 . ar comairci C. under the protection of C., 86.28 . ar debaid in haste, LL 7493 . ar lár cháich in the midst of everybody, Ériu iv 222.28 . ar neam in heaven, Anecd. i 39.114 . ar ṡeilbh (sic leg.) éicsi, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919, v 92 § 9 . With verbs (III): dorad min aire `put meal over it', Mon. Tall. 147.11 . dobert trian forcridi . . . ar chuid cach lae `added one third of water to the daily allowance', 7 . do thabairt geinti ar ireis, ZCP iii 22.6 .

Note also: rostatlaig ar thenn-medón he clasped her by the sturdy waist, Ériu iv 104.8 . roghabh nathraigh mbí ar bolgán `by the belly', CCath. 4194 .

IV Replacing ÍAR. Of time (I): ar cath Ch. after the battle of C., ZCP viii 314.18 . arsin, Ériu iv 132.1 . is ar sein anid sí co arnabárach thereupon she remains till the morrow, ZCP viii 309.20 . ar n-ēirghi grēine at the rising of the sun, ML² 1333 . sóaidh co brónach dia taigh ar marbadh a maic, RC xviii 45.31 . ar tteacht ór tticch, ZCP viii 219 § 13 . do bātar ar n-a crēchtnugad, ML² 386 . ar ngabāil gīall for Mumain, ZCP viii 119.31 . Of place (II): arsin t[s]eit along the way, Mon. Tall. 153.20 . ar slige Póil is Petair in the track of Paul and Peter, Ériu v 24.24 . According to (III): suidfither gach aon duine . . . ar miadh ┐ ar dligedh ┐ ar a sognim[r]adh, RC xxviii 22 § 49 . ar a fidhair fen do cruthaigh Día é in His own image, BCC § 408 .

For use as conjunction see 2 ar, 1 ara.

3 ar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 3 ar or dil.ie/3904

Forms: ol

v variant of 6 ol says, q.v. See Celtica v 95 - 102 , LEIA s.v. ol `au-delà', Usually ol in O. Ir. glosses, but ar occurs at Ml. 44b10 - 11 , 44c20 . In Mid. Ir. also freq. or, for, far, bar (see 3 for). Original spoken form perh. arse (O. Ir. olse), usually printed ar sé in editions. Cf. arse (sic Facs.) in gilla, LL 10243 (= ar se, in gilla `sagte er, der Bursche', TBC-LL¹ 3254 ). arse A., 307a26 . Cf. also arsé arAdam, SR 1306 , arsi ar Eua, 1554 , arse for Fer Diad, TBC-I¹ 2578 . Exx. of arse, etc. without noun in sense of inquit: ar sé, Sc.M² 6R . ar se, PH 2802 . ar sé, TSh. 2566 . ar sí, Sc.M² 3R . ar sí, TBFr. 356 . orsé, BDD² 452 . or sé, Sc.M² 4R . orsí, BDD² 61 . or si, LU 3590 ( SCC 30 ). With pl. ending or pron.: ar siat, Stair Erc. 697 . or cách, BDD² 215 . ordat meic Duind Désa, 891 . Exx. of ar etc. with noun subject: ar crist, Ml. 44b10 . ar [duai]d, 44c20 . ar M., Sc.M² 5R . ar F., TBFr. 321 . ar L., PH 1540 . or in t-aes uilc, BDD² 618 . or C., Sc.M² 20R . ar an t-aingeal, DDána 17.15 .

1 ard

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ard or dil.ie/4041
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: árd, árt, art, arad, arad, arrad, arruidṡliocht

also árd. árt, Wb. 24d9 . art, Thes. ii 235.15 . Somet. arad metri gratia, esp. in later lang.: arad, IT iii 104 § 202 . arrad, Ó Bruad. i 32 § xiv . arruidṡliocht, 23 G 24, 239.4 .

I Adj. o, ā

(a) Of objects not in contact with ground high: innahí ruptar ardda dunnai (of planets), Thes. ii 11.42 (BCr.). In compds. tri ardlémend, LU 4021 ( SCC 47 ). ard-luth a eich high motion, CCath. 4712 . ardnem na náemh, RC xxiv 372.25 . Cf. airdrenn, 2 airdrech.

(b) high above ground, elevated, lofty . Of a place: huand luc digas no a.¤ gl. e loco editiore, Ml. 58a12 . 47c19 . isna lucu arda, 23d23 . Of a mountain etc.: hi tilchaib ardaib, Ml. 14a9 . iter da sliab arda, TTebe 898 . Of a building etc.: gríanána . . . ardda, MU² 201 . i n-iomdhaidh aird raised high from floor(?), Magauran 1380 . Cf. compd. ¤-lepaid: iomdaighe ┐ árdleapthacha, RC xiv 30 § 12 . go rabat ind (leg. id ?) ardleabaidh / a mna a meic may they be in Thy high bed (place of honour ?), Anecd. ii 33 § 17 . mairidh an fhithchioll eagair / do h-imbearthaoi a n-áirdleabaidh, ML 50.6 . Of a tree tall: ind huinnius ardd, Sg. 67a11 . arnaib fedaib sonartaib ardaib, Ml. 146a6 . crann a.¤ , Stair Erc. 384 . Of a vessel in compds.: fó inbiur in ardchori `lofty cauldron' (deep ?), MacCongl. 39.17 . airdiena (ardíana v.l.) ibardha deep(?) yew vessels, Anecd. ii 58 § 20 . Cf. 1 ardán.

(c) Of the sea: cathair ṡlúaigh do airg d'ḟoiléim / a ngoibéil chúain aird ainiúil deep(?), IGT Decl. ex. 518 . In compds.: an ardmhuir thened high sea, ocean (?), Ériu ii 124 § 68 (calque from Lat. altum mare , Deutsche, Kelten und Iren 99 ). tar ard mhuir cciachdhuibh `tossing', Ir. Review 1913, 624 § 16 . dún is inber is ard-ler, Metr. Dinds. iii 112.34 .

(d) Of sounds loud: a.¤ aniu . . . gáir guil, Cog. 96.3 . frecra n-a.¤ n-obéle loud answer, Tec. Corm. § 25.12 . traetaít na ciulu islí na ciuil arda, BB 327b33 . In compds.: blūsair .i. nuall ardegóir, O'Mulc. 180 = O'Dav. 329 . firfid Findbennach fri dond Cúalnge ardburach loud bellowing, LU 10401 . ag Eochaid Ardghair `of the loud cry', Ériu i 81 § 11 . ardghaire mbaeth loud foolish laugh, Fél. 206.y . do breth a hardguth for aird, LL 9226 (TBC). árdghothach ┐ easurramach loud and stubborn, Proverbs vii 11 .

(e) Of colour: fual . . . á.¤ , Rosa Angl. 188.4 .

(f) In fig. usage. Of rank or superior quality noble, dist- inguished: aire ardd, one of the grades of nobility , Críth G. 368 and p. 69 . Andreas a.¤ a ordan, Fél. Feb. 6 . bit áird úas dind ḟlatha exalted (of saints), Prol. 155. a bhanaltra charthannach an Chomhachtaigh aoird mighty(?), Hackett xix 41 . óclách a.¤, imnair, IT i 79.2 . art .i. uasal, Metr. Gl. 27 § 35 . Stowe Gl. 22 . Of foundations, institutions etc. ba cóir ceniptis árdda do chongbala-su, Trip.² 1564 . bid á.¤ bid úasal do chathir i talum, 472 . abb ecailse ardae, Fél. Jan. 2 . sacramaint ro-a.¤ a cuirp fein august, Smaointe B. Chr. 3324 . Of a place: bátir Érenn ardae / la m'Luóc . . . / grían Liss móir de Albae they were of noble Ireland, Fél. June 25 . Of a feast: ré Notlaicc aird aurgaiss, Fél. Nov. 13 . In compds.: domhnaighe . . . ┐ airdfheile, AFM ii 952.15 , casc . . . ardshollumun na bliadne principal festival, Lism. L. 323 . Gramm. ón táoibhréim a. iollraidh i.e., the g p. in a dental, IGT Introd. § 142 (see ísel).

In phr. ardu árosc, see árosc.

(g) great, extensive(?): ba ha.¤ in coscur .i. ba mor, Thes. ii 334.1 (Hy. v). a.¤ .i. mor nó sochaide, ut est a.¤ in athlighi .i. sochaide facbhuit ina lige, O'Dav. 21 .

(h) proud: ná bísi ard nó íseall, L. Cl. A. B. 132.58 . atbert athesc a.¤ proud answer, LL 19874 .

(i) difficult, laborious, arduous (based on Lat. arduus JCL ix 44 ): is rét a.¤ .i. foglaim inna hirisse foirbthe gl. res ardua atque difficilis, Ml. 14c10 . roart lessom epert friusom intsamli dæ, Wb. 24c10 .

Equative: ardithir . . . seólcrand prímlui[n]gi, LU 6474 (TBC). airdithir neolla nime gach fer dib, RC xvii 416.38 . goma hairdithir re h-én, MR 300.11 .

Compar.: cia thes hi loc bes ardu ní ardu de, Ml. 23d23 . ni arddu feisin quam a chocéle, Sg. 161b9 . ni artu ní nim `nothing is higher than heaven', Thes. ii 248.3 . arddu (arddiu v.l.) dōinib / acht nōibrī nime, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 10 § 4 . airdiu cach múr araile, LU 2037 ( FA 11 ). airddiu, IT i 77.13 . harda (: Alba = Albu), ZCP viii 197.11 . airdi sa hairdi `higher and higher', Études Celt. i 87.23 . As superl. caithir fhionn as airde múr, DDána 119.19 .

Superl. dobeir grád as ardam, Fél. Ep. 207 . ardam dossaibh highest of bushes, Auraic. 5548 . ardam iactadh loudest of groanings, 5575 .

Adv.: eigis co ha.¤ , TTebe 4407 . ? teist dober cu arad ort / tu labor olcc eltaide edranach, IT iii 104 § 202 . is a.¤ do ghradaigh si sibh she has loved you much, Smaointe B. Chr. 4970 . ag foillsiughadh go ha.¤ showing openly, Donlevy 62.28 . In phrase ós a.¤ : gan feis lé fear ós a.¤ `publicly', Keat. ii 2924 , cf. 1 aird.

II Subst. o

(a) high place, height: etir fán ┐ ardd, Ml. 140a2 . conid Temair a hainm ind aird sin, ZCP viii 313.29 . cit n-é . . . ardae ┐ indbera do-riadhad ? BDD² 456 . rith fri ha.¤ , Tec. Corm. § 21.8 . tar Echtge na n-a.¤ 's na n-áth, ZCP viii 222.8 . triall . . . ó arduibh iarthuir Eireann `hills', Ir. Review 1913, 624 § 16 . bás an daig[h]f[h]ir . . . / do theilg thuinn a n-aighidh aird, Bard. Synt. Tr. 24.28 . gan leath-trom learg d'fhán nó d'a.¤ (: bard), DDána 119.18 . eirnithe cach na.¤ (of a wound. Cf. cnocbéim), BCrólige 64 . ní léimid na héisc le hárdaibh eas, Hackett xv 12 . mar do ghabh sruth Iordan . . . a n-aghaidh áird i.e. flowed backwards, up-stream? Eochairsg. 66.2 (cf. Joshua iii 16 ). Frequ. in nn. loc: Ard nGabla, Metr. Dinds. i 40.29 . Ard n-Umai, RC xvi 79.20 . For further exx. see Hog. Onom.

(b) Of persons: isel fri art `lowly towards the high' (proud ?), Thes. ii 235.15 . in t-a.¤ . . . Ailill na n-áth, LL 4207 . tú in t-a.¤ ós gach iomaire, O'R. Poems 26 . a n-aird ┐ a n-airdirc, CCath. 4409 . ? ní cria . . . di ardd (di aird v.l.) `do not buy . . . from a superior', Tec. Corm. § 19.7 . art fine, one of the titles of the head of the `fine' (`den aus der oder über die `fine' Hervorragenden', Thurn., Mélanges ... à H. Pedersen 302 . In this phrase always with final -t. Cf. 1 art etc.): a.¤ uasal, unde dicitur a.¤ fine, Corm. Y 26 . in t-a.¤ fine .i. inti is airdi don fine, O'Dav. 486 . dia mbe a.¤ fine ar aird . . . is a.¤ fine icus, Laws v 224.14 Comm. dia tisad a.¤ fine fae, 13 Comm.

(c) Various: is caín cech a.¤ , LU 3915 ( SCC 43 ). a.¤ n-athe (of a king), ZCP viii 108.6 . tomus fri arddu (a sign of bad pleading), LL 345e14 ( Tec. Corm. § 22 n.12 ). ní guais áidh . . . / do bheanfodh dhe dol ar a.¤ (: Tadhg) `from growing to be great', O'Hara 4400 . In phrase a.¤ i n-a.¤ fri see 1 aird.

(d) Metrical term for a final rhyming or consonating syllable in the metre rinnard , see RC vi 273 , 298 ; vii 87 ff. ; Murphy Metrics 28 , 35 . rindaird dá n-a.¤, rinnaird tri n-a.¤, rinnaird iiii n-a.¤ , Fél. 4.z ., IT iii 137 . fil and mór nard ṅáille (of the metre of the Fél.), Fél. Ep. 83 . In compd. ¤-breccad internal assonance, IT iii 87 § 95 .

Compds. Used with nouns, adjj. and verbs. Besides its use in literal sense often indicates pre-eminence in rank or excellency over others of the same designation e.g. ardrí over-king (see ). ardḟlaith (flaith. ardlathi ` chief princes ', Wb. 1a3 ). ardap (ap) chief abbot (of the a. of Clonmacnoise, RC xviii 287.15 Tig.). ardepscop (epscop) archbishop . ardṡuí (suí) chief sage. ardáenach (óenach, of Taillte, Keat. ii 3851 ). ardídal ( ídal. á. na Héirenn .i. Cenn Crúaich, Trip.² 1005 ). Cf. ardchaerich adobcomnaicsi, ardlias duib, lias bec anisiu, caerig beca ann you are important sheep and have a great fold; this is a small fold with small sheep in it, Anecd. i 41.25 . Frequ. a mere intensive or alliterative prefix adding little to the meaning. A representative selection is given below. Some compds. have been included above to illustrate meanings.

(a) With nouns. ¤-aicned haughtiness: nír dhénta uaill na ardaignedh, Études Celt. i 85.28 . ¤-ammus judgement, estimate (interchanges with airdmes), O'Curry 1063 ( H 3.18, 439a ) = airdmes, O'D. 1629 (H. 5.15, 16b). O'D. 542 ( H 3.17, 434 ). O'Curry 2578 ( Eg. 88, 49(50)a ). ¤-broenud gl. imber, Metr. Gl. 5.2 , RC xx 276.23 (ACC). ¤-chell chief church: na tri haird-cealla (Maedóc's settlements), BNnÉ 260 § 220 . ? ¤-chellach incumbent of an ardchell(?): Adamnan ardcellach, Flower Cat. 490.30 . ¤-chend, as adj. having a lofty head: ech . . . ardchend, LU 8661 ( FB 49 ). da ech . . . ardchind, 8592 (ib. 45 ). for echaib ardchendaib, Alex. 253 . a Brain ardchind, LL 306a7 . As subst. a. iarthair Eorpa ar . . . ecna, AFM ii 838.2 . Moling 50 . ¤chless juggling in the air: ardchless co n-ublaib 'juggling in the air with balls' Celtica viii 149 (Mellbretha) . ¤-chustal: a. ┐ drochgné fair, LU 10829 `his loins girt(?)', Ériu xii 178 § 9 (TE). ¤-chor: ardchur ag an bpríomháid air while the primate had authority over him, Keat. iii 303 . árdchor aige ar na Scotaibh he had supremacy over the Scots, i 14.16. ¤-gabáil: gabaid a lēnid i n-ardgabāil `tucked up his shirt', MacCongl. 9.25 . in ardgabail-sea doníat in cuanairt . . . `high-catching', Acall. 7385 . claideb . . . i n-a. gaili fora chris raised, uplifted (for action), LU 6561 (TBC) = i n-ardgabail churad bar a chlíu, TBC-LL¹ 5340 . So also RC xliii 82 § 84 . seol grás uaidhe ar ardghabháil `a sail of graces is hoisted by Him', Aithd. D. 60.5 . do ardgabalaib in domuin chief conquests, ZCP iii 17.2 . ¤-gal: go gclos go nemh an a., Duan. F. i 32.9 . As n.pr. co teach Eachdach meic Ardgail, ZCP viii 219.27 . ¤-gním breast-work, rampart: airdgníma (adhgnímha v.l.) caelaig, CCath. 1394 . ¤-mac : ardmhac oglaig (oppd. to certmac o.), O'Curry 285 (H 3.18, 157) `chief son', Plummer MS notes. crichaireacht ... a taiseach, ┐a n-ard mac n-oglach, ┐ a n-olloman, Iar Conn. 368 (H. 2. 17, 188b). ¤-menma: dimus ┐a. arrogance, CCath. 3868 . ¤-mess: nir nanacht airdmes roclos / no chairdes no condolbos great esteem did not save him, SR 3135 . tria na n-a. ra halta / a cairdes bud ceṅgalta, LL 7134 . ¤-nemed: atnaig tar fót crúach i n-a. di[a] díte he conveys him over the bloody ground into full sanctuary for his protection, Críth G. 54 . ¤-nert superior power: ardneart Muman do gabail dó, AFM ii 1098.8 . ¤-nós: alladh ┐ ardnos, AFM vi 2368.4 . As n.pr. Grigair mac Ardnōis, ZCP viii 114.25 . ¤-phersa : techtiri ártphersine gl. Christi apostoli, Wb. 24d9 . ¤-radarc : ed ardradairc . . . úan fa deas atá `of a great prospect', Ériu iv 142.16 . gurab eissan ardriaghlaightheoir nimhe & talmhan e, Adtimchiol 27b11 . ¤ríge high kingship : debthaig immonn-ardríge, SR 6538 . ¤-scél : innisim dó mh'airdsgēla great news, ZCP viii 220.40 . ¤-ṡreb : ō chéibh īochtuir airdshreibhi, O'R. Poems 204 . ¤taoiseach 'haut chef' Études Celt. xii 514 . ¤-thuile : abann ard-tuile in full spate, BNnÉ 108 § 33 .

(b) With adjj. ¤-aicentach: do bhádar árdaigeantach haughty, Ezekiel xvi 50 . ¤érmach, éirmech: an agh fholuaimneach ard-érmeach, Acall. (Leabh. ó Laimhsgr.) ii 27.22 . ¤-mór : esculus . . . .i. fid arddmár `a very high tree', Sg. 53a7 . ar muraib ardmoraib an baili, TTebe 4453 . trí chert Amairgen ardmóir, LL 1762 . ¤-menmnach : airecht . . . a. high-spirited, CCath. 5362 . ¤-medrach sportive (of a wave), ML 94.16 . ¤-mín : a ingenraid n-a. tall and gentle, LU 3601 ( SCC 30 ). óclach seta fata . . . n-a., LL 11793 . ¤-réil : co sleib n-Ailp n-a. lofty and bright, Rawl. 78b35 . ¤-úallach high and haughty. As n.pr. a. ingen Ḟind, Acall. 6453 . ¤-úasal : a ardrí . . . a., MU² 834 . cech etha ardūasail imbeth, ZCP xi 92 § 19 .

(c) With vbs. ¤-chuirid : d'ardchuir m'atuirse which increased my sadness, Hackett xii 29 . ¤-ḟodlaid : maith fáth ro hardfódlad de was nobly divided(?), LB 185a21 . ¤-gaibid : ro ardgaib Assal, Fen. 342.20 . ¤-légaid : airdleghais B. . . . an leabar ngreccda read aloud, BNnÉ 84 § 169 (cf. ar-léga). ¤-lesaigid ir: ro hoiled ┐ ro hardleasaidhedh í (of Mary), Ev.Inf. (LFF) 171 § 24 . ró hoiled ┐ rohardleasáigiodh iad educated to a high standard, RC xiv 28 § 6 . ¤-mesaid : ar a eól is ardmesta `for his knowledge he deserves high esteem', Metr. Dinds. iii 438.8 . ¤-rígaid: airdrīghaigh rí, ZCP viii 205.4 . ¤-thidlaicid: ro edhbair ┐ ro ardthiodhlaic he nobly bestowed, Anecd. iii 6. x .

? argais

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? argais or dil.ie/4133

n felmac fri re na argaisi .i. an mac bis ag foglaim foilbsa, Laws v 364.17 `während der Zeit der Lehre(?)', Bürgschaft 59 n.l . argius (arguius v.l.) aiste, Triads 256 . Cf. airgais?

attá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. attá or dil.ie/4927
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: attá, Fil, fil, faeilfit, fil, fil, atóo, attó, attóo, ató, -táu, -ttóo, -tó, atái, atái, -tái, adta, ata, at, atáa, attáa, ataa, att, -tá, -ta, -táa, -dathar, ataam, attaam, ataid, ataaith, ataaid, ataad, -taid, ataat, ataat, -tat, -taat, tathum, tathut, táithi, táthus, táthunn, taithiunn, tathuib, tás, fil, fil, feil, fel, fail, fil, file, fel, fele, feil, fail, biuu, -bíu, -bí, biith, biid, bíid, -bii, -bí, robīi, -rubi, -rubai, -ruba, bíis, biís, bis, bís, bithir, bither, -bither, -rubthar, bímmi, -biam, bimme, biit, bíit, robiat, -biat, -bíat, -rubat, bíte, -bíinn, -biinn, -bíid, -bíth, -bid, -bith, bithe, -bímmis, -bitis, -bítis, b, bíth, bíith, bíid, biid, bíd, bithom, biid, bith, biat, beo, beu, -béo, bee, b, -bee, robhe, beith, beid, bed, beth, -b, -bée, bethum-sa, rob, robe, rubé, rob, robbé, -roib, bess, bes, bethir, bether, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -bem, -robam, beithe, bethe, -beith, -beid, -robith, beit, rubet, be(i)t, -bet, -robat, bete, -beind, -beinn, -betha, nobed, nobeth, -bed, -beth, -robad, -rabad, -bethe, -bemmis, -beimmis, -bemis, -bethe, -betis, -[ro]ibtis, bia, bie, bieid, bied, -bia, -bia, -bia, -bía, bethiumm, bethib, bias, bies, beithir, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -biam, -piam, bethe, bethi, -bied, -bieid, biet, bieit, biet, -biat, -bíet, bete, beite, nombeinn, nobiad, -bíad, nobemmis, nobetis, b, -bá, bói, bái, -bói, boie, boithius, boíthi, baísu, both(a)e, botha, -both(a), bamar, bámar, -baid, bātir, -batar, batar, rob, -roba, -raba, rob, robói, rambái, robui, -robae, -robe, -rabae, romboth, rombod, -rabad, robámmar, -robammar, rubaid, -robaid, robatar, robbátar, -rabatar, -robatar, -rabtar, buith, buithi, atáu, atú, itu, it, atú, ataim, -t, -tái, -toi, taoi, -t, atá, attá, ata, at, atáthar, dáthar, atass, -das, itám, tám, ataum, ataim, atamaoit, atámaoid, atám, -taum, -dtám, atathai, atathi, atáithi, -táithi, -dathai, -taidh, itāt, atáit, ataut, táid, -táit, itat, atat, fil, -fhile, -fhuile, -fuili, -ḟoili, -ḟuile, fail, fail, fuil, -fail, -fuil, -uil, -ḟil, -ḟuil, -ḟoil, fil, fail, fail, filter, -fuiltear, fuilemm, -failmet, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, -bhḟuilti, failet, filet, fuilet, -failet, -filet, -fileat, -fuilet, -fuilid, failet, failet, fuilet, filet, bim, bím, -bím, -ruibim, -bi, bíd, bíd, -bí, -bíonn, -bind, bídh, -b, bither, -bithar, bímit, bídmaid, bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, bíth, bīd, -bíat, -bít, -bíd, bit, bít, bhínn, nobīth, robíth, bhíodh, bhíoth, bithi, -bithi, bithea, naboitis, nobīdis, beitis, bitis, bhítís, bhídís, bír, b, bīdh, bíodh, bíoth, bíom, bíthe, bídh, bidhí, bíod, ber, uér, beor, bheith, bur, -rabor, -rabhus, rabasa, bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, bé, beir, -rab(a)i, -rabha, -rabhair, -mbéis, -beis(se), -rabais, beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, beth, -b, -raib, -rab, -raibhe, rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, bess, beas, bethur, beme, bemmit, bemait, -bém, -beam, -ruibem, -rabum, bheam, rabham, bethi, rabthai, beit, -bet, -beat, -rabat, -rabut, -rabhait, -rabhaid, -rabheid, beinn, rabainn, beithi, beithe, bethe, beitheá, beith, nobith, mbeadh, -mbeath, -rabad, -bethe, -bette, rabtha, mbiadh, nobeitis, nobeidis, mbeith, bíat, biat, biad, bhead, bed, bét, bett, -biu, -bhiú, biad, -bi, bía, biae, biaidh, bía, -bía, bethair, bied, biaid, biáid, -bia, bíes, bés, bes, bess, bhias, biass, beither, beithir, bemit, bemait, -bem(ni, beimíd, -biam, -biaim(ne), -ben, bethi, beitte, bete, -bed, biait, biat, beit, beiti, beti, betit, beidid, -bīat, beidíd, beid, -bíad, no-béind, dobeind, do beinn, -beinn, bheitheá, biadh, -bied, bífad, rot-fiadh, biath, bhiadh, bethe, bheidīs, ro-bádus, bhádhus, bhí, -rabus, -rabhas, -rabadhus, bá, -raba, bádhus, -rabadhas, basa, bhádhuis, bhí, -rabadais, -rabhais, bhádhuis, -rabhadhuis, bae, bóe, baei, búi, -bae, -buí, robai, robae, robói, bí, robuidh, bí, bhói, bhaoi, -rubai, -roibe, -roibi, -roba, -raba, -raibhe, -rabha, -robha, bí, -raibi, baí, -rabha, -rabhustair, boí, bāi, būi, bae, buí, baí, boí, both, rombatha, robās, rombas, robás, -rabus, rabas, -bádus, -bás, bás, bas, -rabas, bas, bhás, bāmur, bámar, bhámair, -rabamar, robabair, -babhair, robadbair, bhábhair, -rabhuir, -rabhabhair, bādar, -bátir, badar, bádar, bídur, -rabadar, -rabhadair, baisit, -rabhsad, bátar, bátar, bheith, beitte

(ad-tá) subst. vb. is . The distinction betw. subst. vb. and copula is in the first place syntactical, and cases are found where there is no distinction of form. Cf. the type, common in ACC: boe sab he was a leader, ACC 26 . See further below, and the discussion by Bergin, Ériu xii 208 - 211 (cia taísiu, cia bé, etc.), who refers to cases like: is uera pictura ro bai sin, Thes. ii 6.32 as emphatic. See also Ériu xvi 46 , GOI 475 . For nimtha laám, Wb. 12a21 , nímptha fírion, 8d24 (copula ?) see GOI 487 . Note also the form of the pron. in (later): matait tall iat, Laws iv 86.8 Comm. , atá ar conair é, ACL iii 216.z . bí N. eices cecinit, RC xvii 175.14 is perh. a mistake. In follg. use of subst. vb. perh. due to infl. of Latin: mar nobéind athair doib = pater eram pauperum, PH 6107 . ata in innsci ordugud etc. = oratio est. . ., Auraic. 591 .

Apart from the ordinary indic. pres. all forms of subst. vb. are from a root beginning with b-. In indic. pres. the stem tá (in absol. position attá) is used in non-rel. sentences without conj. particle, after conj. particles with inf. pron. dat. and when the conj. particle consists of a preposition and rel. (s)a n-. Absolute inflexion of tá- is found in oldaas, indaas, etc. than (is), in meaning is angry, and with follg. suff. pron. The uninflected form fil (with accus.) is used after conj. particles where no dat. inf. pron. is present, in leniting rel. clauses and often in answers to questions containing subst. vb., and in archaic texts in absol. position in meaning there is . For fuller details see GOI 476 - 483 and exx. below. See also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 419 ff. , Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899, 1 - 82 , Ó Máille, Ériu vi 1 ff. , Études Celt. xxxiv 143-44 . Forms of gaibid, do-coissin, díchsnigidir and 1 ad-cumaing also have the force of the subst. vb. in certain uses, see separate entries.

Note further that attá is usual after hóre (see Wb. 19a19 , 22d14 and compare GOI § 781 ) and occurs later after amal ( LU 7072 , Laws iii 90.18 ). Fil is somet. found in sense there is in mid. Ir.: fail crois d'ór in cach dorus, SR 361 . TBC-I¹ 2561 . Note also: fil derg it is red, Marco P. 173 .

The use of accus. after fil continues into the classical period, see IGT Introd. § 129 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 92 - 93 . A few exx. of forms other than fil with accus. occur: ni raibi deilb, TTr.² 1664 , ní raibi . . . mhnái, 370 , ní bhiadh mnaoi, Ó Bruad. ii 252.z (with assonance). Note also with inf. pron. rosṁbai inna tass, SR 5107 . ? nim tha maith . . . do chath fri firu, LU 3343 ( SCC 13 ). From the mid. Ir. period on fil takes personal endings except in 3 s., and occurs occasionally as an independent verb: faeilfit (fut. 3 pl. absol.), Caithr. Thoirdh. 120.26 . In rel. function attá is found side by side with fil from an early period: is heiside attá hi S., Trip.² 534 , a lucht atá istig, RC vii 298.131 , the form fil finally disappearing in this use.

In mid. Ir. fil occurs for earlier -tá with dat. inf. pron.: nichar fail tlacht, SR 1560 , ni-s-fil biad, PH 1310 . Also in rel. clause after prep.: bale hi fail, LU 7516 , fors fil, Imr. Brain 43 (see also Strachan, Stories fr. Táin 3rd ed. p. 1 note).

The consuet. pres. 1 s. conj. -bíu has in classical Ir. the force of a future: biad ní biú, IGT Verbs § 7 , see also TBC-LL¹ 882 , Acall. 6179 , Duan. F. i 43.4 .

Early forms (for fuller lists see Strachan loc. cit.). Indic. pres. 1 s. atóo, Wb. 12a21 . attó, 21c19 . attóo, 26d8 . ató, 26d17 . -táu, 32a10 , -ttóo, 17d24 , -tó, Ml. 92b8 . 2 s. atái, Wb. 5b27 . atái, Ml. 110d15 (sic MS, see Ériu xiv 30 ). -tái, 5b38 . 3 s. adta, Laws v 390.10 (see ZCP xxv 247 ). ata, Wb. 13c26 , at, 27a11 , atáa, 6a19 , attáa, 32a6 , ataa, 26b31 , att, 4b11 . -tá, 31c7 , -ta, 2b12 , -táa, 13a35 . Impers. -dathar (see GOI 477 - 478 ), Wb. 21c9 . 1 pl. ataam, Wb. 15a13 , attaam, 32a28 . 2 pl. ataid, Wb. 4a4 , ataaith, 20b16 , ataaid, 23c28 , ataad, 22d14 . -taid, 19d26 . 3 pl. ataat (trisyll.), Blathm. 471 . ataat, Ml. 55d11 , 37a10 . -tat, 42b10 . -taat, Sg. 71b3 .

With suff. pron. tathum, Metr. Dinds. iv 284.3 . tathut, Fél. July 24 . táithi (tathai, v.l.), Críth G. 197 . táthus, Fél. Feb. 5 . táthunn, Prol. 217. taithiunn, Thes. ii 293.19 . tathuib, Rawl. 88b51 .

For rel. s. without preverb (taas, tás) see atás, indaas, 4 ol.

The form fil, etc. As conj. form: fil, Wb. 16b9 , Ml. 92a8 , Sg. 193b7 . feil, Wb. 24c4 . Ml. 60b2 . fel, Wb. 3c38 , Ml. 27d10 . fail, 44b10-11 , Sg. 32a1 . As rel.: fil, Ml. 121c8 , file Wb. 23a5 , Ml. 51d11 , Sg. 151b7 . fel, Wb. 4c1 , fele, Ml. 93c7 . feil, Wb. 33b18 . fail, BCr. 18c4 .

Consuet. pres. 1 s. biuu, Wb. 16d8 . -bíu, 20a3 . 2 s. -bí, Ml. 135d1 . ACL iii 312 § 4 . 3 s. biith, Wb. 29a26 . biid, 4d33 . bíid, Sg. 150b4 . -bii, Wb. 28b25 , -bí, Ml. 103c3 . With ro: robīi, TBC-I¹ 1730 . -rubi, Wb. 11c17 , -rubai, Ml. 20d4 , Sg. 7b3 . -ruba, 3b28 . Rel. bíis, Wb. 13a12 . biís, 28b28 . bis, Ml. 61a33 . bís, Sg. 140b2 . Impers. bithir, Ml. 56b15 . rel. bither, 108b4 , -bither, 100c21 . -rubthar, cited GOI § 784 . OIPG 69 . 1 pl. bímmi, Ml. 15a4 . -biam, Wb. 16a8 . Rel. bimme, Wb. 12c11 . 3 pl. biit, Wb. 29a28 . bíit, Sg. 217a1 . robiat, 138a5 . -biat, Ml. 59d7 . -bíat, Sg. 148a4 . -rubat, 138a5 . Rel. bíte, Wb. 9d28 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. -bíinn, Ml. 108b1 , -biinn, 58d9 . 3 s. -bíid, LU 5080 (see Ériu xvii 121 ), -bíth, Sg. 148b6 . -bid, Ml. 33a5 . -bith, Vita Br. 12 . Impers. no bithe , CCath. 3971 . 1 pl. -bímmis, cited GOI § 785 . 3 pl. -bitis, Ml. 86d6 . -bítis, Sg. 5a15 .

Ipv. 2 s. b, TBC-I¹ 2391 . 3 s. bíth, Wb. 10a8 , 25 , bíith, 8d9 , bíid, 5d33 , biid, Ml. 74d3 . bíd, Wb. 3a14 . With suff. pron. bithom, Fél. Ep. 404 n.17 . 2 pl. biid, Wb. 23c11a . bith, 22b26 . 3 pl. biat, Ml. 51d13 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. beo, Wb. 23b41 . beu, Ml. 53b8 . -béo, Fél. Prol. 273 . 2 s. bee, cited OIPG 70 and see GOI 482 . b, ZCP viii 311.z (see xxiv 122 ). -bee (perh. absol.), ZCP vii 494 (Enchir. Aug.). -bē, Fing. R. 82 . With ro: robhe (restored as ro-bé), Blathm. 92 § 9 . 3 s. beith, Ml. 108a11 . beid, Wb. 14c23 . bed, 3c10 . beth, Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr. Hom.). -bǽ, Wb. 22b14 . -b, Sg. 29b14 . -bée, Wb. 12c43 . With suff. pron. bethum-sa, Fél. Ep. 384 n.14 . With ro: rob, Wb. 5d30 , robe, 18c4 , rubé, Ml. 20d4 , rob, Wb. 28a23 , robbé, Sg. 169a1 . -roib, Wb. 16c24 , Ml. 118c5 . Rel. bess, Wb. 5d14 . bes, Ml. 77d3 . Impers. bethir, Wb. 5d33 . rel. bether, Ml. 107d8 . -bether, Wb. 10a18 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 31c11 . beimmi, 19a16 . -bem, 24a10 . -robam, 26c10 . 2 pl. beithe, Wb. 18b16 . bethe, 24b13 . -beith, Ml. 46a10 . -beid, Wb. 27c9 . With ro: -robith, Wb. 26a28 . 3 pl. beit, Wb. 10b5 . rubet, 26a23 . ro be(i)t , Vita Br. 35 . -bet, Wb. 9d27 . -robat, 11d9 . Rel. bete, Wb. 10c22 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -beind, TBC-I¹ 1856 . -beinn cited GOI § 787 . 2 s. -betha, Wb. 4c24 . 3 s. nobed, Wb. 3b10 . nobeth, Ml. 27b1 . -bed, Wb. 9d1 . -beth, Ml. 88b15 . -robad, Wb. 17a13 . -rabad, 34a4 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . 1 pl. -bemmis, Wb. 9a3 . -beimmis, 29d23 . -bemis, Vita Br. 23 . 2 pl. -bethe, Wb. 9c20 . 3 pl. -betis, Sg. 138a9 . -[ro]ibtis, Wb. 28a1 .

Fut. 1 s. bia, Ml. 137b7 . 2 s. bie, cited GOI § 788 , OIPG 70 . 3 s. bieid, Wb. 4d6 . bied, 14c1 . -bia, 5d35 . -bia (disyll.), Blathm. 572 . -bia and -bía, GOI § 788 . With suff. pron. bethiumm. Ériu xiii 20.6 . bethib, ZCP viii 316.5 (see xxix 174 ). Rel. bias, Wb. 23b38 . bies, Ériu iii 102 § 32 . Impers. beithir, TBFr. 248 . -bether, MacCongl. 61.4 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 9c10 . beimmi, 21b7 . -biam, 15a1 . -piam, 30b17 . 2 pl. bethe, cited GOI § 788 . bethi, Trip.² 1589 . -bied, Wb. 9a21 . -bieid, 26d26 . 3 pl. biet (disyll.), Blathm. 472 . bieit, Wb. 4c40 . biet, 9d27 , Sg. 198b6 (also bíet, GOI § 788 ). -biat, 9c28 . -bíet, 40b14 . Rel. bete, Wb. 13c26 . beite, 4c40 .

Condit. 1 s. nombeinn, Ml. 59a22 . 3 s. nobiad, Ml. 32d5 . -bíad, Wb. 9d1 . 1 pl. nobemmis, Ml. 134b3 . 3 pl. nobetis, Ml. 100c7 .

Pret. 1 s. b, LU 9407 . 2 s. -bá, cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 , see perf. 2 s. below. 3 s. bói, Wb. 31c18 . bái, 27a16 . -bói, 17d17 , Ml. 78a4 . Rel. boie, Thes. ii 242.11 (Ardm.). boīe (MS. ba), Ériu xvi 46.10 (see n. 0 and Celtica vi 223 ). boíë (MS. baoí), Ériu xxvi 67, 85 . Cf. cech nóeb bói, fil, bías, Fél. Ep. 289 (where six sylls. required). With suff. pron. boithus, IT i 137.8 = boithius, 21 . boíthi, Sc.M² 3 . ? baísu, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 37.5 . Impers. *both(a)e, postulated GOI § 789 , botha, TBC-I¹ 1572 . -both(a), Vita Br. 33 . 1 pl. bamar, SR 1558 . bámar, 3286 , Imr. Brain i 48.5 . 2 pl. -baid (baïd ?), cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 . 3 pl. bātir, TBC-I¹ 217 . -batar, Ml. 55c2 . Rel. batar, Ml. 123b5 . See GOI § 789 .

Perf. 1 s. rob, Wb. 28a9 . -roba, Ml. 44c4 . -raba, TBC-I¹ 3068 . 2 s. rob, LL 14442 . 3 s. robói, Wb. 5c10 . rambái, 2c13 . robui, Ml. 93c3 . -robae, Ml. 41a5 , -robe, Wb. 18d7 , -rabae, Ml. 28d3 . Impers. romboth, Wb. 19a9 . rombod, 5b31 . -rabad, Ériu iv 146.4 . 1 pl. robámmar, Wb. 20d12 . -robammar, Ml. 105b16 . 2 pl. rubaid, Wb. 3b19 . -robaid, Ml. 46a8 . 3 pl. robatar, Wb. 24c5 . robbátar, Sg. 57b1 . -rabatar, Ml. 100c11 . -robatar, Sg. 45b1 . -rabtar, Ml. 37a16 .

Vn. buith.

Vbl. of necess. buithi.

Later forms (see also Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish, Ériu vi 1 ff. ; Mulchrone, Verbalformen der Vita Tripartita, ZCP xvi 440 ; Falconer, Verbal System of LU Táin, Ériu xvii 116 ; Strachan, Verbal System of SR, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1895, 1 - 76 ; O Daly, Verbal System of LL Táin, Ériu xiv 80 ; Mac Eoin, Verbalsystem von Togail Troi, ZCP xxviii 125 ; Sommerfelt, Le système verbal dans In Cath Catharda, RC xxxviii 41 ; Nuner, Verbal System of the Agallamh na Senórach, ZCP xxvii 272 ; PH Glossary; Lloyd, Impersonal passive forms of the Irish substantive verb, Ériu i 49 ff. ; TD Introd. lxxv ; IGT Verbs § 7 ).

Indic. pres. 1 s. atáu, Trip.² 1412 . atú, 2578 . itu, SR 1187 . it, TBC-LL¹ 434 . atú, IGT Verbs § 7 . ataim, Fier. 14 . -t, Acall. 4516 . 2 s. -tái, SR 3102 . -toi, TBC-I¹ 937 . taoi, TD 15.48 . cia doaisiu mac?, RC xxvi 30 § 128 . 3 s. -t, Trip.² 744 . atá, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. attá, Trip.² 534 , ata, SR 7708 etc., at, Acall. 429 . Impers. atáthar, TBC-LL¹ 3316 . dáthar (: máthar), IGT Verbs ex. 99 . atass, Ériu iv 114 § 17 (:as). -das (: as), IGT Verbs ex. 104 . 1 pl. itám, SR 1727 . tám, 3493 . ataum, PH 1556 . ataim, TBC-LL¹ 874 . atamaoit, TBC St. 121 . atámaoid, atám, IGT Verbs § 7 . -taum, PH 1506 . -dtám (: ár), IGT Verbs ex. 111 . 2 pl. atathai, PH 2734 . atathi, 597 . atáithi (: fáithi), IGT Verbs ex. 105 . -táithi (: sáithi), ex. 96 . -dathai, Alex. 190 . -taidh, Ériu ii 118 § 53 . 3 pl. itāt, TBC-I¹ 3132 . atáit, CCath. 1215 . ataut, PH 1064 . táid, TD 8.5 . -táit, CCath. 1701 . Rel. itat, Trip.² 882 , atat, SR 7949 . For later forms in meaning than (is) see atás, indaas, 4 ol. See also II (d) below and daas.

The form fil. 1 s. ni ḟuilim, ni ḟoilim, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. -fhile, PH 8116 . -fhuile, 3335 , -fuili, Acall. 3217 . -ḟoili, -ḟuile, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. fail, TBC-I¹ 60 , SR 353 etc. ro fail , TBC-LL¹ 263 , fuil, 3072 . -fail, Trip.² 2764 , -fuil, 872 , -uil, PH 3181 , -ḟil, Acall. 3709 . -ḟuil, -ḟoil, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. fil, Trip.² 842 , fail, SR 392 , no fail , 933 . With impers. ending: filter, MacCongl. 31.25 . -fuiltear, TD 2.42 . 1 pl. ra fuilemm , TBC-LL¹ 2971 . -failmet, SR 6320 , -ḟuilmíd, Acall. 5101 . -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. -bhḟuilti, Acall. 962 . 3 pl. failet, SR 345 . filet, 477 . fuilet, TBC-LL¹ 4739 . -failet, Trip.² 1119 . -filet, TBC-I¹ 1848 , -fileat, CCath. 1270 . -fuilet, 427 . -fuilid, TD 7.23 . Rel. failet, SR 400 . ra failet , TBC-LL¹ 5225 . fuilet, 4709 . filet, PH 435 . See also do-fil.

Consuet. pres. 1 s. bim, PH 6393 . bím, -bím, IGT Verbs § 7 . ? -ruibim, SG 373.29 . 2 s. -bi, SR 2035 . bí, ní bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bíd, TBC-I¹ 1453 (LU). biid, SR 4537 . bíd, 4588 . -bí, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bíonn, TD 22.12 . -bind, RC xlix 37.13 . bídh, -b, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bither, PH 7441 . -bithar, Laws iv 234.2 Comm. 1 pl. bímit, Acall. 886 . bídmaid, 5481 . bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bíth, Acall. 6139 . 3 pl. bīd, TBC-I¹ 1075 (bít, LU). -bíat, TTr.² 330 . -bít, PH 4189 , -bíd, TD 5.5 . Rel. bit (= bíït), SR 7259 . bít, TBC-LL¹ 1320 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. do bhínn , TD 23.7 . 3 s. nobīth, TBC-I¹ 593 (nobíid, LU cited above). robíth, TBC-I¹ 1903 (LU). do bhíodh , TD 14.23 . do bhíoth , 26.12 . Impers. bithi, Auraic. 5286 = -bithi, RC xx 150.y (ACC Pref.). no bithea , Acall. 156 . 3 pl. naboitis, TBC-I¹ 855 LU (nobitís, Y). nobīdis, 3621 (Y). bítís, 1898 (LU). no beitis , LL 407a27 . ro bitis , PH 1957 . do bhítís , Acall. 830 . do bhídís , TD 15.18 . Rel. tri cnuasa bítís ann, Acall. 455 .

Ipv. 1 s. bír (: gním), IGT Verbs ex. 94 . 2 s. b, Parrth. Anma 3871 . 3 s. bīdh, ZCP vi 271.z . bíodh, TD 16.2 . bíoth, 17.1 . 1 pl. bíom, Dán Dé xiv 17 . 2 pl. bíthe (: -chíthe), IGT Verbs ex. 95 . bídh, ex. 109 . bidhí, Luc. Fid. 3430 . 3 pl. bíod, TD 16.19 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. ber, SG 172.15 . uér, Ériu ii 92.9 . beor, v 222.46 . bheith mé, TD 8.9 . -ra bur , TBC-LL¹ 1112 . -rabor, ZCP xii 401.30 . ? -rabhus, ZCP v 523.27 = rabasa, Ériu xii 144.12 (TE). -rabar, ZCP iii 32.37 . bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bé, SR 1607 . beir, BNnÉ 288.29 . Acall. 592 . -rab(a)i, BDD² p. 80 . -rabha, Irish Texts iv 75 § 16 . -rabhair, Fing. R. p. 13 note 86 . -mbéis (: Céis), IGT Verbs ex. 100 . -beis(se) (: meise), Dán Dé xiv 20 . -rabais, Fing. R. 86 , BDD² 363 (see ZCP xxvii 75-8 ). beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. beth, TBC-I¹ 270 (beith, v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 101 . -b, TBC-I¹ 1671 . -raib, Trip.² 2753 . -rab, TBC-I¹ 1430 . -raibhe, Parrth. Anma 2616 . rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bess, TBC-I¹ 1104 (beis, Y). beas, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bethur, Laws ii 36.20 Comm. 1 pl. beme, Snedg. u. Mac R 9.14 . bemmit, TBC-LL¹ 2137 . bemait, Acall. 5478 . -bém, CCath. 1124 . -beam (: leam), Dán Dé xii 10 . -ruibem, SR 5540 . -rabum, PH 7899 . bheam, rabham, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 1233 . rabthai, PH 1977 . 3 pl. beit, Trip.² 1653 . -bet, TBC-I¹ 1053 . -beat, Lism. L. 4702 . -rabat, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. -rabut, PH 994 . -rabhait, BNnÉ 269.4 . -rabhaid, Parrth. Anma 2836 . -rabheid, RC xxix 136 § 51 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. do beinn , do rabainn , IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. no beithi , Trip.² 2972 . no beithe , 2983 = no bethe , Trip. 252.21 . do beitheá , TD 1.44 . 3 s. no beith , Trip.² 2967 . nobith, TBC-I¹ 3543 . dá mbeadh , TD 29.6 . -mbeath, IGT Verbs ex. 97 . -rabad, RC iii 184.24 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . -bette, Metr. Dinds. iii 382.19 . rabtha, TBC-LL¹ (C) 1675 . 1 pl. dá mbiadh sinn, TD 28.25 . 3 pl. nobeitis, SR 7855 . nobeidis, TBC-I¹ 3557 . dá mbeith siad, TD 26.36 .

Fut. (see Bergin, Ériu ii 46-8 ) 1 s. bíat, TTr.² 89 . biat, PH 1244 . biad (bíatt v.l.), CCath. 5137 . bhead, Parrth. Anma 6378 . bed, ZCP vi 41.10 . bét, 69.2 . bett, BNnÉ 52 § 42 . -biu, TBC-LL¹ 882 . -bhiú, Dán Dé xiv 20 . biad, -bi, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bía, Trip.² 1593 . biae, SR 1599 . -bíai, BNnÉ 291 § 2 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . bía, -bía, IGT Verbs § 7 . bethair, ZCP ii 225.4 . 3 s. bied, LU 10362 . biaid, Trip.² 1071 . biáid, TBC-I¹ 169 (LU). biaidh, -bia, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bíes, Trip.² 2671 . bés, CCath. 300 , bes, 657 . bess, PH 4666 . bhias, TD 3.50 . do biass , L. Chl. S. 1 . Impers. beither, Acall. 5259 . beithir, ZCP x 415.11 . 1 pl. bemit, LU 9753 , PH 1501 . bemait, CCath. 1467 . -bem(ni, LU 9753 . beimíd, -biam, IGT Verbs § 7 . -biaim(ne) (: siairni), ex. 108 . ? -ben, BCC 396.19 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 3083 . beitte (: eiti) (beththi, bete v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 102 . -bed, Trip.² 1590 . 3 pl. biait, Trip.² 2665 , TBC-I¹ 2057 (beite, LU). biat, Trip.² 1288 . beit, TBC-I¹ 80 . beiti, TBC-I¹ 2078 . beti, SR 8157 . betit, SR 853 . TBC-LL¹ 246 , TTr.² 760 . beidid, ZCP x 338 § 1 . -bīat, TBC-I¹ 1132 . beidíd síad, BCC 290.12 . beid, -bíad, IGT Verbs § 7 .

Condit. 1 s. no-béind, PH 6107 . dobeind, 7489 . do beinn, -beinn, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. do bheitheá , TD 19.13 . 3 s. no biadh , CCath. 3754 . -bied, TBC-I¹ 504 . ro bífad , TBC-LL¹ 5112 . rot-fiadh, IT iii 320.4 ( Cóir Anm. 70 ). do biath (: sgiath), IGT Verbs ex. 97 . do bhiadh , TD 2.54 . Impers. no bethe , TTr.² 533 . 3 pl. do bheidīs , Parrth. Anma 5227 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. ro-bádus, PH 699 . do bhádhus , TD 23.6 . do bhí mé, 5 . -rabus, Acall. 7913 . -rabhas, 1584 . -rabadhus, 356 . do bá , -raba; do bádhus , -rabadhas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do basa ( : bádusa; proscribed form), ex. 103 . 2 s. ro bhádhuis , CCath. 553 . do bhí tú, TD 28.6 . -rabadais, PH 3725. 8121 . -rabhais, Acall. 123 . do bhádhuis , -rabhadhuis, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bae, SR 7608 . bóe, 6265 . baei, BDD² 127 . búi, CCath. 95 . -bae, SR 4975 . -buí, Trip.² 1505 . robai, SR 2229 , robae, 2262 . robói, PH 2572 . ro bí , CCath. 1302 . robuidh, Ériu iii 198 § 22 . do bí , CCath. 278 . do bhói , Acall. 58 . do bhaoi (: draoi), Dán Dé xii 22 . -rubai, SR 1241 . -roibe, BDD² 498 , -roibi, 1393 . -roba, 251 . -raba, 1533 . -raibhe, TD 2.25 . -rabha, 8.36 . -robha, 1 . do bí , -raibi, do baí , -rabha, IGT Verbs § 7 . With depon. ending -rabhustair, BNnÉ 322 § 31 . Rel. boí, Trip.² 626 . bāi, TBC-I¹ 1277 . būi, 630 . ro bae , Trip.² 288 . ro buí , BDD² 287 . ro baí , 1451 . ro boí , 1517 . Impers. both, Trip.² 2264 . rombatha, Ériu ii 20 § 3 (-a added later). -rabad, iv 146.4. robās, TBC-I¹ 2147 . rombas, SR 7564 , robás, TTr.² 151 . -rabus, Trip.² 54 . rabas, Laws iv 212.22 Comm. , -bádus, MacCongl. 43.22 . -bás, 61.3 . do bás , do bas , -rabas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do bas (: as), ex. 98 . do bhás (: fhás), Dán Dé xxvi 9 . 1 pl. bāmur, TBC-I¹ 399 . do bámar , Acall. 1283 . do bhámair (: Ádhaimh), Dán Dé xv 17 . -rabamar, TBC-I¹ 2495 . 2 pl. robabair, Anecd. ii 14.9 . -babhair, Blathm. 23 (see notes ). robadbair, TBC-I¹ 2502 . do bhábhair , TD 22a.1 . -rabhuir, Acall. 114 . -rabhabhair, TD 22a.2 . 3 pl. bādar, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bátir, TTr.² 1308 . ro badar , CCath. 573 n. ro bádar , Acall. 75 . do bídur , 5942 . -rabadar, TBC-I¹ 3108 . -rabhadair, TD 26.10 . ro baisit , O'Dav. 728 . -rabhsad, TD 16.21 . Rel. bátar, Trip.² 591 . BDD² 505 . ro bátar , 543 . Vn. an bheith , IGT Verbs § 7 . Vbl. of necess. beitte, TD 28.30 .

Cf. cenmothá, íarmothá, óthá.

Used in meaning is in a large variety of contexts. Normally replaced by copula (see 1 is) in certain fixed syntactical patterns (classification, identification, etc.), and when used in these cases exceptional (see above and II below).

I Expressing existence.

(a) Used absolutely is, exists, there is, etc.: ata in coimdiu gl. Dominus in cælo sedis eius, Ml. 30b27 . nabad hed a méit nádmbǽ `let it not be only that it is not' gl. nec nominetur in uobís, Wb. 22b14 . ní fil aimsir nad mbed ref. to fuit et est semper, Ml. 17a15 . ní torménmar-ni ara mbetis in gnimai sin gl. præter spem nostram, etc., 115b1 . ni fil chumtubairt gl. indubitabilia, etc., Sg. 154b2 . ma nubed `if it existed', 31b21 . ro baoi siomh re tuisdinsiú `he existed', Blathm. 632 . as e as soithcerndomh fil, 773 . ma rombe is maith if it is, it is well, Laws iv 2.14 Comm. ni rabi uair . . . nad ro bai `there was no hour . . . that He existed not', Ériu ii 106 § 16 . a cin for athair .i. uair na bí mac, Laws iv 240.16 Comm. Columb [ro]baoi, Columb bīaas, ZCP viii 198 § 20 . tar ēis a mic . . . / nī raba acht dā aenbliadain `was alive only two years', Ériu iii 198 § 24 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be by saying there is a covenant though there is not, Laws iv 52.30 Comm. ni tha . . . ní a ngeimre in winter there is nothing, 90.1 (with petrified inf. pron. 3 s. n. in dat. sense?). ní bía terca bíd there will not be a scarcity of food, BColm. 52.5 . bid dno maith, ┐ ni bi derrscugud de `yet there is good, and nothing to surpass it', Auraic. 703 . is tré ómun bíid serc, Ériu i 195.1 . céin beti neóil im gréin ngil, Metr. Dinds. ii 38.z . i céin raibh nemh is talamh as long as . . . endure, BNnÉ 314 § 8 . bai cocad mor etarro, RC xxiv 186 § 19 . In phrase (acht) atá ní (chena) but, moreover, see 1 ní (e).

In periphrasis when emphasis on some element other than the verb is required: bieid nach dréct diib hícfider, Wb. 4d6 . bieid bes ferr de, 32a13 . do budh cusmail rit co robuis uair ecin, ┐ co n[d]ingenta rét feramail `that thou wert once such an one that thou couldst . . .', ZCP vi 87.13 . ba-sa tan / nī folabrainn ilach gamh, Ériu ii 95 § 3 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud, Ériu xvii 68 § 9 ( Laws iv 210 ). Note further: atāit teora brīathra / ata lōgmaire for nim, ZCP vii 312 § 25 .

With words expressing time: bieid aimser nad creitfider, Wb. 28c14 . aidchi robuī `one night', Ériu ii 222.25 . fecht robai `once', Mon. Tall. 147.2 (§ 52) . biaidh uair 's . . . a time will come when, Dán Dé vii 31 .

Introducing a statement: cia beith ara rogba bóairechas riasíu ropo chúairddulchach though it be that he assume, Críth G. 67 . dá mbeith fós go mbiadh an Fhraingc comh líonmhar ┐ adeir seisean `granted that', Keat. ii 933 . má tá go seachnoid síol Éibhir . . ., TD 29.7 . ci(d), gi(d) bé whatever, whoever (see Ériu xii 210 ): ria flaithaib, .i. rias na flaithib, cibe flaithe iat `whatever chieftains they be', Laws iv 154.17 . gidh bé lá cheannghar an chairt, Dán Dé xiv 17 . cidh bé do bhean díbh an dúthaigh, DDána 26.1 . bíd (ipv. 3 s.) co n- although: admhuim . . . mo pheactha . . . bīodh gomadh é mo mhīan a bhfolach though I should wish to hide them, Parrth. Anma 4625 . bīodh nach gcaoifithea go spesialta fá gach peacadh though you might not weep specially for each sin, Mac Aingil 235 . bíth gur gheallas . . . though I promised, Ó Bruad. ii 212 § xiv . In constr. manibed x ní bíad y were it not for x y would not be, see má II (b).

(b) The subst. vb. is usual with predicates consisting of adverbial phrases of all kinds (prep. and noun, adjj. and nouns used adverbially, etc.) and thus enters into a large and varied corpus of idioms. A select list follows. Reference should in all cases also be made to the nouns, adjj., adverbs and prepositions concerned.

With CO: atáthar sund chucut your adversary is approaching, LL 10300 ( TBC-LL¹ 3316 ).

With CO N-: atúsa com thegluch there is myself and my household troop, TBC-LL¹ 437 .

With DI: im chaingin robui de muintir Tamlachti friss `about a business that arose between the monastery of Tallaght and him', Mon. Tall. 157.7 (§ 72) . masu de chlaind Echdach aird / atāi, ZCP xi 108 § 1 . ní bia debaid . . . de, Ériu iv 108 § 69 . Of materials: an crann dobí na sesam ... dobí sé do cepresus was a (lit. of) cupressus, Maund. 9 . In phrase a.¤ di such is: roboi du meit a pecthae `so great were their sins', Ml. 98c6 . má beth tra do hūaite ind āessa gráid `if the ordained folk be too few', Ériu i 220 § 13 .

With DO: biid do anmmaim cathrach `(Samnis) is as the name of the city', Sg. 104b5 . nád robatar suin do ṡlund in dúildetad inchoisget `there were not words (enough) to signify . . .', 45b1 . manusbeth tenga dia relad `if (the sun) had a tongue', Ériu ii 126 § 81 . ata eric a fogla do dul a ruradh o duine, Laws iv 50.5 Comm. Expressing possession, etc.: con roib core dúib fri cách so that you may be at peace with all men, Wb. 26b30 . in fochricc file do i nnim, 29b29 . cach ngrád asid n-ísliu bíid dó i céilsini, Críth G. 374 . robi timna in ríg don Comdhe, RC xviii 182.5 . nico mbái dó acht bás there was nothing for him but death, Vita Br. 32 . fecht robúi damsae domchaomnacuir `once it happened to me', Mon. Tall. 144.7 (§ 45) . atá damhsa ris an dáimh / gan ísliughadh neith dá gcáil it is my duty in regard to the sages not to belittle . . ., Content. xiv 8 .

With FOR (later AR): as ṅdath glas roboi forsind sl[é]ib the mountain was green, Ml. 84d4 . cech dath is maith ré neach bid forro, RC vi 183.9 . cēin beó ar in mbith mbuide, Ériu ii 92.16 . nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí / ōtú ar sīth mo Rīgh amuigh since I am outside the palace of my king(?), ZCP vii 301 § 10 . scríbend menmman .i. robbói for a inndṡliucht-som `it had been in his mind', Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent, Ériu vi 115 § 6 . a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though I greatly desire to do so, Dán Dé xix 6 .

With FRI: nobiad fri femen `it would be (used) with the feminine', Sg. 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them', 215a5 . ni humhal robabair rim cen erghe rónn you were not submissive to me, Anecd. ii 14.9 . ba [mait]h ro mboth friu they were well treated, TBFr. 145 . is throit ra bass risin fer út that man was quickly dispatched, TBC-LL¹ 2986 ( LL 10035 ).

With I: is hi tuaisciurt slebe sióin ata in chathir, Ml. 67d8 . ataam ar ndiis i cuimriug, Wb. 32a28 . is and . . . bieid finis, 13b29 . is sunt bia-sa i n-eilithri, Ml. 137b7 . nach dú i mbí isnaib salmaib iustitia, 109a2 . bēti a scēla illāidib, ZCP iii 37.32 . dēna torba airm i mbī, vii 311 § 9 . ro-bas i lurg an madma la clannaibh Néill the Clanna N. pursued the rout, xiv 234.16 . adh bes fiu da trian na samuisce atá isín focreic, issed ata isin fogail doníther ris na ferandaib cétna i fuacht an geimridh `a calf which is worth two thirds of the `samhaisc'-heifer which is paid for the rent, it is it that is paid for the trespass', Laws iv 92.16 Comm. cínta do niad na cethra . . . leth a mbia ina nairlim isedh bias ina tairsci `half of that fine which lies for their `airlim'-trespass . . .', 74.8 Comm. cod a midídar ruire trachta ┐ raite? Nin; co rabadar ocht nurcora dec and do fhleascach, 138.4 Comm. ní bhíadh na ghoin é d'oighedh / toil Dé muna deónaighedh His wound would not be enough to cause His death, IGT Decl. ex. 378 . Common in form with suff. pron. 3 s. n. ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre if there be anyone, etc., Wb. 13a4 . ar atá brithem and cenut-su `a judge is there apart from thee', 6b25 . ataat alaaili interiecta and it coitchena do cach ceniul, Sg. 10a1 . attaad teora bliadna and. Niconcomracamar díoblíonaib `it is three years since we two had intercourse', Mon. Tall. 134.26 (§ 21) . For phr. cid fil and trá see trá. In idiom tá sé i n-a fhear he is a man (see Dillon, ZCP xvii 307 ff. ): is amlaid . . . atá in rigsudi sin inna chathaír chumtachta, LU 2005 ( FA 7 ). cidead bes ina bibdaid `even though he be a caitiff', Ériu v 22.20 . gu raibhe 'na cholum ghel, Acall. 1080 . ce raib se i n-a fhír, PH 7324 . do bí 'n-a mnaí grádaig ac Find, Acall. 2018 . do rígh gion go rabhthá id mhac, DDána 91.15 . Note also: tuc . . . aithne gurbh e righ Eirenn do bí ann that it was in fact the king, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 .

With IMM: ni baitir, ni loisctir cein beit immo `he is not drowned or burnt as long as they are on him', RC vi 183.8 .

With LA: gan bheith le Dia is ann bhus aithreach if we are not on God's side, Dán Dé x 27 . Expressing possession and related ideas: is lib atá a rogu, Wb. 9a23 . is derb lium attá latsu gl. certus sum autem quod et in té, 29d14 . ainmm ninchoisc cenéuil issed file la laitnóri, Sg. 30b8 . is airi nobíth digaimm leo ante ρ. sin, 9b10 . ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter,' Mon. Tall. 151.13 (§ 62) . is dé atá lem, fobíth, etc. this is why I think so (of an assertion), TTr.² 343 . itá a rīgan la cach ríg sund, TBC-I¹ 190 . fail leis secht nimi, SR 629 . ar ní ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 14150 .

With ó: báoi alaile anchoire antuaid o sláne `there was a certain anchorite from Slane in the North', Mon. Tall. 159.8 (§ 77) . cech lennánacht fil isin domvn is úadhi atá originates with her, TTr.² 370 . Bressal Ó Tressaig ō' tāit / Hī Tressaig `. . . from whom are sprung', Ériu ii 50 § 7 . ni fil[et] o neoch ┐ ni filter uaidibh `they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them', Auraic. 1507 .

With OC: ar notéighed dīa sathairn init co mbídh oc Cnocc Droma Coblai, ZCP viii 106.29 = Trip.² 2858 . ma no bith . . . mo c[h]laideb acom if I had my sword, TBC-I¹ 3543 . co rabat aidmi oc cech altōir . . ., Ériu i 219 § 9 . in ti ac na biat ba, Laws iv 36.10 Comm. in fhil biad ocaib sund? PH 6709 . ná raibh agad ar n-éra `refuse me not', Studies 1918, 99 § 16 . In impers. constr. cindas atathar occat? how are affairs with thee? RC xxvi 368.9 . a.¤ y oc x x has the power to do y: ní bhía . . . ag boigṡín / mo chor tar creich Phádraigín, Ériu ix 163 § 7 .

With adverbs and adv. phrases: céin bett abus `while they are here below', BColm. 98.28 . ní rubai nach cruth ailiu `it cannot be otherwise', Sg. 7b3 . ataat ám in chrut sin, 140b1 . hóre nád robe Tit ar mo chiunn, Wb. 14d29 . na muindtire bís id choimidecht `of the monks that live with thee', Mon. Tall. 128.8 (§ 3) . dá rabh mé ar éanmhagh is í, Dán Dé ix 12 . is bether go hīsiul de, ZCP x 51.6 . bidh co mín michuir ret c[h]airdibh, vi 272 § 3 . is samlaid insin robói a flaithemnacht indibsi, Ml. 18a8 . nī hamlaid beitid na nāimh . . ., ZCP xiii 9.26 . dobadus co subhach rompa, KMMisc. 319.27 . léig mar atāit tall, ZCP viii 202.4 . trath atusa sund, TBC-LL¹ 2379 . ionmhuin uan nar fhás ó mhnaoi / do bhás go truagh ar a thí, Dán Dé xxvi 9 . Note also: dá mbem a-moigh `if we win forth', Ériu ix 162 § 2 . With interrogatives: ceth leth atā E., TBC-I¹ 376 . can ata? whence is it? Hib. Min. 8.270 . cāit atā do t[h]igerna?, TBC-I¹ 789 . ciatā inso?, ZCP viii 311.13 . a Findtain, arse, ┐ Éri cía gabad ca rabad inde? `where have things been therein?' Ériu iv 146 § 23 .

(c) Used with inf. and suff. pron. to express possession. With inf. pron.: rosmbia a lóg `they shall have payment for it', Wb. 5d35 . ind indocbál no-b-tá in futuro, 14c16 . ro-n-da-biad cech maith, Ml. 33b13 . rombia-sa la dia . . . a day will come for me when, Vita Br. 12 . roborbē (roburbe v.l.) which is yours, Cáin Ad. 27 . nīmthat asnai I have no ribs, TBC-I¹ 2871 . gell cóic sét di neoch rodmbí `of whatever he has', Críth G. 283 and n. uair nach tá tír dia fhulung fri re napuidh because he has no land to support him (?), Laws iv 30.19 Comm. rom be nem may I have heaven, Snedg. u. Mac R 14 § 76 . Femen intan rombai rí . . . when it had a king, RC xvii 148.19 . cia luag nomtha?, SR 1165 . rombí lethbairgen, Anecd. i 73 § 211 . atbert Cathair nimthasa ní dhuit I have nothing to give you, LL 386b22 . Note also: nintha do imtecht liumm `I have (lit. we have) no news', RC xiii 222.20 . With cumang (or similar word) and prep. DO has the power to: nímtha cumachtæ ṅdo, Ml. 140b7 . ní-s-ta som . . . cumang domm orcuin-se, 60d3 . nísmbói didiu do chumacc a mmbo do imain they hadn't the strength to, Vita Br. 24 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech cumang rotbé (rodbe, rotbia, v.ll.) dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204 § 22 . nícom thása cumang dia tabair[t], TBFr. 302 . apraind nachimbai-si nert do theacht cucu alas that I had not strength . . ., TBC-I¹ 3439 . Used independently is able: nīmt[h]a a dechmad d'indisin / nech doní do maith `I cannot tell a tithe of all the good he does', BColm. 70.6 . nimta-sa sin . . . uair da caithius mo dan re sciathaib Ulad I cannot do that . . ., Ériu v 72.8 . Note also: ango dano for Ingcél adfía basa lecht bas briscium `peradventure I shall be the frailest corpse', BDD 102h ( RC xxii 211 ) = at-mbia basa lecht bas brisceam, BDD² 716 (leg. ro-t-bia?).

With suffixed pron. taithiunn . . . / ni fris tarddam ar n-áthius `we have . . . something to which to apply our acuteness', Thes. ii 293.19 . táithi caire umai he has a bronze cauldron, Críth G. 197 . tathum rūn, TBC-I¹ 848 . bethib sūirsi lim-sa dano ye will enjoy freedom with me, ZCP viii 316.5 . tathat lim logh do áes, logh do sinnsire thou hast with me = I accord thee, xii 365.13 . baíthium anfud mílach mend, LU 3018 . tathuib comram, Rawl. 88b51 . tathum o día praind, Anecd. i 64 § 120 . tāthud ochtar la suidiu / airm hi fail a crōlighe `thou wilt find eight men . . .', Fianaig. 12 § 16 . tathai eolus maith, ZCP vii 310 § 1 . tatos subhae `they have happiness', Blathm. 82 . Pleonastically: tathai erouidh . . . bithbron `Herod . . . has eternal sorrow', 83 .

(d) In nasalising rel. clauses to denote has something the matter, is ailing: ced das in ben maith? `what ails the good woman?', Thes. ii 329.48 . cidh tás do sūil, a clērich? what is the matter with your eye? RC xxvii 280 § 35 . Oengus mac in Dagdai hisiurcc di bliadan. Cid tas or Bodb, RC iii 345.9 . ra[fh]etur sa . . . an daas ind ingen what is wrong with the girl, Vita Br. 5 . ni fetarsa cid no-tó I do not know what is the matter with me, ZCP viii 176.5 . cid no-taí? Sc.M² 3 . roḟetarsa a n-attath[a]i. Ni taam ni or Cano, Anecd. i 9.25 ( SCano 293 ). cid tāthaí, a maccu? . . . oc imresain atām . . ., Ériu viii 157.16 . ni confetatarsin cid rombui hissennath, RC iii 344.10 . dia ḟis cid robái (rombui, v.l.) grían to find out what was the matter with the sun, Ériu iv 140.13 .

With prep. DO feels (inimically) towards, is angry with, worries: propter incredulitatem fracti sunt .i. cani airi .i. badochu lem són is [hed] romboth doib that is the fault found with them, Wb. 5b31 . cren dímsa m'ingin . . . Cid dathir di? . . . Is dichmarcach what cause of annoyance has she given? Vita Br. 13 . fiarfaig Conchobar scēla dō. —Cidh tāi di ṡodain? ol Bricriu why do you bother with it? ZCP v 502.15 . cadai-siu duind?, TTebe 424 . In good sense treats in a special manner: ca tāthar dúin do domnach des / sech gach laithi lāndiles? `why do we hold Sunday above . . .?' Ériu iii 143 § 7 . With added prep.: cidh 'ma bfuile dam? ZCP x 10.11 . ná bí réd chathrachaibh dhúinn `talk not to us of your forts', Content. vi 31 . See further s.v. daas. Frequ. in class. verse in phrase gá dtá, dás (acht) what is the use? in short. Either gá dtá or gá tá may be used to suit alliteration, see Ir. Syll. Poetry 86 . fogus orchra don éigsi / gá ttás cur ré coiméidsi `how can she be saved?' Studies 1923, 421 § 1 . gá dás luadh imdheachta an ḟir? `what need to recount', TD 13.40 . gá dás mé dá mīrbuile / acht sé d'fás ó ÓghMuire, IGT Decl. ex. 200 . gá dtám? —acht torchuir bu dheas in short, TD 3.10 . With follg. prep.: gá dtám ris . . . / acht meise féin foidhidneach, TD 3.41 . ga dtú ris, a rí L.? / ort chuirim mo chomuirghe, 30.12 . ní bhiú ris acht, Dán Dé vi 31 . ní fhuilim dó, xi 30 .

(e) With words indicating number, quantity in sense of accompanied by, having: bí[i]th a th[a]urchreicc cóic ṡétaib, Críth G. 71 . baei Conairi a ceithri cairpthig il-Lifiu, BDD 12 (a cethror cairpdech, v.l.). itó-sa lín do gona, TBC-LL¹ 434 . denam d'ḟiadach na muice in lín Feinde atámait, Acall. 2223 . atáthaoi líon a n-ithte, Keat. iii 4439 . atú-sa caegait fer, MR 248.17 . Later: bed-sa ┐ mili ridiri maraen rium ad diaig, ZCP vi 41.9 .

II Expressing state, condition, kind, etc. with pred. consisting of noun, pron. or adj. (usage more usual with copula, see introd. section above).

(a) With noun pred.: boe sab suithe cech dind, ACC 26 ( RC xx 168 ). boe saegul sneid, 24 . boe dind oc libur leigdocht, 27 . biait betha airchind they will be chieftains of the world, Rawl. 125b9 . With subj. standing between the vb. and pred.: atá dia atach ṅ-dún-ni ais dethrebo God is a refuge to us the people of the two tribes, Ml. 66d1 . bói Fíachnae Lurga athair Mongáin, Imr. Brain 42.1 . Cf. Sg. 20b3 .

(b) With adj. pred.: boe seim sáth, ACC 25 . biat slana, SR 4167 (copula?). feib atam nocht, 1347 (copula?). bía slan, LU 3344 ( SCC 13 ). Cf. habe . . . (.i. sana sis .i. slán bee), Enchir. Aug. 82a ( ZCP vii 484 ). dlegar doibsium na be lobtaigh cor ( ar dlegar doibsium na bed lobthaig cor, O'Dav. 1191 ) (Atk. in Glossary emends to be[t]), Laws iv 54.10. atámait ainmfesach, RC xxiv 371.7 . bítíss meth (leg. methi, ed.) occ tinntúd, IT iii 235.z . co filim garbliath i rricht, LU 1272 . ro boísium imnedach i tossuch a bethad, LL 7305 . ro-bádus-[s]a dronnach, PH 2788 . céin beorsa beó as long as I am alive, Ériu v 222.46 . is follus co fuilti eaclach, Fier. 69 . maith dīghōltar ant andlocht / bethar taoblom tarrnocht trūagh folk will be, ZCP xii 395.23 . With subj. betw. vb. and pred.: is trissa ndede sin biid duine slán et fírian, Wb. 4d33 . amal mbís tegdís fás [amm]edón ┐ scópthe gl. sicut domus uacans et scopata, Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485.23 ). arrobói a rígthech lán de rígaib, Imr. Brain 1 . amal no beithi féin béo and, Trip.² 2972 . co mbatar na hádnaicti óbéla, PH 676 . bis an puls tonnmur lethan, Rosa Angl. 272.8 . oir dobi se crodha do laim ┐ mor do mét, Fier. 2 .

(c) With part. as pred. Immediately follg. vb. (see GOI 475-6 ; OIPG 147 ): amal nombemmis érchóilti gl. tanquam morti destinatos, Wb. 9a3 . biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg `be ye opened before your king' (of doors), Ml. 46a7 . co rabais (rabhdais, v.l.) marbtha mudaigthi, TTebe 854 . With subj. standing between vb. and pred.: ataat mesai Dǽ nephchomtetarrachti the judgements of God are incomprehensible, Ml. 55d11 . céin nombetis inna saigtea tuidmithi inna feuil `as long as the arrows were fixed in his flesh', Ml. 58a9 . órobatar ind liss dúntai, Imr. Brain 1 . co ra-bi in uli demnaigecht fomamaigthi dó, PH 2796 .

(d) In sentences where the vb. stands in a nasalising rel. clause and refers to a pred. expressed in the principal clause: is faittech rond-boi som, Ml. 21d4 . ni ba cian mbias in pecthach, 56c22 . fer . . . nadip romar bed a sommæ a man . . . whose wealth should not be too great, Thes. ii 241.9 . is-gáibthech atátur i-sin-magh sin, RC xxiv 378.12 . is trog robas isin chotlad sin, Ériu v 34.z . ní cás duid madh diomdhach raibh / grása Dé . . ., Dán Dé xix 22 . [is] slán do bhaoi an brat-sain, xii 22 .

(e) In the type of sentence where the description constitutes an independent sentence with copula: ego sum uermis et non homo .i. atāim-si conad cruim mē ┐ nāch duine, Corm. Y 211 . ro boi Victor co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic, ACL iii 10 § 8 = Trip.² 217 . unus non est . . . .i. nochon fhil int aen co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, Auraic. 689 . dom dóigh . . . robadhuis uair ecin ┐ roba díl anora tú `it seems to me . . . that there was once a time when thou wert worthy of honour', ZCP vi 99.5 .

baithis, baithes, bathais

Cite this: eDIL s.v. baithis, baithes, bathais or dil.ie/5268
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: baithis, batis, baitse, baiste, bhaistte, baithius, bathais, baithes, bathais, baithis, baithis, baithes, baitsi, baithis

n m. and f. (Lat. baptisma, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 220 ) a s. baithis, Thes. ii 242.10 (Ardm.). g s. batis, LU 2998 (H). baitsi, Trip.² 76. baitse, Ériu xx 160.7 . na baiste , Trip.² 97. in bhaistte , Lism. L. 2835. d s. baithius, Wb. 12c39 . bathais, Blathm. 170. baithes m., IGT Decl. § 38 (87.20) . bathais baithis f., § 150 .

(a) baptism; the order of baptism, the baptismal rite; in looser sense, faith, creed: cerudglanta (leg. -glante ? edd.) tri bathis, Wb. 4a6 . tre baithis, 14c19 . tris in iris fosissetar i mbathis, Tur. 43. husce . . . asa ndénad in bathis, Trip.² 91. ro erlég in mbathais, 94 . baithes Pátraic faith, religion, Fél. Apr. 5. bathes már Maicc Maire, Jan. 6 (bathais, baithis, baithes, v.ll.). Pól i mbathis brethae, 25 . tria muir na baisti ┐ na der[g]martra, BColm. 104.22 . baithes ┐ comna, Laws iii 32.30 . o baithiss by baptism (a name), LL 371c3 . ro tréigsiot . . . a mbaithis Críostaídhachta, TFrag. 126.19 . téit fo baithis is baptised, is named: intain diagmani fo baithis, Wb. 3a15 . Tur. 55. ceni teisi fo bhathais `though he had not been given a name', Blathm. 668 (MS). Cf. in drema bui cen baitssed riam . . . tancutar chuice fo bathis, PH 247. do-beir baithis (do) baptises: ar ba Patric dubert baithis du Ch., Thes. ii 242.10 (Ardm.). Cf. nī mad tardad baithis tonn / tairthī caithis ind-úairib, ZCP xii 296 § 4.

Attrib. g s. Pátraic . . . athair baitsi ┐ creitme fer nErenn, Trip.² 76. mo c[h]enn battsi, BColm. 82.28 . Eoin baitsi John the Baptist, Lism. L. 3325. Eoin Baisde (: gaisde), Dán Dé xiii 7 . IGT Introd. 14.29 . comus ṗingni baisdi baptism fee, Hy Maine 78.7 . bond baistte (a tribute payable to clergy), BNnÉ 265 § 230 . screaball baithis Pádraig, Keat. iii 377.

As quasi-vn. oc baithis na hi Brigti, Vita Br. 2. a mbai Patraic oc bathis Lugne, Trip.² 827.

Of a heathen rite: gur chansat an mbaithis ngeintlidhe, Cóir Anm. 251 (p. 392.29) . atbert in drui triasin ṁbaithis . . ., ZCP ii 134 § 5.

(b) By association crown of the head: mullach cinn .i. a baites, Bretha § 2A . ó mullach mo baisti / go hingin mo coisi, Laud 615, 55 (cited Contribb. 187 ). o bathis coa bunn, LL 30592. o bhonn go bháthais, TBC-LL¹ p. 369 n. 5 (H, Eg.) = o mullach co talmain, text. in baithis gl. uerticem, Gild. Lor. 248. in baithes gl. cephale, 83 . benais a bricín da baithis ┐ sgáilis a folt, Fianaig. 72.30 . robuail builli . . . a mbathais an doirrseora, ZCP vi 276.14 . mo chathbarr . . . / gach én gébus má baithis / ní bia fó aithis móile, SG 248.26 . gríos beo do bháidh ar dtreise / do-cháidh tre bheo ar mbaitheise cut us to the quick, DDána 81.1 . bonn a chos ris an aird soir ┐ a bhaitheas ris an aird siar, TSh. 5758. For the phr. lann baithise the fontanelle , see 1 lann.

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