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aprainn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aprainn or dil.ie/3884

expld. by glossators as poverty; bad . Usually as interjection with prec. copula and follg. dep. clause alas that: ba abrain nachamgaibthersea taracenn `it is a grief that I am not taken', Trip. 150.6 = cid nachim gaibther-sa, Trip.² 2229 . apraind cen cath isind úair / do Medb co triun in tslúaig, LU 5784 (TBC). apraind ná bása for mo nirt deside, 6370 (ib.). appraind ┐ bithappraind nach hé C. fil it richt, 3353 ( SCC 14 ). appraind nacham ḟuilsea do nirt beith eturru dom choiss deside, LL 12117 (TBC). apraind a Léith Macha!, 14257 . ba hapraind nadáil cuardríg . . ., Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 8 § 12 . apprinn graece . . . .i. dommatu .i. is dometu na dernad, O'Mulc. 51 . `abrann' olc is dirsan ann, Metr. Gl. 17 § 44 . a.¤ .i. olc .i. truagh, O'Cl.

As subst. f.: is mór an a.¤ foropairt `the evil thou hast committed', Ériu ii 222.2 . anaid gal cāich dia ndēntar dīgabā(i)l aprainde diminution of wretchedness, Corm. Y 418 .

bel

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bel or dil.ie/5606
Last Revised: 2019

n [o] way, path : in tan do-lléicthea i mbel (: hécen) `when they were released to the road', Blathm. 319 . ? . . . belota .i. na bela uatha, Laws i 160.7 Comm. ? Compd. dirsan a dith ba belchath (: seanchadh), AFM i 544.21 . Cf. belach, imbel.

1 ceó

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ceó or dil.ie/8696
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: ceo, c., ceoa, ceu, ciá, chia, cíach, cíaich, -g, cíachaib, cíach, ciach, ciaich, chiaidh, chiach, ceó, cíach, ceoa, ceoand, ceouib, ceu

n us. f., later(?) also m. (g s. ceo dermair, CCath. 3694 , in c.¤ , Smaointe B. Chr. 4851 , an ceoa , Rosa Angl. 280.11 ). n s. ceu, Corm. Y 226 . a s. ciá (= cia : dia), Blathm. 100 § 31 (see p. 161), c.¤ (= cia : dia), RC xvii 143.17 (this form also found as g s., GOI 204 ), d s. chia, Ó Bruad. iii 202.12 . In mid. Ir. us. as k-stem (g s. cíach, a d s. cíaich, -g, d p. cíachaib), but also freq. with ceó throughout sg. In late texts somet. with n s. cíach ( cíach .i. ceo, O'Cl. ciach, Anecd. i 79.5 , in ciaich , Marco P. 10 , ? g s. an chiaidh (: diaidh), Arch. Hib. i 83 vi , d s. chiach, Hackett² xlvi 17 ). ceó f. (g s. cíach), IGT Decl. § 97 , m., § 108 (undecl. in sg., pl. ceoa, cf. g p. ceoand, Rosa Angl. 50.8 , d p. ceouib, O'Gr. Cat. 254.24 ). Composition-forms cíach-, ceó-. See ZCP vi 437 .

(a) mist : ceu graece ceus .i. nubs (= nubes?), unde bith cē, Corm. Y 226 , O'Mulc. 219 . ro artraig in ceo druidechta, LU 8531 ( FB 39 ). is iat dodróni in smúitch.¤ ndruidechta sin, 6749 . con n-accamár . . . in tromchíaich máir, 9244 . dech do ṡínaib ceo, LL 345a14 . cid at-chíu / tresin céo (: gléo), MU² 415 . búi do mét na cíach, CCath. 471 . cona ceō uscaide, MacCongl. 123.15 . tre chiachaib, TTebe 597 . dorn im cheó (prov.), Laud 615, 23 (cited Meyer Contribb.).

With prep. I N- of confusion, perplexity, uncertainty : nim lot i ciá (restored as ní imlod i ciä) `I was not befogged', Blathm. 100 § 31 . urcur anfis fir hi céo, LU 3864 ( SCC 38 ). gubreth i céo, RC xiii 462 § 65 . tria cheó ngó (: beó) `cheating illusion', Metr. Dinds. iii 220.51 .

Attrib. g s misty, impenetrable : in dorcha ciach, CCath. 3962 . na trí neoil chiach, SG 230.34 . tromfhlechadh ciach, Stair Erc. 481 . i coepaib cíach cíar in masses of dark mists, Ériu iv 132.10 . inis na cuantaoibh ceo, Keat. Poems 325 . Fig. scaoilfead aithcheódh ciach na gceast, Celtica ii 179 § 82 . See dall.

(b) fault, stain, blemish : nír fhás . . . ceo ar do chlú, DDána 21.30 . mé ó chiaigh na fola fóir, A. Ó Dálaigh xxi 11 . Freq. in phr. cen ch.¤ of persons, etc.: in corp rolaad . . . / for lige lór Helessé / atraracht cen cheo unharmed , SR 7183 . rítheagh geal Coimdhe gan cheo faultless , Aithd. D. 62.18 . ro cherbhus in láoch gan chíaidh, Duan. F. i 19.17 . gnáthchuimhne air sin diagh a ndiágh / coimed gan ciaigh iad duinn, Ó Héodhusa 247.16 .

(c) gloom, sadness, grief : coe (ceu, v.l.) bachi dī .i. mor uar (leg. monuar) a bachi, ł dirsan sain a bachi 'the grief of Bacchus, then, i.e. 'alas, O Bacchus', or 'that is sad, O Bacchus' ' CIH ii 610.30 , iii 1072.3 , O'Mulc. § 213 , CMCS lix 29 . tréig do mhaoithchiaig `quit dejected melancholy', O'Gr. Cat. 457.9 . re béin cloinne a ciaigh, A. Ó Dálaigh viii 8 . damhna ciach, Ériu xvi 133 § 21 . máthair chúisi mo choimhchiadh, Ó Bruad. ii 120.23 .

(d) Various Fig. and extended applications: ceo crini `a mist of withered eld', TTebe 2705 . glenn . . . iarna dorchuguth do chiaich an báis, Aisl. Tond. 96 § 1 . amal chíaig do rigbrudin smoke, LU 6476 (BDD). fó cíaigh fó corthair thened, TTr.² 156 . crú an bhuinnse . . . / 'n-a cheo ar do chronn `covering', PBocht 5.23 . beanaidh ciaigh don fhíoch fholaigh, O'R. Poems 3486 . ar luighe ceo ar ghrís `when dust had settled on embers', Content. xiv 19 . céo for a derca (of the soul in hell), Aisl. Tond. 99 § 3 . th'airm curadh go gceo nimhe. DDána 97.39 . ná tréig an Coimdhe ar cheo for what is illusory, 45.10 .

Compds. With nouns: nó go dtuitidh an ciach-bhrat . . . anúas orainn (i.e. the sky), ML 102.27 . ciachbrat codalta, Ériu iv 50 § 5 . le ceóbhrat tinnis scale (on the eye), Párl. na mB. 3447 . térnam ó chiachbrot chumad gloom , O'Gr. Cat. 476 . ? dememsatár claidib cech uí muinter céochlessaib imbret . . . (rhet.), LU 5467 = coechlesaib, TBC-I¹ 991 . ós cheochuan `misty bay', O'Hara 4051 . ? la ciamdorcacht na hoidhchi, Grail 1212 (ciaid ndorcha, v.l.). tug ar chroidhibh ceoidhiamhair, DDána 118.1 . mo cheotuirse cléibh, Keat. Poems 93 . With adjj.: tar chisealaibh . . . ciach-bhraonacha na g-caladh `misty-dripping', ML 46.31 . crábhadh nár cheodhoilbhthe clouded by mist, Ó Bruad. iii 48.2 . fo cnocuibh ciachdorcha, Stair Erc. 1608 . a chraoisioch . . . ceoi-neimhneach, MR xiv 32 . Note also: ceóbera di far mór-dí belgib brassaib (rhet.), LU 6642 .

†darrmart

Cite this: eDIL s.v. †darrmart or dil.ie/14694
Last Revised: 2013

ind dirsan flaith fial forsa roemid roen atchonnarc: Ailill Molt olc ní darrmart ba rí Connacht, Rawl. 85 b 20 . Read darrinart (Meyer). LL 45 b 11 has: intí farsnimmart. ? Read darimmart or danimmart. See do-immoirg, RC xxxvii 340 .

dirsan

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dirsan or dil.ie/16756

Forms: dirsann, dursan, dursain, dirsin

adj also dirsann, dursan, dursain, dirsin, etc. sad, unlucky, calamitous (used of objective cause of sorrow, not in subjective sense). As interj. woe, alas: do thoitim fria Cu | ba d.¤ a lōeg, TBC-I¹ 2716 . ba d.¤ do dith, 2661 . bid d.¤ a bith-ingnas, Liad. and Cuir. 16.26 . is d.¤ in tiughcelebrath sorrowful is the last farewell, Fianaig. 36.17 . ni ba dirsann in galur sin, IT i 121.21 ( TE § 7 Eg.). dursan ar g-cuairt chosgair chain, ML 16.16 . go ndearna gníomh bhus dursan, 110.25 . d.¤ bith i mbethaid dam | d'eis rig Gaoideal ┐ Gall, Corm. Y 606 . ba d.¤ lem sellad fris, 975 . ba dirsin is mor do du | ┐ da muir eturru, Anecd. i 6.18 . sursan, dursan, degscel, drochscel | maidm catha . . . | sursan rig dorigni failid | dursan ri forsar maig (exceptional use of person), Cog. 32 . ceu (= ceo) Bachi dirsand a Bachi alas o Bacchus (explanation of `ceo B.'), O'Mulc. 213 . diorsan .i. droichní no droichsgél, O'Cl.

Generally folld. by prep. DO: romsaraigset as cach cruth | dursan dam a tuistigud, SR 2424 . ni bo d.¤ dait do úaiti ar a cind, TBC-I¹ 1049 . is dursan dit (duit, LU), 1249 . d.¤ dó in rian rorá, Metr. Dinds. ii 14.66 . dursan duindi in scel garb | Illand mac Scanlain is marb, Anecd. i 12.24 . d.¤ deit beth amal-sin, PH 3331 . ba dursan d'Fionnachta aniu laighe i ccroilighe, TFrag. 96 . dursain duit a rád frim, Laws i 6.25 . Folld. by neg. clause would that, a pity that . . . not: dirsan do Dia nach bi-siu fri céte, SR 2033 . dirsan . . . nach a cēn domrala uadh, MacCarthy 130 . dursan . . . nách tréd craidi ro clannustar, MR 152 . d.¤ náptar hé bátar (nach íat atá, Eg.) and, BDD § 56 . dursan nad eirrge Echbel . . . dursan nach Fiacha fallnastar (Nuallguba Emire), LL 123b4 . dursand nab dir lacha lír, Cog. 56.3 .

As subst.: mór nd.¤, mór ngalgat, LL 123a20 .

díth

Cite this: eDIL s.v. díth or dil.ie/16842
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: díth, -a, díith

n orig. neut. n s. díth n-etha, LL 28a33 . dith n-aenmaic, Dinds. 42 . m. (g s. and n p. -a), IGT Decl. § 95 . In chronological order, the different senses are loss, absence, lack, need, desire ZCP xxxiv 48 .

(a) loss, destruction, ruin, damage: díith gl. detrimentum, Wb. 8d3 . ba dursan do d.¤ thy loss, TBC-LL¹ 3472 . iar nd.¤ Conaire i mBrudin dá Derca, LU 3442 . iar far nd.¤ uile when ye are all destroyed, TFerbe 97 . deich mili mōra, mōr d.¤ | dorochratar oc Dauíd, SR 5911 . cen meth, cen ditha (: cricha), 1015 . slecht la mac Con . . . Art Oenfher | a d.¤ rodámair sin chath, LL 132a26 . d.¤ leis ríg Loegaire, 184a50 ( Arch. Hib. ii 73 ). atbath Longarad . . . is d.¤ lēgind ┐ scol, 371b69 . tánic d.¤ do búaib connā terna díb acht tarb, 23a29 . flaith cen d.¤ cen díbad (of heaven), FA 35 . gach dochar ┐ gach d.¤ dár himreadh leat air Chonnachtaibh, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 42 . rothógbatar clesa curad do d.¤ ┐ do dílgend araili, Fianaig. 90 . co trialta a nd.¤ co mmenic frequent attempts were made to kill them, IT i 73 . an d.¤ fuair muinntir Briain, Cog. 62 . iar nd.¤ dona rigaib after the fall of the kings, MS. Mat. 618 . as mé an nathair ag d.¤ slúagh . . . an leomhan ag d.¤ cruidh, BNnÉ 285 . fa hadhbhal d.¤ Albanach andsin slaughter , AIC ii 392 . co tanic d.¤ mór isin tír .i. marbad na maccraide la Hiruath, PH 2660 . rogenair [Isu] ó Muire óig cen d.¤ n-óige, 5179 . cet[nat] . . . esbadach íarna d.¤ ima tlacht having been robbed of its fleece, Ériu vii 6 . (prov.) d.¤ Ulad le d.¤ Ulad, ZCP i 106 . do denum dithi donn imper, vi 55 . noco tí in brath dithi in betha the judgement which will destroy the world, Acall. 7283 . fada atá rún . . . rodhítha ina gcroidhibh the desire of extirpation, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 352 . ag cor díthe ar Earr Ghaoidheal, Rel. Celt. ii 202 . cēt ridiri . . . dith H. ann what H. destroyed there, ZCP vi 42 . Criomthann . . . d.¤ doratt for Dealbhna, AFM 751 . neach | lé budh dil díoth an ollaimh the destruction of the o., Content. xx 13 . Of food: ata bar cuid ullamh ┐ da rab ní bus sía rachaidh si ar d.¤ it will be spoilt (go to loss ?), RC xix 144 . Folld. by AR: īar ndīth Conchobair 'after the death of Conchobar' BDC 104.2 . ba dirsan d.¤ ar in mac 'twas sad that destruction should overtake the youth, LL 44b41 ( MS. Mat. 482 ). ni techta anfine d.¤ ar fine `it is not lawful for an extern to encroach on the tribe', Laws v 438 . In cheville: d.¤ gen cheas, BB 279a48 . guin Meis Dead d.¤ co feirg, ZCP viii 117 § 15 . Note also: dith deiredh, Forus Foc. 67 ( Metr. Gl. 20 ). d.¤ .i. crich . . . domuin dith .i. dith no finis in domuin, O'Dav. 726 .

Legal `expiry of a period of grace' (Plummer MS. notes, cf. díthim): ria ndechmadh dith .i. . . . riasiu dithmas as in dechmadh, O'Curry 2407 ( Eg. 88, 32 (33)a ). in dith ndermait .i. . . . inti dermatas a ferann . . . co ndithmonn uadh é, 418 ( H 3.18 229b ).

(b) privation, want, absence: d.¤ charath nó coibdelach, Ériu vii 172 . masa dhith ōir no ilmāine fil fort, Marco P. 25 . ní fuil neach a nd.¤ bidh ná étaig innti, RC xxiv 383 . ag ēg do dhigh ┐ do gorta, Lib. Flav. ii 9 va 20 . díoth lóin ar lucht na heachtra | ní cóir, A. Ó Dálaigh xxx 6 . más d.¤ leat mo leithéidsi, Ériu ix 2 . do d.¤ : is do dith na flatha Find atá int selg-so oca denam in the absence of F., Acall. 3979 . feoil d'ithe do dhith a haithearraigh for want of an alternative, Rule of Tallaght § 73 . cartramhan gu leth fearuinn . . . acht acra dá díoth short of an acre, Public Records 29, report 42 . do dh.¤ an teasa nádúrtha, TSh. 1577 . créad do ghéanadh cách dá nd.¤ how should we all get on without them ? (of women), Dánta Gr. 3.16 . Folld. by neg. clause: do d.¤ nach bhfacaidh an tighearna because he did not see, Maguires of F. 50 . With prec. AR: ar dhí suain, Rel. Celt. ii 306 . dáoine ar dhíth creidimh unbelievers, 1 Corinth. xiv 23 .

(c) what is needful, necessary: ba d.¤ in fiadhnaisea roraidhisa frisseom there was need of . . ., Aen. 587 . líg as d.¤ dūin ┐ ní máine 'tis the flagstone we want, ZCP i 256 .

Compds. díth-ár destructive slaughter , Fél. Ep. 104 . bar ndún-si do díthḟaglad (dithḟoglad, v.l.) 'to despoil your fortress', Leb. Cert.² 1740 . Fer D. dithmilidh mac Damain death-dealing warrior, ZCP x 304 .

2 dursan

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 dursan or dil.ie/19289

x see dirsan .

3 eó

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 3 eó or dil.ie/20130
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: Eó, Eó, iuech

n o (cf. g p. in n.l. Mag Eó and the compd. stem in n.l. Eó-chaill; g s. iuech: scïach, K. and H. seems due to the analogy of 1 eó), m. The meaning in the glosses apparently was stem, shaft, but in Mid. Ir. usually a tree: in eo na cros `in the stem of the crosses' Thes. ii 255.3 . a mbís hoṡen suas dind eo `what is from that upwards of the shaft' 255.7 . éo ainglech | crann croiche in Choimded, Fél. Mar. 10 (with gl.: eo .i. lignum .i. crand LB. O'Dav. 779 ). `eo' crand, Corm. Y 1272 . O'Cl. O'Mulc. 480 . Esp. a yew: eo (.i. ibur), RC xiii 222.28 . LL 395a8 . O'Cl. mairg do Chliu | dia fríth Fer fíth inna eu, RC xiii 460.22 (corresp. to: dus ibair, 436.21 ) = Fianaig. 32.20 . dercu iuech `berries of the yew' K. and H. 21 . Cf. edad .i. eu, Auraic. 5522 (edad `aspen' 1195 ). Of any tree remarkable for size or age: Éo Rosa, ibar é...dair dano eo Mugna, Dinds. 160 . Fig. of a champion, a leader: ba héo duairc dermór (of Goliath) SR 5752 . rop éo uas ind fhid, ropo rígda ind rail, LL 147a32 = PRIA iii 550 § 27 . o ro tencsat Cesair in[a] éo ard áighthidi i medhón in tslóigh, CCath. 498 . Murchad mac Briain, Eo Rossa rigdraidi Erend M. the yew of Ross of Ireland's princes (i.e. the most surpassing) Cog. 166.7 . COMPDS.: éo-chaill yew-forest: fig., of a band of warriors: dirsan dond eochaill amra, Fianaig. 10 § 8 . Cf. the n.l. Eóchaill. ¤chrann a huge or ancient tree, a yew-tree: eocrand...duillech dossfota, IT iii 42 § 48 = 13 § 23 . eóchrann darach dermhaire, CCath. 336 . eochrainn dermára, 1812 . 1389 . 1761 . ¤glas green-trunked (?): mong...iubair eou-glais, K. and H. 13 .

es(s)ad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. es(s)ad or dil.ie/20371

n affliction, sorrow, disease: easadh .i. galar, O'Cl. a Leith Macha, mór n-essad, mór n-dirsan! (Emer foretelling Cú Chulainn's death) LL 123a20 . mór n-esad artai much sorrow is in store for thee (?) Ériu i 118.9 . Cf. essad ebraice esda [i.e. in beth-esda] enim miser[i]cordiae. is esad is cride dia airchisecht, O'Mulc. 430 . Cf. essad .i. eisid .i. ised is sith and in tslaine tsuthain, Corm. Y 522 .

faídech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. faídech or dil.ie/21071

Forms: faidhig

adj I o [n. (?)] (faíd) lamenting, uttering plaints: dirsan d'faidhiuch ro líon bith, | as crith, as caíneadh, as cath AFM 941 = Bruchst. § 123 .

II n o-ā ni dhlighidh faoidheach faoilte a complainer O'Gr. Cat. 532.2 . in (ind) Finn faídech, the name of a bell belonging to St. Patrick: ise doroine ind Findfaidech, Trip. 266 (see n. p. 267 ). g s. lan ind [ḟ]innfaidhig Patraicc do argut, AU 946 = an Findfadhoich, AFM ii 656 . i ndighail saraighti finnfaidhigh P., AU 1012 . Of bells belonging to other saints: ba derbh-dalta do Mhac Creiche Mainchín; ... ┐ as leis dochuaid go Roimh an toiscc da ttuccatar an Finn-faoideach d'altoir moir na Roma leo, Misc. Hag. Hib. 16 § 12 . an findfāidech Colmāin meic Luachāin, BColm. 64.8 . clód da clogc .i. Findfāidech cechtar de diaraile, 92.19 (leg. finn faídech in each case). dā ndeachais ón minn gan mheath | do meathais in finn faídheach, IGT III ex. 118 . Cf. ag caoi go faoidheach weeping bitterly ITS i 3615 . do ghoil go fuigheach, Oss. vi 78.18 , which may contain the same word.

fo-eim, -foím, -fóem

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-eim, -foím, -fóem or dil.ie/22650

Forms: fóemaid, fáemaid, foemaim, fuimiu, foím, faemhuidh, -faemhann, fáemit, foemtaitt, faema, rofaomae, rofaemadh, ḟaemadh, foremais, foet, foet, ḟoet, fáet, forroet, ar-foím, for-étt, fhaomh, faemastar, faemastair, aemasdar, foetatar, ḟaemsat, fáemóbh-, fóemhōghaidh, ḟaemabh

later as simple verb, fóemaid, fáemaid. Ind. pres. 1 s. foemaim, LU 8488 . ni fuimiu , ZCP viii 314.21 . 3 s. conda foím , Ériu iv 163 § 27 . faemhuidh, -faemhann, Lism. L. 2923 - 4 . 3 pl. fáemit, LU 9036 . (With suff.) foemtaitt, ACL iii 303 § 12 . pres. subj. 3 s. ron faema , SR 8223 na rofaomae , Mon. Tall. § 54 . past subj. 3 s. rofaemadh ZCP v 502.22 . acht con ḟaemadh , ZCP xiii 174y . pret. and perf. 2 s. foremais, TBC-LL¹ 4012 (forfáomhais St) 3 s. ni foet , RC xxv 346 § 2 (cf. ni foet , ACC 96 ). nad ḟoet , TBC-I¹ 1336 = fáet, LU 5807 ( ni forroet , Corm. Y 698 belongs to ar-foím. cf. also ní for-étt , Ériu xiii 26.30 ). gur fhaomh , PBocht 5 § 27 . nír faemastar , TBC-LL¹ 2186 . ro faemastair BNnÉ 322 § 29 . nír aemasdar , YBL 394b18 . 3 pl. ni foetatar , Anecd. iii 63.10 . nar ḟaemsat , LL 141bz . Middle Ir. fut. stem fáemóbh-: fóemhōghaidh, ZCP xiii 174z But: ní ḟaemabh , IGT, Verbs ex. 583 . See ib. § 67 , where the short vowel is queried, and in some copies condemned. Vn. fáemad, fáemachtain q.v.

In general sense accepts, cf. ar-foím.

(a) accepts, receives (person or thing; DI or ó from), often with notion of approving, countenancing: ni rofoemus sai ... mnai, ZCP iii 237.8 = nír forfáemusa, LU 10323 . úair nad fáet úad a targid dó since he did not accept from him what he had offered him LU 5807 . ro thairgedar do Ercuil a righi ┐ nir fhaem-sam sin, Stair Erc. 490 . fu[a]cair ... do chlannaib S. ... na roḟaema duine dib | ingena ... Caín command the children of S. not to take unto them the ... daughters of C. Rawl. 76a22 (= LL 141b27 ). ochtor do sil Seth ... naroemsat Chain ib. Rawl. 76a 26 (= nar ḟaemsat LL). ní roḟaem nech ... in n-ardríg, Metr. Dinds. iii 342.63 . ar na roḟoem in gilla hi bus hi as the youth (Joseph) did not consent to join her LB 115b1 . tri bliadna deg ... rofaemadh Niall was accepted (as king) BB 50b20 ( MacCarthy 422 ). duīne ... conscelaigetar do briathraib esbaib ... ni rofaemtha cucut thou shalt not admit to thy company ZCP iii 29.12 . ni ḟaomha luighech laimthech, Ériu xiii 20.12 . do aomh sé Muire mar mhnaoi, Dán Dé ii 13 . a anim ararb urusa aslach cech uilc, ┐ ná ro ḟóem in maith itir, PH 8116 . cén mótá uathadh na ro ḟaomh baitsiodh nā creideamh uadh, AFM i 130 . faemais R. inni sin donti náemh F. accepted that (blessing) from F. BNnÉ 321 § 24 . in gáir tucsumar nir ḟaem heeded not MR 40.6 . hit ēsin a n-anmann | dia faemtatar togarmand from which they received their appellations ZCP xii 246 § 20 (corresponding to: conid uaidib ar-femat anmanna, 245.2 ).

(b) agrees to (a proposal), consents (to do something), with neg. refuses: eircid, for C., cussin fer ... Foemaimsea sin tra, for Cú Ch., LU 8488 ( FB 34 ). ba si comairli Ulad forro ... fáemitsium dano ani hisin, LU 9036 ( FB 78 ). ba dirsan duit nách athesc ... Fergusa foremais, TBC-LL¹ 4012 . ca tindscra chuinghi ... ? Mo beith ... ac in ḟir. In fáeme-si siut ? ar P. Fáemaim ... cach ní adera-su rium do dénum, Acall. 6680 . faomaid umaloitt do denum, BColm. 56.10 . nír faemsad na cleirigh anmain, KMMisc. 319.4 . nír aemh codlud lea máthair, Lism. L. 258 . admháil Iosa ... níor aomh aon-asbal eile no other apostle confessed Jesus Dán Dé xx 14 . ro faemabair mo mharbad, Ériu iii 160.8 . rofóemad leo a bás ... menisoerad mo Rígmac they had agreed to slay him SR 3133 . faemais F. ... a breth dosan mar dubairt `agreed that he should receive his award' Ériu iv 226 § 50 . eirgedh ... cu F., dia fhis in bhfaemhann an cis-sin ... Faemhuidh F. in cís-sin ┐ geallaid a thabairt uadh, Lism. L. 2923 . rogabh A. ... do comrag la F. acht conḟaemadh F. provided F. would consent ZCP xiii 174y . do aomhadar cáin do dhíol uatha, Keat. ii 3954 . nír faemastar Fer b. [cen] in comrac do denam F. would not consent to relinquish the fight TBC-LL¹ 2186 = nir ḟoem F. cen in comrac, etc. St. nir fhaem orumsa ... dul isin glenn would not go in to the glen for me Comp. CC 86.12 . gach itchi nár ḟaomhus ort which I did not grant for thy sake ZCP x 348 § 13 .

With ellipse of vn. obj.: muna faoma am imdaigh if thou wilt not come to my couch ZCP i 134y . ro innsidar nar faem Bibus leo that B. had refused to come with them vi 278.32 .

Passing into sense undertakes, attempts (to do something): is snámh a n-aghaidh srotha sin ... ┐ ní ḟaomhaim-si é, Todd Lect. iv 90.26 (perhaps = I do not accept the task). faemait ... teiced ceilgi rompo take to feigned flight CCath. 3101 . ro faemustar in t-athleim `made a second leap' MR 234 4 . cradh Cind Faelad ... do faemadh la Findachta, BB 50a46 ( MacCarthy 416 ). (ellipt.) ó ró thuit C , ... ┐ ro ḟaomhsad Laighnibh as a láithrib catha `betook themselves from their positions of battle' (= gave way ?) Todd Lect. iv 104 § 45 .

(c) accepts (ill-treatment, etc.), submits to, allows: is tūscu ro ḟaemomais-ne sin inás do ticfámais tar in mbreithir doratsum, CCath. 1682 (foidenmis; no fodemmais v.l.). gur fhaomh a ghabháil `deigned to be made prisoner' PBocht 5 § 27 . mina faemair do gabail unless you consent to be captured ZCP vi 36.12 . do aomhsad a léirscrios tar sáile amach, Hackett xv 37 .

(d) yields, concedes, grants, allows (with DO of pers.): dona fíb nochretitis ... ┐ no fáemtaís a n-anmchardine dó LU 2262 ( FA 32 ). faomhuis ... don mnaoi ... | Ráith Ráithleann do bheith da ghairm | ...mar ainm ar an múr [sic leg.], Ériu i 99.5 . foemuis Magnus doibh oirisium for dliged a sen, Marco P. 25 . inní nár faematar a athair nā ṡenathair do fémad dó to yield to him what ... never yielded Cog. 142.19 . ro fhaomhsat Tuath De D. an righe do Breas, Leb. Gab.(i) i 164.13 . neamh dá humhla go n-aomhthaoi may heaven be granted to her meekness (used to be ?) Ó Bruad. ii 122 z.

Cf. Cenel nA. ni theiged hi Caisiul co núe, ar ni foetatar ni assa cuit i mBruig Rig ...; is N. namma di maccaib C. dobert mbruig Rig do Chaissiul. ni foetatar a maic olchena, Anecd. iii 63.10 .

fot, fat

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fot, fat or dil.ie/24132
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: fut, f., fut, fuit, fod, fad, fuit, ḟ., ut, fot-, fota

n (n s. orig. fut. u, acc. to Pokorny, ZCP xvi 458 ; see fota. But all the exx. we have of gs. are -o- decl. Probably cognate with Lat. uastus `vast,' GOI § 80 ). o, n.; later m. f.¤ n-aicnid, Auraic. 1343 . d s. fut, Ml. 20a17 , etc. g s. fuit, Sg. 3b5 . 6b19 . fod, fad, IGT, Decl. § 38 ; iv § 98 (for: an ḟaidsin, IGT Decl. ex. 1006 , see section (c) below).

Length

(a) of time or duration: f.¤ lai and (gl. solstitio) BCr. 18c1 . f.¤ saiguil (gl. diuturnitatem) Ml. 145d9 . eter f.¤ ┐ gair Sg. 5a9 , 12 . déca tossach gemrid ... a fuacht, a f.¤ , LU 3607 ( SCC 30 ). ni fil comus for a f.¤ nā for a ngairde, Laws v 314.11 . cipé tí, bid se f.¤ a ṡaeguil that will be the length of his life (i.e. he will die) TBC-LL¹ 1768 . fichi bliadan ... fat flatha Féic LL 128a8 ( MacCarthy 168 ). tri ced bliadain fod a reimhis, Leb. Gab.(i) i 56 . fad láetheadh length of days Proverbs iii 2 . Cf. fot n-anala Padruic hic , O'Curry 1765 ( 23 Q 6, 36a ). gearr lá dá ḟad 'na ḟoghair however long TD 5.3 . With prolept. poss. = how long: dirsan a f.¤ co n-erbart it is a pity you delayed so long to speak LU 10745 (= a ḟad, Ériu xii 166 ). machdad limsa a ḟ.¤ co tecat I marvel that they are so long in coming LU 5621 . ar a ḟat leis tíchtain timchell because he thought it took too long to go round TBC-LL¹ 5814 . imbel a scíath ac a smechaib doib a ḟat leo go lectar ... such is their haste to be let ... 5200 (= ar a fad St). siat ac toirsi ... ara f.¤ leo robadar for loingis, Aen. 1157 .

(b) of space. ... a crich iar fut, iar lethet, SR 2640 . boí f.¤ n-aurchora eturro, LU 6787 ( BDD 32 ). críoch L. gidh lór a fad, Studies 1948, 488 . f.¤ ┐ lethet ┐ airde ina heclaisi PH 6352 . naoi nduirn a f.¤ , ZCP xiv 348.1 ( SM Facs. 29az = Laws ii 238 ). boí ... dia f.¤ na lamae so long was the arm LU 9068 ( FB 82 ). is e fod rohordaiged in coimling the distance fixed for the race Aen. 980 . f.¤ ferlāma da crund, CCath. 5604 . rop e airde na froiged ... cubat fir cu ḟ.¤ láime os a chind, LB 120b36 (= fat, BB 241b41 ) = cubat fri fut a lame, SR 4251 . fad láimhe laoich do chrann, Keat. ii 5199 . fad a láimhe ┐ a loinne d'folmughadh eidir é ┐ cách, TD ii p. 228 (= feadh, i p. 59 ). isin fhad as mo fhedaid dul on grein, ITS xiv 98.x .

See also under (f).

(c) used adverbially in acc., gen. or dat. (of time or space): no theigtis fot n-aurchora riam, BDD 13 St. batar imalle fri L. ... f.¤ a n-ámsire as long as they lived PH 774 . in aine dodena nech fuit na bliadna archena at any other time throughout the year LB 48a9 ( PH 4979 ). ic ēgmig impu ... f.¤ a n-anali till out of breath LU 1902 ( RC x 56 ). na bīd D. fut ind ṡamlaī oc breith na hēnbrethi, ZCP xiii 179.1 . Cf. do luid ... A. cuccaiseom ... f.¤ na geamoidhchi = travelled throughout a winter's night (?) Anecd. i 2.3 . luid B. for teched ... fut n-aidchi, RC xxv 34 § 5 . co trilis f.¤ da lám fair hair twice the length of an arm LL 319b6 = fuit, Rawl. 147a51 . nocha bia turbaid in fat sin air during that time Laws i 198.21 Comm. do an sé an fad sa gan éirghe, Ó Héodhusa 63.6 . an fad bhíos duine ag innsin sgel, Mac Aingil 169 . an ḟaidsin (: aicsin) = so long IGT, Decl. ex. 1006 (marked lochtach, apparently because the gen. `an ḟ.¤ ' was mistaken for n s f. Cf. IGT IV ex. 1031 , and the mod. use cited Ériu xiii 181 ).

(d) with interrog. pron. adj.: ciofut how long ? (= ci ó fut, GOI 289 ) gl. usque quo Ml. 20a17 , 22d10 , 32d5 ; quamdiu 93a15 , 113d10 . ci f.¤ (gl. quatinus) ZCP vii 480 . cia f.¤ atúsa isin chotlud sa ?, TBC-I¹ 1844 ( LU 6359 ). nocon edudur cia fad rocuired orra anadh, Laws i 252.19 Comm. dia innis dam ca fad mo ṡa[e]gal, RC xxxv 204.16 . ca fat co ṅdingentar feis Temrach ? how long will it be till ... Acall. 7544 . ca fad do bhí sibh mar soin ?, TD 28.11 .

(e) as rel. adv.: figlis fut baí as long as he existed LU 640 ( ACC 23 ). i fat bethir ic a marbad, TBC-LL¹ 1782 . fat garde bess tussu i fuss `long or short be thy stay' Ériu vii 221.3 ; f.¤ gairde rabae ..., 223.1 ( LL 208b11 ; 41 ). fat gairit do biath ina leapaid leighis for as long or short a time as he should be Acall. 7186 . biaid Issu cot' imdegail | f.¤ gairdde bessu mo le | ┐ in bachall ..., RC xx 54 = fod goirid BCC 372.29 . foth [leg. fot] gairde bether ac denam na lubra, H 3.18, p. 332 ( O'Curry 682 ).

(f) with prep.:

AR F.¤ (AR FUT; see also FOR F.¤ , IAR F.¤ , below, the three prep. are easily confused in some MSS) through; throughout (= for fut): ro boi L. tri chet bliadna ar fut in mara, LU 2966 . gach dú hi rabhatar ar fud Erenn, Cog. 212.3 . berrad lethan ar fud a chind all over (?) TBC-I¹ 2573 (= iar bhfud ?). geilt ... ro bhoi ar fhud an fhedha, BS 100.11 . do badhusa ... ar fad an oilein, BNnÉ 49.24 (= perlustrantes insulam V. SS. Hib. i 105 ). co rabhatar ... ar fut a céile mingled together (in confusion) AU iii 546 (of hostile armies). mo mallacht ... do na mnáibh do chuir a raib do dubh ... ┐ do lebraib agum ar fud a chéili (scribe's colophon), O'Gr. Cat. 123.3 . In Laws in technical phrase: athgabail ar fut `distress with stay' Laws i 208.19 = a. ar ut ib. 7 ; (contrasted with: a. tulla `immediate distress' ib. 24 ). anad ar fut `full time of stay' 84.15 Comm . dibadh ar fut heritage `in the direct line' (oppd. to: do chūl nō do thaīb, fig. use of sense b) Laws v 292.12 Comm. beiridh dibadh sguithi ... ar fut, ┐ nocha beirinn do t[h]aib ib. 0 . gan briathra ele ... do chor ar a fud = mingle any other words with it RSClára 9a .

With DI: da forraig dec i tir cumaile dia f.¤, se foirrge dia lethet `twelve f.¤ in a t.c. in length, six f.¤ in its breadth' Laws iii 334 Comm.

FOR (AR) FUT through; throughout: nad mbíad ... for a fuot, Trip. 70.22 (= for a fout, 760 ). no beth for fut in betha, BB 412b3 . do bí ... ic á íarraid for fut in domain, CCath. 139 . cuiridh in rí coblach ar fad na Sinna co cluain B., ACL iii 209.5 (perh. for iar bhf.¤ but cf. follg.). go n-imgheann ar fud an fhásaigh, TSh. 2517 . Later sometimes for ut : tainig ... for ut Mídhe, BB 38a42 = for fut M., LL 12a10 . in tan batar ... oc marbad na nI. for ut na cat[h]rach LB 155a20 . tancatar co ro lensat in coicir for ut na coilled 275a10 .

FRI F.¤ : sníset fri fat hi fogail, LL 197b5 ( Metr. Dinds. i. 244 ).

I F.¤ afar, far away: a bfaigsi 's a bfud near and far IGT IV ex. 1040 . rucsat ... tafond ... i fat forro hunted them far away TBC-LL¹ 1451 . ro taifnetar [in t-ēn] a f.¤ fairgi away to sea Aen. 2986 . regaid ind longas hi fat, LU 6617 . na hoilithrigh tainic a fad, BCC § 258 (= de longinqua venientes regione Reeves Ad. p. 61 ). is iat dorat [ = da-rat ?] sund i fat, LU 3836 ( SCC 37 ). rochuir Ultu a fad drove ... far away RC xvii 18 . cuir a bhfagas is a bhfad | fios uait, Studies 1948, 487 . do chuiris ... i bhfad uaim `longe fecisti ... a me' TSh. 4253 . cuir a bhfad uáit briathra ..., Proverbs iv 24 . re ndul i bhfad, A. Ó Dálaigh xl 4 . Cf. ós róen na ndruad find i fat, Metr. Dinds. iii 230 . Of time, for long: suan hi fat, LU 3610 ( SCC 30 ). gé táim i bhfad i gceas da n-áireamh, Keat. Poems 539 . i bhfad riamh suil ráinig mise long ere ever I came TD 11.2 . gibé cúis do chuaidh i bhfad | 's nach fuair a freagra whatever question has been long disputed and found no answer Content. ix 19 . ó tá mo dheóraidheacht agá cor i bhfad (= prolongatus est) TSh. 5941 . For: i fout, RC xvii 159 (= AFM 590 ) see 2 fót. At length, in full: tarfas dam ... i fat cach sid fail i Cind Febrat, Metr. Dinds. iii 226 . roaisneis dam ... sudigud na fert i fat, 228 . Cf. amail asber i fut Feinechais ni urnascat ... passim (?) H 3.17, c. 70 ( Laws i 186.13 Comm. ). co n-abuir tall i ḟut ḟeineachuis nach dilius ..., Laws ii 270.16 Comm. na sē ba fuilit a fut feinichais ... it inann ┐ na cuig seoit fuilit isin tSencus ┐ na sē samais[ci] fuilit isin Crich Gablach, O'Curry 2545 ( Eg. 88, 45bb ).

IAR FUT: conacca in cnoi ar fut na haband chuce floating along the river towards him LL 116b17 ( RC viii 56 , iarsan v.l.). a leth tuaiscertach dind abainn iar fut cuit Coirpri `the northern half [side ?] of the river lengthways was C.'s share' Trip. 148.15 (1724) . tanic ... iar fut mara Torrian do Chréit, LL 3a25 . saighet tenedh do thuidhecht iar fut Laighen aniardhes, AU 960 . Absol. to the full extent, altogether , is do suigiu ro suide slan ngill iar fut (.i. ... iar fut eneclainni), Laws v 340.20 (346.18) . cuic seoit ana do dec (.i. da tecait da ba .i. iar fut) five `seds' (i.e. which amount to two cows, i.e. altogether) iv 152.15 Comm . na cuic seoit iar fut `with time' i 92.12 Comm .

DAR (TAR) F.¤ along, through: imruláith ... dar f.¤ choicid Concobuir, LU 8576 ( FB 43 ). dar f.¤ Fánat, Ériu iv 106 § 57 .

(g) gramm. length (of sound), long quantity: eter f.¤ ┐ gair, Sg. 5a9 . do immolung fuit apud poetas , 3b5 . f.¤ suidigthi ... f.¤ n-aicnid length by position ... length by nature Auraic. 1342 . comardugud fuit ┐ gair, 1353 . dobeir in G. forshail for fot amal ro[n]gab srōn ┐ slōg ┐rl., 1356 . forbaid fuit `accent of a long' [vowel], 824 .

Compds.

I Dvandva - compd. : fotlethet length and breadth: talam dian fonn fothacht f., SR 32 . fatlethet Tephi ... .lx. traiged, LL 162a5 (= Metr. Dinds. i 8 ).

II In other compds. : fot- as first component takes the place of fota.

With subst. : ¤dáil see faddáil. ¤dúscad vigil, watching: gorta, fuacht, fadúsgadh, Mac Aingil 309.10 . ¤fégain : ag faidḟéghuin ḟonn n-ainiúil viewing from afar (?), long gazing at (?) IGT III ex. 427 . ¤fér long grass: faidfhér, O'Gr. Cat. 487.12 (= DDána 326 ). ¤réidigiud : fáth fadréidigthi fergi, YBL 304a4 (`of mitigating anger' MR 161 ). ¤scél : ... na faidsgeóilsi do gherradh, Mac Aingil 169 . ag cur fhaidsgeal ... a measg na bphecadh ib.

(b) adj. derived from subst. e.g. cenn, cos, saegal, scíathán, stuidér : omna faidchennach long-headed IGT, Decl. ex. 69 . a druith na halla | senaraigh corra ... fodchossaigh, IT iii 99.2 . in leanb geinter ann is fotsaoghlach he long-lived C IV 2, 9.17 . iolar faidsciathánach long-winged Ezekiel xvii 3 . má ní tú so go húaignech fadstuidérach with long meditation Mac Aingil 29 . Cf. 2 fúait.

fri

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fri or dil.ie/24329
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: frimm, rimm, frim, frím, frium, frimsa, friumsa, frit, fritt, friutt, fritsu, rut, rutt, fris, friss, frissom, f., frie, friae, frise, frie, frinn, rinn, rind, friunn, riund, frind, frinni, raindi, frinnai, frib, frithib, fribsi, friu, friú, friu, friü, frithiu, friithu, friusom, riom, rum, riot, rut, ris, ria, rinn, ruinn, ribh, ruibh, riú, r, frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, frim, frim, frim, ram, frit, frit, frit, rit, rat, rot, friar, friar, fribar, fribar, fria, fria, fria, re-na, rena, fria, fris(s)a, frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-, frismbiat, fris-mbruchta, fris, fris, fris, risa, frisin-, frisnid, risnad, ris, fria, frisa, re n-, fria-, re, ra-n-adh, re, re, ré, freisin, FRI

prep. with acc. For etymology see Thurneysen, GOI § 839 , Fraser ZCP viii 37 , J. E. C. Williams, Celtica iii 126 . In later spelling prefixes h- to following initial stressed vowel; does not leníte following consonant (cf. frinna aill, Sg. 45a16 . fri nnach ..., Ml. 75a9 , fri nnech 23c20 ; but fri nech further on in same gloss and regularly elsewhere); the initial s- of the article following fri is preserved. In Middle Irish gradually replaced by the forms RI, RE (already in Ml: oc eregim re Abisolon, 44b4 , cf. fre, 90c27 ); RA (common in some LL texts, see CRR 54 , TBC-LL¹ 499 , 602 , 740 , etc.); rarely RO ( SR 1990 ZCP xiii 204 15 ); FRIA, RIA, RE also common. Hence in Early Mod. Ir. there is occasionally confusion with , RÍA `before', see Bergin's note Stor. Keat. p. xix , and section IX (e) below. Apart from this the latter prep. sometimes replaces FRI after fáilid, fáilte and kindred words (as in Mod. Ir.). On the parallelism of some of the pronominal forms of FRI with those of LA see GOI l.c. (with Translator's n. 178 ). Though FRI still appears in some later texts, especially those of the archaising type, it had become obsolete in the classical language. Its later form (RI, RE) remains down to the end of the Early Mod. period and is recognized by the grammarians as distinct from LE (LA), see IGT, Introd. § 75 , 24 P 8, 194 ( IGT VI , Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ). In the modern spoken lang. it is replaced partly by LE, partly by CHUN (O.-Ir. dochum). For a contrary development cf. Engl. `with,' originally `against,' which has absorbed the functions of A.S. mid `(together) with.'

In development of meaning generally FRI shows a remarkable parallelism with Engl. ` with '; it also agrees with ` against ' in several senses.

Forms: With suff. pron.

sg. 1 frimm St. Paul Codex Thes. ii 298.17 . rimm, IT i 123.24 . frim, SR 1422 , 2049 . LU 5228 . LL 110b26 . frím Ml. 38c19 . frium, Ml. 71b9 . frimsa, Wb. 26d17 . Ml. 33a18 . friumsa, Ml. 127a2a .

2 frit, Wb. 5a31 . 10a29 ; Ml. 103d14 . SR 1425 . fritt LL 93a10 . 249b1 . friutt, PCr. 62b2 (= ḟrit, Sg. 151a3 ). fritsu Ml. 91d8 . 112b8 . rut, SR 2031 IT i 123.15 . rutt, LL 110b27 .

3 m., n. fris, Wb. 14c37 . 15a1 . 22c15 . ACL iii 304 [: [Mael] mis]. (: eisleis). SR 6109. 6317 . ([mēt] anfis) LL 33b21 . friss, Wb. 2c24 . 3c6 . 6a4 . 8a12 . 14d22 ; Ml. 91a21 . frissom Wb. 5d39 .

f.¤ frie, Sg. 72b1 . Ml. 40c15 . 67d15 . friae, 130c9 . Wb. 28a20 . cf. frise, Ml. 74c21 , which Ascoli corrected to frie ( Thes. i 722b ).

pl. 1 frinn, Wb. 4b12 . 17b10 . 19d22 . rinn, Ml. 54a3 . SR 1821 . rind, SR 1905 (: herḟi[o]nd). friunn, Ml. 38d20 . riund TBC-LL¹ 1874 . frind, LL 177b39 . frinni, Wb. 17b32 . 17c5 ; Ml. 32c15 . 93a13 . 106c12 . raindi, BColm. 68.9 . frinnai Ml. 91c9 . 114a8 .

2 frib, Wb. 17b16 . 22d9 . 24d26 . cf. frithib, Ériu iv 162.13 . fribsi, Wb. 14c42 . 17b14 .

3 friu, Wb. 4a10 . 4c37 . 24a4 ; Ml. 54c23 , 72b22 , 110c9 . LL 35a21 (: fiú) friú, Wb. 17b9 . Ml. 74a2 , diss. friu, Hy. V. 54 , cf. friü: at-chiü, ACL iii 294 § 10 ; frithiu, Blathm. 94 § 17 ; friithu, LU 4671 (see further GOI 515 ). friusom, Wb. 20c25 ; Ml. 17c5 , 54c18 ; 26 .

For forms found in later texts see citations below.

In the Early Mod. Grammatical Tracts the forms given are: riom, rum; riot, rut; ris; ria; rinn, ruinn; ribh, ruibh; riú, r, 24 P 8 194 ( Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ).

With following poss. pron.: frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, e.g. frim ort. Wb. 29d2 . frim peccad, 28a14 . frim foraithmet, Ml. 23d9 ; ram anmain, TBC-LL¹ 3692 (rem St.). frit adrad su, Ml. 136c11 . frit c[h]ele, 70d2 ; frit laim, SR 5854 . rit láim, TBC-LL¹ 3055 . rat láma, 3052 . rot chlaind, SR 2031 . friar corp, Wb. 15c22 . friar fochric, 33a9 ; fribar n-ícc, Wb. 24b3 . fribar pecthu, 13b19 ; fria mbriathra, Wb. 31b30 . In Mid. Ir. the form `fria' is often used for the simple prep., hence occas. fria a = prep. + 3 s. pron. In Early Mod. Ir. 3 s. and pl. form re-na sometimes appears: rena ardnaem, BCC § 12 (see III c below). fria n-a, Fl. Earls 214.4 . Cf. the n- prefixed to poss. after le, ó, tre in Mod. Irish.

With rel. pron.: O. Ir. fris(s)a n ...; Mid. Ir. also frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-: frismbiat, Sg. 202b3 . fris-mbruchta, Fél. June 21 . fris n-agar, E. 406 . fris-reith, Prolegomena 302 . fris-tarddam, Thes. ii 293.19 . risa n-abar, Acall. 53 , etc. With cop. frisin-, frisnid, risnad ail, LB 257b9 . ris na duthracht 256a44 . fria ndechraiged (= frisa nd.) Sg. 28a14 may be a mistake. In later MSS. the form re n- becomes common: fria-cosmailend, PH 7674 . re ndubairt, 7464 . ra-n-adh KMMisc. 156. 124 . re n-abar, Acall. 1241 , etc. re rāiter, Ériu viii 139.4 . ré raibhe, Keat. ii 4467 , etc.

Composition.

(a) In vn. and prototonic verbal forms, before a vowel, frith-; before a cons. fre-, e.g. frecre, fretech; with syncope of a follg. vowel, fres-, e.g. frescsiu, fresndid, fresndís, fresngabal. In Glosses fri is often used in compos. with a vb. to represent Lat. ob-. Later frith- is used before cons. with or without lenition of following cons.: see frithgnam, frithsét, etc.

(b) In deuterotonic verbal forms fris-; before an infixed pron. in rel. construction frith- or friss-: fritum-chomart-sa (= frith-dum-) Wb. 33a12 ; but friss-idn-oirctis, Ml. 39a20 (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 147 and cf. Strachan's OIPG⁴ ed. Bergin, p. 27 n. 2 ).

SYNOPSIS OF MEANINGS.

N.B.—The classification is perforce somewhat arbitrary as, perhaps in the majority of instances, the meaning could derive from the original sense in I. Cf. J. E. C. Williams Celtica iii 122 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to ;

(b) against (touching; cf. d); alongside, down along, by ;

(c) against (implying violent or hostile action);

(d) next to, at, in contact with (cf. b).

II To express association, along with, beside (both of local and mental relations).

III To express figurative direction

(a) aim, purpose (cf. VI), frequently of function, specific purpose;

(b) after adj. in sense of Lat. gerund or with ad or supine in -u;

(c) to express direction of feelings, behaviour towards (cf. I a);

(d) of prayer, etc. to ;

(e) of opposition to, hostile feeling, attitude towards ;

(f) to express protection, guard, watch against, also limitation, boundary;

(g) in elliptical sentences with these meanings.

IV

(a) after adjs., nouns or verbs expressing resemblance, equality or comparison;

(b) to express difference, distinction from .

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to ;

(b) on account of:

(c) on behalf of ;

(d) according to, in agreement with (cf. II).

VI To denote occasion

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. verb or equivalent;

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on which something takes place.

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of .

VIII

(a) to denote agent;

(b) to denote instrument through, by means of .

IX In expressions of time

(a) in O.-Ir. in locatival sense;

(b) to denote period during which something continues or takes place;

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place;

(d) of point of time;

(e) used for RIA ` before .'

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs.

A classified list of the instances in Wb is given by Fraser ZCP viii 37 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to: do rosc frisna nemdaib = looking heavenward SR 1604 . a n-aiged fri Dia facing God LU 2048 ( FA 12 . Cf. III c). a lām chlē fri muir the sea on their left SR 4074 (see lám). do cumlaiset for fairgi ┐ dochorsatar aurlunn fri tir, Corm. Bodl. s.v. prull . bai D. 'sa druim fri fraig D. had his back to the door SR 6053 . is amlaid bai in gilla ┐ a druim fria thigerna, TBC-I¹ 2327 (see druim(m)). Ethne ... fria chossa E. (standing) at his feet (i.e. at the foot of the bed) LU 3300 ( SCC 10 ). Carpre ... 's a hucht ra hág, LL 32b49 (see ucht). a druim re dimsachaib, a des fri deiblenaib, ZCP viii 204 § 26 . an let[h] bis rinne don rē the side of the moon turned towards us ITS xiv 90.19 . fri bun cruche at the foot of the gallows Mon. Tall. § 1 . síl nÁdhuimh ... re sáluibh a senathar at the heels of (i.e. following) Ériu iv 118 § 33 . níor chubaidh tigearna ... d'ḟágbáil re caladh on the beach [i.e. when about to land; perh. fig. cf. beirid i gcaladh brings to safety, see 1 calad] viii 139.23 . dā traig .x. ... a [sic leg.] fot fri dún its length towards the stockade (of the internal slope of an earthen rampart) Laws iv 336.23 . dā dúncladh ... ré dá taebh na clasach along both sides of the fosse CCath. 1747 . ní thurcaibh crand ... cét míle fria taebhaibh within a hundred miles from (lit. towards) its sides Marco P. 11 [cf. the temporal use IX (c)]. See also phrases s.v. agad, ais, enech, gnúis, sáil, taeb, ucht.

This use is regular in Old-Ir. in stating relative position: fri Grecia aniar ... fri Etáil anáir west of Greece ... east of Italy Wb. 6d17 . fri Alpai ndesiu (gl. cisalpina) Sg. 217b8 . frie anall ... frie desiu (gl. ultra ... citra) 71b1 , 2 . fri Ath F.D. desiu, TBC-I¹ 2183 . frie anechtair outside it Ml. 40c15 . fri Pardus amuich outside Paradise SR 111 . ra chuala sa fri hEmain andess I heard it (as I was) to the south of Emain LU 5056 . altoir fri dorus antuaid, SR 4261 [cf. la taeb ind rigthaige aniar, LL 3810 (30a) ]. a mmag fris anair the plain in front of him LL 122a33 . co ndechaid [in gai] triana chend ┐ co ro marb nónbur ris aníar behind him 121a21 . frit aniar, LU 4134 . is e a chorp in taitneamach rit anall the shining one opposite thee RC xxiv 60 . Also fig. : foscichret i crandchor ... fáicebthair Lugaid fris anechtair they will cast lots for it... L. will be left out of the chance RC xiii 444x ( LL 289b8 ). See also s.v. lám (fri l.).

It is doubtful whether: i mbae neach fri hopair immuig BB 362a21 (= Dinds. 20 ) is an instance of this construction; the literal meaning here is was anyone at a work outside ? The Rennes `amuig' is perhaps merely a late spelling.

After verb or vn.: tan turcbad E. a di láim fri Coimdid nime, SR 5085 . suidig do da laim fri ... clasp thy hands (in prayer) to ... 1606 . rosecroth a chend frisin slúag brandished his (severed) head at the host LU 5269 . crothad in chind frisin slóg, 5280 . donnochtat a mbruinni fris bared their bosoms to him 5199 . rochoraig fri tenid he arranged [them] before the fire RC xiii 6.21 . roscóraig gnúis fri gnúis (see gnúis) LU 2046 ( FA 12 ).

Cf. tuídhleach ind óir frisin ngréin the glistening of the gold against the sun BDD 1 . crand airgit ris tatin grían LU 3700 ( SCC 33 ).

(b) against (touching), alongside, down along by: doesetar ┐ a nglūne fri talmain, TBC-I¹ 3164 . éc fri hadart death against a pillow i.e. a natural death Lib. Hymn. i 62.72 (see adart). fri etnu dam ... bátár fedmand la firu Herend = [till then] the loads had been harnessed to the foreheads of the oxen LU 10816 (= Ériu xii 178 ). tennait a n-ette fria curpu press their wings against their sides LU 2281 ( FA 33 ). cf. doimmaircet ind eoin a n-ette friu ┐ a cossa can scibud ette ná cosse co tairic in precept the birds fold their wings, etc. LU 1361 . dosnimthasa i llai a broit fri a bruinde `gathered her to his bosom in the fleece of his cloak' Ériu xii 154y . co tard a druim frisin liic leaned his back against the stone LU 3284 ( SCC 8 ). dossleced fria thoeb he let them (i.e. his arms) fall to his sides SR 5091 = no thimoirced a lama fria thoeb, LB 124b29 (cf. LU 1361 above).

In local sense of attached to or pending from: úathroic ... cona cimais do banór fria having a fringe LU 6421 . beilge óir friu golden bits on them TBFr. § 3 . srian ... fria graig, LU 3649 . Cf. srian do thabairt fria thoil to bridle his passion PH 4990 (see srían). Cf. la I (a).

Here perhaps: i ngialnai fri fraigid in hostage-ship at the wall LU 7015 ; 7295 ( BDD 66 ; 94 ). (of the brazen serpent, Numbers xxi 9 :) turgabar fri crann ... uasin [t]slúag fri sirsellad let it be hung on a pole to be gazed at SR 4163 .

Cf. an carracc ard ar cuiretar ... an Tigerna da teilgen ría sís to cast him down from it Maund. 106 . tuitim sioss re beinn an ailt, Fl. Earls 86z .

(c) against (implying violence or hostility; cf. III e): rop saiget húan fri demnai, Hy i 20 . friu conuccaib ind oub, Hy v 54 . conéracht Glaiss Ch. friu the stream C. rose against them (= to bar the way) LU 5362 . Cf. conocbath in carpat fris ... ┐ concligtis ind h[e]ich fris the chariot would tilt up before him and the horses would spring at him Ériu vi 134.21 . bēim a cinn fri cloich, Ml. 139c3 . beim cind fri hall, LL 225b38 (see benaid). esarcain cind fri hallib, 176b33 . aiges (feras) in tond frisin mbruach, Anecd. i 12.19 (21) . cf. FB 44 , see fri. See also phrases with cúl, druim(m), lám).

(d) next to, at: folt dond fri toind a chind, folt croderg iar n-airmedon, LU 2564 . dond fri toind cind, 6542 . lene de sról ... i custul fri gelcnes ... dó, 6296 . léne ... sita fria gelchnes, 1810 . cona luirigh ... ria cnes ... ┐ lethan sciath fria gualaind, Stair Erc. 1243 . In this use frequent with ais, cnes, taeb.

II To express association, along with, beside (of local or mental relations, cf. V d): ní bí friu hi comasndeis it is not with them in apposition Sg. 212a5 . in tan mbís nihelas do .u. fri .g. when u is silent beside g, 6b11 . nobiad fri femen `it would be [used] with the feminine' 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them' 215a5 (cf. biit remsuidigthi ... cen briathra leo ib. 6). See also s.v. comṡuidigud. is tabarthi `bonum est' fri cechtar in da fersa so, Ml. 112d1 . cen tabairt anman trén fríu, 30a9 (see do-beir). ni bai crand dond indsi fri aroile (i.e. the walls were shattered) Anecd. i 2.5 . ar choibnius frisna comaccomla sa, Sg. 203a10 . in oentid fri Crist, Wb. 15a12 . ni ba suair[c] comlepaid no comaentu frissi, TBC-LL¹ 2079 (fris St) In: ni reid bith fris im longud no im ligi, LU 5957 , the meaning may be different; see atá (fri). toeb fri toeb ata in ri is Eocho F. side by side LU 2839 (see taeb). comaitecht re hairdrigh, ZCP viii 116.5 . méraid ra cách a chumne TBC-LL¹ 740 (here perhaps: meraid hua chlaind fri claind Ml. 100b4 ). is frit mo chairde `with Thee is my compact' Fél. Ep. 534 . (see cairde). iar corai fri I. after making a pact with I. SR 5946 . Cf. córe fri Dia, Wb. 2d16 . is core doib fribsi (gl. salutate invicem) 18b19 . bad chore dúib friu, 7b4 ; - 14 (`lit. let it be peace to you towards them' Thes., but the original meaning of córe points to `with' as the sense of the prep. here). Cf. also: biid pax libsi fri cách (gl. cum omnibus hominibus pacem habentes) 5d33 .

Here probably: isi no beired teora pōc fria cach copān ... dō, TBC-I¹ 2218 . Cf. further: hi cocetul fri Eman in unison with Hib. Min. 4.12 . do dlommad E. is A. ... fri gorta, SR 1419 . ara toimlid fri sid sain | toirthi Parduis, 1085 . taed as fri sidh ┐ fri subha `let him go ... in peace and happiness' AFM 979 .

In this sense with verbs of joining, connecting, also occasionally with verbs of motion and in nominal phrases, such as imma llé fri, immaróen fri, see s.v. , óen (cf. Ériu xiv 142 n . ) also cos, taeb.

In: crithnaigset ... immar bocsimin fri sruth the meaning of the prep. is doubtful. curtar a fuigill re sruth ┐ re fairgi `be the remnant cast out to be carried off by the sea-tide' O'Gr. Cat. 182w . Cf. perhaps: Drochet Atha do dhul re sruth `D. was carried away by the flood' ALC i 260.7 , though these may be exx. of the confusion of re (FRI) with le (LA). curcas fri sruth, FB 44 ; `against a stream' Strachan ZCP iii 419 . Cf. Ériu i 194.4 . See 1 téit and la I (d).

Passing into sense in addition to: tris fer friu (gl. te tertium) Sg. 2a5 . cethri chet bliadan ... a noe sechtmogat fri sein, Rawl. 68b31 ( ZCP iii 18 ). Cf. is fri ni dona salmaib dognid a figild, Mon. Tall. § 5 . fris sin moreover, besides , Leb. Gab.(i) i 88.1 . Hugh Roe 114.1 (f. 30b) . Cf. mod. freisin. For a special sense of with see Mon. Tall. cited under V (d).

III To express fig. direction (cf. V a);

(a) aim, purpose, freq. of function, specific purpose: cen nech dim chlaind frim foraithmet to preserve my memory Ml. 23d9 . ce notechtad ilgotha fri inchosc in mrechtraid sin `that it should possess many sounds to express that variety' Sg. 197a11 . ní fris arícht fri slond persine it was not for that it was invented, to signify person ib. (cf. cid arna airecht pronomen ... dia ṡlund, 198b3 ). in bríg frissa ndéntar a saithar sin the value for which that labour is performed Wb. 11a9 . am loor fri cach reit (gl. ego ... dedici, in quibus sum, sufficiens esse) 24b16 . altoir ... | fri loscud n-edpart an altar for burning [ = on which to burn] offerings SR 4162 . dá magh ... do ṡlaidhi ... co rabad do grés fri geilt do ceithrib ┐ fri trebad do daīnib, Ériu xii 150.6 . primepscop ... accu fri huirdned a n-oessa graid, fri coisecrad a n-eclas ┐ fri hanmchairdes do ḟlaithib, etc. Ériu i 218.2 . sechtmoga fer fria cobair to aid them SR 4196 . drong ngilla ... fri timthirecht, 6280 . ra ergitar ... dalemain fri dail, LL 173a27 ( CRR 13 ). mōr salm | fri hindarba plāg-tedmann, BColm. 70.8 . slóged hi crích ... fri indnaide slogid tairse a hosting into a country to delay a hosting (coming) across it Críth G. 511 . fergniae fri forngaire ndoirseo, 591 . In this sense perhaps in: fót fri haltóir, see 1 fót (d). pars de feoil fri foimtin terci as a precaution against scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . Here perhaps: dognith Saul intleda ... fri Duaid used to lay snares against D. Ml. 30a3 . techt do Roim ... fri foglaim n-ecnai, Trip.² 241 . roairis re sloind senchasa he remained to relate Ériu iv 152.6 [or remained relating ? See VI (a)]. cid frisi farcbad int id for what end the withe was left LU 4752 (= cid imma ndernad int id, TBC-LL¹ 597 ). cid frisindrolais in cloich why hast thou thrown the stone ? LU 5092 . o tancamair friss `since we have come for it' ( = for that purpose) Fél. 72.24 (cf. inní imo tainic ib. 30 ). co ndernur inní fris tánac LU 4347 . Cf. doluid Saul fri tāirsin David i fus, SR 5959 . lurech imme ... fri cathugud, SR 5757 . treb Leue ... immon eclais fria immarchur, 4883 . docúaidh B. frissan umaloitt sin gusin muilenn `on that service' BNnÉ 26 § 19 . téit féin re toisc ┐ re túrus a crichaib na hEspáine on business CCath. 1806 , cf. do chuaidh gach aon rea dtoisgibh ┐ rea dturasaibh féin, ML 26x (= le tosgaib fein, ML² 347 ). The follg. perhaps are elliptical: the idea represented is anticipating, forestalling: dogniad pars de feoil fre terci do t[h]ecmong = as a provision against the occurrence of scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . do na .u. gaiscedaib dec no bitís ... hi tegluch C. fri maidm n-airm no fri gabáil ngasced do neoch LU 5046 . Cf. Fél. Nov. 14 cited VI b.

(b) after adjs. in sense of Lat. gerund with ad or supine in -u: leiscc .i. fri fognam, Wb. 31b23 . conid mesc fria rim so that it is confusing to count it LU 4794 . ba gnim ṅdangen fri himluad, SR 7229 . ingnad fria innisin, LU 2074 ( FA 15 ). adhbal rea n-innisi prodigious to recount ZCP viii 204 § 26 . cenco beth ... and acht C. ba lór fri immarbaig, LL 107a19 ( Ériu iv 28 ). lia iná rúainne ... re n-áireamh, IGT, Decl. ex. 1201 . Cf. atait ... re a ttaispenadh go follus are plainly to be seen Fl. Earls 50.12 . In this use modern Irish has le (LA).

(c) to express direction of feelings; behaviour towards, after nouns or adjs., both of persons and things (cf. I a and V a): conroib deserc leu fri cách, Wb. 26d22 . fáilte fri noíbu, 7b2 (see fáilte). ar formut fribsi, 12c29 (see format and formtech). ropat ḟáilti frimsa, Fél. Dec. 18 (see fáilid). hissel fri hard, sleman fri garb, ZCP iii 447z . anmne fri fochaidi, 449.15 (see ainmne). mailli fri cloc slowness at (answering) the bell ib. 21 . dána fri tōla tromsluaig daring in face of an army SR 5778 . uair ná dernsam huimli fri forngaire, 1854 . ar gart friu for generosity to them ZCP viii 313.12 . créd nach frim atā a maithe ? why is not their bounty bestowed on me ? ACL iii 296 § 38 . ní ar maith friu it is not for their good Wb. 4b37 . ar ulc friu, Ml. 72b22 . tar aesi n-uilc huai[m] se friusom, 74a2 (see also s.v. maith, olc). bad chert do cluchi frim play fair with me LU 5228 . ar ngabáil bāide ... dō rena ardnaem having conceived affection for his high saint BCC § 12 . lére duit frí ríg ngréne ┐ réde fri doíni, Ériu i 193 . is buide linn frib (gl. rogamus vos) Wb. 25a39 (see 2 buide). is maith robai Dia rind, SR 1905 . ní maith ro mbátar frim they have not treated me well LU 4891 . Cf. is maith ro ngabus fritt, TBFr. § 11 . bad faitig frisin foirin sin (gl. observate eos) Wb. 24a23 (see faitech). bid cennuis a gnuis risin lucht ra-nadh (= frisndid) rathmar to whom he is gracious KMMisc. 156.124 . in maith frit menma ind airdríg whether the king is well-disposed to thee SR 6114 . ba fearr di frib menma bar mathar, RC xxiv 56 ( YBL 206a47 ). Cf. is beite duit menma fris `thou must take heed of him' Ériu xii 176.16 . Similarly in expressions like: do-gní maith (trócaire, etc.) fri (see do-gní). nech no comaildfed fir fer frimb uime RC xiii 29.6 .

(d) of prayer, etc. to: irnigde fri Dia, Wb. 4d18 . cf. abstanait fri Dia, PH 4988 . ro throiscset ... fri Dia im a ḟurtacht, 7258 (see troiscid). im aīne fri Dia cora faillsigthi dō ... fasting towards God, that ... might be revealed to him Ériu v 120.12 . Similarly: frit, a rí ..., mo dēr | conom thī ... Mīchēl, SR 2091 . co ndēraib frisin coimdid, PH 6292 . (cf. use with ad-teich). cossoít a thuaithe fri Dia, Wb. 5a23 (see cosaít). Here, perhaps, should come such expressions as the following: ar Christ frit, aithirigh pēin dam, Cáin Ad. 13 . ar do chubus riut, a ingen, crét tuc ort ?, Acall. 6012 . ar bar cubus rib..., crét..., 5476 . ar fir do chubais riut..., 5824 . cf. 4544 . ar t'ḟírinne riutsa, nā furáil, CCath. 1659 .

(e) of hostile feeling, attitude, conduct towards: fri aicned contrary to nature Wb. 2c25 . ba fri aicned ... in talam ... do indluch, Ml. 129d8 . frisin n-uall (gl. adversum inflationem mentis) 68c1 . trifar pecthu fri Dia through your sins against God 115b8 . Common after verbs of opposing, hindering, fighting: hóre nád comeicnigther nech fri toil no one is constrained against [his] will Wb. 28b1 . tuidecht fri toil Dé resistance to God's will 4c23 (see do-tét). cf. o dorala ... | frim thala mac I. | duit ... | niba céle SR 6014 , where opposition seems implied despite the similar phrase cited below under V (d). soud a gnuso fri nech frisa mbi ferc do (gl. ne auertas [faciem tuam] a me Ml. 47d8 (`to turn his countenance from one against whom he cherishes anger' Thes., but surely `fri nech' here must also mean either against ... or towards ... ? See soïd). fergach fris Fíadu, SR 6837 . iar ndebaid do fri Duid, 6994 . na cathaig frim do not contend with me 2877 . ni sirsan do Ch. a n-imned i tá a óenur fri firu Herend not happy for C is the trouble in which he is, alone against the men of E. LU 5995 . Cf. do thoitim fria Cu | ba dirsan sad that thou shouldst fall by [ = fighting against] C. (?) TBC-I¹ 2715 (see also III g). Mairg fris ticfa a ḟerg ... Mairg ticfa re cert, Fen. 200 (see do-icc). ar bruc fris `in displeasure at him' Mon. Tall. § 58 . namthi garga fri sluagh nA., ACL iii 297 § 55 . atat frim hi cotarsnai, SR 1520 . Cf. ni bia th'anim fri fugall | ind ríg hí laithiú brótho, Ériu i 196 § 13a . With adj.: cotarsne fri Dia, Wb. 26a18 . is torcda ┐ is díchéill notaí frim, LU 10831 (= Ériu xii 172 ). is bairnech mo menma frit, LU 10832 (= ib.). is tromda atai rim, RC vi 183.13 . olc roba rim, Ériu v 208.8 (see III c). Here perhaps: tromde ... ro buí frisim ind chaillech oc atach Dé, Mon. Tall. § 7 (= do bhí sí roliosda ar Dh., Rule of Tallaght § 41 ). But cf. VII below.

(f) To express protection, guard, defence, watch against: gabthe dūnad les fris, Ml. 55c1 . inna cathrach conrotacht la Duaid fri Ebustu, 48d27 . múr trén ... fri dóini, fri demnai, Fél. Ep. 152 . tocuiriur etrum ... inna huli nert so fri cech nert n-amnas in ..., Hy vii 49 . cor gabad Sinann friu the Shannon was held (defended) against them RC xviii 10.28 . gébtaít ar tír frind, LU 4634 (see gaibid). iadad Caisil frim eochu the closing of C. to my horses Anecd. iii 63.4 . cóir duit arechus ri siút, TBC-LL¹ 1280 (aire do tabairt fri ... St; see 1 aire). Dia lem fri cech snīomh, Ériu iv 236 . Crist credal fri demnaib, ACL iii 221.12 . dín ... re holcaib, ZCP viii 202.18 . Of limitation, boundary: nā bí crích la nech fri peccad that no one sets a limit to sin Ériu i 218.9 . Cf. samaiges crích fri aidchi, Hy ii 55 , corresp. to contra noctem terminum pones, Ardm. 8a1 . See also s.v. inillius.

(g) In elliptical sentt.: leic ... in fognam, ol se; ni lamaim, ol sī, frisin rigain = I dare not disobey the Queen RC xxiv 192 (but perh. FRI here = because of; see V b ). ro an ... ina aenar ru remained alone to oppose them ZCP vi 56.31 . rofetursa a n-as maith dúib fris I know a good way for you to deal with him LU 5934 . tarmairt mo Dia dil frisin tuaid ... a cor fo leittreib lethglenn = my dear God had well nigh (in His resentment) against them cast them down ... SR 4718 . Cf. lām fri idal to renounce idolatry SR 4845 (see lám).

IV

(a) after adjs. and nouns denoting resemblance or equality (esp. those compounded with com-) and vbs. of resembling or comparing: cosmil fri cethir (gl. animalis) Wb. 8b14 . cutrummus fri Dia, 17c8 . i cutrummus fribsi 17b14 . ɔodernain hi cutrummus frim cheliu `to do like my fellows' PCr. 2a2 . (pariter) fri, Sg. 77a2 . i tomus fri nech Wb. 17b11 . intamail ... fri nech, Ml. 22c1 . cen a chondelg fri nech, Sg. 42a6 . cosmaili tuisil `sui' fri tuisliu `ego' ┐ `tu', 200a12 . (similiter) fri, 203a5 . cf. (eandem significationem habens) .i. fri `cum', 218a1 . diatā oenḟolaid ... frissin Athair, PH 177 . ba cudruma re core mōr é, RC xviii 183 . ni caithedh acht coibeis fri gach manach he used to eat only as much as any other monk BNnÉ 300 § 3 . nir chumma nech ris im chath, Metr. Dinds. iv 344 . ru boí i comré ri Cormac, LL 3796 (30a) . i comhrē ris coeval with him Moling 4 . rogheanair i n-aenuair fria was born at the same time as she BB 406bz (= Dinds. 111 ). Cf. IX (b).

Replacing O. Ir. construction with equative: comdhub fri hec, Thr. Ir. Gl. 36 (prull) = duibidir éc, Corm. Y 1059 . Bodl. comard fri fid, Ériu iv 138.26 . meidithir fria hasal as big as an ass Marco P. 10 . corbo chomfota frisin sroin LU 6472 .

See also verbs and adjs. of comparison, e.g. 1 do-ella, samlaithir, in-samlathar; cosmail, 2 cutrummae, etc.

(b) to express difference, distinction from : frissaní immeraidtis (gl. longe aliud) Ml. 61c12 . sain fri .c. `different to c' Sg. 6b7 . do dechor fri praenomna aili, 28a13 . huare nád deligedar fri praenomen , 28a15 . do dechrugud persine fri alaili, 202a4 . is allail pronomen aní sin fri `sui' (gl. `is' aliud pronomen...) 209b10 . (differentia) fri, 213b15 , gl. contra 214b4 . Cf. nipo choím less frinn He was not dear to Him compared to us (?) Wb. 4b12 [Fraser l.c. suggests this rendering, ZCP viii 41 n . `in our case (?),' Thes.].

See s.v. 1 dechor, dechraigidir, deiligidir and other words of similar meaning.

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to (cf. III c) : is sain fri cath sain fri scor different for battle, different for unyoking (of trumpet-call) Wb. 12c46 . idain fri cach réit faithful as to 31c13 . cen chinaid n-uaim fri nech, Ml. 54d16 (see cin). nach é Dia is ciontach riú is to blame for them TSh. 10499 . as eola fri aidgne ind Athar, Wb. 19d9 . it maithi a arilti frib `He deserves well of you' (`literally good are his merits as to you' Thes.) Wb. 16c11 . airle Dé fri Herind, LL 49b13 ( Hail Brigit § 2 ). .iiii. seóit a dire ... is fechem is fiadnaisi friu `four seds are his `dire'-fine ... he is a suitor and witness for them' (i.e. he is liable to that extent) Laws iv 308.2 ( Críth G. 138 ). is amlaid in t-athair frisin mac ngor; ... nimtha in t-athair frisin mac n-ingor thus the father acts with regard to the dutiful son; ... not so with regard to the undutiful one Laws iii 56. 22 ; z 0 . ba fria as-breth: cruth cách co hÉtaín 'of her was it said, 'every woman is fair till compared with Étaín'' BDD 43-44 , Celtica xv 57 . 'fer hi lorcc so,' ol in fer deginuch fri Nero 'a man is following us,' said the last man with regard to Nera RC x 216.48 . conidh ed isberdís cách fris, Cóir Anm. ii § 150 .

Cf. further: crādiis Ultu fri Cethirnd guin Fécc the slaying of F. imbittered the U. against C., ZCP viii 305.32 . ferdha a cathuibh iat, ar is friu ronnaltadh oc imairecc fria geinnti, Marco P. 189 . ro alt ... ind ingen co digrais fri légend ┐ gaís, LL 279a47 ( SG 413 ). Possibly the last two exx. belong rather to III (a), also : is me is cintach fris ni he is cintach frim, BB 479b14 (see cintach). See also : a lleth fri, s.v. leth.

(b) on account of (cf. VI b) : ro lega in snechta ... fri meit brotha in miled, LU 5858 . ba lond F. friside (-suidi), RC xxvi 12 § ix . saeth mār fri luga dige great distress from [?] lack of drink Fianaig. 12 § 20 . cid mís no bheinn gun ríg thess | ro-fess ná bíad mo scís fris, ACL iii 304.20 . ní ḟaicim-si ... ni rís budh choir t'obadh for which it were right to refuse thee Ériu iii 154.5 . atchess ... na haīble tened ... uasachind re fiuchud na ferge, LU 6466 . ba mertnech Moisi fri hilchaingni ... fri orddugugd cāich fo mām, SR 4542 . batar toirsech fri Moisi, 3886 (in these two exx. fri = oc of prose LB 122a etc.). féimdid sim imt[h]echt fri scíss he cannot go on from weariness BColm. 94.16 . ni ro chotail C. fri himṡním, LB 274a55 . ni faict[h]e ise fri feidm a léiginn she used not be seen because of her duty of study ACL iii 308 VI 13 . Cf. la III a.

(c) on behalf of: aitchitt an C. ris comad he noberad, etc. they beseech the Lord for him that it might be he BColm. 98.15 . dogníther airnaigthi frisin ríg co nambed fot saegail do, MacCongl. 59.23 . ica cantain fria Cianoig chanting (a prayer) for C. ZCP vii 308.7 . Cf. also : ata mo briathar ┐ mo comairghi fria ar Tuatha D., Ériu xii 152.9 . o doratsat briathair fris, CCath. 1236 . in tī bes rí is fris beimmi, ZCP viii 316.3 . See do-beir, gell, and ráith.

(d) according to ; in agreement with, with pers. somet. = in obedience to: ni ni nach breith nā bi fri canoin cumtastar [sic leg.] no judgement is valid that is not framed according to the canon Corm. Y 1224 . cf. manib fri fasach fuirmider, Ériu xii 199.23 . fri mes airechta adrimter, Laws iv 298.25 ( Críth G. 22 ). fri saltair nogebad ... a salmu by the psalter (i.e. with the psalter before him), Mon. Tall. § 39 , cf. ni lugae mbis ind menme hisin cheill dia gabail ind tsailm de memur indas cid fri saltair ib.). fosernd clothri Connacht ... fri senchus ... fri buaid ┐ breatha in conformity with (the claims of) pedigree, with prowess and legal decision ZCP viii 108.10 = Ériu v 234 . bid som iarum fria toil (= they will be able to do as they like) Mon. Tall. § 35 (= go mbid ... aca ara ttoil fein, Rule of Tallaght § 35 ). fri tala ind rig ... domrala I am about the king's business SR 6187 (Rex praecepit mihi 1 Reg. xxi 2 ). cia ro delb fria thuil a ndath who coloured them to please himself (?) SR 7675 . For FRI TOIL in a different sense, see III (e). Cf. nitattorbi fri toil Dé (gl. non omnia expediunt 1 Corinth. x 22 ) `against God's will' Thes., Wb. 11b 17a . Also : ind tí dogní ní do maith fria menmain fadesin ... ar ind bo neoch gabti he who does a good thing in accordance with his own inclination ... should openly proclaim it Mon. Tall. § 21 (= chuirios ní maith ... do dheunamh uaidhe fein, Rule of Tallaght 71 ).

VI

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. vb. or equivalent = to be at, engaged in or about to engage in (some occupation, process ; cf. III a) : in tinscanfam .i. in biam fris (gl. incipimus ... commendare ?) Wb. 15a1 . ní uisse do mug Dae buith fri debuid to be at strife 30b26 . cf. ní bethe fria acre, 9c20 . ni piam fri aithirgi, 30b17 . ni biat som fria togais adi (= non fallacia ad quoscumque loquuntur) Ml. 31a17 . cechtar nathar fria saindān `each ... at his special art' Thes. ii 293.14 . feib donrala fri comrad, SR 1214 . indí ... bíte fri tnúith `those that are given to lust' Mon. Tall. § 11 . nebbuith fri éthech not to be lying Ériu ii 64 § 6 . céin bete fri soíthar while they shall be at work Fél. Ep. 298 . in tan natbi fri frestal na n-anmand when he is not attending to LB 110b43 (cf. SR 1199 ). ní mo chean ... tarrla re freastal ... na fairrgi sin, CF 42 . amail do beith se re goibhnecht ríam as if he had always been at smith's work BCC § 92 . na saoithe do bhí re seanchus, Keat. i 74 . cuirim suas don ghrádh, | ní fiú é bheith ris, Dánta Gr. xiv 3 . Cf. boí a ben fri idna in travail LU 105.86 (see 1 idu). Similarly without subst. vb. : nachitochthad fria choscc `let him not wear thee out in admonishing him' Wb. 31d11 . conus tarttsat fria ttoghairm chuca an lucht they set about calling the people Hugh Roe § 8 . Cf. airfitech re tetaib, ACL iii 223.23 (= Keat. ii 5358 ). dias fri cerdacht, SR 190 (perh. III a). dá mbeinn re héagnach `had I purposed to revile' Content. v 7 (cf. le hóradh bhriat[h]ar da mbeinn, Ó Héodhusa 4 ). In class. lang. `re' is used with vn. to express futurity : an chathair atá ré teacht ( = civitatem futuram) TSh. 2751 . i n-oirchill na n-olc bhíos ré tuirling orra, 532 .

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on or from which something takes place (some of the exx. could be explained as extensions of other uses (cf. V b ; IX a) ; often the construction is elliptical) : gaibed cach a greimm ... | fria brethir in primsacairt, SR 4400 . ba huisse soillse fri éitsecht na noeb at the death Hy ii 60 . Cf. co mbidis i nd-aenmaigin fria n-ég, Corm. Y 1233 (fri héc LB. ria n-ec LL 179b ). fri gein Críst ... tindscan lechsa léri, Fél. Nov. 14 (cf. III a). ro eirgis fri breithir Isu, PH 2780 . ret[h]it daim ... ri dorddan na damgaire, Ériu vii 2 § 1 . phreab as G. risan gair, Ériu i 18.33 . ac cantain cheóil ... fris coteltais Síl Adaim, LL 3305 ( Ériu xiv 156 ).

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of (cf. similar use of Lat. apud, and see la) : ni cumdabairt fri Cirine is tre metur Jerome does not doubt Hib. Min. 6.187 . nad maith fri C. ciasperthar ..., 7.235 . frithir frisin mac i n-ebras riss, Ériu vii 225 ( LL 209a16 ). ba bind fri cach na canaind, LU 1301 (`sweet to all was what I said' Imr. Brain ii 298 . But this may be ex. of : canaid fri). bid inmain fria cách a ainm loved of all PH 4299 . ba hingnad mor frisin popul sin, 2959 . ba mo a grad fri Gargán oldait a uli cethra G. loved him more than all his cattle 7178 . Cf. Mon. Tall. § 7 cited under III (e) where the meaning seems different. gurbh annsa ré hEóin Críost ioná ré Peadar Christ was dearer to John than to Peter TSh. 10327 .

VIII

(a) to denote agent (a late use, mostly in texts in artificial style). ar na bennughadh fri sanctuss Silvester consecrated by Fl. Earls 196.19 . laech ... frisimbia mo thiglecht (= who will cause my death) Metr. Dinds. iv 360 (but perh. this is ellipt. and belongs to III (e) ; cf. TBC2 cited there). romarbtha na maithe ... frisna crechairib LB 154a63 . in lucht frisa tucad in digal .i. Uespiam ┐ Titus ib. 16 . Constantiana ... .i. eclas rocúmdaiged fri Constantin 157b48 . Of parenthood : trī meic Medba fri Fergus, Corp. Gen. 279.33 . sē meic do Mīlidh fri Scota ┐ dā mac frisin nEspānaig 'Míl had six sons of Scota, and two sons of the Spanish woman', ITS xliv 64 § 424 . do chomthusmed clainni fri hA. to have children by A., Alex. 512 .

(b) to denote instrument, through, by means of, by dint of (cf. similar uses of Engl. `with') : sénais Brigit fria bachaill with her crozier Hy v 58 T = lia F. fria noebainm ... séntae cech slóg subach by [or at ?] his holy name every happy host was sained Fél. Prol. 99 . ícaid [Tipra C.] gallrae ... fri troscud aici, BColm. 52.15 . argain fri daigid (destroying by fire LL 107a21 ( Ériu iv 28 ), cf. multi nobiles ceciderunt ... fri daigidh ro horta uile, AU 900 (see RIA Dict. s.v. daig). go nach deachaidh neach re siúbhal ... as no one escaped by flight ML 88.31 . re dán nglas ... dán breaghdha do bhréagnachadh with a simple poem to refute an elaborate one Content. vii 13 . ro ēirigh fri nert seoin ┐ solaid, Moling § 4 (possibly = with here cf. dol ar fairrge ... ré cóir na gaoithe = with a favourable wind ML 36z = le ML² 466 . cuir me ... chum seoil ... re cóir ghloin, Measgra D. 48.16 ).

IX In expressions of time :—

(a) in O. Ir. in locatival sense in phrase : fri dē by day, in the day-time Ml. 121d8 . Wb. 6a30 . fri dei, 9a5 , 24d14 , 26b17 . Cf. in gabail fri dei ... in gabail cech ráithi a catch (of fish) daily (?) Trip. 250.14 (2950) . fri díe, Mon. Tall. § 55 . fri haidchi by night Trip. 208.25 (2452) . gl. contra noctem Lat. Lives 18 . re lá, Ériu iii 148 § 3 . arna imbreth ... i n-aidchi cía nosgonad fri dé, LU 5609 .

(b) usually to denote period during which something continues or takes place : 'na fuair frisna secht ṁbliadnaib SR 3394 . fri a n-aimsir in their time Laws iv 210.28 . niro chotail C. frisin ré sin, LU 6337 . fria ré hi fut a saegail for their lifetime SR 5932 . bai cocad mor etarro fri re ciana RC xxiv 186 . batar ... fri re secht la amlaid sin, ACL iii 225.1 . conosrala for sechrán fri re bliadna co lleith, LU 1279 . bá-sa i Tul T. fri ré inna dílenn, Ériu iv 144y . maith graig dorat damh rem lá in my day ACL iii 304.23 . D. ba talchar fria ré in his day Metr. Dinds. ii 40 . dorumaltsa ... m'aimsir fri hamsir Nemid, LU 1276 . nir siubhuil in conuir-so re bliadhain aenridiri for a year past ZCP vi 104 z.

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place : ni ba marb-sa fri sin I shall not die before that ZCP i 105.4 (co sin v.l.). Cf. also the locative use in Marco P. 11 cited I (a). tanic ... uidi na .xii. mís fri .xii. laa made the twelve months' journey in twelve days LB 139a31 . icuis fri teorai nomaidhe within thrice nine days RC xii 66x . nos ithend ... friha brathad sula in the twinkling of an eye LU 1895 ( RC x 56 ; fri b. v.l.) do imredar ... re trí lá, ┐ ní ruc G. énchluichi rissin, Acall. 1348 .

(d) of point of time ; in some cases approaching VI (b) above. fri dead n-aissi, SR 2829 . in tan nadbi fri húair i fos | frithalmi when he is not here at the hour of attending ... 1199 (cf. LB 110b43 cited under VI (a) above). cech dūil ... rosdelb fri oenuair, SR 7864 (similarly 7234 , 7386 ). grend Muman ... grend Connacht ... ra hóen-úair at the same time Ériu i 130.36 ( LL 46b ). buaidh ... damh fri deiredh mo ṡaoghail, ACL iii 231.1 . ra dered flatha Domnaill, LL 185a48 ( Arch. Hib. ii 85 ) = Rawl. 154a52 . Rí dorat na deich plāga | forthu fri huair combāga, SR 3942 . ? cid fri geld bāis nobeth `though he were at the point of death.' Mon. Tall. § 48 (see gell). re húair nfaicsiona at the time of looking RC xxix 128.13 . fri huair tacrai do ghníma, Ériu ii 228.7 .

(e) in follg. exx. perhaps used for ria before: na buidne ... robatar fria Crist...rofhogain don Choimdid fria tuidecht soscela (= turbae quae praecedebant ... ante evangelium) PH 4573 . dorad som a cuibidil fria mbass made his confession before death RC xviii 53.19 . Cf. co ro muid fri maccu Israel, LB 122b47 = re, YBL 293b40 (corresp. to mebaid remib SR 4765 ).

(f) In later lang., 3 s. ris occurs as adv. bare, exposed, uncovered : mar do leig ris a n-aoinfheacht 'how it left [her] uncovered at once' Duan. F. ii 332 § 9 , Éigse ix 228 . do theilg Ercuill a bhrat de ┐ ro leig a lorg ┐ in croicenn leomainn ro buí re cnes ris, ITS xxxviii 997 (Stair Ercuil) . chonarcadar a ccroicinn go coirtighthi buídhe ris, Smaointe B. Chr. 150 . ó bhí mo chroiceann-sa nochtuighthe síos reis, 160 . cia d’innis doit-se a bheith nochtuighthe síos reis (leis, v.l.), 161 . See also la VI (d), léicid.

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs (and nouns of cognate meaning with them), e.g., those of speaking, addressing, boasting, complaining, asking, thanking ; meeting, touching, striking, rubbing, grinding ; listening ; waiting, expecting ; entrusting ; co-operating, associating, helping ; visiting ; resembling, comparing, differing ; parting, severing (from) ; doing (something to), acting (towards), giving, distributing, apportioning ; requiting, paying, selling ; refusing, rejecting, denying ; hindering, restricting, opposing, combating, etc. See especially : ad-cosnai, ad-gair, ad-teich, ad-tluichethar (attlugud), aigid, 1 anaid, ar-báigi, as-beir, benaid, beirid, 1 caithid, canaid, 1 cingid, comalnaithir, 1 con-clich, con-delca, con-gní, con-ricc, con-sní, con-túaisi, crenaid, dálaid, dlomaid, do-beir, do-gní, do-icc, do-rogaib, do-slí (tuillem buide fri), do-sluindi (diúltad), do-tét, dúnaid, 2 erbaid, fáiltigid(ir), feraid, fo-gella (2 fuiglid), fo-rig, fris-oirg, fris-tairissethar, fris-taít, gaibid (fris-gaib), gellaid, íadaid, 1 íccaid, imm-beir, imm-fogni, imm-fresna, in-samlathar, in-túaisi (éistid), labraithir (labraid), laigid, 1 ligid, lingid, 1 luigid, meilid (con-meil), naiscid, ráidid (ol, ar), rannaid, renaid, saethraigidir, scaraid (and compds.), soïd (do-soí), 1 téit, tongaid.

1 gaim

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 gaim or dil.ie/25162
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: gam, gem

n (n s. also gam and gem) winter-storm, winter: snigid gaim ro faith sam, LU 852 ( RC xx 258 [ ACC 63 Comm. ]). cid nach gaim tira bithu sam, SR 7920 . gam quasi gamos ... nouimber, Corm. Y 672 . dirsan marbān im-mí gamh (: īaramh), 673 = a mí ghaim, LB. i mmī gaim .i. i ngaimreth, 687 ; 'Monat der (einsetzenden) Winterstürme' g p. (cf. Slíab Gam, Co. Sligo) Bruchst. 43 . gaim ... .i. hiems , O'Mulc. 615 . sam, gam, errach, fogamur, Ériu ii 100.2 . nī folabrainn ilach gamh (: tan), 95 . fomus iar ngaim (stroke over`g'), ZCP xii 362.9 . icol isiṅn uargaim, ZCP ix 339 § 2 . gem cáin cuisnech, Tec. Corm. § 36 . gamh ilṡíonach, AFM ii 1100.12 .

Compds. gaim—, gam—, gem—: ¤adaig: ciach do gair gemadaig, LU 10418 . misi Gaeth garb ... is Gemadaig m'ainm, RC xxiii 418.2 . fot na gem-óidche, PH 2415 . Cf. SCano 19 , Airne F. 22 . gaduidhe na geamhoidhche, Studies 1920, 99 § 10 . an ghamhadhaigh ghamhrata, Mar. Dis. i 16.60 . ¤biad winter-food: itir gaimmbiadh ocus saimbiadh, Laws iv 312.5 . ¤chorgus winter-Lent (i.e. Advent): samchorgus nō gemchorgus, ZCP xiii 29.15 . L. Chl. S. § 51 . ALC i 403.11 . AFM iii 346.22 . ¤fér winter-grass , Laws iv 96.1 . ¤find winter hair: gaim-finn (etym. gl. on gaimen), Corm. Y 242 . ¤fuacht `the winter season' (O'Don.): cúic misa ... fri gamfuacht, tri misa in gaimridh, ocus in da mí taisecha do errach fri gaimfuacht, Laws iv 88.23 . Smachta cacha raithe acht ni cuma samfucht ocus gamfucht. ... Cesc caiti in gemfucht innrad. ... Fer .uii. mís .i. in da mi degenach do foghmar ┐ trí mísa gemhred ┐ in da mí tuisech do errach, ise in gamfucht indrad insin, O'Curry 23 - 24 ( H 3.18, 10b - 11a ). ocht meich ar geamfuacht, ocus a cethair ar samfuacht. Mad gemfuacht ogh ro ortar ann, asreanidar a hocht ind (of trespasses on grassland), Laws iv 104.18 - 20 . smachta gaimfauchta .i. ... iní smactaigther a fuact in geímre, ib. 78.5 , 20 ; 146.15 Comm. (gemfucht). ar [a] tesaidecht i n-aimsir in geamfuachta, Laws i 2.7 . ¤gelt winter grazing: gaim-gelt (metaph. of a man), ZCP ix 454 § 37 . ¤laithe a winter's day: uide tri ngaimlaithe, Ériu ii 120.11 . ¤lías a winter-stall: méit gamlías hi tallat trichait n-gamna, LU 9186 ( FB 91 ). ¤lóchet winter-lightning: co nā rīsadh gemlōichet hē, ACL iii 4.27 , 28 . Anecd. i 9.15 (gaimlochad). ¤orgain winter-trespass (?): Laws iv 88.1 . ¤shecal winter-rye: do gebbad guirt gemshecoil, MacCongl. 85.4 .

garit

Cite this: eDIL s.v. garit or dil.ie/25410

Forms: garait

adj i. O.I. garait short

(a) of time or duration: is garait ar saigul, Ml. 59d6 . suide garait a short sitting, 135a13 . bid gairit dam-sa in pian aimserda-sa, PH 2436 . in crábud gairit remor `the short gross devotion,' Ériu i 194.2 . is gairit a re toichedh so, Laws i 82.13 Comm. gairid lá ag lucht an taighe short passes the day ..., Dán Dé xxv 33 . TD 20.61 . Often used adverbially: garit tra do'n béist and, PH 7209 . ba gairit [v.l. nir cian] coma comor comdelba re athair he it was but a short time till he was as big (?) or he was nearly as big (?), TTebe 2689 . gairid d'Earcoil dá éis soin gus chuir faoi, TD 13.40 . As subst.: gairit beag do bámar ann, Ériu iv 114.15 . a fad no a gaired (of a period of time) its length or its shortness, Laws ii 114.1 Comm. cian garit long or short: cid cian gairit no beth ri hErinn cin mnai a dingbala aci, IT i 118.13 . SG 389.12 . cian gairit baoisiumh isin edarnaidhe, AFM vi 2162.1 . pl. gairti (gl. tempora angusta), Ml. 110b11 . coro gairdi na haidchi, CRR § 6 . crecha gairdi raids of short duration § 22 . Compar. masa gairdi in faesum na dechmadh ocus is sia ... na anadh ... na set, Laws i 100.27 Comm. cia madh gairdi in re, ii 216.7 Comm. sech ni gairde ni siaa, Ériu i 202 § 28c . Of metrical quantity: traig cethargarait gl. proceleusmaticum a foot of four short syllables, Sg. 7b13 . Cf. bithgairddi són .i. e ┐ o, 5a14 . Adv. rige nE. do ghabail go gairid soon, TFrag. 12.14 .

Compd. ¤a short period: for a n-irchradchi ┐ for a n-gairitre bite i n-ainius in betha, Alex. 1078 . saegul bliadna ... ba dirsan in gairitre, Rawl. 84b44 .

(b) Of space (length or distance): ní thuca in cóil ngairit do not marry a short, slender woman, ZCP viii 112.22 . fri da taeb .i. in fada; fri da naircind .i. in gairid, the short end, Laws i 274.27 Comm. Pedimus ┐ Dimas `na ndiaid seic ┐ ua gairit etorru there was but a short space between them, TTebe 2448 . Of metrical length: sétrad ngarit (a quatrain in which the 2nd and 4th lines have only 3 syllables), IT iii 106.5 . Cf. ib. 47 § 80 ; 88 § 107 . Fig. nī gairit (gairrid, MS) m'othur ar m'olc my sickness matches my sin (?), ZCP vi 263 § 10 (see olc III ). nomen bu gairit ó māl a name approaching [that of] poet, ZCP v 483 § 3 (B. na F.). garit [ó] a short distance from, near: is gairit uaithi ... co ráith Aeda, SG 155.9 . do thecht ... gairid o'n chaislen, AU iii 186.15 . tancatar gairit on longport, Cog. 156.12 . inadh ... gairid bec uadha, BCC § 113.29 . Cf. roba gairit in caill ... uathib iat, Cog. 176.23 (a confusion of ba g.¤ don chaill iat and g.¤ ó ?).

(c) is g.¤ lemm I deem the time short, hence, foll. by vn. or its equivalent, I enjoy, delight in, am glad of: garit lem ... | beth ag mo Rīgh ac rīm ferss, ZCP ix 173 § 21 . gardditi lind eistecht riss, TBC-LL¹ 5148 . ni fuaramar ... ní is gairdi linn na bur comraidsi, KMMisc. 319.3 . SG 128.28 . as gairit lem cridhe ... mo theacht pleasant to my heart is ..., BNnÉ 134.15 . gurub gairdi leo (of children) that they may be amused, Laws ii 146.22 Comm. With do: is cóir duitsi tuidecht lind uair is gairde duit ina beith issin baile-sea, Acall. 4648 . Absol.: ? comad gairdi-te m'eolas so that my tale might be the more cheerful (?), 6815 .

1 is

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 is or dil.ie/29104
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: nídam, nída, atar, atin, ammi, bem, be, combin, is, am, im, isam, isim, sam, isam, am, isam, nidha, nis, indat, n-iat, cenita, coich, citné, cisné, cis, manid, minad, minid, munid, minap, munab, béso, bésu, gon, gion, indid, inid, inad, ina, 'nar, díand, díanid, díanad, dían, díanda, dían(d)at, dána, dán, darab, bad, ba, ba, badat, ba, -bo, -p, -b, cid, -rop, -rup, -rub, ropond, ce, cía, cit, cía, ce, bed, bad, pad, bud, ba-da-, bádam, ma, matis, diambtís, bé, biam, bum, bid, bith, beith, bed, bud, -pa, -ba, nípa-dn-aidrech, -ba, -pa, -bo, -po, -bu, -pu, -b, -bad, -bud, bit, be(i)t, bat, biat, bidat, -rsam, -rbam, -bi, ropsa, rupsa, ropsat, robsat, ropat, robat, ropot, ropdat, -rbsat, -rsat, -rsa, -rbat, nārsat, ba, bu, bo, be, fa, fá, fo, bad, bud, ba-id-n-, fa, fá, -pu, -bu, -po, -bo, -p, nip, nipu, -rbu, -rpu, -rpo, -rbo, rba, -rob, -rb, -ra, -r, -rsa(t), -rso, -rsa, -rsad, rsam, -rsat, -rbtar, -rptar, -rtar, -rbat, -rpsat, -rsat, -psat, -bsat, -psatar, gomsad

v copula (see Strachan, Substantive Verb in O.Ir. Glosses ( Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899 ); Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish; Dillon, Nominal Predicates in Irish ( ZCP xvi , xvii ) ; GOI § 814 ff. ; Ó Nolan Studies in Mod. Ir.).

USAGE.

The copula is alway unstressed and proclitic. The normal order of words is vb.+pred.+subj., e.g. is cele dae in fer hisin, Ml. 30c3 . is bésad inna flatho doem et dofich (i.e. to protect and to avenge is a princely custom), Wb. 9d2 . Prec. by asyntactic nom.: fáilte cáich bad fáilte dúib-si, Wb. 5d24 . mad i n-aeclis tra in choss is hé óis achtáil `if then it be in the church, the foot is the practical folk,' 12a23 . Frequ. in verse: Illand mac Scanlain is marb, Anecd. i 12.24 . andar la fer bis a cein | Inber Cindbera is reid, 15.1 . a comrádh bind nocho brég, 35 § 81. An inversion of the usual order (see Ó Máille, op. cit. p. 74) occurs in: nī bu ṡanctBrigit ṡúanach (v.l. sanctbrigit suanach) `Saint B. was not drowsy,' Hy. v 21 (see GOI p. 476 and n. 168 ). is tria chin mban | bit fernai fer dlochtai, LU 8430 (FB, rhetoric). Common in rel. sentences in Fél.: mórṡlúag A. | dia mbu Demon dubach `from whom the Devil was sorrowful,' Fél. April 2 . súi diand Ériu inmall, Sept. 10. manach | asa díthrub dubach `whose hermitage is gloomy,' Prol. 98 (but: S. | ata soilsi slechtae, Sept. 7. Carissim ... | asa rúamdae relic, Ap. 16 ). Where the predicate is a compound phrase the subject is introduced into the middle of it (Strachan, op. cit. p. 49.30), e.g. is irlam ind anim do thuil Dée, Wb. 5c18 . nirbu samlaid són doibsom, Ml. 90c27 . nibo mór a mbríg linn, Wb. 18d10 .

In O.Ir. when the subject of the copula was a personal pronoun it was, as in other verbs, implicit in the verbal form: am irlam, Wb. 13c8 . at fechem dom, 32a21 . combed adultera `so that she should be a.', 3c9 . nirbu choimdiu `he had not been a lord,' 33a5 . bad carthi `let him be loved,' Sg. 148a2 . nítat ainmnidi `they are not nominatives,' 189a10 . amal bemmis bibdaid, Ml. 114d4 . It was frequently strengthened by a pronominal particle suffixed to the pred. not necessarily to express emphasis, nor to distinguish between persons: niba dimicthe-se libsi `I should not be despised by you,' Wb. 21d3 (but: nida apstal apstil `I am not an apostle's apostle,' 18c1 ). massu rath-som, 5a30 . ciasu i colinn am béo-sa, 19a20 . it firian-su, Ml. 55d11 . ammi cland-ni doib-som, 101d9 . ropsa huallach-sa, 49b12 (cf. GOI § 811 ). nimda scál-sa ┐ nimda aurdrach, ZCP xiii 373.11 .

The logical pred. of the copula may be (a) an adjective ; (b) a prepositional phrase; (c) an adverb; (d) a pronoun ; (e) the substantival demonstrative í; (f) the subject of a relative verb; (g) a clause introduced by as n- `that it is' ; (h) a substantive.

At all periods of the language the predicates (a), (b), (c) and (d) immediately followed the copula.

(a) In O.Ir. the general rule was that the predicative adj. agreed with the subj. of the copula in gender and number (see Dillon, op. cit., for development from O.Ir., of which he cites as type: it moírb in boill sin, Wb. 11d11 , to Mod. Ir.: is mór iatt, is saidhbir na tírtha so, Maund. § 138 , §227 ).

(b) amal as o spirut, Wb. 15b7 . ciaba beo bid do precept anme Crist, 23b29 . is occ maid atáa, 6a18 . condib tria n-uile mbethaid ón, Tur. 71. is fria binn aníar atá t'esérge, Thes. ii 242.3 (Ardm.). is airi asbersom ..., Ml. 126c10 . cid tre étged rop othar, Críth G. 61. nochon ara omun cena, TBC-I¹ 2364. gonadh uime sin adeir I.¤ ..., TSh. 4816.

(c) níp and nob irpaid, Wb. 8b2 . hóre is amne atáa, 12d7 . is samlith is comadas dúun ..., Thes. ii 246.3 (Cam.).

(d) mad hé á luum, Wb. 4a14 . bad hé for n-ere `let Him be your burden,' 9d12 . rupu sí a rreilic, 33a22 . is tú is diliu limsa diib, IT iii 83 § 69. ionnus gomadh é féin bud ughdar réna bheathaidh, TSh. 3406.

When the logical predicate of the copula was either (e) the substantival demonstrative í or (f) the antecedent of a relative verb, or (g) a clause introduced by as n- `that it is' a pronoun was introduced immediately after the copula to act as grammatical predicate while the logical predicate stood in apposition to this pronoun.

(e) matu hé ata horpamin indí rochomalnisset recht, Wb. 2c14 . bit hé magistir dongegat indhí asindisset a tola féisne dóib, 30d8 . it hé in toirthi amal sodin inna hí adfiadatar hi testimnib file isint salm anuas, Ml. 46c14 .

(f) is hé didiu in tecttaire maith condaig indocbáil dia thigerni the good envoy is he who seeks his lord's glory, Wb. 8d20 . it hé inimici lessom qui fraudant et qui iniuriam faciunt , 9c25 . it hé gními epscuip asmbeir sís the works of a bishop are the things he mentions below, 28b20 . is he in firfindbathach no in firion atcobra na huile beatusa the truly blessed ... is he who desires all the blessings, Hib. Min. 429.

(g) is ed asberat ind heretic as laigiu deacht maicc indaas deacht athar, Ml. 17c7 . ni ed a met as n-etarcnad dun `not only that it is known to us,' 138a12 . is ed asberat as ndu deacht ... rogabad in salm so, 24d29 . is ed adfet a legend as ndath glas roboi forsind sléib fo chosmailius saphirr, Ml. 84d4 .

(h) With indef. noun as pred.: condib dídnad domsa foirbthetu hirisse dúibsi, Wb. 1b1 . combad notire rod-scribad cosse, 27d16 . mástat carait ... mastat námait, LU 9090 - 1 . níor ghníomh meirbh, DDána 91 § 24.

With def. noun as pred.: in O.Ir. and early Mid. Ir. a definite substantive can immediately follow the copula. Even in O.Ir. however a pronoun is frequently introduced immediately after the copula as grammatical predicate, the logical predicate standing in apposition (cf. (e), (f) and (g) above). This is the normal construction in the later language: ni a doenacht fesine ru-da-n-ordan `not his own Manhood has dignified Him,' Wb. 33c5 . ni in cholinn donatháira acht is a n-accobor, 3d3 . is athir-som innaní techte foirbthetith `he is the father of them that possess perfection,' 2c11 . mad Ānlūan no-beth is'taig, ScM. § 16.8 . is Duid a oenar rochachain inna psalmu, Hib. Min. 134.

With pronoun: bit hé na precepta cétni no pridchob doib, Wb. 17b20 . is hed a trede sin foloing, 29d17 . is hé in peccad rogéni a n-uile comaccobor, 3c25 .

After the introduction of the pronoun, the normal order of the sentence seems to be that in which the predicate follows the pronoun but this order does not appear to be fixed and the predicate may be put at the end either for emphasis or for the better balance of the sentence, e.g. a predicate which is the antecedent of a relative verb is most usually placed after the subject. Predicate and subject can only be distinguished by means of the context and the distinction, it would seem, is by no means as clear-cut in Irish as in other languages.

Predicate immediately following pronoun: ní ceilsom tra as n-é Crist in lie, Wb. 4d16 . issí ind ainim as airlam do chomalnad recto Dé ní in corpp, 3d11 . measaim gurab é an bás, an marcach úd, TSh. 37.

Subject following pronoun: mate nama anfolaid in cele falla frithgnama `if neglect of service was the only disqualification of the tenant,' Laws ii 324.6 . ar is he besad felsub etarcert di dúlib et saigid forru et nebchretem a n-adiadar di crist, Wb. 27a10 . it he caeli la suide ind apstail soscelae, Ml. 42b7 . is ed mind n-aingel Crist mac Dé, LU 944. measaim ... gurab í an chathair úd Ierusalem an domhan, TSh. 708.

In O.Ir. where the subject of the copula was a pronoun of the 1st or 2nd person, it required no other expression with an indef. pred. than that supplied by the 1st or 2nd person of the copula: at macc ríg, Trip.² 970. itib ingena ríg talman, 1138 . am dún díthogail, IT iii 53.26 .

Cf. Mid. Ir.: is descipul ... tu-su, PH 2768. conid mog De thú, 510 . is gadaige thu, 7781 . is clann én athar ┐ én máthar sind, 7501 .

With def. pred. the usage in O.Ir. is not certain (? at lūam in gaiscid grind (but: v.l. at tualaing gaiscid grind), Bruchst. 12 § 20 ). In the saga literature the normal expression is: Setanta ... atomchomnaicse, LU 4892. Rí Alban atomchomnaicse, RC xiii 446 § 31.

Cf. Mid. Ir.: is me Oengus céle Dé, SR 8009. ni thu Issau semnach na slóg | acht is tú int engach Iacób, 2876 . is mesi Ísu mac Dé, PH 3732. misse Marcellinus, comorba Petair, 612 (but cf. Tuan mac Cairill mesi, LU 1219 ).

At all periods of the language the expression of the copula in the 3rd persons was not obligatory at the head of a principal sentence: alind á óiph in forcitil, nemnech immurgu a inne, Wb. 7c1 . faelid-sem ... | os me chene am faelid, Thes. ii 293 § 6 ( SP II ). cride hē, | ... | ōcān ē, Bruchst. 69 § 160. ili insi Mod | ... | liä dāma Domnaill, 9 § 12 . Aed Ailig, inmain lim hé, ACL iii 304 § 1. Andreas ard a ordan, Fél. Feb. 6. glē la cāch immorro ba for teithed luid C. remiseom, TBC-I¹ 1260. móra a molta, Gorm. March 5. Fer Loga mo lennān-sa, ScM. § 20.12 . gnáth tromthóir dhoirbh 'na dheaghaidh, DDána 85 § 30. ionann sin ré a rádh ..., TSh. 2826.

SPECIAL USES.

In periphrasis (see Strachan, op. cit. p. 49): nitat huili robtar uilcc filii Israhel `all f. I. have not been evil,' Wb. 11a23 . is do immarchor chóre dotíagat ind fir so, 5a5 .

Elliptical: demes .i. mess dēde and, ūair it dá scín lais there are two blades ..., Corm. Y 438. is dos didiu isin blīadain tānaisi in fochlac .i. it ceitheora duillne fair, 423 . nī ba comairle aile acht a c[h]rochad, MacCongl. 19.4 .

Manibad were it not for , etc. with follg. accus.: mainbad éicin, Wb. 4a20 . manipad taschidetaid ind metir, Ml. 136c2 . manibad trocairi ndáe, 111b28 . manipad do chrúass, Trip.² 1370. menbad bíth einig F., TBC-LL¹ 1855. Later replaced by subst. vb.: meni beth in clessín ingantach, 2063 . ropsar marba ... | meni beth Find, RC vii 302.183 .

To express an obligation: praind do tomailt la marb hi tig ... is a hurcul `to eat a meal with a dead man in the house is forbidden,' Mon. Tall. 153.4 . ma dorat(d)a forcraid ngill is lóg a enech ... do aisiuc, Críth G. 288. ma ro-achtaigh comain airithi ina setaib, is a beth do, ┐ masa comain do rer dligid roachtaigh, is a beth air `soll es ihm werden ... soll er es bekommen,' Cóic Con. RE § 13.106 .

On sentences of the type ceso femmuin mbolgaig mbung, see Bergin, Ériu xii 197 ff .

Confusion between copula and subst. vb.: gérbho soicenelach hé iar ccolainn ro bai soichenelcha iar menmain, RC xxv 390 § 3 (? or read ro ba). dogniind ... airchisecht dib, mar no-béind athair doib `as though I had been their father,' PH 6107. Frequ. in ACC: boe (bui, bái, boi, v.ll.) sab suithe cech dind .i. ro bo sab daingen no soad cech ndimus, RC xx 168 § 26. boe saegul sneid .i. suail nó bec nó garit a saegul, § 24. boe seim sáth, § 25. boe dind oc libur leigdocht, § 27.

FORMS

(a) from O. Ir. glosses and texts in Thes. Pal. (for further exx. from O. Ir. glosses see Strachan, loc. cit.). (b) from other texts.

In Mid. Ir. the forms of the copula in the 1st and 2nd sg. and in all persons of the pl. fell to a great extent into disuse, their place being taken by the 3rd sg., of the tense required with a pron., corresponding in form to the O.Ir. infixed pron. or to the poss. pron. of the person and number to be expressed, infixed between it and the following predicate. Occasionally the inf. pron. was added to forms other than sg. 3, e.g. nídam for nída (s. 1), atar, atin (pl. 3+ inf. pron. pl. 1) for ammi, bem for be (fut. s. 1). These forms while at first used impersonally as already occurred in O. Ir., e.g. issum ēcen, Wb. 10d24 , isat dílmain-siu, Ml. 55d21 , diandam thísed mucc ḟonaithe robad-am béo, Stories from Táin 5.16 , later came to be felt as simply the copula, as is shown when plural forms are folld. by pl. adjj., e.g. nibar troig, SR 3641 , gurdar síthaig, Hib. Min. 82.23 , acht co mbadar maithe díblínaib, TBC-LL¹ 35 ; and by such instances as: gidar comaltai, ib. 3680 . ropdhar fir chomdeirgide, ib. 3535 . As it is not always possible to discover whether a particular writer regarded this combination of copula + inf. pron. as such or as copula only, all such examples have been grouped together, so that, for instance, all the forms under subj. past s. 1 below should be taken not necessarily as being, to the mind of the writer, that particular form but rather as being his way of expressing what would in O. Ir. be expressed by combin, etc.

Examples of the 1st and 2nd persons are found both in Classical verse and in Early Mod. Ir. prose but the more commonly occurring forms are those of the 3rd sg., number and person being expressed by independent pronouns: is ort iarraim gidh óg thú, DDána 67 § 3. is fearr mé iná thú, IGT Introd. 22 § 90. t'fhearg, a rí, ... | re searg dí bu fhearr inn-ne, DDána 10 § 22. ag an druing ... rénar milis briathra borba, TSh. 1568. do bhríogh nach cumhachtach sinn féin ris aní se, 30 . is beannuighthe sibhse, 5669 . do bhríogh gurbh fheasach thú gurbh amadán mé, 9638 .

Indic. pres.

A. Absolute

s. 1

(a) am: am tualang dano a hétarcerta, Wb. 12d22 . is airi am cimbid-se, 27c22 .

(b) am, im, isam, isim, sam: am senóir ┐ am lobur, Trip.² 2045. am caemsa ... am maccam, TBC-I¹ 583 - 4 . amm eolach, TBC-LL¹ 1750. uair am aithrech, SR 7824. (cf. isam aithrech, 7789 ). im fáilid, Ériu v 224.73 . as me Ulltán ... im fili, im faidh, BNnÉ 257 § 214. From early in Mid. Ir. period the form isam (<is s. 3+ inf. pron. s. 1) occurs, side by side with am. In follg. exx. it must already have been understood as s. 1: uair isam bensa curad caín, LU 8440 (FB). issam ingen ríg, TBFr. 163 = im, ZCP iv 38.11 . asam senoir, CCath. 5495. issim meabrach, Acall. 3115. orsam (=ór isam) heolach, SR 1786. sam crochta gan cionadh réil, Ó Bruad. ii 132.11 .

s. 2

(a) at, it: at fechem dom, Wb. 32a21 . air it firian-su, Ml. 55d11 .

(b) at, it, ot, isat, asat: at meirb, Fél. July 19 . at ferr do lāech indó-sa, ScM. § 16.8 . fobīth ad ōegi, TBC-I¹ 507 (YBL) = dáig ot áegi, LU 4996. it gilla co ngicil, TBC-I¹ 2667. id file, Content. iv 2. isat lac, Bruchst. 30 § 67. isatt áil-siu dam-sa, SCC 739 . isit aneōlach, MacCongl. 122.9 . isat duni dána, TBC-LL¹ 3057. asat tretholl-sa, TBC-I¹ 3632.

s. 3

(a) is, rel. as`: is samlith is comadas dúun, Thes. ii 246.3 (Camb.). is hé céetne fer ceta-ru-chreti, Wb. 7b11 . is ferr ainm do denom de, Sg. 26b5 . is cele dae in fer hisin, Ml. 30c3 . Freq. written iss before vowels: iss uisse, Wb. 22c21 . iss i rráe choir immumruidbed, 23d30 . iss ed inso nád chumaing, Sg. 209b13 . Freq. written together with a follg. initial s, one s falling out: isuáichnid, Wb. 23d30 . isamlaid, Thes. ii 11.40 (Bcr.). rel. brothchán as chóir duib, Wb. 33c15 . as choimtig, Sg. 54b8 .

(b) is(s), as, us, es, rel. as`, is` (it is not clear when lenition ceased to be used after the cop. used relatively. It is less often marked than not in TBC, see Ériu xiv 90 , 93 , 94 ): is túath oirdnither ríi[g], Críth G. 493. is toirthech int inber, Trip.² 370. is gabtha na eich ┐ iss innilti in carpat, MU² 49. is cosmhail Samson ┐ an bás, TSh. 763. iss a miad neich dogniat mancuine, BCrólige § 50. iss messe rorecsabair, SR 3636. i[s] slān in fear, Laws iii 156.5 . isaer ém domrimgartsa, LU 10307. as iat na fir[a] fola no saraigthe, Cóic Con. H § 59. in ti do beir ... as e do ron, Laws iv 32.19 . as do hIddomdaib do, PH 6946. In TSh. `both abs. and rel. are written as in MSS.,' TSh. Introd. xx n. 3 . es dilmain, Anecd. iii 23.5 . es coitcend, ib. 2 . essed dobeir ..., 26.24 . es bec trá ná comráncatar inn a mméur ocus a coss, CMT² 58 § 132 . es de boí inn nem-sin fuirri(r), CMT² 60 § 133 . ar us aire isperar ..., Laws i 264.7 . ar us merle cach n-indligiudh, ii 70.25 . Somet. the vowel of IS is dropped: ┐ síad bhīos ag coimhēad, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1341. rel. as chóir, Mon. Tall. 146.27 . as chórus, Críth G. 223. a n-us tol lat-su, MacCongl. 33.9 . ? With class C inf. pron.: forband ... as-dom moo airli, Echtrae Chonnlai 121 § 6 . After constructions which take rel. n- the predicate of the copula is eclipsed (where the first word of the predicate is unstressed the usage varies): do thaidbsiu as n-iress nóibas, Wb. 19b14 . as ndia side gl. doceo, 13a18 . as n-é tairrchet, 6d6 . as ndirruidigthe a n-animm-sin, Sg. 56b10 . as ndí Assaraib ... rogabad in salm-sa, Ml. 35a10 . asberat as ndu deacht ... rogabad, 24d29 (but cf. adciam ... as ar chenél cruche adrímther ..., Thes. ii 246.25 (Camb.)). amail is n-adētchide in flesc, Corm. Y 606.8 . In Mid. Ir. rel. n- dropped out: uair ... as inann nadúir don duine ┐ ..., PH 7433. amail as diaisneisi in Coimdi, Ériu ii 144 § 159. in tan is indligthech iat, Cóic Con. H § 14. amail as crom craobh fo chnoibh, BS 54.15 . Very early the non-rel. form IS is used for rel. and vice versa, see above: cía dit maccaib is diliu latt ?, Trip.² 1774. mer is laugu, Corm. Y 809. is ed is chonar fugill ann ..., Cóic Con. RE § 24. intí is cosmail do Dia, PH 6266. ní íar chána is ḟairbrígh d'ḟir, IGT Decl. ex. 980.

pl. 1

(a) ammi, ammin, immi: ammi techtiri árt-phersine, Wb. 24d9 . ammi irlaim ... do dul martre, 4b21 . amminn imdibatai-ni ┐ ammin dilachtai, Ml. 83c3 . airmi (leg. airimmi, Ed.) ardu-ni, 23d23 .

(b) ammin, ar, dar, atar, isar, atin: is olc ar mblāth amin gorti, TBC-I¹ 1614. amin mairb, BDD² 330. ar troig ... dot' impartain we are wretched, SR 1482. ar n-idain fiad testaib Dé, 3583 . fortgellam Dia ... dar slana on chinaid-se, 3612 . cid einech rígh rontidnaic | atar dimdaig ..., Hib. Min. p. 82.x . isar scítha énirti, CCath. 2562. `atin budig de' ar an oicc, Anecd. i 5.18 (cf. batin aithrig, Ériu i 68 § 3 ).

pl. 2

(a) adib, idib, adi: adib cland Abrache, Wb. 19c20 . adib oís muntire, 21c4 . adi mmaicc, 9a13 . hóre adi ellachti, 21c17 . ar idib maithi, 16b9 .

(b) itib, at(a)bar, atfor: ár itib ingena ríg, Trip.² 1138. itib lía andú, BDD² 412 (= dáig abtar (leg. atbar) lia andúsa, LU 6870 ). ┐ itib degdoene, LL 281b28 . atabair ecen, LU 8097 (FB). is dásacht a ndognithi-si ┐ atbar dásachtaig fen, LB 212a10 . atabar glana-si, PH 5262. 5264 . apraid fris at for n-aithrig do debaid fris, Cymmr. xiv 118.11 ( Rawl. 132b29 ).

pl. 3

(a) it, at (once only in non-rel. sense), rel. ata`, at, et: it carit domsa, Wb. 5c7 . it dássactig, 12d36 . it coitchena, Sg. 10a1 . air at cuidi tirmaidi sidi, Ml. 123d3 . rel. in mairb ata thestis, Wb. 30a11 . it sib ata chomarpi, 19c20 . do retaib ata chosmaili fri fír, Ml. 51b8 . it hesidi at inbésa, 45d1 . it hé sidi et inbéso, 27a9 . confitetar són ata ndoini, 91c18 .

(b) it, at, isat, isid, rel. ata`, at: at remra na loeg ┐ it buidig na hoegid, Hy. v 25 Comm. it é inso trá gníma bóairech, Críth G. 183. it móra, Trip.² 1291. isat úathe dó ilib, 3096 . it cadlai dí ingein A., Fél. Dec. 9. at bidbaid, IT iii 502 § 10. isat bána, 514 § 7. hit imṡláin, SR 194. at mora, 3625 . id mesa indád demno, Anecd. iii 27.4 . at aena `these are of one day,' Laws i 156.y . at móra glonna Medbi, TBC-I¹ 1668. it cāema, 583 . cf. is mōra na comada' ... `isad mōra,' 2233 - 4 . i n-ifern isid bronaigh, Anecd. iii 55.29 (Síaburcharpat) = at brónaig, LU 9462. at cotarsnai, PH 711. isat lána, 5870 . rel. it é ata érlama, Trip.² 1539. amuis ata chórai, Críth G. 578. dí gérait at glainiu, Fél. May 7. saire ada lugu, Laws v 102.6 . laích ata dech, BDD² 757. adad dech, 1159 . seoit ... ad adhailge daib, Anecd. ii 53.3 . áos ata etromae cinaith `whose sins are lighter,' Mon. Tall. 158.7 . dāine ata maige imarīadam `on whose plains we would drive about,' Otia i 122 § 4.

B. Conjunct.

I Neg.

s. 1

(a) níta`, nída`: nita chumme-se friu-som, Wb. 20c25 . nida apstal apstil, 18c1 . sech níta aidlicen, Ml. 70b7 .

(b) nída`, nídam, nídom, nímda, ním, níam, níom, níum: nída choimsech mu ṡoíre, Trip.² 2976. nida (nidu, v.l.) dīr dermait it is not fitting for me to forget, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 16 § 1. nidha bheo-sa, TBC-LL¹ 6080 (fut. sense). nīdam macc, TBC-I¹ 645 (= nimda, LU 5129 ). nīdom sāitheach, TBC-I¹ 507 (= nimda, LU 4996 ). nīm láech cen lāmach, TBC-I¹ 2260. nidam dermatach, LU 10286. nidam snímach, SR 2382. nim dana, 2069 . nimda scál-sa ┐ nimda aurdrach, ZCP xiii 373.11 . nidom athair do duiniu, viii 561 § 2 . ni dam ben-sa fós do, Caithr. CC § 93. nida Christadi, Irish Texts i 2 § 4 . nidom chuchtach, BS 30.1 . níom tualaing suan, TSh. 2144. ní um claoidhte re a gcionnluas (ní um chl., v.l.), Ó Bruad. ii 138.6 .

s. 2

(a) No occurrence.

(b) nída, nídad, nídat, nít: nida tūalaing mo ergairi, Ériu i 116 § 6. nidad dichumaing, Anecd. i 11.13 . nít marbdae for tercphit, Fél. Sept. 8. nīt mess methchrainn, Bruchst. 17 § 33. nít firlaech-su, TBC-LL¹ 1343. nidat doss ós duss, 3460 . nidat mac-sa, FDG 718.

s. 3

(a) ní (geminates the follg. consonant, e.g. is rad dáe ... ni mmarilliud `(it is) not my merit,' Wb. 21c20 ): ní cuman lim, Wb. 8a3 . ní cuit broto acht is dugrés, Ml. 32c10 .

(b) ní (a form nís occurs once in ACC and may possibly be archaic: hua Airt nís Neill co nert `not with N.'s strength is he,' RC xx 406 § 128 ): ní rí Caisil co rón-ordnea, Trip.² 2302. ní tiamdae tim-som, Fél. Prol. 259. ni cosmail smachta cacha raithe, Laws iv 78.4 . ní segda, LU 1655. ni fír, PH 2715. ní críonna an tí nach tuigeann, DDána 35 § 2. ní hiongnadh an meas soin do bheith ..., TSh. 243. The follg. exx. from TBC show lenition after ní but they may be scribal errors: ní ḟlaith Ulad nod chosna, 2788 . ní ḟurusa, 3050 . In Mod. Ir. ní prefixes h to a fully-stressed word but not to a proclitic: ní ag cnúasach bó am theagh atá, Éigse iii 168 § 9 (and see note). With inf. pron.: nímdil cid dīthrub Temair (glossed: ní hinmain lem T. cid fas), Hy. ii 44. ním-nert acht mac Dé I have no strength but ..., LL 133b8 . nin-fissid frisbered omnu huain `not to us is the Knower who used to avert fears from us,' RC xx 164 § 16 (ACC). nin forcetlaid, ib. § 18.

pl. 1

(a) nítam`, nítan`, nídan`: nitam toirsich (sic leg., Ed.) gl. non angustiamur, Wb. 15b21 (a prima manu). nidan chumachtig for n-irisse, 14c41 . nidan chosmili, 14d37 . ar nitan reprobi-ni, 18b9 .

(b) nidar: nidar n-idain, SR 3626. nidar glain, 1609 .

pl. 2

(a) nítad, nídad (see OIPG p. 66 n. ): nitad lib fésin `ye are not your own', Wb. 9d11 . nidad óegid, 21b14 . 14a8 . ar nídad ferr-si, 8c7 .

(b) nibar, nifor: nibar troig, SR 3641. ni for gliccu ... inda oen na n-ánmanna, 1235 . is tróg niforn-intliuchtach (? leg. -aig), 1238 .

pl. 3

(a) nítat, nítaat, nídat, nít, nis: nitat cosnama domundi, Wb. 7d12 . ar nitaat cosmuli, 9b17 . nídat chummai, Ml. 115b3 . nit derachti, 128d1 .

(b) nídat calaid, Fél. Jan. 17. nít mórdai fria ngudi, March 1. nītad tabartha, TBC-I¹ 2856. nídat námait, LU 8264. nidat glain, SR 7996. nidad tlaithi, 1571 . nidat carpait, MU² 374. nit righ os ro-chathaib, LL 386a18 . nīdat cuibde, MacCongl. 7.16 . In ZCP xx 371 f. , Thurneysen gives the follg. exx. of a 3 pl. form, nis, occurring in Law texts: acht nis cosmailsi comarba[i] `aber Erben sind nicht von Gleichheit,' Laws iii 42.25 . atait tri comurba la Feine, nis comsaer a cuir, 46.18 . nis dilsi acht a tri, ZCP xiii 21.17 . nis cuir bel dilsi, xii 365.1 . nis maithi dam log n-aisi, logh sinsire, log fognama, ib. 8 .

II With dependent negatives:

(a) nád who (or which) is not, that (it) is not (see s.v. 1 nád, 2 nád, 3 nád and Strachan, loc. cit. l. 1007 ff.).

(b) nant, nan that (it) is not (see s.v. nan and Subst. Vb. l. 1011 ff .).

(c) nách that (it) is not (see s.v. 3 nach, 4 nach and Subst. Vb. l. 1018 ff. ). For nícon, noco, nochon, etc., see s.v. nícon.

III With interrog. particle in-:

s. 1

(a) inda: inda apstal `am I an apostle ?,' Wb. 10c20 .

(b) ? anom (=indom) adbar gascedaig, Ériu xiv 89.2175 (= TBC-LL¹ 1186 ).

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) indat: indat creitmech, Trip.² 917. indat ómnach ?, Lat. Lives 90.0 . indot eolac[h], CCath. 2883. indat sochenel, PH 695.

s. 3 For both (a) and (b) the interrog. particle alone is used, i.e. in (later an) :

(a) in cuntubart lib inso, Wb. 3c3 . in ed fodera báas domsa, 3c33 .

(b) inn a síthib in do déib dúib ?, Trip.² 1114. co fessur ... in he [Is]sau no inne Iacob, SR 2884. an beó do thigerna ?, BDD² 1519.

pl. 3

(a) indat: indat mbriathra ? `is it the words ?,' Ml. 44b9 (cf. sechitat n-é (sic MS.), V below).

(b) indat: nocon fetarsa indat ilgnae do-chuirither in folt fair fo indat trí fuilt failet fair, BDD² 1125 - 6 . indat facsi don purt are they near ...?, LU 1873 (ICM). indat pettai sút no indat éoin chena, TBC-LL¹ 1328. Later the interrog. particle without pl. suffix is used also for pl.: co findara in n-iat tanic, PH 440.

IV With neg. interrog.

s. 2 (a) cenita: cenita chumgabtha-siu `art Thou not exalted ?' Ml. 84c3 .

s. 3

(a) cani, cini: cani doich, Wb. 5b35 . cani messe immoforling cretim dúibsi, 10c18 . cani mebuir lib, 20a5 . cini glé lib ..., 12d4 . cini inonn, 18a16 . caní románda .ó., Sg. 49b23 .

(b) cani: Ōengus do guin ... cani ōin do decraib Dē ?, Bruchst. 50 § 110 .

These forms were early replaced by nách q.v. s.v. 5 nach (nách).

Interrogative sentences containing cía, cid who, what (is). etc.

(i) The copula is not expressed after cía but that it is implied is clear from the follg. rel.: cinuid mic n-altrumu, cia forsa tiagat ?, Laws ii 178.3 . cia roblaiss bethaid ┐ na faicfe éc (qui vivit ┐ non videbit mortem), LL 281a32 . cia tir ass as[s]am lat do thabairt dúinne, ZCP viii 318.33 . gá cara don uile as fhearr, A. Ó Dálaigh xv 5. cia in fear sin ?, Anecd. ii 9.22 . cía can duib ?, Trip.² 1113. In gen.: coich úainn hí ? to which of us will it belong ?, 811 . íarfaigset dó ... cúich he, LU 1838. With verbal ending added: cóichet na heich se ?, 8522 (FB).

(ii) cid (see Thurneysen, GOI § 466 ): cid as dénti frisin, Wb. 12d41 . cid as maith, 12d12 . ní tucthar cid frissa-sennar, 12c46 . cid is conair ... is sed is conair ..., Cóic Con. H § 138. cid ara n- why ? : cid ara ndéntar pecthach díim, Wb. 2a10 . cid ara cuinchi-siu sein ?, Thes. ii 307.12 ( Hy. ii Introd. ). cid ara n-eipenar ?, Laws ii 194.2 . cid ara cuirther do trise ina lesa so ?, i 236.9 . cid how ? cid na déccaid uili how do not ye all see, Fél. Prol. 201. cid ēcōru mo beithse and anās ..., TBC-I¹ 2224.

pl. 3 citné (`gekürzt aus ci ata n-é ,' Thurn., ZCP xx 372 ): assindet sunt tra citné cumacte diandid cóir in fognam `what are the powers unto which the service is proper,' Wb. 6a9 . citné briathra robatar `what were the words ?,' Ml. 61b7 . citné robatar `what were they,' ib. 8 . citne a nanmand na soerbard (caidet, v.l.), IT iii 5.8 . ceitni trī seōit fūair C. ?, ZCP xiii 5 § 19. citni rig ... robatar' sind amsir sin ?, SR 2347. The corresponding form in the Laws is cisné: cisne lesa do na ibh sen tascnat treise `what cases of these extend to three days ?,' Laws i 230.21 . cisne tri biada na tuillead leaptha na hapta, v 438.14 . cisne trí ana soitcedach `what are the three wealths ...,' Triads 239. Sometimes cis immediately precedes the noun : cis formmenn écndaircc doslíat dílsi ?, ZCP xii 366.25 . cis ndíthle do trebaib na tuillet dire ?, 26 . cis forcsen fola la Fēne ?, BCrólige § 65. cis lir how many: cis lir congellait for tresi, Laws i 230.3 . cis lir lanamna docuisin la feine ?, ii 344.1 . cis lir chuir dochuisin ?, iii 4.5 . cis lir fodlai filet forsin mbairdne ?, IT iii 6.13 . cf. cit lir fodlai ..., ib. 20 .

V With various conjunctions.

(i) cía, cé, ci although, that.

s. 1

(a) No instance.

(b) ciam, cidam : ciam toebnocht, SR 1540. cid am laech-sa, TBC-LL¹ 1677. misi gedam foidhidech, ZCP xii 393 § 10. gidh im c[h]rochbán-sa, BS 138.y . giodh am midhiongmhala, Parrth. Anma 333.18 .

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) cíasa, cidat : cíasa lobur, no rega, Trip.² 1282. cidat fír-Dhia ... ro-gabais colaind ndoenda, PH 163.

s. 3

(a) césu, céso, cíasu, cíaso, cíasa : cesu threde in tummud, Wb. 21d13 . ciaso ḟolud ... sluindes, Sg. 211b7 .

(b) césu, céso, cíasa, cid, gid : césu réid ar lebrán, Fél. Ep. 133. ciasa (ceso, v.l.) femmain [m]bolgaigh [m]bung (see Ériu xii 197 ), Corm. Y 1059.64 . ciasa díthrub, Metr. Dinds. iv 42.2 . ciodh olc an bás nádúrtha, TSh. 987. gidh ionann atá ..., 2900 .

pl. 1

(a) No instance.

(b) cíammin, gidar : cíammin bí, BDD² 329. gidar comaltai, TBC-LL¹ 3680

pl. 2

(a) cenuded', cenotad' : cenuded issidi (=ḟissidi) `although ye are knowing,' Thes. i 713.25 (Tur. Cod.). cenotad maic-si raith, Wb. 33b8 . cenutad suíre, 4a10 .

pl. 3

(a) cetu', ceto' : cetu chummascthai, Sg. 62a2 . ceto écintecha, 203b10 .

(b) ciato', cetu', ciat, cidat : ciato chomṡruithi, Críth G. 493. cetu cummai a feba, Bruchst. 39 § 94. cíat ísliu fíad dáinib ... bit áird, Fél. Prol. 153. cidhat (cit, v.l.) ili fuile, Corm. Y 975.39 . srotha in dithruib ... ciat serba slassa, SR 4071. cidat mora, 446 . cidad mōra, TBC-I¹ 2235. ceat olca, ZCP vii 269 § 17. Ériu ii 122 § 63.

cía + neg. s. 3

(a) cinid, cenid : cinidlúith (=cinid dlúith) lib, Wb. 12b9 . cinith mút, Sg. 5b4 . cenid ed, Ml. 85b11 .

(b) cenid, cini : cenid mé in murgelt, LU 3022 (H). cini di sīl Chuind dóu, ZCP xiii 375.10 .

(ii) má (ma) s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) masat (masae, v.l.) : masat mac Dé, PH 4708. masad acuraig, CCellaig 449 . masat eólach, ZCP xiii 3 § 5. másat (masae, v.l.) geilt, BS 100.13 .

s. 3

(a) masu', maso', masa' (see Thurneysen, KZ xlviii 60f .) : masu chundubart, Wb. 4d28 . masa choimdiu, Ml. 108c16 .

(b) masu', masa', mas' : see s.v. 3 má (ma). Add : masu ar oítid, Trip.² 1483. mása thol, 584 . a Ḟir diad masa thú, TBC-LL¹ 3659. massa anfisac, Laws iv 36.25 Comm. mas da fis, 22 Comm. mas é Dubthach, TBC-LL¹ 2780. masad (massa, v.l.) ḟír, Mór M. 266.15 . mása thoil leat, TSh. 8093. más é is críoch, 1366 .

pl. 3

(a) matu : matu hé ata horpamin, Wb. 2c14 .

(b) masat, mástat : masat elti, MU² 399. mástat carait ... mastat námait, LU 9091 (FB).

ma + neg. s. 3

(a) manid : manid fír, Wb. 13b14 . 17b32 . Ml. 21a11 .

(b) manid, minad, minid, munid, minap, munab : manid caindleóracht, LU 9196 (FB). minad hé, BDD² 1287. minid hé, 917 . mani daig, 593 . munab follus, TSh. 5164. See s.v. 3 má (ma) and TSh. Introd. xxi n. 3 . The form béso, bésu is used as a subjunctive (for its origin see Thurn., KZ xlviii 60.f .) : bésu dagduine cini estar túari `he may be a good man,' Wb. 6b23 , 24 . massu ed béso mó a fius dúibsi, 19b11 .

(iii) co n- so that.

s. 1

(a) conda : is rad dée immum-forling conda apstal, Wb. 13b6 . conda marb, 19a17 . 17c10 .

(b) conda, conam, conadam, conidam : domāncatar-sa uile | conda eōlach a n-achne, Otia i 127 § 29. conam torsech co haithbe, 128 § 33. rom ebail Sencha ... conidam trén, LU 10285. 10304 . conad am lista liumm fadén ┐ nach am inmain frisnach āen, MacCongl. 95.4 .

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) condat adbartnaigthi-siu, PH 1795.

s. 3

(a) condid, conid : condid flaith do in coimdiu, Wb. 9d2 . tremiberar ... conid ainm dun chrunn, 8a5 . condid di thetacht in spírto ... profetauit , Thes. i 496.26 (Ardm.). conid e epscop insin cita-ruoirtned, ii 241.15 (ib.). conid femen, Sg. 123b2 . condid étrummu, Ml. 90a11 . connid ed, 91a19 .

(b) condid, conid, conad, cunad, etc.: condid ann, AU i 434.22 (A.D. 916) . Hib. Min. 25. conid eiter a lamaib ..., Mon. Tall. 153.12 . conid edh, AU i 538.6 (A.D. 1015) . conid soillsi, Corm. Y 426. LU 10931. 10306 . PH 2245. 720 . conad dēach ainm gach sillaibe, Corm. Y 500. PH 1371. 6132 . Laws iv 18.2 Comm. cunad fír, MU² 284. cunid soillsithir, 554 . condad leis Aidhne, Ériu i 46.32 . conodh i, Ériu iii 141.206 . conud e, RC vi 184.19 . gonid lór, ACL iii 306 § 1 . gonadh aire sin ..., Ó Héodhusa 51.1. TSh. 1824. 5960 . conid was replaced by gurab (gur), gura originally a subjunctive form : corop Tuigi im Thamon and sain, LL ii 9911 . gorop de atá Cruachna Áe, ii 12397 . innister curab pecthaig ..., RC xxiv 378.17 . gurab droch-duine ..., PH 7682. corub iat, 445 corab í so, 7334 . gurb i luaithreadh ..., TSh. 300. gur bréagach a bhreathnughadh, 395 . gurab é an bás, 37 . gurab tearc, 94 . er co ra mian leisin nádúir maith do dénum, PH 7394. gur tú mo Chruthaightheoir, Donlevy 406.5 . gur ionmholta, 132.10 . do-fedar gura tú C., ZCP viii 546.26 . Cf. also : casmail lem gom (=co mba) e in mac beg, 538.15 .

pl. 1

(a) condan : hóre ronsóirni ... condan fírianichthi, Wb. 2d14 . immunrordad condan maicc togu non naturae , 20d10 .

(b) No instances.

pl. 3

(a) condat : condat anman som, Sg. 188b3 . condat reli inna aicsin hisin, Ml. 51d15 .

(b) condat, condot, cundat : condat e tri decmainge in domain a d[t]indtud, Laws v 426.3 . condat cora, SR 296. SCC 320 . PH 736. cundat marthanaig, MU² 310. gondat Ulaid, TBC-LL¹ 704.

(iv) With cen co (not found in Glosses) :

(b) s. 1 gon com (gen gob, v.l.) maith-se oc immarbáig, TBC-LL¹ 3219.

s. 3 gion go glan mo sgáth, DDána 24 § 30. gion gur caomh a dhreach, 91 § 6.

(v) With no :

s. 1

(a) nonda', nunda' : amal nonda thorisse `as I am trustworthy,' Wb. 10a28 . a nunda thinnachtae-se, Ml. 126d12 .

s. 2

(a) nonda', nunda' : lassaní nonda brithem `when Thou art judge,' Ml. 92a15 . a nnunda chocuibsid-siu, 58b6 . 38c27 .

pl. 1

(a) nundem, nundan : oire nundem membur uili du Dea, Thes. ii 246.5 (Camb.). á nnundan deeth ní, Ml. 120b3 .

pl. 2

(a) nondad : amal nondad maicc cóima, Wb. 27b16 .

(b) These forms did not survive O. Ir.

(vi) After the co-ordinating conjunctions sech and noch the absolute form is used. See under 2 sech and 1 noch. sechi whoever, whatever probably contains cop. s. 3 : sechi é cretes `whosoever believes,' Wb. 15b1 . sechi hed bás són `whatsoever death ...,' 13c1 . sechi dú nu-t-soe-siu, Ml. 112b6 .

pl. 3 sechitat hé ` whoever they are ,' 49a19 . sechitat hé (né, MS.) ` whatsoever ,' Thes. ii 25.38 (Bcr.). (Cf. indat mbriathra, III above).

VI With various prepositions in relative clauses.

(i) i n- (in many exx. has the force of a conjunction, see Ériu i 12 ) :

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) inda : cid at-chí dúnd, inda fisid `since thou art ...,' BDD² 545.

s. 3

(a) indid, innid : cia airm indid immaircide do epert amén, Wb. 12d18 . ind labrada innid eula nech, Ml. 42c4 . indid mailliu a tuile `by which the flood is slower,' Thes. ii 14.35 (Bcr.). 20.41 (ib.).

(b) indid, inid, inad, ina: indid Niall ... ro malart since it is N. ..., AU i 438.26 (A.D. 918). indid Alend is dún fás, Hail Brigit § 14. inid mo athair ... ortabairsi, BDD² 737. Bruchst. 47 § 105.3 . inad gilla óc ... tarfás dúnn, BDD² 161. PH 5029. do Maig Mell inid rí Boadag, LU 10004. aít init sruithiu dliged oldas naidm, ZCP xiii 23.1 . inad ina fairsingi in cathuir, Maund. § 75. eccla ifirn ... 'na minic fóidh guil, ACL iii 216.17 . Forms originally perf. and subj. came to be used as pres. indic. : sé céimeanna 'nar cosmhail ré chéile iad, TSh. 1231. ní fhuil ainm oile ... ionarb (ionab, v.l.) éigean sinne do shlánughadh, 2088 . neg. traigle i nach ūathad uidre, Bruchst. § 88. teagh is nach uathadh urra, DDána 119 § 23.

pl. 3

(a) indat : indat iudei itirroscar[sat] fri hiris n-abarche since they are Jews, Wb. 5b34 . cid ind aimser indat sláin ennaic som, Ml. 76a6 .

(b) in am indat slána, TBC-LL¹ 952. inat ṡlana, 1386 .

(ii) día n- :

s. 1

(a) No instances.

(b) díanda, díanam : Chríst dianda chéle `whose servant I am,' Fél. Ep. 307. an rí díanam gilla, ZCP v 497 § 12.

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) díandat : cia díandat céliusiu ?, TBC-I¹ 1382.

s. 3

(a) díant, díandid, dían : intí diant ainm discessio, Wb. 26a5 . in rét diant torbach ..., Ml. 121d1 . dian-did nomen hiber, Sg. 100b1 . in son diandid tintud ..., Ml. 37a10 . dian duthoig Liphe, Thes. ii 295 § 4 ( SP v ). neg. di nach follus (=dunach, Edd.), Thes. ii 8.35 (Acr.).

(b) díand, díanid, díanad, dían, díanda, dían(d)at, dána, dán, etc.: dianid opair oen laithi, AU i 342.22 (A.D. 839) . Corm. Y 825.2 . fer dianid comainm Labán, SR 2944. diand sanctlethan slondad, Fél. June 12 . April 22 . indī dianda coimmēid, Corm. Y 269. 892 . dianad ainm clí, 275 . PH 5180. 5494 . mí diandat (diando, MS., dianid, v.l.) ainm Marsiius, Corm. Y 892. cid dianat maith ind uair si ?, Hib. Min. p. 50.6 . Cū dīan comainm Culand, TBC-I¹ 2263. dianaid rī, 560 . dian serb cach sruith, ZCP vi 267 § 2. cia dana céile thusa ?, viii 545.2 . Ériu ii 229.19 . drem dīb dan eōl, ZCP viii 216 § 78. Laws iv 60.12 . ACL iii 237 § 15. na nathrach neimhe danadh ainm tyrus , TSh. 8973. Pres. subj. and perf. forms used as pres. indic. : darab ceann sgríbe an chríoch dhéidheanach, TSh. 725. cia d'ar ceart, Donlevy 106.7 . neg. airchindech do nach diur adhultrus, Laws i 58.22 Comm. do neoch do nar bo chotlud, TBC-LL¹ 2962. cia dánach feasach ... ?, TSh. 6401.

pl. 3

(a) neg. : donnatdet adblama inna esiu (leg. inna hísiu, Edd.) `to whom these things are not ready,' Thes. i 713.23 (Tur. Cod.).

(b) díanat, díandat : amail rondeiligthe sinethae dianat anmanna dela, Corm. Y 431. Metr. Dinds. iii 312.116 . bó ... díandat slána a secht mbliadna, LU 8122.

(iii) ara n- :

(a) arndid : cid arndid ísliu aesce quam sol , Thes. ii 22.41 (Bcr.). in di accuis ... arndid coitchen ..., Sg. 200a13 .

(b) ara n- : is ed sin ara n-amra `arcu fuin' `for which a.f. is admirable,' ZCP vii 312 § 26.

(iv) ó n- :

(a) óndid, ónid : in sians ondid accobor limsa ícc cáich, Wb. 12d23 . honid techtae molad Dáe, Ml. 51c2 .

(b) ón, óna, ónab : díles Néill ón cunnail cell, Ériu iv 92 § 1. toirt[h]igi in lā | ōnab lēir feadha, ACL iii 235 § 21. gním óna mó ar dtachrádh, IGT Decl. ex. 412.

(v) frissa n- :

(a) frisin : dochum cétnidetad frisin cosmil `to which it is like,' Sg. 188a13 .

(b) frisnid, ren, rena, renab, renar : inmain samail frisnid cosmail a n-adchīusa, TBC-I¹ 2875. nech risnid [andsa], LU 4004. drem ren dothroide ar ndeabhaidh, IGT Decl. ex. 1167. is dona neithibh renab usa truailled do gabail cuigi, in baindi, Rosa Angl. 112.8 . dream ... réna deacair, TSh. 4665. ag an druing ... rénar milis, 1568 . 711 .

pl. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) frisndat : inna ferta sa ... cía beith nech risndat móra araide isat úathe dó ilib, Trip.² 3096.

(vi) lasa n- :

(a) lasin : intí lasin format, Ml. 129b3 . lasin n-accubur, 53c16 .

(b) lasnad, lenab : intí lasnád ecul `who fears,' PH 2411. lasnad ail, 1421 . cibé lénab mór a n-abraim, Keat. i 76.44 .

(vii) oca n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) ri ind lochta hicnad suithi a n-ord, RC xx 174 § 38 (ACC). co flaith Dúrlais, 'cán mór mé, Hy Fiach. 284.5 . sdéd gan dóigh urraim na n-eillteadh, IGT Decl. ex. 1177 = gán, 662 .

(viii) fa n- (O. Ir. imm) :

(a) No instance.

(b) fán, fána : a cCionn Coradh fan léir magh, ZCP viii 225 § 42. fáth fána doilghe ... an bás, TSh. 1132.

(ix) asa n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) asarb : briathra asarb iontuigthe ..., TSh. 5664.

(x) forsa n-, fora n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) forab : o sheircc in domain-sea forab airchindech diabul, PH 7118.

Cons. Pres.

s. 3

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) bid : bid coitchenn dliges cach ngrád ... i córus othrusa, Críth G. 50. bés bid cethrar nó chóicer bíte hi comarbus bóairech, 146 .

Conj.

(a) -bi, -pi : nipi cían a masse in choirp, Wb. 28c25 . 12c12 . air nibi eulach, Ml. 42c9 . 128d3 . níbí cian, 91d2 . combi remib rethith iarum, Wb. 13b13 . indhí lasmbi accobur, 30c23 . imbí hinun folud whether the substance is the same, Sg. 188a6 .

(b) -bi, -pi : nī bī clōen in t-ere, Corm. Y 447.16 . ni bi briugu nad bi cedach, Laws v 76.10 . i ngait nádbi aí `which is not his,' Críth G. 218. ben las(a)mbi cuma cip cia las fia, BCrólige § 44. is bec a ain iphthi compí sāitheach, ZCP vi 257.y . i tig as mbi eggna suillsi, BDD² 175. dīa mbī dīn Cūan Caill, Four Songs 20 § 4 . pl. 1 (a) ? isin chruth-sin bimmi nóib-ni 'it is thus that we become holy' Wb. 3 d 27 , ZCP xxxii 120 .

pl. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) bit : imscarad dotluigigter flaith fri aigillni na bit anfolaid in ceili gaibter ann `a separation which the chief requests from the tenant not on account of any disqualification of the tenant,' Laws ii 316.z .

Ipv.

s. 2

Abs.

(a) ba' : ba chuimnech dilguda duinni, Ml. 46b29 .

(b) ba, bat : ba faitech ar nā ba fīachach, Anecd. iii 13.10 = bat fattech, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 14 § 3.1 . bát umal ... bat cumnech, LU 3490 - 1 . bat cúimnech, PH 1208.

Conj.

(a) -ba', pa' : naba thoirsech, Wb. 29d19 . napa chondarcell, 31c22 .

(b) -ba, -bad, -b(a)dat, -rbat, -rab, -rsat : nā ba lonn frim, TBC-I¹ 1210. nad bad lond-so, TBC-LL¹ 1045. na badat, 1106 . nabdat dolam, SR 1253. narbat (marab, narab, v.ll.) timtheirc tais, KMMisc. 262 § 9. nárbhat dian, Acall. 587. nárbat bronach-su, FDG 397.

s. 3

Abs.

(a) bad', bed', pad' : bad chore dúib friu `have peace towards them,' Wb. 27d11 . bed chuimnech, 33d5 . pad glicc far n-intliucht, 5c21 .

(b) bad, ba : arān Mochue ... ba hé dobertar dúin, Mon. Tall. 128.25 . bad and sein not adnastar, Trip.² 2991. bat (bá, v.l.) tusu bas ara, 2580 . bad (bud, bidh, bu, v.ll.) sonairt ar n-airle, Fél. Prol. 261. bad uallach, ScM. § 4.11 . ba (bá, LU) maith blāth in claideb, TBC-I¹ 934. bá[d] sí riar Aengusa, Ériu xii 146.2 (Tochm. Ét.). nech atcobra bithbethaid ... bat umhal, ZCP vii 312 § 23. With inf. pron. s. 2 : badat cuman remember, Rawl. 72b39 .

Conj.

(a) -bad' : nábad chotarsne fri bar n-ícc a nno-gessid, Wb. 24b3 . nabad do réir far colno beithe, 6b4 .

(b) -bad, -bud, -pa : ná bad ead do-gneth, BDD² 411. nábad olc do menma, LU 3271. na pa machtad amh libsi, Mon. Tall. 157.20 . nā bud sgēlach, ZCP vii 311 § 9.

pl. 1

(a) ban', baán' : ban chossmaili friar tuissech, Wb. 33b20 . 29b17 . baán tairismich do irnigdi, 5d22 .

(b) No instance.

pl. 2

Abs.

(a) bad', bed' : bad chensi fri cách, Wb. 24b1 . bad treúin i n-iriss, 27a6 . bed adthramli .i. gaibid comarbus for n-athar, 9a14 .

(b) No instance.

Conj.

(a) -bad' : nabad anfoirbthi-si, Wb. 12d26 .

(b) ? nadib leisc, SR 7843. narbar dúrcridig, 4842 .

pl. 3

Abs.

(a) bat' : bat chosmuli frinni `let them be like unto us,' Wb. 17c5 .

(b) bat, bad : bat menci do dalai, Ériu viii 173.8 . bad sgrībt[h]a a sgēla, ZCP viii 110 § 10.

Conj.

(a) -bat : bad armatura dei bess lib nábat nacha arm aili, Wb. 22d14 .

(b) No instance.

Impf.

s. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) bíth : nicon ibdis bandai cormmai i tír Cualand, cia bith ara tecmainged dóib `whoever it used to be that they used to meet,' Mon. Tall. 129.19 (tr. Bergin, Ériu xii 209 , q.v.).

pl. 3 (see Bergin, Ériu xii 225 f. ).

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) batis : a trian rocharsa[t] Coin Culainn batís [d]aill ... batis clóin ... batis guit, RC viii 60.15 ( LL 117a7 - 10 ). ? batis gnatha ar buadhuiph band, Anecd. ii 70.8 .

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -btis : imrethitis a da thraigid ┐ a n-adbrond comtís luathidir ruathar funemda, Ériu iv 30.2 . comtis scítha, Snedg. u. Mac R § 27. dabertis T.D.D. lubi ... for aibnib ... comtís brecca ... na srotha díb, TBC-LL¹ 4213. comdis fliuch iad do deraib, TTebe 3711 . comtis, 2884 . nībtis omain neich `they used not to fear any man,' ZCP iii 38.25 (tr. Ériu xii 225 ).

Subj. Pres.

s. 1

(a) -ba : ciaba deróil la nech, Wb. 18a7 . 23b29 . niba dimicthe-se libsi `I should not be despised by you,' 21d3 . mainba aecne lib, 17c10 .

(b) -ba, -pa, ropom (ropa, v.l.), -rbom, -rbam, -rba, -bam ; with ma, madam : ni reg-sa assin chruachán-sa co mba marb, Trip.² 1294. nipá pene na régi, Mon. Tall. 131.17 . riasiu ba marb-sa, ZCP i 105.25 . acht ropom (ropa, LU) airdricsa, TBC-I¹ 571. im-caemros[s]a do gaethaib corbom gaeth fo-deisin, BDD² 167. díamsa saithech bíd when once I am satisfied, LU 8469 (FB). nírba cintach `may I not be guilty,' Ériu vi 116 § 3. dīa mba bēo-sa, KMMisc. 208.y . corbam cruithnecht it' it[h]lainn, Ériu iii 31 § 24. narbam crimnach, SR 3202. nīrbam utmall anbsaid, a meic mo Dé, ZCP vi 260 § 10. madham buidech-sae, CCath. 4210. madam beō-sa do-gēba luach a taisgedha ... minbam beō imorra ..., ML² 1495.

s. 2

(a) -ba' : armba cháinchomraccach-so, Wb. 30b23 . cia ba loingthech, 6c9 . ciafa firián, Ml. 36a32 . comba soilse-siu, Wb. 22c3 . Ml. 54b19 .

(b) bat, -ba, -pa, -bat, -pat, -rba(t), -rbot, -(b)sa(t) : with cía, cidat ; with ma, madat : ni ba dicheoil, SR 2197. nipa frithenech, LU 3495. ní pa, Ériu i 198 § 16a . nibát athboingid ar narbat aithrech, LU 3502. nibat comromach ar nábat miscnech, 3503 . nirbat díscir ... nibbát ecal ... nipát tairne ..., 3467 - 9 . ba hēmich corbad sercach, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 14 § 3.3 . bat umal corbot ūasal, ib. § 3.7 . nírba chreccach, Ériu i 200 § 22. nirba truag, SR 3295. doroimle corbat cétach, ..., LU 8796 (FB). atraí coropat mor, 3533 . céin bat béo, 3919 . nirbat ancretmech ... acht corbat cretmech, PH 6776. diamba breiteam arafeser ... `if thou be a judge, thou shouldst know,' BCrólige § 66. diambat rolabar, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 18 § 7.16 . ZCP vii 298.17 . diamsa coemainech, IT i 70.2 . diamsat fissid, iii 488.352 . BS 86.25 . nírsat bidbha oirechta, Acall. 597. 598 . toich duit cidat rī, toich duit cidat druī (to a child), PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 3 ( LL 147a ). cidat lond im gním garta, IT iii 508 § 1. madat fīrēn flaith `if you be a just prince,' KMMisc. 262 § 15. madhid trēn, ML² 1437.

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.

(i) Abs. The form ba appears to be used only as jussive subj. :

(a) ? bá tualang cách forcital alaili `let each be fit ...,' Wb. 6d13 ; ba samlid dúib `be ye thus,' 19d29 , but in both instances the editors would read bad for ba.

(b) do Chríst ba mór do gaire, Ériu i 200 § 22. ba i n-ómun ba i n-incridiu | gudem Críst let it be in fear ..., 195 § 10 (but ? cf. 1 fa).

Conj. (ii)

(a)bé (see Bergin, Ériu xii 208 ff .) : cia bé a mmēt adae `however great it may be,' Ml. 61b28 . cip hé ade asberam, 25d11 .

(b) cip hé gellus dít, Trip.² 1626. cibbe noda saraigfed, 789 . cipe a isle, ciape a huaisle, Laws v 386.15 . secht tellaige ... nad erenaiter cidbe indola, 206.2 . cidbe fine dib dibus, Cóic Con. H § 69. cebé baile no beth, LU 365. cipé tí, TBC-LL¹ 1768. cipia frisa ferthar tnú, Ériu v 211.69 . gidh bé haird iona dtuitfidh, TSh. 3985.

(iii) -bo occurs in the Glosses seeming sometimes to be the jussive subj. (neg.) and once after in whether , but these exx. may perhaps be pret. (but see (iv) below) :

(a) ní bo comitesti (rectius chomitesti, Ed.) dó `he should not be indulged,' Wb. 1c12 . nibo intain no mbeid ar súil tantum `it must not be when ye are before (His) eye,' 27c9 . rofitir side imbo ho chridiu fa nacc, 27c11 .

(b) No instance.

(iv)

-p, -b :

(a) níp tarisse lat `trust him not,' Wb. 30d24 . nip sain a n-asberat et immarádat, 28c1 . nip crú cruach, Thes. ii 250.11 (Stowe M.). arnáp hé som ..., Wb. 6c7 . ar nab laigiu, Sg. 179b1 . imb anacol dom fa nac, Wb. 23a6 . immaid (=imb m.) fa olcc, 8d26 . im fochróib bá chían, Sg. 151b2 . sechip hé ... `whosoever it be,' Wb. 3b15 . sechib grád i mbether and, 10a18 . cip cruth bíid páx libsi fri cách `howsoever it be,' 5d33 . cib cenél tra dia ro scribad ind epistil so, 3b20 . mainip in chrud-so, 10a5 . manip hinunn etargnae, Sg. 188a12 . Ml. 14d10 . cenib fír, 24d22 . cenip ho étrummugud inna n-olc, 59a23 . cinip hond sémigdetu, 59a23 .

(b) -p, -b, -pe, -be, later -ba, -bo ; with día, díam : acht nip inbleoguin, Laws ii 98.17 . bés níp aill do dáinib, Fél. Ep. 417. níp anchobrai, LU 9663. bes nipe nessu éc do suidiu oldás daitsiu, 9210 . mad ben urnadma na be cetmunnter, Laws ii 380.25 . ar n[a] himirbera neach na be hai, v 476.z . diam dlaí di chi[u]nn adairt, Críth G. 229. BCrólige § 38. diam chuibse cataid `to whom veneration is due,' Laws i 10.24 . mairg ... diam cara Colco, Anecd. i 7.11 . cach fuil druith dinnap inna ramot techtai torai, BCrólige § 64. cid nabsin (? = nab sí in) Fedelm-sa ... cichsed, LU 8296. nabbsin, 8318 . air nā ba (v.l. arnab) sothuissledhach, Corm. Y 434. arnapa dimicnithi, Trip.² 2048. sechib dán di[i]b, Críth G. 323. sicip hé dígbas ..., Trip.² 751. secip blas bá mellach, LU 1787. PH 1428. mad iar stair cip indus, Trip.² 33. BDD² 655. cip magen inda tecmai `in whatever place,' BCrólige § 40. cidh be manach doda-goad ┐ cib can a cinel whencesoever, Anecd. i 44.8 . cecip ní foillsighfithir daitt ` whatever ,' Aisl. Tond. 96.9 is fīach dia blīadnai dō īar sin d(h)inap (sic leg.) turbuith deithbire dothnairp dia nephthairiuc 'it becomes for him a debt [payable only] in a year’s time unless a legitimate excuse excuses him for his non-appearance' Bürgschaft 17 § 53 , Ériu xx 230 . dinnap ina ramot techtai torai 'unless it has accrued in a lawful way (?) ' Ériu xii 52 § 64 , xx 230 . manip do Chonchobor, ScM. § 3.16 . PH 2080. manib tualaing, Anecd. iii 23.12 . maniba t'ainmnet ..., Trip.² 859. manab ac oen flaith beit, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. munab neasa, 44.4 . DDána 76 § 24. munob cunntabartac[h], BCrólige § 14 n. 1 . munup, Laws iv 26.13 . menip, SR 3597. Cóic Con. RE § 23. minub, BCrólige § 23. FDG 389. minap, TBC-I¹ 795. PH 1542. minab, 6035 . munbo cairnech in craidhe, ZCP vi 268.12 . munba, ib. 11 . IGT Decl. ex. 352. cinip mór do bríg, Trip.² 1888. LU 1435 (MU).

The form arimp in the Glosses always has a final sense except the doubtful ex. in Ml. 130b8 (see below). The ex. from Críth Gabl. is also final, the others all express an indirect command or wish (cf. airndip, see (v) below) :

(a) arimp áigthidiu-de `that it may be the more dreaded,' Wb. 23d23 . 32a2 . 15c4 . arimp díthnad ... dúibsi foditiu fochide dúnni, 14b17 . arim tairismech, 25a9 . ised as maith la dia airimp (? leg. airndip) isin gess ... `this God would have ...,' Ml. 130b8 .

(b) arim túalang gabála[e] ríg, Críth G. 187. cach ōen comaldathar in cāin si ... arim sírsaegul ... ┐ arop airmitnech fēith, Cáin Ad. § 30. abbair fri Feradach, arim remḟissid arad sencharpait `er solle ein vorauswissender Lenker des alten Wagens sein,' ZCP xi 83 § 27. nach oirecht ... árim (corob, v.l.) cáin domnaig cétadéntar ann, Ériu ii 210 § 33. The usual way of expressing a wish or exhortation is rop (see section II below), but cf.: adair ... do Dia ┐ co mbá dó a aenur fhogna, PH 4724. searc Íosa ... go mba hé th'arm DDána 20 § 7. goma, 93 § 37 . in cū ruad ... coma taīseach cāemc[h]uaine, CCellaig 463 . With cen co : cen cop foccus a gcairdiss, Anecd. ii 62.2 . MacCongl. 39.27 . PH 3100. cin cob aire doronsat, 3237 .

(v)

(a) -dip, -dib : condip slán á anim, Wb. 9b9 . condib cumme, 24a22 . is tacair arndip samlid it is meet that it be thus, 22c11 . airndip maith a forcell `that the testimony may be good,' 25d21 . airndib ecmailt, Tur. 71 (airndip may have either final or consecutive sense, see note on arimp in (iv) above). duús indip fochunn ícce do, Wb. 26b27 . dús cia port indib maith, 24 .

(vi) With ma (má),

(a) mad : mad cumme imned á cheli et a imned fessin, Wb. 20c6 . 12a23 . 4a14 . mad cétnide a n-animm, Sg. 197a2 . 3b19 . mad du rúin `according to the mystic meaning,' Tur. 103.

(b) mad, mád : mad a dligiud ḟénechso (Corr., Ed.) is menbu, Críth G. 11. mad nóeb arid-léga, Fél. Ep. 178. Corm. Y 1233. mad na mna `if it belong to the woman,' Laws ii 402.1 . mádh táesca dhuit iná dham, Anecd. i 32 § 54. mád, LU 9216. madh peacthach é, TSh. 4315.

(vii)

With cía although, that ,

(a) cith, cid : deithbeir do ceith aneola, Wb. 33c16 . cith etarṡuidigthe, Sg. 68b4 . Mon. Tall. 159.2 . cid accobrach, Wb. 4c34 . cid doib doarrchet `though they were prophesied unto,' 5a16 (here the sense appears to be indic., see GOI § 793 ). cid comsuidigthe, Sg. 201a10 . Ml. 2d12 .

(b) cid, gid: cid ē marad tarm ēisi, Corm. Y 180. cid diabal fod foirge, Laws iv 18.19 . cid sain na conairi (pl. subject). Cóic Con. H. § 43. gid rogāeth nī rogand, TBC-I¹ 2596.

cid ed nevertheless: (b) cid ed nī rochotail, TBC-I¹ 2512. gidh eadh ní híad as andsa, KMMisc. 352 § 6.

cid ... cid, cid ... nó whether (it be) ... or ...:

(a) ma gorith locc cith ine chuis nú ine láim, Thes. ii 245.36 (Camb.). cid maid cid olcc la nech, Wb. 30d6 . cach réit cid precept cid labrad, 13a29 . Sg. 2a7 . Ml. 26a8 . cid ho deacht maicc nó ho deacht athar arafoima doinacht maicc aní arroet, 17c3 .

(b) cid cóem cid díchóem, Críth G. 225. Corm. Y 1167. SCC 679 .

cid cia whoever it be: am chind cid cia raib, KMMisc. 254 § 4.

cid though it be has also the sense even , in which sense its verbal content must early have been forgotten so that it may be folld. by plural noun or pronoun, and by a dependent vb. in indic. instead of subj.:

(a) cithisse `it is even he,' Wb. 22a7 (a prima manu). corrici cith besti béoa, Thes. i 4.31 . ceith cenmathá in tegdais n-ucut `even besides,' Wb. 33a4 . cid ind fochith follongam `even the suffering which we endure,' 14b15 . ceth Máolruoin, Mon. Tall. 135.24 . co seichetar cid a comroircniu, Sg. 1a2 .

(b) coire ... no suigfedh cid Erind, Corm. Y 323.8 . ní dénaiter cid clocha fotraicthi díb, Trip.² 873. ni cuma dono cid cach mis disuidiu, Laws iv 88.19 . ní thibrind i tindscra cid Meidbi insin, TBFr. 185. cid mecnu, LU 10560.

II Forms with ro-.

(i)

(a) rop, rob, ropo' (the form rob occurs only before b and m): rop corae doib fri dia `peace be with them ...,' Wb. 20d1 . rop scīath dún diar n-imdegail, Hy. i 20. rop fír, ib. 39 . nicon fil bas sciith lim act rop ar crist, Wb. 18a2 . acht robronach (=rob bronach, Ed.), Ml. 86d12 . act ropo cho n-etarceirt, Wb. 13a26 . act ropo cho torbu, 27 .

(b) rop, rob, ropo': rop múr ar cech merblén' Babill, Fél. Jan. 24. rob hí ascaid connaga, Ériu iv 106 § 59. rob dimbríogh gach tonn dá ttuil | gach imshníomh sonn rob soruidh, Studies 1921, 76 § 25 . DDána 122 § 21. acht rop la forcomet, Mon. Tall. 161.27 . Trip.² 2941. acht rob tol dait-so, ZCP viii 312.8 . riasíu ropo chúairddulchach, Críth G. 68.

The form robo, robu and with inf. pron. rodbo, rodbu occurs in the sense either, or (cf. Fr. soit ... soit). The editors of Thes. Pal. (i 433 n. ) say it `seems to be regular in the first of two or more alternatives.' It is so used in the great majority of cases but in Wb. 14c24 and Ml. 58b11 (see below) it precedes the second alternative. Pedersen ( KZ xxxv 404 f . q.v.) suggests an original meaning `was es sei' and the loss of the demonstrative pronoun a n- or aní before robo. Thurneysen ( GOI § 886 ) believes it to have been a potential ro- subj. It is found somet. where in the Lat. uel .. uel .., or Lat. aut .. aut ... occur:

(a) rodbo dia adroni ... ł. is hé-som adroni ... either God has committed ..., Wb. 29d29 . 16d7 . fo chenéle lugi [i]ssiu rodbo chosmi[liu]s `as a kind of oath ... or a similitude,' 14c24 . robo intí forchain gl. siue qui docet, 5d10 . robo folad diles ł. doacaldmach, Sg. 197a1 . 200b6 . robu óenlitrib gl. uel singulis literis, 28a12 . robu cho adersetar gl. uel emendentur ... (uel ...), Ml. 30d11 . robu a caratrad gl. (uel necessitudo) uel (familiaritas), 58b11 (but Eds. suggest on p. 721b : `as robu regularly refers to the former of two alternatives, gloss 11 may gl. uel necessitudo'). robu a nnu mothaigtis gl. aut stupentes, 44c6 . 109c3 . 121b6 .

(b) rodbu forcetail ł. scribend ł. uaimm n-etaig, LB 11b13 . innahí rohaisneid dó N. .. rodbo o littrib no a himaccalmaibh, ZCP ii 321.y .

(ii) -rop, -rup, -rub:

(a) corrup mithich gabáil ferainn do, Wb. 19d3 . corrop hed mo indeb Crist, 24a6 . corop he to menmme, Thes. ii 255.14 (Stowe M.). Wb. 7d10 . Sg. 40b7 . corub mebuil leu, Ml. 138c8 . See also Subst. Vb. l. 1389 ff.

(b) -rup, -rub, -rob, -rop, -rab, -rap, -rip, -rp: corup messu de dún, Trip.² 2592. TBC-I¹ 1577. PH 5319. corob gel in mag, Trip.² 555. TBC-I¹ 2455. corrom mé (=corrob mé) nosn-orr, BDD² 721. corab meisi, Trip.² 1360. Laws iv 62.18 Comm. Anecd. i 17.17 . curub cutruma cuit cach fir dib, Cóic Con. H § 102. co rāssa in cū hīsin ┐ corip ingnīma, TBC-I¹ 539 = corop, LU 5028. acht corp dall, SR 2900. āgusta dō gurab trū, Corm. Y 1238. ní rop áilsed `let there not be neglect,' Fél. Ep. 522. nī rob do soinmige ┐ nī rob do fechtnaidi dō, TBC-I¹ 640 = nipo ... ┐ nirop, LU 5125. arnarap galar doib, Mon. Tall. 147.23 . arnā rob olc, Corm. Y 425. fégad cech aen uaib ... ná rob dáll ... hé, PH 4666. Sometimes the final b or p dropped out, at first before initial b or f: arnara fochand báis dóib, Mon. Tall. 146.29 . 152.11 . curu bēl ainmnech urnaigthech, ACL iii 234 § 9. luiget ... co ro bréc, PH 2685. co ro huain doib, 4997 .

rel.

(a) bes`, bas`: níi bes chotarsne diar n-ícc, Wb. 11a24 . bes chossecarthae, Ml. 63a6 . bes miniu, Thes. ii 254.14 (Stowe M.). céin bas mbéo, Wb. 10b23 . a mbas cete, Thes. ii 17.34 (Bcr.).

(b) bes`, bas`, bus`: nech bes ardu, Críth G. 115. lin bes coir, BCrólige § 48. ni bes epiltiu, Mon. Tall. 152. 31 . dírimm bas choímiu ná bess áiniu, TBFr. 47. ontí bass formbthi, Mon. Tall. 141.19 . dís bas ḟerr, BDD² 1222. ríasiu bus lá, MU² 322. neich bus chomgrād dó, Ériu i 219 § 7. i llaim neich bessa set `of the person whose property it is,' Laws v 376.4 . do cach besa ai whose it is, ii 398.z . iv 28.5 . i 264.18 . A pron. may be infixed between rel., and its pred.: doeim dano in clī innī besidn-īsle, doemar som ōnnī besadn-ūaisliu, Corm. Y 275. set inna muin cachae besid fiu, Laws v 384.z . 382.8 . ech beissid fiu, 406.9 . cenn caich ... i fine besid sruithe, besid n-uaisliu, ZCP xiv 369 § 31. ailid .iii. seotu bes da fiu, Laws v 408.7 .

pl. 1

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) ropond: ropond bēo for deis mic Dē may we be alive, ZCP viii 106 § 9 (ropo-nd = 3 s.+inf. pron. pl. 1).

Conj.

(a) -ban`: co comalnammar a pridchimme et comman (=co m-ban) dessimrecht do chach, Wb. 31c11 . a numman aircheltai, Ml. 27b10 .

(b) -ban, -rdar, -(r)bar; with cía, gidar: is am comman tairisiu `'tis time that we should be ...,' Fianaig. 26.14 . an biucán gurdar síthaig, Hib. Min. 82.23 . gidar comaltai, TBC-LL¹ 3680. co mbar commaithe, 35 . tiagam ass con (f)acamar na milchonu ...┐ corbar (go mbat, v.l.) scithu oco, TBFr. App. § 16.

pl. 2

Abs.

(a) bede: conicfid-si bede preceptori uili `ye will all be able to be teachers,' Wb. 13a10 .

Conj.

(a) -bad: combad accomalti-si limsa, 23a26 . arnábad toirsig dim chuimriug-sa, 27c34 . arna bad huilcc, 5d38 . dia mbad mathi, 16a13 . ma[nba]d irlaithi, 27c11 . ? To this: annambaid (anambaid, MS.) buidig `when ye are not content,' Ml. 115b10 .

(b) nibur n-ecnaigid, SR 4871. nibfor cétludaig, 4872 .

pl. 3

I Forms without ro-.

No absolute forms occur without ro-.

Conj.

(i)

(a) -bet`, -pat`, -bat`: mainbet mathi, Wb. 11c5 . nó innabet o nach ainmm-diu etir `or whether they are not from any nominal form at all,' Sg. 56b1 . arnapat toirsich, Wb. 26d21 . combat irlamu-de ind ancreitmich do chretim, 12d29 . armbat eolig, 31d15 . armbat chosmaili, Ml. 130a12 . a mbat n-erchoissi, 73c9 . cinbat huili, Wb. 4d6 .

(b) -bet, -bat: im damu nad be tairchesa (leg. bet airchesa), Laws i 184.14 . iv 54.10 . mat cuibdi ... manbet cuibdi, i 244.3 . adubairt ... conod brathair iat cen go bed, Celt. Rev. x 36.18 . acht conbat beoda, TBC-LL¹ 39. combat sithamla, PH 4015. 6746 . manibat óga a frithḟolaid, Ériu i 219 § 9. menbat allmaraig, MU² 517. diamat glain, SR 1461. cenibat fiu, Laws ii 316.20 .

(ii) With ma,

(a) mat: mat hé na briathra-sa forcane, Wb. 28c21 . mat anmann adiechta emnatar and, Sg. 189b4 .

(b) mat, madat, mádit: mat comaithi a folaid, no mat comolca, Laws ii 362.25 - 6 . mat e ... anfolaid in cele falla frithgnama, ZCP xiv 387 § 53. madat comlūatha, ZCP viii 217 § 2. mádit (sic leg.) creidmech, KMMisc. 146.4 .

(iii) With ce, cía although ,

(a) cit: cit imdi far forcitlidi, Wb. 9a12 . 4d4 . 12a13 . cit comsuidigthi, Sg. 207b11 . 190b1 . et muscreitfet cit hésidi `even they,' Wb. 5c2 .

(b) cit, cidat, ciambat: cit lir, Mon. Tall. 156.26 . Fél. Prol. 245. cith (leg. cit) lir cétuib, ZCP viii 195 § 7. cidat (cid, v.l.) créchtnaig, BDD² 1347. KMMisc. 268 § 41. ciambat ilardai, SR 4833.

(iv) With cía, ce who, what ,

(a) No instance.

(b) cit: indid damsa cit n-armand | hi fil chend erred Ul[ad] tell me what are the places ..., LU 11056.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) ropat`: ropat choin altai ... adcear, Thes. ii 293.7 ( SP i ). acht ropat ṡaini tertpersin, Sg. 199a1 .

(b) ropat`, robat`, robet, ropsat: ropat lir a tellaig, Trip.² 2571. ropat óin dom ṡnádud `may they be one,' Fél. Jan. 21. robat mo cuirn coidin midc, Otia i 126 § 24. robet ar seilb an ōenfir, BColm. 54.10 . ropsat idain dīan-báis ám, KMMisc. 210.3 .

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -rbat, ? -rsat: ciarbat mara a treba, Hy. ii 60 Comm. curbat úagṡlá[i]n, BColm. 54.11 . nirbat ile a liberna, LU 1035. girbat linmara, TBC-LL¹ 4196. garbat discailtig, 544 . apair ó brethir namá corbat bairgin na clochasa, PH 4918. ciarbot maithi, KMMisc. 266 § 32. ? gorsat lir a mmairb andas a mbí, TBC-LL¹ 6015.

rel.

(a) beta`, bete`, bata`: beta téit `when they are wanton,' Wb. 29a1 . beda fiscina baptizerium, Thes. ii 226.29 (Pcr.). donaib hí beta cheti, Ml. 126c4 . ni cumcat bete gentilia, Sg. 33a16 . a mbata n-aersigthi, Ml. 127a4 .

(b) beta, bete, bida: mad aile da lina beta olca [a] folaid, Laws ii 366.11 . itir na ceithre comaichaib beda neasa do, iv 116.2 . tech sruithi bet (leg. betc) fuirbthium, Mon. Tall. 136.23 . tri haidche bede cora, Laws v 438.24 . cusna belltenaib bida nesom, ii 390.20 . trian de don ḟir bed a (leg. beda a) beich `whose bees they are,' iv 116.1 Comm. Cf. do fir bede heich, 106.1 Comm.

Subj. Past

s. 1

(a) -bin, -benn: commin inricc dó `so that I may be worthy thereunto,' Wb. 24a11 . combin cosmail, Ml. 91b7 . arnamtomnad námmin duine, Wb. 17d23 . nombin dermatach, Ml. 20a4 . toimtin armbenn duine, 130d4 .

(b) -badim, -badam: abraind nā badim (? sic leg.) slānsa ... ropad rēill mo tholcsa and, TBC-I¹ 3532. bad cháined dom ḟir co mbadim ferr-sa, TBC-LL¹ 34. damadam (sic leg.) rig (dia mbam airdrí, v.l.) for Erinn if I were , FDG 519.

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) -badat: da mbad in lāsin, nī epertha co mbadad (leg. mbadat) ferr do lōech annā Cū., TBC-I¹ 2503. is é in claideb dobéraind ... menbadat (sic leg.) aide, RC xiv 426.25 ( LL 111b4 ).

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.

(i) Abs.

(a) bed`, bad`: arna tomnathar bed foammamichthe deacht don dóinacht `that (the) Godhead is subject,' Wb. 13c2 . dommuinfide bed n-ísel intí dia, Ml. 40c17 (in these two exx. we have the type of sentence in which bid occurs in Wb. 25c12 , see (iii) below). din dínit bed ṡástai, Sg. 39b11 . ni arindí bed leth ngotho nobed indib, 5a4 . dóig linn bed n-acuit, 30a8 . bed chuintechti, Ml. 92a17 . ni robe nech bad huaisliu, Wb. 33d10 . aimser ba (leg. bad, Edd.) chomadas dó, 21a1 . cia bed a mmēt inna fochaide `whatever the greatness of the tribulations might be,' Ml. 39a13 (see Bergin, Ériu xii 208 ff .).

(b) bed`, bad`, pad, bud: ba dóig leó bed a sídaib dí, BDD² 42. nech bed chomalaind dó, LU 1667 (ICM). nad baí baili bád cuidbiu dó, Trip.² 429. lāech bad chāime, TBC-I¹ 3242. BDD² 79. mad mē bad chend ..., Ériu iii 140.183 . cīa ragas ...? Cīa pad cīa ... acht Condere `who should it be cut C.', i 114 § 3 . muc bud grátu, Corm. Y 118. ní bud ṡíre, BDD² 138. ciped mac díb no gabad gasced, TBC-LL¹ 1089. With inf. pron. s. 3: tegdais adchondarc indiu | ni fa[il] ba-da-crichidiu (? leg. bad-da-), Thes. ii 292 § 1 (Ml. Poems). marbān badid n-ingnathar, Bruchst. 45 § 102. coich bia beo badid [n-]amradair, RC xx 260 § 65 = badib amradair, LU 873. badid-rédithir ... badid-némithir, RC xxiv 56 § 17. s. 1: nī faigebasu curaid ... bádam fiusa, LU 3913.

(ii) Conj.

(a) -bed`, -bad` (mainbed (minbad, manibad) is regularly folld. by acc.): mainbed maith latsu, Wb. 32a11 . combed chiall ainsedo ildai and, Ml. 67d24 . ni bed uilliu, 54b30 . is cumme nibad móidem `it is the same as though it were not boasting,' Wb. 2b14 . amal nibad fiu, Ml. 63d2 . mainbad éicin, Wb. 4a20 . Hy. v 32. manibbad hinunn, Sg. 17b8 . manibad trocairi ndáe, Ml. 111b28 . manipad taschidetaid, 136c2 . arnábad rómár, Wb. 11c7 . conapad firdía mac, Ml. 21c12 . diambad mathi, Wb. 16a13 . combad choitchen, Sg. 72a1 . Ml. 21d1 . combath chomlan rith lunae , Thes. ii 33.27 (Bv.). na epred a menme armbad ferr són, Wb. 10a16 . arimbad and furruimtis a praintech, Thes. ii 242.4 (Ardm.).

(b) -bed`, -bad`, -pad, -bud, -bod: ised bud cóir laisim combed de laim anmcharat ..., Mon. Tall. 146.25 . Trip.² 2246. ní ... tresambed elned do, Mon. Tall. 164.7 . manipad lor, 128.15 . manipad do chrúass, Trip.² 1370. minbad in mbáin mbic, MacCongl. 107.7 . cid daitsiu nábad lat in curathmír, LU 8112. diambad Chú, 3752 . dámadh linn, TSh. 5962. combad chennach, LU 4296. bá cubaid cíapad tussu bad dall, Trip.² 1516. dūs imbad lór, Mon. Tall. 133.8 . mun budh le druimm cáein Cesrach, Anecd. i 32 § 60. minbud thu, ii 4.11 . ar na bud ed, PH 3074. ? go nach budh rí ar Israel tú `ne sis rex,' TSh. 8330. cid daitsiu ... nád bod latt curadmir Emna, LU 8140. cía lasmboth scīth ┐ lasmboth laind techt int slōgaid, TBC-I¹ 154.

(iii)

(a) bid (this form, which Thurn. ( GOI § 806 ) suggests may be an unstressed form of vn. buith, occurs regularly after amal, oldaas, is cumme, in doich, in comparative and equative clauses and in a few other instances. This would suit an ex. like Thes. ii 294 § 3 below but does not explain phrases where bid follow amal, is cumme, etc. It survives into Mid. Ir. but is somet. replaced by bed or bad, and in a few cases spreads to other types of sentence (amal bid is regularly folld. by acc. cf. mainbad, above): amal bid dia as though he were God, Wb. 26a7 . amal bid claind noclantis, Ml. 63b9 . amail bith ball di crist, Thes. ii 255.14 (Stowe M.). amal fid na derscaigthiu, Ml. 37b22 . amal bid inn accaldim deithidnig (leg. nd.), 35c27 . is cumme doib bid idalte domeltis, Wb. 10c3 . in doich bid saindóire dúnni, 10d1 . is nessa do inni lemm oldaas bid ar n-áinsem, 4b17 . ní lugu ... indáas bid praeceptóir asidindissed, Ml. 42b18 . arna tomnitisom bid do irgairiu cotulta, Wb. 25c12 (see above under (i) where this type of sentence occurs with bed in Wb. 13c2 and Ml. 40c17 ). ni meite bid machdad forgare forru, Sg. 161b12 . ba coru tra bid adnuntiabit nobeth híc , Ml. 45b14 . soilsidir bid hi lugburt, Thes. ii 294 § 3 ( SP iii ).

(b) amal bid oc caíned ... [no beth], Trip.² 87. amal bid do thecht secha, IT i 72.14 . amail bid a haongiun, Corm. Y 1059.37 . amal bid fótrond ..., LU 9099 (FB). ba doich lind bid din lucht forācaibset som, ZCP viii 313.25 . ba hé mo líthsa bid é do-chorad and, BDD² 494. asberat alaili bid di lucht na luinge ..., ZCP viii 313.23 . In a type of sentence where it did not occur in O. Ir.: flaith athuigh na bid flaith a athair whose father was not a chief, Laws ii 200.21 . nā tānic rīam nā īarum bīd (leg. bid) errdarcu, MacCongl. 45.28 . ar cend neich bid (budh, v.l.) éolchu ┐ bid síne andás, Ériu iv 126.15 . ingen bid chaime tochim, RC xxiv 198.24 . In the follg. exx. O. Ir. would show bid: amal bud he Crist, PH 129. mar bud, 4098 . amal bad a domun aile thíssad, TBFr. 278. is cumme lem bed (bid, v.l. App.) i taulchubu fhína no beth mo chend, TBFr. 47. in dōig bad ē Conchobur, TBC-I¹ 2758. (cf. also: ba doig bed n-ingcert, Ml. 61b15 ). dōig leam bad i ndiamraib ... nobeith, TBC-I¹ 884.

(iv) With ma (má),

(a) mad: mad mo ríar-sa dognethe and, Wb. 9d25 . mad forcenn libuir, Ml. 2d1 .

(b) mad, mád: mad meise con-ísed mo chomairle, BDD² 708. mád ina ṡláinti ind fir fil sund robad chomairche ar Ultaib ulib, LU 3303.

(v) With cía, ce although ,

(a) cid: ni pu imdu do in mann cid trén oc tecmallad `though he were,' Wb. 16c25 .

(b) cid: cid fín bárc do-téised treut, BDD² 740.

II Forms with ro-. ro- is rare with past subj. The instances are:

(a) act robad tairismech linni, Wb. 18d11 . ní ar maith friu ... act is corpad mithig lessom inducbál dia nóibaib, 4c37 .

(b) ? ingé (read perhaps itge, Ed.) ropad limsa ol sésim adpand do seinm tr. `I would crave a boon, said he, to play a tune,' Mon. Tall. 131.28 . acht corbad maithi a gnima, Ériu v 124.76 . amal ro bad pheccad leo as though they considered it a sin, PH 3232.

pl. 1

Abs.

(a) bimmis, bemmis : amal bimmis octarche `as if we were dregs,' Wb. 9a7 . amal bemmis bibdaid, Ml. 114d4 .

(b) amal bemís marb, PH 2967.

Conj.

(a) -bimmis : amal ni bimmis cutrummi frib, Wb. 17b16 . Ml. 63b1 . commimmis ecil hi fochidib, Wb. 29b16 . commimis less huili, 6b21 .

(b) -badar : acht co mbadar maithe díblínaib, TBC-LL¹ 35.

pl. 2 No instance.

pl. 3

Abs.

(a) bitis, betis: nírbu mou leu bríg a tobai indate bitis cranna doiscairi dufubaitis `than though they had been cutting down common trees,' Ml. 92d6 . donaib déedib betis chloithib, 131d11 . amal betis degmaini, 90a14 .

(b) bitis, betis, batis : amal bitis chóic ṡutralla, Trip.² 1448. ba bindithir ... ┐ betis téta mennchrot, BDD² 189. TBFr. 27. amal betís margretai, PH 2445. dicunt betis secht maic, ZCP viii 314.34 (Laud Gen.). asberat araile batis trī brāthir, ib. 331.14 (ib.). doruimenatar bádis fir ṡīthe, Trip.² 1112.

Conj.

(a) -btis, -ptis : comtis indbaid i n-iris, Wb. 10d33 . conabdis apstil, 5b15 . comtis ainmmnidi, Sg. 7b2 . coniptis erlama, Ml. 100c24 . maniptis mu charait, Ml. 73d1 . Sg. 120a1 . ni aisndet duaid airmdis hé iusti indí ..., Ml. 54a12 . airmtis ní etir, 79b11 . amtis forbristi ind ríg, 85d9 .

(b) -btis, -ptis : comtis secht maic, Trip.² 901. PH 7013. comdis sidhaighthi, ZCP xiii 254.12 . comtís comarda síat, TBC-LL¹ 5015. ba cóir ceniptis árdda do chongbala-su, Trip.² 1564. naptis messaiti, Ériu iv 24 § 10. diambtís rátha iat, MU² 376. diambtís craind, 434 . ciabtis cosmaile, SR 2892. ciapdis ganna, Anecd. ii 69.8 . ciamdis dimolta, i 21.5 . With amal betis under (a) above, cf. marbtís máirb as though they were dead, LU 9761. immarbdais meic do, 4097 .

With ma

(a) matis : matis huili conabdis apstil tantum `if it were all (the Jews) and not the apostles only,' Wb. 5b15 . matis mu namait, Ml. 73b1 .

(b) matis is replaced in Mid. Ir. by diambtís q.v., supra.

Fut.

s. 1

Abs.

(a) be : be sóir mo brethre `I shall be free as regards my word,' Wb. 4c18 . bé (biam, bum, v.ll.) sóir cech inbaid, Hy. iv 8.

(b) bea, bem, bam, bíam, bidam : bem (bea, v.l.) torbach[u]-sa duit-si oldās ..., Corm. Y 1059.30 = bam tarbach sa deit, Anecd. iv p. xiv.y . in hed bam beo, SR 3187. Ériu iv 142.z . bam tarb tnúith isna tressaib, IT iii 510 § 4. Anecd. i 12.7 . bam anoraigti-sea oc Dia, PH 2428. biam tigerna os cech drung, SR 855. bíam cúsa ... dot imdegail, LU 5027. bidam chusa, TBC-LL¹ 1049 (v.l., Eg.). bidam bithchuimnech, RC xvi 46 ( Dinds. 95 ). CCath. 3348. bídham tigerna fer an domain, 4046 .

Conj. (a) No instance.

(b) -pam : ni pam slán-sa ... conid n-accur, IT i 72.1 . nípam comchirtisea do neoch, LU 4248.

s. 2

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) ba, basa, bat, biat, bidat : ba baeth, SR 5955. ba bruiden ban ndérach, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.19 . bása bec bíaid úair | basa már iar tain, LU 9854. bat neirt ar do lochnamtib, LU 10423. bat (ba, v.l.) fornocht, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.4 . bat (ba, bad, v.ll.) dín ar gád, ib. 9 . bát nimidech, LU 9633. biat rīsiu co derb, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 8 . § 15 . biat forscailtech, ib. § 17 ( LL 147a ). bidat úallach, ZCP vii 298.17 . LB 151a48 . bidhit neimedach, BNnÉ 93 § 204. toīsechu bia marb oldās bia meirb, PRIA iii 546 § 8 ( LL 147a9 ) (this is really the form of the subst. vb. but seems to be intended as copula, cf. biat, above).

Conj.

(a) Strachan ( Subst. Vb. l. 1316 ) gives : co mba soilse-siu, Wb. 22c3 (gl. inluminabit tibi Christus) but translates `so that thou mayest be,' Thes. i p. 639 which is probably correct.

(b) -ba, -bat : adbert fria drai ... ni bam rai (? leg. niba-m-drai) badechtsa mene dingba ..., BB 407a1 . da lecea tú Ísu ass, ni bat cara do Cessair, PH 2815.

s. 3

Abs.

(a) bid, bith : bid héet lib-si geinti do bith in hiris, Wb. 5a13 . bid cumma et riam, 18a13 . bith sechmadachte, Sg. 147b3 . bith flaithem intí Solam for saint, Ml. 90a9 .

(b) bid, bith, beith, bed, bud : bid nath n-airec fordarc, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 16.6 . bidsom fria toil `it (heaven) will be at their pleasure,' Mon. Tall. 141.17 . bid misi, Trip.² 1963. Laws i 6.z . bid calma, TBC-I¹ 2469. bid hē lā a phennati, MacCongl. 29.6 . PH 4032. ata lasna tuati beith lór dóib do ascnam nime acht doratat ní dona hanmchairtib, Mon. Tall. 141.15 . rochrúfemne ... ind pennit bes chóir fortsu. Bed cet ol D., 130.23 . With inf. pron. s. 2 : bidat eigen dola, Aisl. Tond. 101.x . ammarach bud maith do threóir, Anecd. i 39 § 114. ib. 17.18 . RC xxiv 194.7 . budh hē bērus an bāiri, ZCP xiii 17.27 . budh iomdha ann fós arracht ag eagcaoine, TSh. 4068.

Conj.

(a) -pa, -ba : nípa cosmuil frisin titacht tóisig, Wb. 25d13 . níba cuit adíll, 14a8 . níbbá i n-anus regaid int diruidigud, Sg. 36b1 . in corp i mba flaith in coimdiu, Wb. 9d3 . With inf. pron. s. 3 : nípa-dn-aidrech, 5c9 .

(b) -ba, -pa, -bo, -po, -bu, -pu, -b, -bad, -bud : níba ed bias de, Trip.² 453. BDD² 58. niba fír, ScM. § 11.2 . nipa mor do brig lais, Mon. Tall. 142.4 . admat na ba tíamdae, Fél. Prol. 294. nīpa mise, TBC-I¹ 2141. níbá fír sin, LU 8199. ár | día[m]bá lán Mag F., 3368 . With inf. pron. s. 2 : níbat écen nach n-aill, MU² 1037 (LU). ? nib amles, LU 3325 (tr. `it will be no harm,' SCC 117 ). toingimsa ... corob misi cētfer roficfa (b inserted later, Ed.), TBC-I¹ 2243. mani thuaslaicea isind chaisc nipo assa doib iarum, Mon. Tall. 132.17 . nipo fócrach, Ériu vii 219 § 2. nībo dirsan dait, TBC-I¹ 1048. nipu sén maith itir ... ni fu líth don fleid, FDG 121. nī bu inmuin, Bruchst. 60 § 134. níbu shirsan, TBFr. 370 (= nipi siursan, App. § 26 ). nī bad (ba, v.l.) fāilid, Bruchst. 40 § 95. bat righ uili iat gin co budh comṡaeglach, Anecd. ii 1.15 .

rel.

(a) bes`, bas` : in hed bes chobuir dó, Wb. 20c10 . bes lintae, Ml. 44d7 . hore bas fír quod dicam, Wb. 17d20 .

(b) bas`, bus` : Marcán ... bas dech do Uíb Garrchon, Trip.² 2191. félire bas (bus, v.l.) certu, Fél. Ep. 148. ro-fessar ... bas n-olc, LU 7566 (BDD). ni-sn-idnus sund nī bus siriu, TBC-I¹ 3104. inní bus comairle [lat-sa is sí bas chomairle] linne, Anecd. i 41.3 - 4 . cīan bus chumain, ZCP viii 119 § 4. an feadh bhus cumhain leó iad, TSh. 1256.

pl. 1

(a) bimmi ?, bemmi, bammi : isin chruth-sin bimmi nóib-ni, Wb. 3d27 (but see ZCP xxxii 120-21 ). 12c9 . bemmi caelestis, 13d15 . isamlid bami coeheredes , 4a17 .

(b) batin: batin aithrig is tír thall `we shall rue it,' Ériu i 68 § 3 (this is from a poem, occurring in H 3. 18 and LL, which Meyer ascribes to 9th cent. Perhaps one should take it as : ba don-aithrig it will be a matter of regret to us, but cf. atin budig de we are content, Anecd. i 5.18 = YBL 129b23 ).

pl. 2 ? folaich in mac, bar bibdaith bāis ind dia fessara Mac Con, ZCP viii 311.5 , CMMucr. 69 .

pl. 3

Abs.

(a) bit : bit hé na precepta cétni no pridchob doib, Wb. 17b20 . bit comṡuidichthi, Sg. 4b1 . bit comlin fri fér, Ml. 90b8 .

(b) bit, be(i)t, bat, biat, bidat : bit coirmmgnáithi do chomarpai, Trip.² 1565. bit fūaitne fīanna lib Luigne, Corm. Y 1018.46 . bit lia mairb ... andate a mbí, LU 7187 (BDD). bit lir bomand ega ... for lethchind, 7233 (ib.). beit fir móra ar macáin bic | ...bid daim ríata laíg ar mbó, LU 9587 - 9 . bed glana chenai, Mon. Tall. 130.1 . bet imnaraig, Anecd. ii 55.4 . bat mairb fir, IT iii 470.105 . bat lana, TBC-LL¹ 1055. ? in dóig bát dom éligudsa ón ? that they will be a cause of accusation to me (?), LU 3277 (obscure, perhaps bat is s. 2). biat mathi do chland, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 9 ( LL 147a10 ). bidat gai géra, ib. 550 § 31. bidat marthanaig, LU 1998. bidat mo na huilc innas ..., CCath. 988.

Conj.

(a) -pat, -bat, -bet : nipat ferr, Wb. 12d28 . nibat litre, Sg. 6b23 . níbat briathra, Ml. 68c10 . a mbat n-airbirthi buith, 94d1 . anambet ecailsi, 15d7 .

(b) -pat, -bat, -pdat, -bad : nipat ili anmand eissi, Trip.² 934. ní bat buana, TBC-LL¹ 1692. nipdat duthaine, SR 8355. airm inbat budig do bēoil, MacCongl. 77.4 . im bad tíre ┐ feranna, Anecd. i 42.1 . ní bad sgíotha dot sgéulaibh | na Burcaigh, Studies 1919, 439 § 10 .

rel.

(a) beta` : beta hícthi, Wb. 3d29 . beta messi, Ml. 70a9 .

Sec. Fut.

s. 1

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) badam : cid andib badam slansa mad ail duitsiu, Ériu xii 166.13 (Tochm. Ét.).

Conj. -badam : [ba] meti nibadam beo d' ingnais rig M. `I were not likely to live,' Ériu x 190.16 ( LL 276a41 ).

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) ropadat, badat : díambad curadmir do chosnam i nEmain duit, ropadatren (for ropadat trén, Edd.) for ōcaib Emna, LU 6720. ar badat slanchommairgi-siu bar Ultaib, TBC-LL¹ 1165.

s. 3

I Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) ropad`, robad` ; ar ropad maith limsa labrad ilbelre dúibsi, Wb. 12c29 . Sg. 90b2 . robad bethu dom dían chomalninn, Wb. 3c28 . roppad diil tanaisi, Sg. 111b2 . dorairngred dano rombad oirdnide a chland, Wb. 2c12 .

(b) robad`, ropad`, rubad`; robud` : robad chongbail ... dó, Trip.² 1731. robad chomairche ar Ultaib ulib, LU 3303. asbert fria rubad torrach húad, 10601 . robud sía, ACL iii 304.16 . ropad chora, PH 2593. robad was later replaced by dobad : dobadh cōir, Feis Tighe Chonáin 130. dobudh aisg ar m'fhine tar m'ēisi sin, ML² 1413. dobudh mór an éagcóir, TSh. 4845. 2718 , which in turn gave way to the modal pret.

Conj. No conjunct ro- forms occur.

II Forms without ro-.

Abs. These are rare in the Glosses and do not occur in independent sentences, but become more usual later.

(a) bed` : conidfessed cia bed flaith inna diad, Ml. 89b7 . bed messe gl. ratum fore, 105b14 .

(b) bed`, bad`, bud` (bud seems not always to have been folld. by lenition, see ex. below from TSh.) : asbert fri Cassan bed n-ann a eiseirgi, Trip.² 828. ní bad toisigiu dún something that would be ..., Trip.² 117. Corm. Y 473. cia bad chōir do thabairt, TBC-I¹ 2203. BDD² 126. cia de bud ferr la hUltu ..., TBC-I¹ 692. ní bud fiú sain, Anecd. i 28 § 28. budh urlamh, Studies 1921, 75 § 15 . an bél dúnta as eadh budh ḟearr, IGT Decl. ex. 1285. budh dual, TSh. 1584. In independent sentences, where O. Ir. would show robad : bád maith limsa, LU 3354. faicthear 'n-a dhorus a dheilbh | 's badh solus aitreabh Ifeirn Hell would be radiant, DDána 60 § 37.

Conj.

(a) The forms without ro- supply the conjunct of both bed and robad. -bad`, -pad` : na bad eola inar cintaib, Wb. 33b21 . asbertis cipad a déne ind hesséirgi, 25b27 . níbad ṡamlaid, Sg. 4b4 .

(b) -bad`, -bud` (in the latest exx. there seems not to have been lenition) : imrāidset ... nīpad andsu, TBC-I¹ 1330. ni bad chained, TBC-LL¹ 34. na bud chalmu, 2063 . adubart-sa ... comadh fearr, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1132. ní bud liacha, BDD² 493. fá bud chasmail, PH 7544. nī bud cobair, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919, 93 § 36 . do bhríogh gomadh cosmhail, TSh. 4766.

pl. 1 and 2 No instances.

pl. 3

I Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robtis, roptis : epert ... robtis maithi for mbésa-si, Wb. 16b19 . roptis imdai piana donaib anmanaib, Ml. 15c8 .

(b) robtis, roptis : roptis fola ocus cro | mo der do marb Imblecho, AU i 138.15 . asbert roptis gallraig, Trip.² 2786. roptis ferra, Anecd. ii 53.14 . robtis (roptís, LU) do renga, TBC-I¹ 1182.

Conj. No instance.

II Forms without ro- :

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) be(i)tis, beidis : robad do chland-su betis comarpai ind, Trip.² 1710. beitis lir leamsa cendae fer ..., TBC-I¹ 3543. bad dōig lim beidis hē fir Themra, 3371 .

Conj. -btis, -ptis, -bdís : asbert P. nabtis toirthig, Trip.² 2455. connaptís bí, LU 9519. nibdís aingil diada, PH 1787.

Pret.

s. 1

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) basa : basa iudide ó écosc `I was a Jew in appearance,' Wb. 10d34 .

(b) ba(sa), bam(sa), basam : ba-sa cāem, Corm. Y 883.53 . ba-sa cu-sa tairdbi buiden, Anecd. iii 53.13 and 15 (Sia- burcharpat) = basa chausa ..., LU 9328. ba-sa cathach, Tec. Corm. § 8.8 . basa chúsa, LU 9326 , 9328 . bása chomrar, 9335 . bassa collid giallasa, 9318 . bam-sa cu-sa, Anecd. iii 53.10 . fam rí (bainrith, v.l.) ar énlaith Érenn, i 36 § 87 . ba-sa maoth fri maithi, ba-sam imnedach frimm tair, iii 53.20 . basam (bam-sa, bam-siu, v.ll.) dalta tair[i]si, ii 71.7 .

Conj.

(a) -psa : nipsa iudide ó béssaib, Wb. 10d35 . 17c2 . hore am apstal ... cainipsa sóir ce dognén cach ngním, 10c16 .

(b) -psa, -bsa, -ba, ? -bam, -msa, -sam : nipsa chúsa gabála lis, LU 9325 = nipsa cu-sa ..., Anecd. iii 53.10 . nipsa cell cin chlocc, ii 60.4 . nipsa (nirsam, nipsam, v.ll.) condirclech, Ériu ix 45 § 2. ciapsa reithenech, ib. (geinsam, ciamsam, robsam, rosam, gersam, gerbam, gerbhum, v.ll.) ciapsa duine ciapsa bled, LU 3003 = ciarsam ... ciarsam ..., Fél. 52.37 . domgní mūichnech ingnais Ērenn | diamsa cuimsech for which I (myself) was accountable (?), ZCP vii 309.24 . i mbsa dechenborach ... i mbsa fichtech, Tec. Corm. § 8.6 - 7 . imsa nāidi robsa nā[i]r, Ériu ii 16 § 5. nimsa cu-sa imlo[m]tha fuidhel, Anecd. iii 53.13 and 15 = nipsa cháusa ..., LU 9327. ? cach crích ar bam cend `where I was head,' PRIA III (3rd ser.) 550 § 35 ( LL 147a ). pecdach mé ósam macám, IGT Decl. ex. 376.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) rupsa, ropsa, robsa, rob : rupsa frithortae-se, Wb. 33a12 . doménarsa ropsa beo, 3c27 . Ml. 49b12 . durumenar romsa dia ┐ rom bith-béu, 49b13 .

(b) ropsa, robsa, ropsam, robsam, robsum, robam, ropom : an airet ropsa béo, Trip.² 1434. ropsa altra dia aithair, Anecd. ii 71.4 . imsa nāidi robsa nā[i]r, Ériu ii 16 § 5. robsa ceile si do Ch., ZCP viii 545.7 . ropsam aithrech isin ngním-sin, PH 701. robsam fíadnaisech fodeirc, Ériu iv 153.4 . robsum flaith, BS 126.6 . Metr. Dinds. iii 310.85 . robam céle comadas, LU 3972. ropom tuire tend, PRIA III (3rd ser.) 550 § 35 ( LL 147a ). robam rí ar ó ngelChuind, IGT Decl. ex. 537.

Conj.

(a) -rbsa, -robsa, -rupsa, -rubsa : nirbsa dagduine i tossuch, Wb. 18c14 . anarbsa fuillectae-se, Ml. 127c17 . corupsa lán diib, 104d3 . annarobsa bithe, 45d6 . arromsa cumscaigthe, 46b9 . arrumsa immainse-se, 62c9 .

(b) -rsam (-rbsam) (the sense is very frequently pres. indic. a survival of the original perfect sense), -rbam : is mise Fintan fili, | nirsam écne óen-lindi, Metr. Dinds. i 4.42 . níorsum duine do éra, ML² 1959. nirsum drochlaech, ZCP viii 548.18 . níor sum (níor soim, níor shámh, ní rabhus, v.ll.) taithleach na n-each riamh, Ériu i 100.23 . gērsam snímhach Fiadat find, Ériu ii 95 § 4. gearsom glic nīr chrainn um ní, KMMisc. 350 § 7. corbam tualaingse, Anecd. i 10.17 . ciarbam treórach, nírbam timm, Metr. Dinds. iii 312.131 . Aisl. Tond. 96.4 . gerbham sáeirfher séimh, BS 28.10 . Brethnaigh níor bham caroid-si, Duan. F. i 87.y . or bham nóidiu since I was, LL 282a12 .

s. 2

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) ba, bat, basat : cia bátar do gníma intan basat (v.l.) gilla, Tec. Corm. § 8.2 . bat dín ar gád 's ar guba | bat fál is bat fidruba, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.9 - 10 (bad, ba, v.ll.). a chlaidib Cherbaill ... bát menic ac cur chatha, RC xx 9 §1 ( LL 47a50 ).

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -bi: cot-ráncamar ó bim (órbat v.l.), BDD² 1173 (Ed's. note : `read ó bi mac (D), where bi seems pret. s. 2').

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robsa, rubsa : huare romsa ugaire doib `because Thou wast a shepherd unto them,' Ml. 96d1 . arrumsa dite-siu, 103a4 .

(b) ropsa, rupsa, ropsat, robsat, ropat, robat, ropot: an tan rupsa Etain Echraidhe ... ba misi do cetmui[n]ter, Ériu xii 170.6 (Tochm. Ét.) (= ropsa, LU 10771 ). intan ropsa (ropsat, basat, v.ll.) gilla, Tec. Corm. § 8.2 . ropsat slan o chianaib dia fesmais `thou shouldst have been healed,' Ériu xii 166.12 (Tochm. Ét.) (= ropdat slán, LU 10746 (sec. fut.)). uair ropsat cara, PH 3099. LL 343d53 . intan robsat Cernach-sa, ZCP i 104.36 . ropsat fraechda, RC xx 12 § 16. ropot álaind ó chíanaib, IT iii 514 § 6. is derb ropat degairle, 482.280 . robat cara do cech cléir, 482.277 .

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -rbsat, -rsat, -rsa, -rbat : ro-t-rathaig narbsat fírgaeth that you were not, SR 1318. nirbsat meirb, RC xx 12 § 16. nirsat neóit, TBC-LL¹ 43. lēir dam ... | nārsat cara do Chellach, CCellaig 447 (where the sense is pres. indic.). gérsa maeth-macámh ... i tús lai o chianaib thu, ZCP viii 529.12 . cot-ráncamar órbat (v.l., see n.) mac, BDD² 1173.

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) ba, bu (once in Tur.) (gemination occurs after ba, see below) : ba frithorgon dó frithorgon cháich, Thes. ii 246.18 (Camb.). ba calar do galar caich, ib. 16 (do.). ba uissiu són quam inflatio , Wb. 9b1 (modal). 29d8 . ba hed ón ba chóir, Wb. 10b9 . aní ba choitchen, 50a3 . a mba cloithe `when he was overcome,' Ml. 32b2 . a mba ndiuscartae, 19c15 . ar ba P. dubert baithis du Chrimthunn, Thes. ii 242.9 (Ardm.). ba em carat `it were, indeed, the part of a friend,' Thes. i 3.4 . ar ba mmadach, Ml. 135a9 . ba mmo, 86d6 . (cf. ba mmebul lee, TBFr. 136 ). air bu ainm leusom maledictus do c[ec]h óin ..., Tur. 136.

(b) ba, bu, bo, be (once), pa, fa, fá, fo, bad, bud : ba slán iarom, Trip.² 1517. bá cubaid, 1516 (modal). ba lith mor la Colum cille, Mon. Tall. 156.7 . ba di Bretnaib di, Trip.² 707. rofitir in ben ba o Lomnae rofes, Corm. Y 1018.26 . Fél. Nov. 5. ba ferr a comaitecht ... oldaas a tuitim, IT i 75.6 (modal). ba mese ba sacart oc baistiud ind anma-sin fora athair, ScM. § 12.9 . nip sī sin adaig ba sāmam (rectius sh-) dōib, TBC-I¹ 211. BDD² 423. co torchratar bond fri bond ... ba sí tiget ind áirbaig such was the denseness of, TBC-I¹ 1996. cach nech ba siniu ┐ ba so, PH 104. in ti ba (?=ba a) tir `the person whose land it was,' Laws iv 4.29 Comm. With inf. pron. s. 3 : ba-id-n-imomain-side he was greatly afraid, TBC-I¹ 786. With suffixed -ch (= Lat. -que) (see Thurn., ZCP xiii 299f .) : do-luid tar feart a cedteallaig bach for fine forcomal `und es war eine gewaltsame Besitzergreifung gegen die Sippe,' Laws iv 16.22 (tr. Thurn., loc. cit.). bach ri Temrach, 178.13 . 16.22 . nī ticc dīa ēissi bu duilgi āer, MacCongl. 9.5 . ar bo fortachtaid dó día mboí i moxaini, Trip.² 254. bo ferr, BDD² 1320. a mbo ṡeiscc dind ḟolud, TBC-I¹ 1127. is aice bo doigh a mbith, no is e bo doich da fagbail, Laws iv 36.8 Comm. be sé sin trian macraidi Ulad, LU 5907. ol pa immaircede leis Loch nEchach, Trip.² 1956. pa menci, K. and H. § 1. pa hamru delp Fothith, ZCP xx 401.3 . The earlier instances of fa are mostly rel., but later it becomes freq. in non-rel. use. fá is the regular form in TSh. : is mé fa hairdbrethim binn, Anecd. i 28 § 30. 36 § 91 . curob é fa ri Connacht, v 21.25 . im orgain fa togaidhi do Ingcél i nHérinn, BDD² 423. as í fa banchele dó .i. Eithne ... fa díl ... leis hí, Ériu iii 150 § 1. beathadhach fá cosmhail ré mathghamhain, TSh. 1025. 3264 . (Cf. fa gairit limm beth ar Bóinn, Anecd. i 26.15 . Ériu iv 116 § 24. fa hadhbail re innisin an toran[n], Feis Tighe Chonáin 1841. IGT Decl. ex. 861. fá héigean, TSh. 2489. 5559 . 3715 ). ised sin fo lucht dō, Ériu ii 20 § 1. ri fo ferr sith, Ann. Conn. 1224 § 2. issed bad doig la C., Mon. Tall. 161.22 . ? bat (? bad) ead indas ind troiscti sin, 155.35 . bád chumma rom altsat Ulaid uli, LU 10305. do bríogh gurab é Eóin budh teó grádh, TSh. 10328. do bhríogh gurab é Ádhamh budh ceann fine, 9 .

Conj.

(a) -pu`, -bu`, -po`, -bo`, ? -p` (elision of vowel before initial vowel) : nípu accobor leiss, Wb. 14a22 . nípu séit samil, Thes. i 495.26 (Ardm.). Hy. v 7. nipu nach dernainn-se áem, Wb. 8a5 . Thes. i 495.4 (Ardm.). cepu ed adroilliset, Wb. 4c35 . ar nibu thacair, 33b13 . nibu techtae (`rectius: thechtae, but cf. 34c17 , 53d6 ,' Ed.), 100b22 . níbu machdath, Sg. 65a1 . conepertis ón nadmbu choir, Ml. 136b4 . in loc diambu thabarthi ermitiu feid, 22a4 . nipo chóim, Wb. 4b12 . nípo úaib act ba o apsatalib, 13a20 . napo chenéel, 5a14 . nibo cen fochidi, 24c19 . ? nip (`leg. nipu ? or is it subjunctive ?,' Ed.) ar irlami far cúrsagtha, 26b23 . 5b3 .

(b) -pu`, -bu`, -po`, -bo`, -p`, -b`, -ba`, -fa`, -bad (as lenition was somet. marked we may assume it was regular) : rofitir P. nípu chian, Trip.² 2866. LU 4974. Fél. Sept. 27. nīpu samlaid, TBC-I¹ 1280. napu díb lamaib, LL 123b2 . asrubart M. nibu moo, Mon. Tall. 133.10 . ni bu cād, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 40 § 17. ni bu chul serci, IT i 77.2 . nī bu ṡanct-Brigit ṡúanach, Hy. v 21 ō bu becān, Ériu viii 164.7 . cíid iarom P. combu [ḟ]liuch a agad, Trip.² 1305. nabu cert, SR 3673. nīpo rom, TBC-I¹ 1728. dalēici sōn C., cobo (LU combo) thairis docher, 1737 . ni bo chomailt, AU i 110.8 . Fél. Prol. 114. BDD² 549. abaind letain nádbo domain, LU 1747 (ICM). combo chomsolus lá ┐ adaig, 8056 . iarfaigis dó cia diambo cheli, 8535 (FB). nī fo cīan, TBC-I¹ 485. nipsī sin adaig ba sāmam dōib, TBC-I¹ 211. nip seoit fo-fhiallach, Anecd. ii 57.z . ba fae leo nip n-ēn comadus ina n-ēill, Corm. Y 1059.18 . nīb sī t'opar comadhas, TBC-I¹ 785. nib sam, Anecd. i 13.14 . roluited ind scīn co nāb ālaind īarnamarach, Corm. Y 883.32 . níba s[h]uthain, TBFr. 5. comba samalta ┐ snāth ōir, TBC-I¹ 2027. comba comsolus lá ┐ adaig, LU 10125. co mba fliuch, BDD² 885. FDG 615. comba taí tastadach for Ultaib, MU² 119. PH 1082 (there is no instance here of lenition marked after comba). taitned fria in grían co bba forderg, BDD² 12. diamba Cholum coemdalta, LU 752. ni fa si do conair, YBL 174b14 . co nebairt co mbad mac don rig he, FDG 724.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) rupu`, rubu`, ropu`, robu`, ropo`, robo` : rupu sí a rroilic, Wb. 33a22 . aní rupu thascide, Thes. ii 225.17 (Pcr.). rubu fer-som muintere, Wb. 33a5 . Essu rubu thoisech hi suidiu, Ml. 63b5 . ropu thol les a dénom, Ml. 71b2 . hore rombu thoissech, Wb. 33a20 . ar robbu digaim, Sg. 17a5 . robu foirbthe, Tur. 33. ropo thróg laiss, Wb. 21b5 . ropo thol, 14b3 . ropo chobair dond Érinn | tíchtu Patraicc, Hy. ii 15. amal rombo chuimse, Wb. 22a2 .

(b) ropu`, robu`, ropo`, robo`, rupa`, ropa`, roba`, rop`, rob`, rap`, ro bud ; do replacing ro : do bo`, do ba`, do bu`, dob`, do bud ; dorob (where the final vowel has dropped out the copula is nearly always folld. by a vowel or ḟ) : rob e a n-immed conna ... `such was their multitude that' ..., Thes. ii 298.9 ( Hy. i Introd. ). sádid echlaisc and ropu dos iarom, Trip.² 1851. TBFr. 11. ind ingen robu ṡiniu, Trip.² 1116. ropo cridiscél, Mon. Tall. 136.23 . ropo thír cāich, Hail Brigit § 2. ropo suthain, LU 1077. PH 1673. robo maith, Corm. Y 31. nirbo chucumsa ... robo chóir dál, LU 8750. ar rup[a] la Coirpre Crích Conaill, Trip.² 1724. ropa anaichnid, PH 5287. Mon. Tall. 136.20 . (asbert) ... romba si sainserc samdine hé, Mon. Tall. 150.14 . an romba (arrombúi, v.l.) dech do thimthagail, Corm. Y 1059.12 . is ar a deirc ... ro-ba buidech Dia do Abél, PH 5882. rop nem thened tír Hua Néill, BDD² 240 (= ropo, LU 6743 ). rop é fochond ná dilend, LU 129. rofidir ... rop si Etain, Ériu xii 154.2 . rob aille leo, Corm. Y 503. ScM. § 240. PH 1590. túaith rob ferr icht, Metr. Dinds. iii 310.88 . PH 68. uar rombi (ro-m-bī) ind fit cetne, Mon. Tall. 147.14 . rap aithrech, Ériu vii 229 § 75. dobo mana crimb chnáma, Anecd. i 31 § 50. dobo cléguin, Ériu iv 112 § 2. doba díchur flaithesa dō, ML² 1422. doba ferr linn, KMMisc. 320.4 . doba dhainmidh dhó a ndermad, IGT Decl. ex. 1180. dob áil, PH 7584. dob fhíor, Feis Tighe Chonáin 72. fa chloinn Uisnigh dob ḟearr clú, KMMisc. 356 § 4. dob fhearr liom go n-eagnuighidís (utinam saperent), TSh. 6857. 4957 (both modal). do búdh tusa cnoc na cclíar, KMMisc. 346 I § 2 . do budh [de] chloind Cuillinn ..., Feis Tighe Chonáin 1161. adharc ... dobudh faide ionā an adharc oile, TSh. 22. dorob ingnad in cuairt crecht, Ériu v 246.228 .

Conj.

(a) -r(o)bu`, -r(u)bu`, -rbo` (the exx. in which the vowel of ro is not syncopated are all from Ml.) : nírbu faás foruigéni, Wb. 13b7 . nírbu chuman leu, Ml. 124b5 . hóre nárbu bae, Wb. 5b12 . Ml. 60a12 . donarobu gnath techt for culu, 129d3 . corbu écen, Wb. 32c17 . Ml. 31b16 . corrobu bec, 131b12 . conrubu chrín, 99a2 . indí ... lasinrubu chumtabart, 102d4 . 131d11. nírbo sar leu ar cocéilsine, Wb. 19a1 . nirbo chuit eperte, 24c5 .

(b) -rbu`, -rpu`, -rpo`, -rbo`, rba`, -rob`, -rb`, -ra, -r`, -rsa(t), -rso : nírpu sía léu oldaas oenuair, Trip.² 2054. nirbu chían, LU 1756 (ICM). corbu réill, Trip.² 2136. ciarbu tholgdae, Fél. 125. fer fial ... diarmbu (sic) lan Temair, AU i 394. 13 (A.D. 878) . nírpo o chridiu, Trip.² 1562. nír bo thoirneach ..., BDD² 191. LU 915. corbo chonair letartha, TBC-I¹ 1887. gérbo tri haicmedha íatt, Anecd. v 20.25 . nírba maith, LU 315. nirba choir, Anecd. i 20.14 . PH 3078. adeirdis corba mac, Corm. Y 896.8 . gurbha (gur fa, v.l.) héigean dó, TSh. 2484. órba cindti forba a bethad dó, BColm. 96.4 . nī rob urāil, Bruchst. 37 § 87. nirb oróil, MacCongl. 111.7 . nírbh é, IGT Decl. ex. 1274. níorbh fheasach, TSh. 2973. nocorb áil, Trip.² 397. aided narb inmain, ScM. § 24d . ainm ... ionarb éigean sinne do shlánughadh, TSh. 2088. níra míad leo dul assin chrích co mbetís aidchi longphuirt inti, MU² 843. nīr mīad ... leis ind ūaburdelb ... tārfas dōib, TBC-I¹ 2020. nīr cōir, ACL iii 221.24 (modal). nir thim a ḟer, Ériu v 244.211 . Feis Tighe Chonáin 1203. níor ghrása na bronntanas na grása ... dá mbeith ..., Donlevy 214.y (modal). níor chían, TSh. 2479. cinnas nachar chomtig, LU 10316 (modal). créad is iontuigthe as sin, acht gur dhearbh leó ..., TSh. 653. cíar adbol a ndrong, LU 9395. ger mhór in ail, Anecd. i 29 § 36. teagh ar ar lia fear faire, PBocht 12 § 26. drong ... rér mhaith deighmheas do bheith ag an bpobal orra, TSh. 8926 (? modal). ón tráth fár dhearbh leis é féin d'éag, TSh. 2800. draig ... ór doilghe dul, Ériu ix 6.51 (modal). ónar thana lucht loingsi `by whom sea-roving crews are thinned,' Duan. F. i 81.9 . The ending -rsa, -rsad may have arisen on the analogy of the 1st and 2nd sg. -rsam, -rsat (qq.v. above) : derb leo nírsa meath don mac, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 44 § 2. nirsa monar maca[i]n maith | dingbail in laich, 44 § 1. ailtir in mac ... gursa hoglach mor, 43.13 . carsa dúal don aithech-mhadudh ... tocht ... d'imrisin risin árchoin ?, ZCP viii 553.29 . ciarso thucait ro-dos-foglúais, LL 133b16 . TBC-LL¹ 1935. ciarsa dam `though it were a bull,' CRR § 5. brugaid ... darsat (? leg. darsa) comainm C., ZCP vii 307.17 , but cf. oglach darsad comainm E., viii 549.10 . Cf. pl. : carsad comhadha sin ?, 544.22 .

pl. 1

I No forms without ro- occur.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robummar : robumar cuindrichthi gl. erecti sumus, Ml. 43d6 . huare robummar bibdid-ni dait-siu, 62b5 .

(b) ropsar, ropar, robdar, robatar: ropsar marba meni beth Find, RC vii 302.183 . ropar cocle cridi. ropar caemthe caille. ropar fir chomdeirgide, LL 10510 (MS ropdar with d expunged) = TBC-LL² 3071-73 ; robdar TBC(C) 2127-29 , RC xi 29 § 54 ; robatar, TBC St. 2903 ; robadar, RC xi 29 § 54 .

Conj.

(a) -rbommar : nírbommar utmuill ... nírbommar tromdi gl. non inquieti fuimus, Wb. 26b14 .

(b) -rsar : cid sinni nirsar malla, RC vii 294.81 .

pl. 2 No instances.

pl. 3

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) batir, batar : iarsindí batir inricci du báas huili, Wb. 5c14 . batir athissi ... dait-siu, Ml. 90d17 . air batar carait, 31a3 . 23c16 . Hy. ii 6.

(b) batir, batar, bat : batir banbrugaid sōn ┐ batar maithi, Corm. Y 1018.14 . batir faelti, LU 10585. batir hé iarom bátár im Ch., 8161 . BDD² 398. bátir (batar, batir, v.ll.) Érenn ardae, Fél. June 25 . LU 1699 (ICM). bátir īalla bātar inde, MacCongl. 89.26 . forsin fer batair bech whose bees they were, Laws iv 178.15 . batar sinde rīadatar it was we, Corm. Y 698.37 . SR 4072. BDD² 19. batar imtholtanaig, LU 3244. bátár hé sin a imtechtai, 11030 . bāttar dóini carsam-ne, Otia i 122 § 3. § 4 . bat comluatha dana fri conaib, IT i 72.11 . bat failid uili de sin, RC xliii 24 § 22.

Conj.

(a) -btar, -ptar : nitat pecthi ... indechtso cebtar hé riam, Wb. 4a8 . ciaptar mora a pecthai-som, Ml. 98c5 . a namtar tuidchissi, Sg. 6a13 . amtar mbati `when they were drowned,' Ml. 84d5 .

(b) -btar, -ptar, -btor, -tar, -but : céptar bailci bressa, Fél. Prol. 74. ciabtar glain, SR 2421. cíaptar áilli, Fél. Prol. 133. níptar ecnaig, ib. Nov. 9. níbtar dermaill, Corm. Y 398 . nibdar dimdaig, SR 3550. BCC 66.8 . imtar láin ..., | imtar ilerda, SR (Greene) 4659 . amdar suidigthi ... forsin teinith, Trip.² 131. comtar mairb, SR 5111. LU 8373. PH 5479. comdar slána, Trip.² 157. immuscomarcair cibtar hē asked who they were, Corm. Y 1059.58 . gu mbut ōga a n-ocobair till their desires were fulfilled, ACL iii 3.12 .

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robtar, roptar, robatar (Ml. only), robdar : nitat huili robtar tuicsi, Wb. 11a21 . hore romtar óis teglig, 7b13 . robtar beca, Ml. 90c25 . déde hí roptar bibdaid som, 124c2 . inna hí ruptar ardda, Thes. ii 11.42 (Bcr.). is follus romatar bibdaid som, Ml. 125b9 . 78b12 . rocretset ... romdar tosge maith doib nanní ..., 96b5 .

(b) robtar, roptar, raptar, robdar, robdur, ? ropat : ar robtar cosmaili, Trip.² 1297. Corm. Y 690.4 . robtar auctair in dana sin, Trip.² 328. LU 9602. SR 3449. robdar druid co mōreōlus, TBC-I¹ 835. Anecd. i 46.12 . ar ropdar mebhra laiss iat, ii 43.3 . arinni robdur ceithri uidhi, Laws i 262.4 . ropat móra do berta (? or leg. ropsat), IT iii 484.281 . ropsat comchuibde ar ceta, Ériu i 72 § 4. RC vii 294.82 . MR 214.16 . FDG 557. rapsat irlama, MU² 149. TBC-LL¹ 3243. Ériu i 72 § 4. robsat athlumha, BS 18.26 . robsad buana, ML² 2084. ZCP viii 539.17 . ? To this : na sluaig remi rosatr[i]uin (? leg. ropsat triuin), SR 3983.

Conj.

(a) -rubtar, -ruptar, -roptar : isuaignid ni rubtar gáitha for comairli, Wb. 18c6 . conruptar fadirci ind usci, Ml. 40d16 (MS. ɔ possibly for co L in which case ruptar could be abs., Ériu lvi 40 n. 56 ). ceruptar enartu, 49a17 . arrumtar doirthi, 34d10 . déde hí roptar bibdaid som, 124c2 .

(b) -rbtar, -rptar, -rtar, -rbat, -rpsat, -rsat, -psat, -bsat, -psatar : nírbtar humail fris, Trip.² 1976. Corm. Y 179. nírptar fáilti, BDD² 337. nirdar subaig, TBC-LL¹ 3242. ciarbat ile, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 548 § 23 ( LL 147a ). garbat discailtig, TBC-LL¹ 544. gurbat daitinigh, RC xliii 75 § 75. Leb. Gab.(i) 118.1 . corbhat foithe, RC xliii 84 § 85. nirbat sathig (nirbot, nirbad, nirbo, v.ll.), Metr. Dinds. iii 78.24 . nirpsat [m'] airm[-si] can ulaig, Ériu i 72 § 2. nirsat tualaing a dhinghmhail, v 158.210 . nirsat methol a n-athól they were not a band in the second drinking ?, BCC 290.28 . a mbrughaidh nírsat bronuigh, Ériu iv 116 § 24. gursad luatha, RC xiv 28.12 . cersat mor, PH 250. da ghadaige ... darsat comanmann Dismus ┐ Iesmus, 2852 . cārsat comadha sin, ML² 1387. carsad, ZCP viii 544.22 . ciapsat guir fri crabud nglé, SR 8007. nibsad adbul a ḟir bain, Anecd. i 13.15 . batar gnima erred lat-sa, nipsatar gnima con, Anecd. iii 53.8 . In : gomsad daerbhesacha macneda Uladh. ZCP viii 546.7 . the form is pres. pl. 3 but the sense calls for sec. fut. pl. 3. Cf. 545.21 .

On buith as vn. of copula see GOI § 817. Cf. mo bith lomnocht, SR 1336. maso ḟír ... | for mbith iarmui do Abram, 3498 .

lecc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. lecc or dil.ie/29691
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: leac, lecmuig, lecmaid

n ā, f. leac, IGT Decl. § 158.

(a) flat slab of rock or stone (freq. quailfied by lomm), flagstone, paving-stone: forruim a choiss forsind leicc, Thes. ii 310.2 ( Hy. ii 8 ); glossed . . . forsin chloich, Thes. ii 310.19 . foaid for leicc luim, 315.6 ( Hy. ii 31 ). leacc cloiche uas a chind (of a saint in his cell), Fél. 246.28 . l.¤ .i. ar lēict[h]ir sīs ┐ sūas hí. Nō lē bīd secc, Corm. Y 831. ros dechraig dó for licc glain / cach luib, SR 1925 . lecca . . . tentidi for lár in muigi sin . . . con loiscfed oenl.¤ díb in domun uli, IT i 191.8 - 9 (FA LB). adba l.¤ ṅgér Ross na mBrocc, LL 298a36 . dogó . . . lecca, léiccis cráobha (of Colum Cille), ZCP viii 198 § 16 . ag íarraidh bhric . . . / fa lic, IGT Decl. ex. 2025 (prov.). ris an leic do bhí a bhruinne / Rí an chruinne dá reic rinne (i.e. He was prostrate?), Dán Dé vii 10 . rinn lasrach leice Ifrinn, DDána 10.41 . an bhruidhean nach cuirre cnoc / do tuigheadh nach luime leac was so roofed that no flagstone was smoother, 119.32 . ar n-iompódh leice móire . . . dochum dhoruis an túama, Matthew xxvii 60 . gusin leic gcoimhlethain mharmair for ar lēicedh corp S. Laurāis, Fl. Earls 194.18 . pabhal .i. leaca, Eg. Gl. 510. ? leac ubhuill, ITS v 160.24 (leaca, MS.). By extension of a metal covering: teg talman foí anís ┐ l.¤ imdaṅgen íarnaide fair-side, MU² 809. Fig. condaecmaing dar leic a hochta do Ecsi ilgradhaigh, Anecd. ii 54.1 . do ghoin an leic air mo lár, 23 G 24, 326.9 . ar leic luim an lóir-ghníomha, TSh. 829. Of stone tablets for writing on (but see Bergin, Ériu xii 217 ): dicetul na filedh .i. i lecaib `in inscriptions', Laws i 38.4 Comm . do scrib-sum iat a lecaib ┐ i tuiblib `slates', iii 88.16 Comm . anmanna dá threibh dhéag I. do sgríobhadh ar dhá leic—sé treabha ar gach leic dhíobh, TSh. 450. Confused with lia, q.v.: líog mhór mharmuir ag an slógh / bhí meádhachan na leice ortha anuas, Oss. iv 276.19 . an chuid aca bhí fán lic shíos, 21 . roscrib i taiblibh ┐ i llegaibh, Auraic. 44 = lecaiph, 2329 . Attrib. g s.: fochen Conall / cride licce, Sc.M² 15 .

With qual. g s.: beir let licc clochi . . . / co rucsa limm, licc n-aili, SR 1593 . daurthach bec . . . ┐ l.¤ cloiche ara belaib side, LL 287b43 .

(b) Of the bed-rock underlying earth or water: co ngeiltis a ḟér . . . co grian ┐ co leccaibh loma secha sís, ZCP v 501.2 . fogeltat eich C. fér co húir ┐ connici na lecga lomma, TBC-LL¹ 551 (= na clocha, TBC-I¹ 249 = LU 4735 ). cach inber . . . ba lecca lomma lántirma dara n-éis, MU² 274 . gus an leic ainmhín, aggairbh . . . os ur eassa ruaidh `rocky ford', AFM vi 2030.z .

(c) tombstone: fo leic na rīgh at reileic, Ériu ii 166.44 . a lec-sa leptha Gúaire, 164.21 , cf. 166.29 . gabais . . . lāidh oc in leicc amail no beith Fergus bēo ann, ACL iii 5.y . gnúis Derbfhorgaill fo licce leirg, Ériu v 212.103 . an leac farbh' éigin dheit dul (to Christ), Dán Dé xxviii 30 . mo chorpán fán lic, Keat. iii 1666 (cit.). leac, túma a sepulchre , Eg. Gl. 437.

(d) altar-stone: dufáid a l.¤ inna degaid hisin tailich sair, Trip.² 781 (= lapis altaris, Colgan, Trias Thaum. 130a ). foracaib Patraic fairend dia muntir occa licc i nDomnach Patraic, Trip.² 788 . ar gcur na haltóra ar uisge / . . . / tig an leac tre lár na mara, PBocht 10.46 .

(e) kneading-slab: bla cumaile lec ┐ losat, Laws iii 274.18 . in ní fora certaigenn a fuine . . . .i. a lec fuine, iv 10.23 Comm .

(f) l.¤ aigreta, l.¤ aigrid (later oidrid, oidre), l.¤ ega ice-floe, sheet of ice, ice : sruth snechta . . . co leccaib oigreta, IT i 191.31 (FA LB). geisidh lec uar aighreta / ag maidm tria gáir na Gairbe, Anecd. ii 24 § 10 . co ndechatar for leicc oíghridh a n-Inis Mochta, RC xvii 365.z (Tig.). aigh anacnata . . . go n-imthiaghdais . . . locha ┐ aibhne . . . arna lecaibh eagha, AFM iv 900.z . buinne lán do lic oighridh, IGT Decl. ex. 2024 . do fhás leac oighre . . . ar an sruth, Atlantis iv 142.z . blodh mór de leic-oighreadh, Eochairsg. 112.14 .

(g) In names of particular stones: tanic . . . for licc na ṅgíall i nEmain Macha, TBC-LL¹ 4725 (corresp. to Duma na ṅG., TBC-I¹ 2987. Cf. Dinds. 1 § 12 , § 13 ). Lec Patraic . . . .i. L.¤ Cathraigi fora n-ordnigtea na rig ic Caissel, Lat. Lives 55.8 . Raith guth aird, in baili adta Lec Patraic aniu, Laws i 2.4 Comm . ráncatar . . . conici in Licc . . . ca hainm na glasslicci móri seo? Lecc Commairt Chnáma sin . . . uair is furri brisfiter do chnáma-su, RC xiii 66 § 68. Of coronation stone at Tara (see also s.v. 1 lía): téid dá reic re taobh Teamhrach / Aodh Eanghach ag Leic Luighdhech, L. Cl. A. B. 71.4 . Cf. a Líg Luighdheach, 72.24 . do-gheibhthear a labhra ó leic Laoghaire, DDána 109.5 . ar Leic na Ríogh, Keat. iii 168.

(h) Meaning obscure in phr. Lecca Lis (Luigdech): leacht Conrúi hi Sleib Mis / lecht Lugdach fo leccaib leis (glossed: .i. e féin ro marb hi cumaid a mna), RC xxiii 319 § 10 = lecht Luighdech fo leccuib liss (glossed: .iii. lecca liss Luigdech .i. gress ┐ ruicci ┐ mebul), 324 § 10. mani betis Leca Luigdech Lis / eoin bic Baile rot betis, LL 18197 (= mainbad . . . , ZCP viii 107.6 glossed .i. ruici ┐ athis). Cu Chulaind do bith i n-iṅgnais / dirsan menbad leca lis, LL 14479 ( Ériu v 210.51 ). menbad leca lis Lugdach / lasa rumnad cach ṅderba / ba romoch ar n-étarba / fri mac na Tri Find Emna, LL 14480 ( Ériu v 210.52 ). ? Cf. .iii. bellum in hoc anno gesta uno, et possito ergense ecc leccam lias, AU 532 (i 44.12) . See lega.

Common in nn. loc., see Hog. Onom.

(i) l.¤ ós crú, name of a defect in horses: lec os cru, Laws iii 6.6 Comm . labram annso do bacaide coss deirid na n-ech .i. cnaimspedain . . . ┐ lec os crua, Celtica ii 52 § 20 (`ossification of the lateral cartilages', note).

Of stone in the kidney: l.¤ in árain gl. lapi[s] fulta, Ir. Gl. 246.

(j) Metaph. in Laws of something which is irreversible, `an act or deed which binds the persons indissolubly', O'Don. Suppl.; period of prescription(?) (but see Bergin, Ériu xii 217 ): is i cetna leac astuga (leg. astuda) cacha sealba, a lan logh; is i in leac aile, a hubairt ar anmain; is i in leac aile, a torind do flaith, Laws v 498.9 , 10 (i.e. the three `leca' that make binding (a transfer of) ownership are that its full value was paid for the property, that it was given as an offering to the Church for prayers for the dead, or that it had been marked out by the ruler). cetna leac .i. in cetna luige .i. ar is e in cetna ni amail lic, astus dilsi caca feraind . . . in leac aile .i. in luige aile . . . amail leic, 500.2 Comm . cisne tri leaca robaid nad fuaslaici dliged na fuigeall, na fasach, na fir n-aicnig? Eibirt nemda, . . . ; chis comdidean fria triar; sendliged forrsaide sine sencuimne, 450.1 Comm . ní bi lec robuich (sic) cach fuirech forécnech forcible detention does not constitute a lecc robuid, O'Curry 428 ( H 3.18, p. 233a ). duruth cét bliadain. ruthrod tri cóeccait bith .cc. robith .ccl. lecc .ccc. . . . ochtrach .dcccc., O'Curry 21 ( H 3.18 p. 9b ). ate a tri ro-suidiche (leg. -igthe) deimnigthe cach deirb-dilse do comed,—leac leanmanach, no chuir, no ratha inforais, Laws v 498.5 . leac leanmanach .i. leic (?lēic) leis a somaine ó bias amlaidh sin, O'D. 1340 ( E 3.5, p. 19 ).

COMPDS. With adj. ¤bán: assa lár l. `white-paven', Metr. Dinds. iv 82.27 (of Coire Breccáin). With subst. ¤cloch: in dorus ele . . . ┐ lathar (= lóthar) leccchloiche fair a stone trough, Mer. Uil. 226 . ¤aile fence of flat stones(?): ind leacaile apaidhe, IT iii 102 § 186 (but see EIS 238 ). ¤mag flag-strewn plain : mac in Leithdeirg don Lecmaig (: Bretnaig), ITS xxxix 176 § 27 (lechtmair, lecmuig, lecmaid, etc., v.ll.). See brath, bél.

maidid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. maidid or dil.ie/31300
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: maided, maidid, muidid, fors[a]-maid, forsa-moith, resa-maid, máith, rumaith, maides, maiti, maitti, maidi, maidti, muitti, mutti, maidit, madit, muidit, máis, má, mæ, mai, maidsed, maidfed, con-roimsitis, memais, mebais, mmema, mema, roima, con-memsam-ne, mebusmet, mensat, memsat, memsad, mmebsat, mbebsat, memsite, con-mebsad, mebsaitis, memaid, mmemaid, mmebaid, ro-m-memaid, mebaid, rróemid, rroímid, roimidh, ráemid, rraimid, rommid, remid, remaidh, reimidh, rimheadh, raoimhidh, raeimeadh, memdaitir, memdatar, mebdatar, mebatar, mebhadar, mhebhatar, roimdeta, con-róemtatar, maidter, mater, mebais, meb-, mheabhas, mheabtaís, meba, mebat, mebaidh, meabhai, mebsat, meabhsattar, romhebadh, — mébas, — mébad, maid-, moid-, maidi, muidhi, maidfid, muidhfes, muigfis, maidfit, maidfed, maidhis, moidis, maid, maid, muidh, moigh, maidset, muidhset, moigsed, mhuigheadar, muidfer, muided, maedhed, muid-, maoidh-, maidm, ma, maidhis, maitti, maidter, maíded

v i. s-subj. and fut., redupl. pret. Forms. Imp. 3 s. maided, Wb. 7c4 . Pres. 3 s. maidid, LU 3720 ( SCC 33 ). muidid, LB 127a8 . fors[a]-maid, Ml. 115d12 . forsa-moith, 110d10 . resa-maid, TBC-I¹ 3575. ni máith , Corm. Y 419. (perfective) rumaith, Ml. 51c9 . rel. maides, TBC-LL¹ 4689. With pron. aff.: maiti, LU 4925 (= maithi, TBC-I¹ 440 ). maitti, LU 5201 , 6666 ( TBC-I¹ 723 , 2127 ). maidi, maidti, Ériu iii 141.202 , 203 . muitti, LU 1582 ( IT ii2 212.3 ), 6212 ( TBC-I¹ 1722 ). mutti, 1523 ( MU 52 ), 5940 ( TBC-I¹ 1474 ). 3 pl. maidit, IT i 105.13 . madit, Ériu ii 122.4 . muidit, iii 138.100 .

Subj. pres. 3 s. máis, LL 238b38 , 239a15 ( TTr. 1625 , 1647 ). mani má , LU 7121 ( BDD 80 ). Corm. Y 70. mona mæ , TBC-LL¹ 4754 , cf. 4979 , 5579 (for fut.). ní mai , Anecd. ii 31.4 .

Subj. impf. 3 s. no maidsed , TBC-LL¹ 830 , 840 (for cond.; leg. maidfed?) 3 pl. con-roimsitis, TBC-I¹ 3618.

Fut. 3 s. memais, Trip. 138.7 . SR 4705. mebais, 8320 . co mmema , LU 6099. ní mema , Ml. 89c11 . mani roima (for subj.), ib. 2 pl. con-memsam-ne, TBC-I¹ 3578. mebusmet, IT ii2 247.6 . 3 pl. co mensat (leg. memsat), LU 6097 = co memsad , TBC-I¹ 1626. co mmebsat , LU 6092 = co mbebsat , TBC-I¹ 1620. rel. memsite, TBC-I¹ 3087.

Cond. 3 s. con-mebsad (for subj.), TBC-LL¹ 5881. 3 pl. mebsaitis, TBC-I¹ 3547.

Pret. 3 s. memaid, SR 4765. Trip. 194.15 . co mmemaid , TBC-I¹ 578 = co mmebaid , LU 5066. ro-m-memaid, Ml. 127d6 . Mon. Tall. § 72. ro mebaid , SR 6913 , 6953 . co rróemid , LU 7946 ( BDD 157 ) = cu rroímid , BDD² ( Med. and Mod. Ir. Ser. viii ). co roimidh , AU 946. co ráemid , LU 9605 ( ZCP iii 206.18 ). co rraimid , IT i 76.5 . co rommid , Trip. 8.17 . co remid , AU 920 (p. 442.11) , 1016 . co remaidh , 995 , 998 , 1003 . co reimidh , AFM v 1536.9 . go rimheadh , ii 808.3 . go raoimhidh , ii 580.14 . go raeimeadh , vi 2040.10 . 3 pl. memdaitir, LU 5316 ( TBC-I¹ 839 ). memdatar, Corm. Y 950. ro mebdatar , SR 2522. ro mebatar , Alex. 31 , and so in late texts: cor mebhadar , CCath. 2031 , 2125 . ro mhebhatar , Lism. L. 2972. co roimdetar, Ériu ii 30.16 . con-róemtatar, Anecd. iii 61.9 .

Pass. pres. maidter, TBC-I¹ 3573. subj. pr. má[n]a mater , TTr.² 85.

1 in Mid.Ir. the 3 s. fut. mebais is occasionally used as a pret., e.g. LU 3791 ( SCC 36 ), Lism. L. 4051 , RC xiii 8.3 , and gives rise to a conjugation with stem meb-: Pres. 3 s. rel. mheabhas, Content. vi 68. Impf. 3 pl. no mheabtaís , BS 36.28 . Subj. pr. 3 s. dia meba , Ériu v 236.80 . 3 pl. mebat, Lat. Lives 106.4 . Fut. 3 s. mebaidh, Cog. 90.9 (= mébaidh?), cf. 144.7 . memaid for Cenél Conaill 'he will defeat Cenél Conaill', B. in Scáil² 43 § 43 . hi meabhai , BNnÉ 16.23 . Pret. 3 pl. ro mebsat , Lat. Lives 106.8 . meabhsattar, BNnÉ 84.7 . Pass. pret. romhebadh, Lism. L. 1550 , 1553 . — mébas, Alex. 212 ; — mébad, LB 129b32 seem intended for 3 s. rel. fut. and cond. respectively.

2 the pres. stem maid- (muid-, moid-) is used in Mid.Ir. to form subj., fut. and pret.: Subj. 3 s. mana maidi , TBC-I¹ 3577. dā muidhi , Fianaig. 84.14 . Fut. 3 s. maidfid, SR 6492. (rel.) muidhfes, Aen. 2451. muigfis, 2454 . 3 pl. maidfit, LU 9615 (wrongly máid-, ZCP iii 208 § 8 ). Cond. 3 s. no maidfed , SR 5036. Pret. 3 s. maidhis, AU i 532.5 , ii 72.3 . moidis, Lat. Lives 71.13 . ro maid , TBC-I¹ 774. diar' maid , SR 5582. ro muidh , AU 1022 , 1024 . corro moigh , Anecd. iii 37.6 . 3 pl. ro maidset , TBC-LL¹ 3824. ro muidhset , ZCP xi 62.4 . ro moigsed , xii 292.21 . do mhuigheadar , ML 96.2 . Pass. fut. muidfer, RC x 184.8 . pret. ro muided , ZCP viii 561.12 . nar' maedhed , Gorm. Dec. 8 . The stem muid- occas. becomes maoidh- in late texts.

vn. maidm.

In lit. sense breaks, bursts , intrans. but in 3 s. pres. occas. used with affixed reflex. pron. ma .i. briseadh, O'Cl. (3 s. subj. pr.). maidhis .i. brisis, ib. Eg. Gl. 458.

I Used like `bris(s)id' in the idiom: maidid (in cath, etc.) re (ria) A for B (the battle) breaks before A on B = A defeats B.

(a) with subj. expressed: nach comland i mbeithi, memais foraib ye shall be routed, Trip. 138.17 . co roemid in cath . . . for slog Filistín, SR 5891. cor mebaid in cath ria Concobar for Eochaid C. won the battle over E., Ériu ii 180.13 . muidit secht catha re nOsseirge for na Déise, iii 138.100 . mad romaib muigfis in cath-sa for Tuirnn, Aen. 2454. ní mai cath . . . riana gnúis may he never win battle, Anecd. ii 3 § 2 . ni ḟitir cia fora mébad in cath who would be defeated, LB 129b32 = cia fors-maidfid, SR 6492. memaith for Dál nA. in cath sin, ZCP viii 314.13 . Similarly with maidm as subj.: ro muid sruth-maidm . . . forro they were driven helter-skelter, ZCP xiii 238.14 . ceithri tuathao . . . fora roémsat tri madmand who were thrice routed, 4.11 . viii 115.3 .

(b) with omission of subj.: in tan ro mmemaid re nAbracham forsna coíc riga, Ml. 127d6 , cf. 89c11 . ria n-aṅgliu . . . mebais for demnu the angels will defeat the demons, SR 8320 , cf. 5582 . memaiss for Aed re nAed (a prophecy), ZCP xii 232 § 43. tic Labraid . . . ┐ mebais riam forsna slógu he defeated, SCC 36. mad romut máis . . . mad fort maides, LL 332c57 , 60 . maidhis for Gallu, AU 1014. dirsan flaith forsa-roemid, RC xxxvi 262 § 10 . dursan rī forsar-maig, Cog. 32.24 = fors-rœmidh, AFM i 508.17 . Galam ar nar raimhidh ríamh who was never worsted, Leb. Gab.(i) i 238.18 . With advbl. phrase denoting direction, the notion of flight being implicit: maidti forru sair co hAndobor they are routed, Ériu iii 141.203 . muiti riasna buaib fors[n]a linni she is driven before (by) the cattle to the pools (?), TBC-I¹ 1722. ro memaid ria maccaib Cathail as Indiu co lLuachair, LL 275b1 . ro mebaid forsna Troiándu docum a cathrach, TTr.² 1567. Fig.: go ro mheabhaidh for a ghlór till his voice gave way, AFM vi 2288.1 . meabhaidh ar mo ghuth ón ghol, Ir. Monthly 1927, 361.40 . da muidhi hi cond céilli `if they be worsted in sense and reason', Fianaig. 84.14 .

(c) occas. with LA or other prep. of victor: brister immairecc fairsom et maided fair lib let him be routed by you, Wb. 7c4 . for Oilill . . . meabais la Dal nAraidhi O. will be defeated by D., MacCarthy 396.27 . meabaidh lais a lochtaidhe `his guilt was vanquished by him', Leb. Gab.(i) i 36.12 . con-róemtatar dā chath huad forru, Anecd. iii 61.9 . ro mebatar ilchatha fria Pilip, Alex. 31 , where fria prob. = ria of l. 30 representing the prep. ria, re `before'.

(d) maidid de (do) x = x is routed, put to flight, and in wider sense, flees, (or without notion of flight) rushes: maidid día muntir-seom for teched, TBC-I¹ 1476. mutti dont slóg immi di cach leith the host rushes about him (of an ambush), 1474 . go ro memaid do graigib Gaedel the horses of the G. broke loose, TBC-LL¹ 3823 , cf. 3826 , 6065 . ro mebaid do na Págánda the pagans were routed, PH 7266. gur mhúigh do na Gallaib d'iarraidh a long, Ériu i 87.11 . With subj. expressed: cor memaid roscbéim rígdaide díb triasin cath (= they made a brilliant charge), CRR 34. do mhuigh bloiscbhém bodhba do na cathoibh cechtardha a ccenn a chéle, ITS v 184.25 . meabhaidh maidhmh díobh gus na scoraibh, Hugh Roe fo. 39a .

II In personal construction:

(a) in physical sense breaks (= is broken), bursts, gives way: mani má in talam fúe, BDD 80 , cf. TBC-LL¹ 4754 , TBC-I¹ 3577. maidid cridi cech duni dia seirc, SCC 33. ni máith cridhe cē chīe, Corm. Y 419 = Bruchst. i § 96.6 . madit a shuili inna cinn, Ériu ii 122.4 . co mmemaidh a chenn frisinn ailich, Lat. Lives 53. ro memaid coss ind ríg i ndó, Mon. Tall. § 72. co mbeba do ser fout, IT ii 247.8 . notgēb-sa im ladair co mbebsat [mmebsat LU] t'asnai, TBC-I¹ 1620. maitti immi-seom in dabach, LU 5201 = maiti . . . dabaich, TBC-I¹ 991. in bail . . . hi meabhai [a mbeabh v.l.] iris bhar tteighi liubair, BNnÉ 16 § 26. mebais ind roth ramhuch (a prophecy), ZCP x 343.26 . co ráemid in cholcid, LU 10478 (Tochmarc Emere). co raimdetar úammand a cholcthech the seams . . . burst, TBC-LL¹ 109. na craobha no mheabhtaís fó a chosaibh, BS 36.28 . mani má do á unless thy car break, Corm. Y 70 (cf. Ériu xi 43 ). memdaitir a carpait leu oc comroc, TBC-I¹ 839. meabhsattar na tri glais the three bolts burst, BNnÉ 84.7 . corro moigh bernn ind a gap was broken, Anecd. iii 37.6 .

(b) of persons, is routed, flees; rushes, makes a dash: maidti munter Fhergusa hi teiched, maidti Ailill i n-a ndiaidh F.'s people take to flight, A. gives them chase, IT ii2 210.66 (LL = maitte, Eg.). [ni]con-memsam-ne de sund we will not flee from this spot, TBC-I¹ 3578. maidit na sluaig for na dorsi . . . maidit immach assind liss, IT i 105.13 , 16 . muidig [= muidid] N. futha-san mar luas [fh]aindile, ZCP xiii 213.2 . memaid saithe . . . siardess co Mondornd, viii 308.14 . Leb. Gab.(i) i 278.20 . mebdatar a n-noí díib they (Síl Cuinn) fled in a ship (?), ZCP viii 313.35 , a confusion with the construction I (d).

(c) of things, bursts forth, gushes, springs up, arises: ro mebdatar [sruamma] tria thalmain, SR 2522. co rommid topar usque ass, Trip. 8.17 = Lat. Lives 44. mebais trethan dar cach tír the sea will break over every country, RC xxvi 48 § 251 . ro meabatar na da loch, Leb. Gab.(i) i 74.10 . i n-aimsir N. ro mhuidhsiod na locha so, Keat. i p. 176 . ro mhuidhset teora tipraite . . . assin talmain, Fl. Earls 210.3 . ro mebaid loim cráo dar a bél, CRR 12. co roimidh salchur a chinn dar a chluasaib immach, Cáin Ad. § 14. is aíble tened moidit trem chroicenn, Lat. Lives 84. co maiged a duibdiad ┐ a lasra a huamaib in tshlebi amach, Aen. 142. ro mebutar .xiiii. [diasa do chruithnecht] a muigib na Bethile sprang up, LB 133a5 . ro mheabhaidh na bairilledha in n-áen breó lasrach burst into flame, exploded, AFM vi 2012.8 .

Further extensions: mebais a fháitbiud gáire for Fergus F. burst out laughing, CRR 18. gur mhaoidh orruinn gean gáire, Oss. vi 8.19 . ro maidh a cai for in n-apach the corpse began to wail, CCath. 4218. gor muidh a déra tar a gruadaibh, 4219 . S. Franciscus forar mhuidhset coic crechta (of the stigmata), Fl. Earls 162.18 . Cf. also: mebais din boilgg innocht `it will burst from the boil' (? the boil will burst or disappear, cf. I (d)), Ériu iv 32.4 .

(d) rarely in late texts, with FOR (AR), breaks, vanquishes: scél fár mheabhuigh sé ar an síth `with which he shattered the peace', Ériu iv 214.3 . a ghrasaigh ghloin do mhuidh ar mhídhúilibh, Ó Bruad. i 24 § 9.

III Trans. breaks, defeats, shatters (in physical and fig. sense); an uncommon use chiefly in pass., perh. due to the form maitti (= maidid -i) being taken as pret. pass. maidter rempi fo thri, TBC-I¹ 3573. xxx. cath ro mhebadh roime, Lism. L. 1550. maoidhtear rompa, Keat. i 204.5 . la Machair nar maedhed (.i. ó Diabhal), Gorm. Dec. 8. ó rom-maidh an scél (`the calamity having shattered me', O'Gr. Cat. ), Acall. 862. ? athgabail fir muides muilend `who breaks the rule respecting the mill', Laws i 194.27 . don fir isa soc ro mebadh `whose ploughshare was broken', 200.6 Comm. clann nar mhuidh móid who broke not covenant, Content. iv 36. a mheic Máire nach muidh mionn, Ir. Monthly 1928, 39.44 . ? nā maidid [maidigh, maigid MSS.] in t-echt noco ngaba fo thrí ar a anáil `let him not do the deed until he has three times kept his breath', Mer. Uil. 134 , cf. 137 ; perh. intrans. = II (c) above, if this vb.; leg. maíded = moíded?

marbán

Cite this: eDIL s.v. marbán or dil.ie/31575

Forms: marbáin, marbhain

n o, m., a dead person: dirsan marban i mmí gamh, Corm. Y 673 = Bruchst. i § 96 . for colainn marbain, Trip. 222.4 . imradud in marbain thought of the dead man, LL 275a5 = Mór M. 265 § 6. v s. a marbáin chuili, RC xiii 389.22 . pl. marbhain na bliadhna-sa those who have died this year, TFrag. 60 = Bruchst. i § 96 . caoinfead marbhána inghine mo phobail (= interfectos), TSh. 5826. Cf. mairbne.

mil

Cite this: eDIL s.v. mil or dil.ie/32220
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: mil, melo, mela, mil, Milbheoil, milbéla, milbuilci

n i, f., d s. di mil , Wb. 7d9 (only instance in Glosses). g s. frois melo , AU 717 ; later mela. mil f. IGT Dec. § 149.

Honey: gl. mel, Ir. Gl. 974. m.¤ .i. mel ro truailled and (i.e. it is a corruption of Lat. mel), Corm. Y 888. im ur do macuibh airiuch, m.¤ do macuib righ, Laws ii 148.22 Comm. cóic fichit bargen cruithnechta . . . iarna fuine tria m.¤ , FB 9. m.¤ is mes in cech tir (sign of a prosperous reign), ZCP viii 109.4 . deol mela a mecna[ib] ibair (of a futile undertaking), MacCongl. 71. 28 , cf. buain mhela a mecnaib iobhuir, Anecd. ii 72. criathar mela honey-comb , PH 6711. milse na meala, TSh. 585. (cryptic) maincil .i. mil, Goid. 78 § 227 (Dúil Laithne) . mincil(l) .i. mil, 76 § 91 , ZCP xlix-l 613 .

Compds. ¤bél n. honey-mouth , freq. as epithet: Conan Milbel mac in Dagda, RC xiii 9.13 , cf. Ériu v 224.99 . Cermait milbel mac an Dagda, Fianaig. 42 § 7 , cf. LL 266a38 ( MU 30.9 ). g s. Chearmada Milbheoil , Keat. i 108.6 . Loegair[e] Milbél, TBC-LL¹ 4832. pl. milbéla druinecha `skilful women are honey-mouthed', Tec. Corm. § 13.37 . ¤bláith: Maol Milscothach milblaith, Anecd. ii 68. ¤bolc m. honey-bag: g s. (as ā, f.) mac milbuilci mela, MacCongl. 123.36 . ¤briathrach sweet-worded: a ddēin miding milbriathraig, IT iii 106.20 . ¤scoth: aliu tech Midchuarta milscothaib with honeyed words (?), IT iii 51 § 94 . miollscoithi .i. milisbhriathrach, O'Cl. ¤scothach: Mane m., BDD 42 , cf. Ériu ii 184.6 . Maol M. .i. milisbriathrach, Anecd. ii 47.16 . ¤tenga a sweet tongue, persuasive eloquence: atcota m. brethemnus, Anecd. iii 12.23 . Ailill Milteṅga, ZCP viii 218.13 . TBC-LL¹ 5471. ¤tengaid (i, m. ?) one gifted with persuasive eloquence (?): bá dirsan nád boí m. dognéth córai fri Grécu, TTr.² 910. ¤tengthach: techtaire mláith m., Ériu iii 106 § 44.

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