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an-

Cite this: eDIL s.v. an- or dil.ie/3240
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: an-, am-, in-, im-, an-, in-, an-, é-, an-, am-, an-, am-, an-, am-, am-, am-, an-, an(n)-, an-, n-

neg. pref. (IE vocalic *n-), appearing as an-, am-, in-, im-(?), é- before different initials. See GOI § 869 ff. , Dillon, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1944, 94 ff. Even in O. Ir. the original phonetic distribution has been disturbed by analogical formations, e.g. an- for in- before d, g (andach, anglan); an- for é- before c in nouns (aincél, aincride); both an- and am- before vowels (anecne, amulach). This becomes more widespread in later lang., where in addition to regular formations of the type éccóir, étrócar we find the unphonetic édaingen, édána, édlúith, édóchas, édóig, édomain, éiderb, éidrímtha (with extension of -d-), éigrinn, éscus (scís), étriad (anríad, v.l.): énirt occurs in Wb. The form in-, regular before d-, g- (indles, with recomposition indíles, ingnad, also ingnáth) appears later in inḟebda, inḟoltach (= anfoltach), inísel, inmall, inmálla, innáire, intinne (teinne), inúath; note extension of -d- in ind(ḟ)úar, while imbil is a possible ex. of im- before b- (see GOI p. 543 ).

The forms an- and am- eventually become for all intents and purposes interchangeable in meaning (a), and many doublets arise (aindeóin, aimdeóin; anglan, amglan). But there are no exx. of an- before p- nor of am- before m-, s-, and t- (before i- only in amaires, before p- only in amprom, where prom is a loanword). Acc. to GOI p. 104 the neutral quality of the nasal seems to have been preserved before palatal vowels in the early language (note also amraid, anbal, etc.). The later tendency is for m and n to be palatalized before front vowels and palatal consonants. Cf. ainfírinne, Wb. 2a17 . The form am- presumably lenited l, r, n. In the case of initial b- the group -mb- later becomes -m(m)- (aimbrit aimrid). In its later extension am- lenites all other consonants before which it occurs. The original mutation after an- in the case of f, g(?), c was nasalization (anbal, anglan, aincride). In the later language an- lenites b c f g m (cf. aincreitem later ainchreitem, etc.); t apparently remains unchanged (ainteist aintenn); an- before d gives an(n)-, this combination falling together with original an- before n- (aindeoin, -nn-; aindíaraid, -nn-; ainnert). In old compds. a long vowel in the second element is shortened (anbal, amraid with subsequent recomposition ainfíal, aimréid) (cf. indles, ingnad above).

In frequent composition with nouns and adjj., and rarely with vbs. (ainlenaid, anadnaid, anaibsigid).

Though a few forms like aineóil strange occur fairly frequently these seem to be g s. of the nouns rather than adjj. of the type sochineóil etc. However, énirt is no doubt correctly given as adj. i-stem. The same may apply to the later aimnirt. See also aindeis, aindíles (see aindíles), ainféich, ainéitid.

(a) not, non-, un- (aimecna, aimles, ainbthen, aincreitem, aindebaid, aindeóin, aindíbad, aindliged, aineól, ainféile, ainfis, ainteist, am(a)ires; aimbil, aimdis, aimglicc, ainfesach, 2 anglan, amraid etc. For exx. with é-, in- see Fasc. E, I).

(b) The (later?) meaning bad, undesirable, unsuitable (with nouns) is found e.g. in ainben, ainbreith, aindía, aindíl, anduine, ainécht, 1 ainfine, anflaith, anfolad, aingním, ainimme, ainmían, 1 ainrecht, ainríad, ainricht, ainríge, aintír, anchruth, antocad. Words with a(i)m- in this sense are less frequent (aimbés, aimbéscna, aimles(?), aimricht; the adj. ainíarmartach is derived from a noun.

(c) As intensive prefix great, very (see Dillon ad loc. cit.). Though this meaning becomes common only in the later language there are some early formations; inglan is found in SR, ind(ḟ)úar, innáire in LL, ingarg in Todd Nenn., though inḟebda, iníchtar etc. are late. The form. a(i)m- is not found with this meaning (aimlesc is for aidlesc), in which a(i)n- has the widest extension and is still current in the spoken language. The follg. are early exx.: anfann (usual from the mid. Ir. period on), 2 aingel (Corm. Y), ainéitig (LL), ainecla (CCath.). The follg. are later: anbrath, ainching, andána, aindíchell, aindíummus, andóchas, ainfergach, ainnert, aintreise. With late byform ana- cf. anbroic, anbroit etc. Some forms are of doubtful origin. Cf. an-, am-, dīultadaig gāidilge, amail rongab . . . nert ┐ amnert, Corm. Y 23 . is inund in t-am fil ann ┐ mors nó . . . nem (etym. explanation of amrad), ACC § 140 ( RC xx 414 ). am .i. aigheadh, H 3.18, 416b23 . amh .i. olc, O'Cl. amh .i. diultadh, ib. Emain .i. amhaon; amh, aga dhiultadh nach aon rug Macha . . . acht dias, Keat. ii 2426 . ? and .i. deliugadh nó dethbir, Ériu xiii 81 § 291 .

diúltadach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. diúltadach or dil.ie/16977

 

Forms: diúltach, Diultadhaigh

adj (diúltad). Occas. also diúltach.

(a) that denies or rejects , absol. or with obj. gen.: sacart diultadhach, Triads 96(M) ( diultach, BB 66b14 ). is diultadach Patraic ┐ na hirsi nach oen deraig a thír, LB 11a17 = diultach, Mon. Tall. 133 . ni fhaicfe mo dhiultadhach | go bráth an flaithes nemdha whosoever denies (rejects) me, BNnÉ 285 .

(b) given to refusing, stingy, grudging: ní diultach (diultadach, v.l.) mo charae, Fél. Ep. 371 . nársad diultadach um biad, Acall. 602 . nírbo haithesc ndībech nduaibsech nd.¤ , Anecd. ii 72 . cleirech dibech d.¤ , Moling 42 . a dregain derg díultadaig , IT iii 104 . In mock n.pr. (subst.) Gainne ingen Diultadhaigh , Anecd. ii 54.3 .

(c) denying (oppd. to affirming), negative: ata cuit dib díultadach ┐ araile daíngnighthe some (of the Commandments) are prohibitions and others commands, PH 7298 . As subst. an-, am-, diultadaig gaidilge negatives , Corm. Y 23 .

draic

Cite this: eDIL s.v. draic or dil.ie/18561

 

Forms: drec, dracon, drecon, drauc, draic, drecc, dracon, dreccon, draicc, drauc, draic, dric, drac, dracon, Drecon, draice, drecoin, dracoine, dracon, dracoin, draic, dracon, drec, dreicg, dracoin, draice, dracon, draicce

n m. and f. (Lat. draco) Also drec, dracon, drecon, etc. n s. drauc, Imr. Brain § 53 . draic, FA § 20 , etc. drecc, BDD² 1238 . dracon, Metr. Dinds. ii 82.34 . dreccon, IT iii 32.16 . v s. draicc, PH 2502 . a dregain díultadaig , IT iii 104.12 . a s. drauc, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 16.7 . draic (draec, dric, drac, v.l.), Fél. Sept. 29 . amail dreccain duind, YBL 127b33 . g s. dracon, TBC-I¹ 966 . Drecon, Fél. 202.4 . na draice , PH 2489 . drecoin, TBC-LL¹ 266 . dracoine, PH 6286 . na dracon , 337 . d s. dracoin, Ériu ii 98 § 1 . draic, PH 2491 . dracon, 336 . n du. dā drec , TBC-I¹ 3314 (? = da dreicg , TBC-LL¹ 5376 ). n p. dracoin, Ériu ii 104 § 15 . draice, LB 141b35 (distinguished from dracoin, 34 ). g p. dracon, Ériu ii 116 § 46 . draicce, CCath. 4151 .

Dragon, generally conceived of as a fire-breathing serpent or monster: drac lonn loiscfes cach, Fél. 190 (Aug. 29) . draic thened, LL 169a45 . dracon daigrech, Metr. Dinds. ii 82.34 . Loch Bél Dragan .i. drag tinedh . . . a richt bradāin, RC xv 441 ( Dinds. 47 ) = dreg theined, SG ii 477.21 . co mbruth dracon, co n-anāil nathrach, TBC-I¹ 966 . airdri . . . as feochru cach ndracoin, Ériu ii 98 § 1 = feocra na gach dregan, RC xxiv 369.3 . co rasílta d'fhiaclaib dracon, LL 220b30 ( TTr. 261 ). draigi ┐ nathracha, CCath. 1773 . tainig Ainnti-Crist a richt dreaguin, Lib. Flav. i 321a11 . a fulib drecon is loscend, Cog. 158.19 . doniat balsamum do draicibh, Marco P. 119 . fuil dreagoin (= sanguis draconis, name of a medicine), 23 F 19, 6rb51 .

Fig. of a warrior or hero: bíd drauc (draic, draig, v.l.) ré mbuidnib i froiss, Imr. Brain § 53 . am draicc dine drechtach, RC xv 424 . Eochuid drauc Domplen, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 18 § 2 . Domnall Mend Ulad . . . drauc ilair band, ZCP xiii 381.11 . dā chaur . . . dā drec, TBC-I¹ 3314 . dragain mheara a dtosach catha, O'Rah. 24.5 (1911) (dragáin ?). dreagan daonnachtach ré dáil, Ó Bruad. ii 102.18 . Of a woman: tuc doib nemain ┐ neim | in draic dremain der demin, LL 213b21 .

As n.pr. m.: Dregan a Síd Beinde hEtair, Acall. 5132 . Dreagan Dronuallach, CF 261 . Iruad mac Dreagain ri Fer nDreagan, 9 .

See dragán, dragún.

2 éim

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 éim or dil.ie/19800
Last Revised: 2013

 

adj prompt, ready, timely : éimh .i. ésgaidh, luath, ullamh no maith, O'Cl. airlicud éim `ready hiring' Tec. Corm. § 3.33 . corop éim ar cobair úaib, LL 308b3 = SG 389.20 . corbo éim ┐ corbo ellam, MU 8.32 = LL 262b46 . Boand ainm ind usci éim ( : reim), Ériu vii 229.23 . ferais failte uasail ēimh, ZCP viii 219 § 16 . ina toraind eolaich éim (: rēidh), BB 162a17 . As adv. : taric éim (v.l. eim, em, emh) frit toscai comes quickly Fél. July 19 ; cf. Metr. Dinds. ii 10.11 . Ériu vii 223.13 . érig suas co héim, LL 307a11 = SG 386.23 . inmis E. go héimh | ann soin cealg n-aghmhar n-aigmhéil, 3 C 12, 198 . is é dom it is timely, opportune, for me : it tromda na fuli formsa, ba héim dam mo íc, TBC-I¹ 1807 . is é.¤ lim I deem it timely, seasonable (?) : ni cotalta co mba ēim lat (until you are drowsy?) ZCP iii 29.36 . eim .i. maith, ut est tain ba heim leis imghabail na sleige, O'Curry 1366 ( H 3.18, 625 ). badid nemhethar (leg. n-éimithir), TFrag. 44.7 .

i néim, anéim (< ind éim?) timely, prompt, opportune: is téoir ineim...bar C. Cid teoir ineim duitsiu é, ní ba teóir anéim dúnni it is timely aid, said C. Though timely for thee, it is not so for us TBC-LL¹ 2970 ( = tóir anemh, St ; is cobar in inneimib, TBC-I¹ 2189 ). dom ficibsa [sic] cobuir cōir | fo bithin is tōir a n-ēimh ( : réil), ZCP x 47.22 . rop slán aneim damsa so, TBC-LL¹ 2416 . inéim rop slán 2417 = iniam bid slán, TBC-I¹ 1750 . (The expression in-éim must be distinguished from the adj. anéim untimely, unready : an-, am-, diultadaig...amal rongab nath ┐ annath, eim ┐ aineim, Corm. Y 23 ). ba émh tar anem, CCath. 552 . (na hob eim nachit-tair aneim reject not the timely lest thou be overtaken by the untimely. vl. add.) Freq. in etymological glosses, e.g. mani toir etach co héim, gl. on : muna torma tlacht, Laws iv 36.16 . ni himaircide .i. ni heim airechta, Auraic. 3159 . See Laws vi 295 .