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? amdlugaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? amdlugaid or dil.ie/3122

 

v (cf. dlug ): glac nach amdlugad Érinn, Metr. Dinds. iii 330.18 ` misbecame ', v 137 (amlugud, amdubad, v.l.).

damnae

Cite this: eDIL s.v. damnae or dil.ie/14522
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: domnae, daṁna

n domnae io, n. Like adbar and ON efni, Welsh defnydd ZCP x 370 , LEIA D-21 .

I The stuff or material out of which something is wrought or created.

(a) in a material sense: damna teora mbairgen, Laws ii 176. 18 . damna feirtse, damna certle (as a fine), ib. iv 108. 6 . ní hón gabaind a daṁna, ib. v 18. 10 . roboingeadh damna in chléib no na cleithi comlan annsund, ib. 474. 24 . damna fondssa damna loinida, ib. 482. 29 . Cf. also ii 420. 10 : domna coisc di du mil no saithi beach.— dachuaid da bein damna cruiti, RC ii 197. 20 . damna trostáin ┐ damna bhaichle, SG 38. 12 . luid Hercoil issin fidbaid do buain damnai rámai, TTr. 230 . primal matter : cid robói isin chruindchuairt ildelbhaig ba damna doṁain... Robói ar se isin chuairt toruchta domna domain .i. uacht ┐ tes soilsi ┐ dorcha lind ┐ tirim, Ériu ii 106. 33 sq. issind dluim chruind dorónad do domna domain, ib. 108. 7 . dobí damna ifrinn isin ṁais ildhelbaig asar benad an doman, RC xxiv 372. 7 . —METAPH. in net ngribi sin... ┐ in damna áigh .i. longphort Cesair, CCath. 4904 . fail lim dliged is damna subject-matter (of poetry), Metr. Dinds. iii 278. 39 ( LL 155 b 25 ).

(b) in a personal sense: `one fit to be'—also in merely temp. sense: `one designed to be.' damnae napad: céin bes damna apaidh (leg. apadh) do fine erluma, Laws iii 72. 13 . muna táinic d. a. dfine erloṁa...in apdaine do thabuirt dfine manuch noco roib d. a. dfine erloṁa, ib. 72. 19 . ib. 74. 1 , 5 , 6 , 10 . 78. 2 , 3 , 17 . muna be damna napaidh (leg. napadh) cid coitchinn doib, ib. 78. 25 . damnae cimbedo: cona[d] damna cimeda insin tar cend tuaithe, ib. iv 354. 2 . damnae nepscuip: áliss Pátricc Dubthach im damnae nepscuip dia desciplib di Laignib, Thes. ii 241. 7 . damnae fir: isé biad uais imfuilnges damna in fir .i. gairigh gilla no tamain fir the minor, i.e. the underage youth or makings of a man (O'D.), Laws ii 256. 18 . Ferdomun .i. damna fir, ib. 20 . damnae flatho: damna flatha as dech tánic Hérind the best crown-prince that has ever come into Erin BDD 106 . domna finnflatha, AU i 392. 8 . damnae láich: olc damnae láich fil and, LU 60 a 5 . TBC-LL¹ 453 Y. damnae nolloman, Acall. 3353 . damnae ríg one fit to be a king, a royal heir (= rígdomna), see O'Br. s.v. daṁna .

II n An heir : iomdha daṁna i ndiaidh aroile fuair an chríoch so Chuirc mar é, Ó Bruad. xi 3 .

III n A matter, cause, reason, motive . ba hé domna in choctha, LL 170 a 20 . damna dinriud is dḟogail, ib. 195 a 13 . ní bu fubthud cin damna, Ériu ii 100. 26 . is daṁnai móirchreatha ┐ uaṁain a matter of great trembling and terror, ib. 136. 26 . cid deghnie drochfethol ? ol sé. tathum a daṁnai ol esium I have cause for it RC xii 64 § 27 . cid robud ? or si. atá a damna and there is a cause for it Anecd. i 4. 6 . cidh tái a[g] gul ? fil a doṁna accum, Lib. Flav. 37 b 17 . damna deabhtha, Todd Nenn. 132. 3 . domna trota LL 11 a 40 . diultaider ic Tadc co trén do Murni ba domna dér, ib. 202 a 63 . fa daṁna dér, Ériu i 32, l. 246 . tathum domna bróin I have a cause of sorrow LL 192 b 48 . damna dogra, MR 294. 8 . damna guil ┐ dér, BB 31 b 10 . daṁna éccaoine, BS § 67. 4 . daṁna meatha, Each. Iol. 57. 14 . fail damna molta forro, TBC-LL¹ 416 Stowe ( dlug molto LL). damnae tuirse a cause of sorrow, cf. Dinneen . Cf. also Laws iii 94. 5 : na cuic cinaid duine ni damna mella.

IV damna .i. obair ut est: intí tuc a damna daim no capaill ar log, H 3.18, 650 a ; but here damna daim seems to signify a young ox, cf. damnae fir above.

COMPD. ríg-damnae a royal heir LL 151 b 19 . TBC-LL¹ 1483 Y. BDD 86. 1 . ITS v 106 .

MOD. daṁna, P. O'C. O'R. Dinneen .

deimne

Cite this: eDIL s.v. deimne or dil.ie/15213

 

n , f. (deimin) firmness, stability . IGT Abstr. Nouns § 21 . d.¤ .i. daingne, ut est meiser aicdi ara deimni .i. ara daingne ima tighet, O'Dav. 748 . ara d.¤ (sic leg.) ┐ ara daiṅgne coṅgbaither a n-airm illámaib nammíled, TBC-LL¹ 5865 . ropo dlug demne a cogent reason (?), LL 11b9 = BB 35b25 (: innerge). Certainty, assurance (?): co ndemni certainly , LL 141a2 . co ndemne, Metr. Dinds. iii 22 . In chevilles: demni de, LL 143b9 . demne dolaid `sorrowful certainty', Metr. Dinds. iv 104 . d.¤ drend, ZCP viii 516 ( LL 191a10 ). Cf. also SR 6765 : tinolsat deimni teclai | slúagai sergi Sírecdai.

dlug

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dlug or dil.ie/17062
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: dluig

n Freq. also dluig (cf. dligid?)

(a) justifying reason; hence right, claim, possession; freq. in phrase is d.¤ do x x has a right to: dludh .i. dualghas, O'Cl. dluig .i. dliged, Stowe Gl. 131 . fail dlug (damna, adhbhar, v.ll.) molta forro there is good reason to praise them, TBC-LL¹ 416 . éc no guin ó muntir móir | dluig brōin atchluintir i cēin, LL 33a8 . ropo throm ri claind Nemid | in cháin sin ba dluig debig it was enough to cause strife, 206a9 ( Metr. Dinds. iv 250 ). is eol dam-sa in dluig diatá | Lecht hEile the reason for which L. E. got its name, 192b9 (ib. 326 ). nocho dluig āli, | nī anfam fa[t] dāig you have no reason for timidity, I will not tarry for you, TBC-I¹ 2466 . asbert D. is olc do gné a rígmilid . . . Asbert M. bai a dlug do, Cog. 170 . roiarfaiged dín scéla; | ní bái dúin dluig a shéna, RC vii 302 . ní fuil do dluig do gasced nō dott' ārim etir dag-óco thou hast no claim to valour or to be mentioned . . ., xiv 408 . connach fail do dluig nā do dúal na do díl ri gail ná ra gaisced, TBC-LL¹ 3792 . ferr do dluig-siu ┐ do díl innáit sin uile better is thy possession (thou art better off than as in (b) ?), Acall. 4597 . biaidh i n-ifern tri bith sír, | bid hé a díl is a dluigh, Moling 45 . noem-rí gréine glan | as caeimhe gach dlugh `fairer than any possession', Ériu iv 236 . biathadh mís . . . do cúiged Muman . . . ┐ dia rí, ni dluidh deolaigh no mean claim (?), BB 269a2 (= ni dligh deolaigh, Leb. Cert. 34 ). mo duan, ni dub ni dous (= dofius) | dlug dont ṡluag cosnaius, LL 193b58 ( Metr. Dinds. iv 332 ). cía bé dlug bías duib, 'whatever justification you may have' Metr. Dinds. iii 42.43 , Ériu lv 73 . Rauphel . . . Máirt is dó is dluig (: cuir) Tuesday is his day (`under his protection'), KMMisc. 255 . ni dluig ┐ ni dligid duit-siu clann C. do laidiud, MR 152 . robo dluigh dūinne conāch crōdachta ┐ innmusa do beith oraind on fine or' fhásamur, Expugn. Hib. 33 . cá dluidh duitsi . . . ar n-imarcraidh-ne do denum?, ZCP xi 40 . bheith neimhneach dheid gion gur dluigh `though your spitefulness is uncalled for', Content. x 1 . suirge ni dluigh dhamh óir ni mealloim mná, Duan. F. i 80 . ní dhó gér dhluigh a chaoine | as mhó ḟuil ar n-éagcaoine, DDána 64.18 . a thréidhe i nDiarmuid as dluigh, 91.37 . ? co ndabaig dān-dlugae a wine-vat as a poet's due (?), ZCP xii 273 . re nguin mh'échta-sa | nim-dluigh duarcus[s]a `I deserved not harshness', BS 96 .

(b) plight, lot, fate (infl. of díl, dual, see above): gid doirb dluig, Fen. 374 . arca (= arco) fuin | do rig nime . . . leis mo dluig, YBL 316a41 . na heaspaig sin, truagh a ndlugh | muna trēicet a n-uabhar, ZCP xii 392 . do dluig-siu ┐ do díl, Acall. 4597 (see (a)). ni tiocfa, ciodh daor an dlug, | eccnach dia n-éis san saoghal, BNnÉ 253 . dluigh nar dír, BB 56a7 . ? frith ar matain, derb in dlug, | i mbrolluch Conchobair chaim | noedenan, LL 144b14 .

(c) desire (?): dlug .i. acobor, Corm. Y 495 (perh. an inference). dlugh .i. acobar, O'Mulc. 325 . Perhaps also (or in meaning (a)?): ni beoda a dula cen geiss | ma ta air-sium dluig legis `if he desires to be healed' (if he has a claim to . . .?), TFerbe 574 . atbēr frit co dian do dluig (answer to request for information) what you desire (?), what you claim (?), Ériu vii 225 .

(d) means, contrivance (?): dluigh .i. inneall, O'Cl. conā raibi dlug diubraict[h]i nó edh urchuir ettarru (interval), CCath. 5814 . in fetabair cade in dluig | diar gab Oengus in mBruig mbuain? the trick whereby O. obtained the B., Ériu vii 220 . cá dluidh dogén risin muir moir? `how shall I contrive (to cross) the sea?', SG 242 . da mbeith dluid lasta for dūilib ō dāinib d'arm ┐ d'eirred . . . if human beings had any way of setting the world ablaze . . . (?), BB 431b15 . Perh. also in the follg.: Róim na hEirenn hí (i.e. reilic Molaise) as gach mudh | ní dlug do saoradh na slógh, SG 33 . bit [aingil] limm . . . am chind . . ., † bit daingen nach dluig|secht cuir aingel air (bendacht aingil am dluig, v.l.), KMMisc. 254 .

dluig

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dluig or dil.ie/17066

 

x see dlug .

dluige

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dluige or dil.ie/17067

 

Forms: dluga(e), dluighi

io Also dluga(e) vn. of dlongid and 1 dluigid. dluighi f., IGT Decl. § 3 , Verbs § 111 .

(a) splitting, cleaving, rending: scinde .i. d.¤ ne[i]ch, Corm. Y 1183 . dlugh[e] .i. scoltad, O'Dav. 681 . is éol dam-sa a mbias de: | d.¤ srónae óclaige, Fianaig. 26 . a pianad ┐ a marbad .i. a ndluigi ina ngablaib . . . ┐ a scoltad ina cridib, LB 154b52 . dairghe dúinte gan dluighe | sailghe a cúirte, Ériu v 60 . dluighi mara ruaid in ndiaidh in pobail, BB 18a41 . Muir Ruad do dlugi, Todd Lect. vi 24 . iar femed in craind do dluighi, Fél. Apr. 4 . fot cacha cainnli iar na roinn . . . da dluighi do chur itha innti for splitting (a rushlight) in order to put grease into it, Laws ii 252 Comm. cloictheach . . . do dluighe do chaoir theineadh, AFM ii 1012 . rogníd do dergibur iarna dlugu, LL 181b5 . robo imdha sciath iarna dlugha ó or co hur, TTr.² 1369 = iarna dluḡ , LL 408b1 (expanded dlug ud , TTr. 2231 ). oc dluide a hédaig, PH 1355 . intan ro-m-ba a n-inlobra ┐ dloigi disintegration , 3803 .

(b) dividing, sundering, parting: dluighe .i. dealugud, O'Dav. 717 (quoting ur[d]luide, Laws v 366 ). Dauid . . . ni truag dluige ríana dreich, | ba luath luide cen luirech, SR 5879 . ic dluighi ┐ ic deiliugud na dá ferann, CCath. 154 . cionnus do bherdaoís dluighe nó diansccaoileadh ar na deghshluacchaibh, AFM v 1644 . ní théid dluighe díomdha ar mo dheoraibh dispersion , Keat. Poems 186 . Fig. ic fadbsoud .i. ic dlugi cest canone solving , RC xx 402 (ACC Comm).

? 2 dluigid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? 2 dluigid or dil.ie/17069

 

ind ma ro dluigh siu[m] ┐ nir dluigh si, is in choibche do breith dosum. Ma ro dluidh si ┐ niro dluigh sium . . . ma ro dluiged sum ┐ niro dluighed si . . . is roind ar dó na coibche, ZCP xvi 218.3 = ra tlughedh, nír tlughedh, O'D. 2366 ( Rawl. B 506, 43 rb ) (of a married pair). Cf. dlug ?

1 é, hé

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 é, hé or dil.ie/19325
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: ishé, is hé, hǽ, isé, hǽ, hé, asné, ishe, issé, isé, é, hé, é, hésom, hesom, hǽsium, ésium, esium, eisiu, esiomh, eisim, esim, éseom, eseom, eiseom, esen, ésen, eisen, eisea, eision, essium, eissiu, eissiumh, esseo, essem, essim, eissi, eissin, hisseom, heside, he side, éside, eside, éisidhe, eisidhe, eiside, esede, eisidh, esiden, esidein, eisidhein, esein, éisei, eiséin, eisidei, eiseic, ese, esside, hessidhi, eissid, eissidi, eissideic, eisseic, eissein, es(s)ide, bé, cebe, gibe, cidbe, eside, esium, (h) é, éseom, esium, eissium, é, é

pron. 3 s. m. ; fem. , q.v. (later also í) ; neut. 1 ed, q.v. For pl. see 2 é.

In Glosses with copula : ishé, Wb. 4c3 . 25b2 . Sg. 3b20 . is hé, Ml. 36a32 . is hǽ , 102b5 . isé, BCr. 18b12 . mad hǽ , Wb. 27b6 . ba hé , Ml. 24a4 . Wb. 19c4 . asné, 4d16 . Ml. 31b24 . Mark of length sometimes omitted, as : ishe Wb. 25a24 . Ml. 45b11 .

In early Mid. Ir. with copula 3 s. pr. issé, isé ; independently é, hé ; in later MSS regularly é. Before -som, etc. hésom, Wb. 7c8 . 24d5 . hesom, Ml. 53a5 . 90b13 . hǽsium, Ml. 30c5 . ésium, TBC-LL¹ 1744 . 6050 . esium, 1107 . 1189 . LL 223b14 . eisiu, Acall. 1979 . esiomh, TBC-LL¹ 3883 St. eisim, TBC-I¹ 2444 . BColm. 60.6 . esim, 104 . 12 . éseom, TBC-LL¹ 5971. eseom, LU 12a36 . 126a29 . TBC-I¹ 559 . 580 . eiseom, 1222 . 1543 . TTr.² 1451 . esen Corm. Y 276 . CCath. 2615 . ésen, TBC-LL¹ 2893. eisen O'Gr. Cat. 488 ( : seisen). eisea, Dán Dé xxv 53 ( : móirsheisear). TSh. 5134 . eision, TBC-LL¹ 3883 v.l. TD 34. l. 189 . In early Mid. Ir. freq. with -ss- : essium, PH 281. MacCongl. 55.11 . eissiu, Acall. 6017.6708 . 7890 . eissiumh Metr. Dinds. iv 282y . esseo, Trip. 394.4 . IT i 131.12 . essem, Ériu i 126.12 . ZCP ix 156 ( = TBC-I¹ 1543 ). essim ZCP iii 258 ( = LU 126a29 ). eissi, Acall. 2080.3353 . eissin, 7642 . Cf. hisseom, PH 1513 . Before -side, -séin, etc. : heside, Wb. 3c15 . Ml. 100c10 . 102a20 . he side Ml. 100b23 . éside, LL 219a34 . eside, TBC-LL¹ 2230 . PH 929 , etc. éisidhe, Lism. L. 3429 . eisidhe, 424 . eiside Laws iv 138z Comm. . TTr.² 373 . esede, TBC-LL¹ 4502. eisidh, Laws i 8.6 . esiden, YBL 62a27 . esidein, BColm. 52.18 . eisidhein, ZCP viii 551 y ( = TBC-LL¹ 1874 ). esein, PH 1963 . éisei, Acall. 1463 . eiséin, Studies 1924, 242 § 7 . eisidei, Laws i 4.25 . eiseic, iv 46.14 Comm. v 448.30 Comm. Acall. 5944 . ese, Laws iv 16.17 Comm. With -ss- : esside, LU 22a38 . ZCP viii 302.23 . Auraic. 207 . MacCongl. 3.11 . hessidhi, Lism. L. 3888 . eissid, Corm. Y 276 . eissidi, Do Chupur 56 ( IT iii 237 ). eissideic, Acall. 4833 . eisseic, 6034 . eissein, 5819 . 7982 .

In early Mid. Ir. we sometimes find es(s)ide standing for a fem. subst. : oc siair tharisi do .i. fedb craibdech eside PH 943 ; cf. Laws iv 176.24 ( 178.4 ) ; 226.7 .

The O.Ir. quantity of 1 é before the suffix is attested by the rime glēsom : hēsom, IT iii 44 § 60 . Thurneysen remarks ( Thurn. Hdb. § 447 ) that the length of the vowel in ésom may be due to the influence of 2 é which, to judge from Welsh wy, is long by nature. In late Mid.-Ir. however the vowel is regularly short before the strengthening or anaphoric suffixes. The shortening may be explained by the analogy of 3 mes(s)e, tussu s.v. .

A detailed examination of the use of the independent pron. in Old and Mid. Ir. belongs to syntax and would be out of place here ; we give however some illustrations of the typical uses for these periods. Some special uses are noticed in IX.

I Placed immediately after the copula, in the following types of sentences :

(a) bad he for n-ere (gl. portate dominum) Wb. 9d12 . is heside athir inna mmachabdae (gl. Mathathiae) Ml. 74b6 . ishé a ammus lemm that is my guess at it (gl. cum iam fere centum annorum esset) Wb. 2c27 . ba ed á n-oínbiad (gl. mannae) Ml. 97d8 . Símon Bar-ióne...is e eochair na flatha némdai, PH 1639 . tucus aichne fairsim corb'é Ísu I knew that He was Jesus 3736 . ní hé Cormac beus, TBC-I¹ 13 . In Mid. Ir. the pron. is often repeated after the subj. in sentences of this type : (a1) is é gaiscedach as dech fil díb hé, LU 101a39 = FB 14 (hé om. ZCP iv 153 ). issé mo lennán é, TBC-LL¹ 4560 . corb' e metrapolitan na primchathrach he, PH 189 . as é céd-duine tárla dó hé, Acall. 624 . fa hé céidrí Éireann do ṡíol Éibhir é, Keat. ii 1875 . When the second pron. stands for a subst. of different gender from that of the pred. we get the type : is tocrádh mór marbhnadh Dé | ní hé an brón gan adhbhur í, Dán Dé xxvi 1 . dob é ceirtleath m'anma í, Studies 1924, 428 § 9 .

(b) is hésom doradchiúir (gl. Christo Jesu) Wb. 2b9 . is heside dorárricc báas dúnni, 3c15 . is heside robu rí, Ml. 100c10 . Mac Roth...is e timchellas hErind ind oenló TBC-I¹ 1110 .

(c) is he Dia insin (Quis est iste Deus...? Deus sc. ille qui...) Ml. 83c5 . rii benn ced ara neper? Is he rí tuathi insin lasmbiat .vii. ngraid ḟene, Laws iv 328.24 . is hé rí insin loingside siabrai, LU 99a27 .

(d) ba he a ngnimsom molad Dǽ (quorum...officium) Ml. 24a4 . is sí ind inducbal lesom in molad, 126b17 . corrophed mo indeb Crist (gl. ut Christum lucrifaciam) Wb. 24a6 . is e in cetna herdach celebrad ┐ procept brethri Dé, PH 3600 . dob í m'ḟáilte mo riar, Keat. iii 1450 . issé biadh do buí ag M. uidhe cerc ┐ aran, BCC § 122 . Keat. ii 2687 .

(e) is hé rufiastar cumachtae inna diglae...in tí, etc. Ml. 111c13 . is ed as dulem daitsiu m'etarcnae, 103a9 . is é as fhoghar dá gach eon | moladh Dé, Dán Dé xiv 23 . Cf. is e thainic a n-agaid Patraic .i. Sínell, Lism. L. 248 .

(f) asné Crist in lie asrubart, Wb. 4d16 . issi so a chiall, Ml. 65a3 . is e cētlá na sechtmaine in domnach PH 3584 . int shollsi-so...is e Crist mac Dé sin, 3792 . badh í an úaisle ar n-eólaichne, Ériu ix 163 § 6 . gurbh í Éire tobar draoidheachta iarthair Eorpa, Keat. ii 963 . The pron. is regularly in concord with the follg. subst., but cf. is í ar gceann báidheine an bhean, Dán Dé ii 29 .

(g) When the pred. precedes the cop., the word following the pron. usually decides the gender of the latter : in choss is hé oís achtáil, Wb. 12a23 . Crist didiu issí in chathir, 21c5 . cf. i dteangthaibh nach í an Scoitic in languages other than Scottic Content. vi 19 . Cf. on the other hand Wb. 3b16 , 18 . PH 1639

(h) is hé Dia as eola indiumsa, Wb. 8d23 . ní hé apstal citarogab in testiminso, Ml. 38c3 . comad he Nathi bud choscrach, RC xxiv 180 . ba saeth le M. nach he Brian ba ri, 176 . ce nib ed á ainmsom bes foir, Ml. 23d17 . (In O.Ir. the pron. is not obligatory in this type ; cf. issí ind ainim as airlam...ní incorpp, Wb. 3d11 . ni far mbrónsi immafolngi fáilti domsa, 16b8 . is a indocbál fessin condieig cách, 23d5 . ni Dia dudgní..., Ml. 44d21 .) is é mo chorp ro ádnaicis[s]i, PH 3732 . is é an beo do bhí 'na chroich | doní idir eo agus éanlaith, Dán Dé vi 40 . gurbh í an Ghaedhealg fá teanga dona draoithibh, Keat. ii 964 .

(i) The copula may be omitted : he fessin as choimsid dáu, Thes. ii 294.3 . hé cotnarlaic...doib anisin, SR 3659 . é leth luidi, Metr. Dinds. ii 2 . é domrad a n-éccomhnart, BS 48.16 .

II

(a) After interrogatives : cia hé (gl. quis) Ml. 46c17 . cia hé nundixnaigthersiu, 75c9 . ce hé roscríb, Sg. 197a19 . cóich esein, PH 1963 . cidh esen itir, TBC-LL¹ 3843 St. cuich hé in t-airfidech ut ?, Acall. 7525 . cret eissein in t-abhacc ?, 7982 .

(b) After sechi, sechip, cip (cib) : sechi he (gl. si quis) Ml. 35b4 . sechi é cretes de illis Wb. 15b1 . sechi sí (gl. quaelibet) Ml. 65d2 . sechi sí dia rignaib, 65d8 . sechip hé nodapridcha whosoever he be that preaches it Wb. 14d28 . sechip hé dán tra doberthar do neuch, 13a3 . ciphé ade Ml. 26a1 . ponat ergo lunam (cipé) ubilibet computare voluerit BCr. 31c2 . ciped ní, PH 1520 . gib é dig...ni ba missi, TBC-LL¹ 1223 . cip é imress méla...fort, 46 . So far as can be judged from published material cip é (gib é) is regularly replaced in late Mid. and Early Mod. Ir. by the anomalous gi bé (gidh bé), in which bé is fully stressed and alliterates with b. This form occurs already in O.Ir. : cia bé a mmet however big it be Ml. 61b28 . cía bé (MSS. cebe, gibe, cidbe, etc.) dlug bías duib, Metr. Dinds. iii 42 . gipe ra ṡossed (cía bé roisedh v.l.), TBC-LL¹ 6076 . atú ar bhaois gidh bé nach fuil, Dán Dé ix 8 . gi bé do bhronn a dhá rosg, Studies 1921, 258 § 9 .

It may be noted here that the position of the pron. in copula (or virtually copula) sentences in Mid. and Early Mod. Ir. is not always in accordance with orthodox modern usage, e.g. Tadhg esiomh nó a aithgin he is T. or else his counterpart O'Gr. Cat. 488 (= Ir. Monthly 1921, 291 ).

III With 2 os, q.v. : os hǽ (gl. donorum amicus) Ml. 69c4 . oshé, 122b14 . oshe, 123b4 . osse cona licc fora thairr, TBC-I¹ 891 . Similarly with is (s), s, ocus (┐) : deidghin...ina cinn isse níamdo, IT i 119.27 . a inar bláith ...is é étrom, TBC-I¹ 1871 . mar éan is é gan eitil, Dán Dé vii 22 . in scáilfer...sé tailc, IT i 271.11 . andara hech dibsidi ocus se...luath-lemnech, TBC-I¹ 2557 . ocus se baccach, PH 620 . ┐ se ina shessom, 622 . áráit...si imtromm, IT i 271.36 .

IV Independently : hésom triuss, Wb. 7c8 . tría buith adi innim ┐ hǽsium i talam because He is in heaven and he on earth Ml. 30c5 ....nad cho[m] nech acht hesom fesin 53a5 . cen fis accu he buden ina Cristaige, PH 56 . ni nech aile...acht he buden ┐ Dia, 607 . nachar mhair acht é féin amháin, Keat. ii 4179 . cunnradh eile atamaoidni do dhenamh le hA., acus eisin linne, Ir. Deeds, Trans. RIA xv 87.22 . In affirmation : Ferbaeth an e dothæt... imbarach? Eiseom on, TBC-I¹ 1543 = YBL 31a17 . After indá, in(n)a, ná than ( = O.Ir. oldá(a)s, indá(a)s) : fearr neach ele iná hé féin | dá mholadh, Studies 1924, 242 . do ba sine ioná é féin, Keat. ii 1828 . After cen, eter, 1 amlaid, 1 mar, q.v.

Here also may be noticed the type : is móidi a subailchi sin ┐ is laidirede congmus duine a n-agaid a namatt é its virtues are the greater (for) that and it aids a man more powerfully against his enemies thereby Maund. 139 . do benadh an t-iarann as an crand ┐ nir misde do bhi an tseisrech ag trebad é the iron was removed and none the worse was the team plowing BCC § 76 ; in these passages the pronouns sin, é, are asyntactical. Cf. the exx. in Fasc. i 162-163.

The usages classified under V-IX belong to the Mid. Ir. period, and later. Strachan has shown that V-VII were in use before the end of the eleventh century, and well established before the end of the twelfth ; see Ériu i 176 .

The form sé which arises in this period is treated s.v.

V As subject of the copula, following the pred. In early Mid. Ir. we find numerous exx. in which side is replaced by eside, som by esium, etc. (perhaps on the pattern of is éside x, is ésom x), as : in Fiac sin dano mac eside meic E....(v.l. mac sede), Thes. ii 307.3 . Cf. the O.Ir. types : is Diasom domsa, Wb. 1a2 . ni augtor side uilc, Ml. 44d19 ; these seem parallel to : ba cosnamaid Erenn esside an inbaid sin i n-agaid Cathail, MacCongl. 3 - 5 .

In early Mid. Ir. eside, esium, etc. usually follow the pred. directly, while the copula is unexpressed : dalta esseom do P., Trip. 394.4 . bai mac etorro... .i. Mael D. mac A. esside, LU 22a38 . Necódim...sái rechta eside PH 3677 . dalta do C. beos essium, 281 . Whether this type preceded and originated the use of the simple pron. as subj. of the copula is uncertain; there are numerous early exx. of (h) é etc. where the anaphoric pron. would be out of place.

Nicodemus... .i. cara inclethi do Crist he, PH 209 . ní cubaid bás cosmail doib, uair Pól ennacc he, Petar tra...écraibdech eside, 1865 . With copula expressed: combá mac dond ríg hé, LU 22b29 . is la Coin Culaind... hé, 112a24 ( FB 89 ). ba hairchindech na n-apstal he, PH 1637 . ba hōgshlān he, 468 . ba cumang les he, 64 .

VI As obj. of trans. vb., replacing the O.Ir. infixed pron. (The transitional stage is illustrated in the tautological types: cotgair Lugaid amach hé, TBC-I¹ 1063 . connachrancatár hé, LU 59a33 . roscuirset himmach he, PH 110 ): cona ragbad in galar hé, LU 14b31 . rocharsat hé, 121b35 . rochrechtnaig eseom, 126a28 . co cualutar hé, PH 18 . acall-su fessin é, TBC-LL¹ 1652 . guid he beseech him PH 343 . In reflexive sense: do lecc C.C. ar a gluínib é, BCC 274.29 .

VII As subj. of pass. vb.: robaided hé, LU 41a23 . cf. rogabad hí, 41a33 . is annam fogabar he cen chatha RC xxiv 200 . meni frithalter innocht é, TBC-LL¹ 1352 . nach acaltar é, 1694 . rohindarbad asin cathraig he, PH 949 .

VIII Occasionally as subj. of certain intrans. verbs: mas re ré na fochraice táinic amuigh hé, Laws iv 134.13 Comm. noco bia itir hi, 42.2 Comm. ar nach tisad friss he, LL 217b34 . ní raibe a n-aicned duinde eisseic, Acall. 6034 . ni roerchoidigestar do hí (sc. in lassar), Trip. 392.9 . Cf. as subj. of trans. verb: ni torracht Herinn andsin í, RC xii 78 . In such exx. the pron. is regularly separated from the vb., cf. imridh sé éinbhearta is í, IGT, Decl. ex. 1113 ; but: ór ḟás eision, TD 34. l. 189 .

Here may be noted: ol eissidi, IT iii 237.1 . bar ésium (éseom) quoth he TBC-LL¹ 4568 . 5971 . 6050 . ar esium 1189 . bar eissium , Acall. 4615 . cf. ar si, ar sisi, IT ii2 227.34 - 5 . See ol.

IX There are a few special uses of é in a neutral sense, without regard to gender of follg. subst. (cf. 1 ed):

(a) is e cuit in `acht' and the force of the `except' here is Laws iv 42.1 Comm. is e cuit in dono ann, 136.24 Comm. badh é a chríoch...go mbrisfimni..., Ériu ix 164 § 14 . is é críoch a gcualabhair this is the gist TD 31.8 . an é a reic is damhna dhí, 22a42 . iss é sin ciall in sceil, Acall. 3326 . is é áit..., Keat. iii 5055.5199 etc.

(b) in indef. predication, as: ní hé amháin not only that TD 9.11 ; 22.5 . Ó Héodhusa 34.9 ; 54.5 . Mac Aingil 326 . an é nach faici-sí C.? do ye not see C? BCC § 100 . an é nách easbol meisi ? an é nách fuilim saor ? 1 Corinth. ix 2 .

(c) referring to a statement or fact, etc.: rucad in Dond C....úadib...conid é sin méla ┐ mertain ┐ meraigecht is mó tucad for C.C., TBC-LL¹ 2041 (conadh í sin mela is mó v.l.). a Dhé ní d'anaibhse mh'olc | é nach faghaim-se furtocht, Dán Dé vi 34 . re hinghin Anna is é adearar | Dia an t-eitne agus ibh an chnú, x 22 . as é adeirid...nach treabhonn mé...iad, Studies 1923, 81 . is é chráidheas an croidhe | mé ag áineas tar m'eólchoire, 1924, 88 . See Strachan, Ériu i 163 .

For é with neut. or fem. subst. in Mid.-Ir. see Strachan's paper on Middle Ir. Declension, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1905 .