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1 deired

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 deired or
Last Revised: 2019


n o, n.

(a) remainder, residue: doberae digail forsa ndered duruarid dib Thou wilt inflict vengeance on the remnant that is left over of them, Ml. 44a20 . tabar in d.¤ fledi fail acut do mathib Lochlainne, CRR 14 .

(b) end, rear, conclusion: is dered mbetho nso, Wb. 10b3 . in glóir ic na fil deriud na tossach, PH 7468 . fescor .i. dered lái, 1699 . a ndeiredh in churaig in the stern of the boat, Acall. 1903 . anais tosach in tsluaig fria d.¤ , TBC-LL¹ 690 . ó thús co dered from beginning to end, FA 22 . adfet do scela o tus dered, BB 418a14 . i nderiud in tsailm so, Ml. 102c5 . dered fersa, Sg. 101a2 , 136a1 . i nderiud domain, PH 7269 . fo dered at last , LL 184b46 . ma deired, 10b19 . is é Conn do chóid fá dh.¤ ann who last passed into it, SG 348 . cosa deiridh an eich the hind legs of the horse, Keat. iii 3250 . erball .i. ball derid, Corm. 18 . ar a huathneduib derid on its hind legs, Fianaig. 66.17 . deireadh cogaidh mhac Míleadh 'rearguard of the sons of Míl', Celtica xxvi 107 § 56 . docuirethar deiredh for oen díbhside one of them fell behind, Hugh Roe 102 = ro cuireadh deireadh, etc., AFM vi 1978 . do ghabh Íoth féin deireadh ar a mhuinntir defended the rear, Keat. ii 851 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-cuirethar or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: tochraid, dorala, tarla, tachraid, tochur, tachar, docuire, ducuiredar, du-nd-chuirethar, dochuirethar, docorethar, docuiretar, dochuiret, tochre, tocraid, corathar, -tochrathar, -tochra, dochora, rathochra, -dochrat, tochorad, docorad, nothachrad, -tochratis, ducorastar, dochorastár, tochrastar, rothocair, tochuir, tachair, tochratar, tochradar, tochar, tochuirther, dofocuirther, docuirither, tochradar, docuirter, docuired, tochrad, tuichred, ndichret, tuichret, dofóichred, toichred, docuirfed, tochērat, doceradh, tacerad, dofoicherthar, dindrala, torala, tairle, tarlam, doralus, darolus, tarlus, torlus, tairlius, doralais, fris-tarlais, dusrale, toralae, con-darraile, dorala, tarla, tarlathar, daralsat, doralaighset, doralatar, tarlatar, doralad, duralad, ceta-tarlad, do-t-ralaid, tarlaid, dutárlid, doralta, docuiriur, tochuiriur, tochuirim, docuirethar, dochoirethar, docuiredar, tocuiredar, tócurid, tócuired, tocuirid, docuirifar, dorochurestar, dorochuiristar, rothochurestar, ro-s-tochuir, rothochuir, dorochuirsemmar, rom-tochuirseat, dofocuirther, tocuirfiter, tochuiribthe, tocuiredh, tochuired, rodocuirit, tochur, tochuired, tocuread, do-m-cuirethar, dorala, doscuirither, con-tachrad, tocraid, dorala, dorala, tarla

(* to-cuir-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 501 ), in O.Ir. a deponent vb. used in the senses (1) puts and (2) invites . For the development of meaning (2) see Gaidoz, RC xxiii 91 . In O.Ir. (1) occurs chiefly in 3 s. , often in impers. construction; in subj. and pret. the root la- is used side by side with cuir- and the fut. is supplied by *to-(fo)cherr- (cf. 1 cuirid); in (2) all forms are supplied by *to-cuir-. In later Mid.Ir. *to-cuir- comes to be represented by tochraid (tachraid), treated as a simple vb. and often forming an ē-fut. (see TBC-LL¹ 5707 , Cog. 225.18 = LL 309b3 , Acall. 1137 , Aen. 290 ), while dorala or tarla (the former of which survives as late as the 17th cent.) exists independently in the sense met, happened . The form tachraid may be regarded as a lineal descendant of do-cuirethar, dochuir[id], -tochraid rather than as a distinct denom. vb. formed from the vn. tochur, tachar, the syncopated form (common already in Mid. Ir.) being probably due to the need for distinguishing it from tochuirid invites, in which syncope does not as a rule occur. See GOI § 762 . IGT Verbs § 95 .


I In sense puts

(a) Forms from *to-cuir-: Indic. pres. 2 s. docuire, Corm. s.v. taurthait . 3 s. ducuiredar, Thes. ii 19.36 . du-nd-chuirethar, Ml. 35d22 . dochuirethar, BDD 71 . docorethar, 106 . 3 pl. docuiretar, Fianaig. 84 . dochuiret, Metr. Dinds. iii 292 . Ipv. 2 s. tochre, LU 10881 . 2 pl. tocraid, 1486 . Subj. pres. 3 s. do corathar , O'Curry 1999 ( H 4.22 29 ). -tochrathar, Críth G. 418 . -tochra, O'D. 739 ( H 3.17 ( H 3.17, 537 ). dochora, LL 146b . co rathochra , Triads 117 . 3 pl. -dochrat, MacCongl. 99.4 . Impf. 3 s. tochorad, Ml. 44a19 . docorad, BDD 54 . nothachrad, TBC-LL¹ 1180 . 3 pl. -tochratis, RC ix 468.6 . Pret. 3 s. ducorastar, Ml. 52 . dochorastár, LU 5366 (TBC). co tochrastar , IT ii1 184 . rothocair, Metr. Dinds. iii 234 . tochuir, tachair. 3 pl. tochratar, LL 293b25 . tochradar, BB 33b22 , etc. Pass. pres. s. fora tochar (= tocharr, an archaic form), Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485 ). tarsa tochuirther , Ml. 22c1 . cf. 80b7 and dofocuirther, 18c10 ( Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 301 ). docuirither, Laws i 170 Comm. Ériu ii 120 § 58 , etc. forsa tochradar , BB 330b22 . pl. docuirter, Anecd. v 24 n. 25 . Pass. pret. docuired, PH 7767 . Imr. Brain i 88 . co tochrad , MacCongl. 37.4 .

(b) Forms from to-(fo-)cherr-: Fut. 3 s. ? in (ní?) tuichred , BB 298a24 ( IT iii 15 ). 3 pl. co ndichret , Ml. 44a16 . ? ni tuichret , IT iii 15.4 . Condit. 3 s. dofóichred, Sg. 130b2 . toichred, ZCP i 66 § 113 . Later formations from *to-cuir-: docuirfed, Lec. 458c7 ; tochērat, TBC-LL¹ 5707 , etc. Cf. doceradh, BB 298a25 = tacerad, IT iii 15 (H)?). Pass. fut. dofoicherthar, BDD § 81 .

(c) Forms from *to-ro-la-: Subj. pres. 2 s. dindrala (= dia ndrala?), Bvi 74 ( Thes. ii 37 ). 3 s. torala, Ml. 43b15 . tairle, Ériu iv 24 ( LL 106a ). 1 pl. co tarlam , Fél. Prol. 319 v.l. Perf. 1 s. doralus, Fél. Prol. 15 . darolus, ZCP iv 44.12 . tarlus, LU 3863 ( SCC § 38 ). torlus, SR 1872 . ? tairlius, BS 48.24 . 2 s. doralais, Alex. 946 . fris-tarlais, ZCP iii 206 . 3 s. dusrale, Ml. 23c16 . co toralae , Corm. Y 698 . con-darraile, LL 272b21 . Mid. Ir. dorala, tarla; tarlathar, TBC-LL¹ 2069 . 3 pl. daralsat, LL 169a15 . Cf. doralaighset (they) happened to be, Fl. Earls 188 . doralatar, tarlatar, PH, etc. Pass. perf. s. doralad, Wb. 13d8 , Ml. 14b12 . duralad, 67d9 . ceta-tarlad, LL 515 . do-t-ralaid, SR 1307 . ni tarlaid , 3668 . ? dutárlid, LU 10938 (perh. fr. *to-ad-ro-luid). pl. doralta, Ériu ii 106 § 19 .

II In sense invites. Indic. pres. 1 s. docuiriur, Sg. 16b8 . tochuiriur, Thes. ii 357.1 . tochuirim, Corm. Y 77 . 3 s. docuirethar , Sg. 61a7 . dochoirethar, Ml. 29b1 . docuiredar, tocuiredar, ZCP xii 364 . tócurid, FA § 1 . Ipv. 3 s. tócuired, PH 5829 . 2 pl. tocuirid, 5614 . Fut. 1 s. docuirifar, Ml. 3a1 . Perf. 3 s. dorochurestar, Ml. 16c6 . dorochuiristar, 25c13 . ní rothochurestar , 18d16 . ro-s-tochuir, Leb. Gab.(i) 234 . rothochuir, PH 4413 . 1 pl. dorochuirsemmar, Sg. 6b18 . 3 pl. rom-tochuirseat, CCath. 983 . Pass. pres. s. dofocuirther, Ml. 18c10 (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 501 ). Fut. pl. tocuirfiter, PH 4346 . Condit. s. ni tochuiribthe , Ml. 128a2 . Pret. co tocuiredh , BB 10a4 , tochuired; rodocuirit (= rotochuiritt), Cog. 74.8 .

Vn. tochur, tochuired.

I As trans. vb. in personal construction

(a) puts, deposits, places , often used as synonym of do-cuirethar or do-beir: is tre ḟír flathemon docuiredar ildelba muir the sea casts up creatures of divers form, ZCP xi 82 = is tré ḟír flatha ildelba il-míli . . . for tráchtaib téchtaib tochratar are deposited (cast up) on shores, LL 293b25 . di[a] ndrala huait if thou put from thee (gl. tolle), Thes. ii 37 . inna hí batar buthi ar thuus, dusrale fodiad he put them last, Ml. 23c16 . is hed doralad hi tossuch, Wb. 13d8 , cf. Ml. 14b12 . in tascair docuirither do tuinn which is deposited by a wave, Laws i 170 Comm. , cf. iv 194 . nech tarsa tochuirther sciath over whom a shield is placed, Ml. 22c1 . ro-tarlait a teinti their fires were placed (i.e. built up), Mer. Uil. 17 . torala Dia ar chēill do degnimu-su may God bring to mind gl. revocetur, Ml. 43b14 . doralus ar m'airi | gréschi occa nguidi, Fél. Prol. 15 . ó doralaim ar m'aire . . . lecca huara (pres. formation based on perf.), AU 877 (poem). tachraid for cēill dāib . . . senscēlai bar muinntire call to mind the traditions of your people, Alex. 191 . Cf. Ériu ii 136 : ar cid aingil nimhe, rosbi crith ┐ uamun intan forathmentar ┐ docuredar ar cēill (leg. forathmenatar ┐ docuretar . . . when they remember and call to mind). dochurusdar Cond an macamh ar comairci Airt placed under A.'s protection, iii 160 . ducorastar Dia deilb mordraige . . . forsinní Dauid, Ml. 52 . tegdais forsa tochar deg-lí anechtair is placed, Tur. 14 . nocon fetur-sa indat ilgné docuirther in folt fair (lit. different ways [in] which the hair is put on him, cf. RC xxiii 91 ), BDD § 105 . forsa tochratis tonna an mara na héicne, RC ix 418 . go rotochuir [an piast] ainbthine dermair forsan muir, BNnÉ 6 . co tocuir tāmnēll fuirri, RC v 199 . doconnairc . . . prinnsa in dorchuttois . . . da tochrad cét cenn fair there were (lit. had been put) a hundred heads, Aisl. Tond. xiv 1 . focherdsat na draoithe gaotha draoidhechta . . . co ttochradh an muirgrian iochtarach for úachtar an mara, Leb. Gab.(i) 256 . cia dám . . . ceta-tarlad for hErend? was first landed, LL 515 . nir tocrad Cessair for rig o sein amach no king was styled Caesar, Lec. 300b49 = ni rotocrad, 304a46 . co ndichret a ndruim fria naimtea will turn their back, Ml. 44a16 , cf. 44b19 . tocraid for ndrommand fri fraigid uli, LU 1486 . dofil in carpat . . . ┐ dorala clār clē frind it has turned its left side to us, TBC-I¹ 1192 (perh. impers.). cléirchin fris tarlais tinne `to whom thou hast shown stiffness', ZCP iii 208 . ni tocrad dam int aitheachmattud glēid frisin coin mōir should not have engaged in fight with, TBC-I¹ 1228 . do-curead cath Ruis F. re Nemed, Lec. 357b2 . rofich cath Naisi fri hEochaid . . . iar cath Chomair fri hEochaid n-eolach trén doralad, 592a26 (cf. do-beir cath). domchurithar Dia isinn abainn, Imr. Brain ii 292 . gidbead dochuirear-sa deit isin dig, nā hob a ōl whatever I put into thy draught, Lec. 155b27 . toichredh a chenn 'sa chuithe he used to plunge his head, ZCP i 66 . rangabusa in n-éicni . . . darolus i lláim na hingine, TBFr. 342 . co ndaralastar (leg. -ralatar) na halma i talmain a chorp the herds trampled his body into the ground, TBC-LL¹ 2056 = gur cuirsit, St. cid ar dotralaid hi cacht? why hast thou been put into durance?, SR 1307 . is i cruinne dorraladh cach dūil . . . is i torachta chruinne doralta na nime, Ériu ii 106 . doscorad (duscorat, v.l.) a triur isin muir plunge into the sea (reflex.), RC ix 460 . is lib-si fessin . . . in chair doralais inar leth-ni the fault you have brought against us, Alex. 946 = Anecd. v 5 . feib leir donralaid do nim | missi ┐ tussu, SR 1787 . conab-torlus a Phardus that I have put you out of Paradise, 1872 . con-dacuired dar cenn was overturned, SG 316 . con-daralsat é 'n-a ágib (i.e. tore him asunder), LL 169a15 .

(b) deposits, produces, brings forth: crann . . . docuiridar tri toraid cacha bliadne, Ériu ii 116 . nói cuill Chrimaill . . . dochuiret tall fon tiprait `drop their fruits', Metr. Dinds. iii 292 (docuredh, tocuread, v.l. perh. pret. pass. have been set, planted round). ba hinund brú rothocair | Fothad ┐ cóelChuirrech the same womb bore, 234 .

(c) throws, casts, sends: tochrae uait cast it from you, TBC-I¹ 1557 (LU) = tochra, YBL. docuire urchar úait, Corm. s.v. taurthait = focheirdi, Corm. Y 1229 . Cf. IT iii 16 § 37 . ni tharlus dom chirt | urcur anfis, LU 3863 ( SCC § 38 ). dochorastair Dochae ga for Fiachaid, TBC-I¹ 2110 . a arat dia tochuirther the distance from which it is shot, Ml. 80b7 . fochres [a c[h]end] isin mBrudin . . . ┐ dorralad eiste, BDD² 1405 . dochorastar echlacha uada, Anecd. iii 65 . dochuiretar sut a comuirli chugat-sa send thee their decision, Fianaig. 84 . docuredh Conall for a lurg, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 36 . docuirethar bedc throws, i.e. makes a start, bound: docuridar bedg de fodes starts off southwards, RC iii 176 . doscuiret[h]ar bedc as fa thuaid, IT ii1 175 . tathchuireathar bedg ar a ceand, BDD² 357 . tacurethar, YBL = docuirethar , Eg. = ta-cuirethar beadg ón tig, 645 . toschuirther beadc a Tracht F. they make a start from, 620 (the constr. here suggests that `beadc' is either nom. or else adverbial accus., the vb. being used impersonally). dochuirethar bedg anís, LL 281b13 ( GJ v 64 ). Cf. foceird b., ZCP viii 104.z .

II As trans. vb. in impers. constr. folld. by prep. phrase or other complement of pred., e.g. do-m-cuirethar lit. it puts me (in a place, condition, etc.), i.e. I happen to be (come). This construction is esp. common with the perf. dorala (tarla) and continues into the Mod. Ir. period.

(a) Of rest: dorala ind aimsir geimrid it happened to be winter, Trip.² 112 . focheirdi erchor uait . . . Docuirethar obonn anmannae ar a chind an animal chances suddenly to be in its way, Corm. Y 1229 (docuirither, LB). dī ōene sechtmaine . . . feib docorathar ind recht | do neoch las mbē nert as it is (laid down) in the law (?), ZCP xiii 29 . dia tarla Cond C. ┐ Eogan T. i comflaithis fo Erind, RC xvi 136 ( Dinds. 132 ). gon domrala crechtach ngarb so that I am wounded, TBC-LL¹ 2338 . cona-tarla faen so that he fell prostrate, Mór M. 267 . nach n-esconn rotmblaisi . . . dorala inna chunn slān became sane, Ériu ii 116 . ó domrala il-ligi leóin, ZCP vi 263 . co na-tarlai ina ṡuidi so that he fell on his haunches, LL 272b21 . dorala in tech ina ráithsechaib briathar, FB § 29 . ro-imthigset i frithsēt Grēg co nustarla tul fri tul i medhon in ṡéta, BB 419a35 . is and dosralai sede tunc, ic Ross na ferta she chanced to be at, Hy. v 65 Comm. ( Thes. ii 343 ). bái mesca mór for Ulto . . . Docuiridar immarbága móra . . . eturro there arise, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 4 . Cf. further: ni chuincem colcthi . . . acht in talam cona sraith trit nó lomm amal docuirether (leg. docuirethar) covered with grass or bare as it may happen to be, Alex. 874 = Anecd. v 3 .

(b) Folld. by prep. denoting motion: doscuirethar as co trāig in baile, IT ii1 178 ; 'they set out' Loinges mac nDuíl Dermait 100 § 20 . conacca . . . dorrala inna huili fiadmila asin fidbaid that all the wild animals had come out of the wood, TBC-I¹ 3108 . domrala don áith I came to the kiln, Fél. p. 12 . dosrala do Dún na mbarc they came to, LL 4b33 . inis diandorala iar n-imram, Anecd. i 53 . toscuirethar dochom tíre they come to land, BDD § 55 . con-domrala dochum slúaig, Metr. Dinds. iii 120 . nirbo chian . . . condarraile (leg. dasraile) dochum indsi till they happened on, LL 283a21 . doluid in gilla . . . conusstarla dochum thopuir till he chanced upon a well, RC xxiv 196 . dotrala f[o] aineolass thou art ignorant, ZCP xiii 3 . [a]n du[c]uiredar bissext for nói kl. when bisext falls on . . ., BCr. 32c10 ( Thes. ii 19 ). fēil docuiredar for Sathurn, Mon. Tall. 135 , cf. intan doscuirither-si for áin, LB 9b10 (pass. ?). rocloenad a thech, con-datarla for a lethbeolu so that it inclined to one side, FB § 25 . ind eclas i tarla grada for Brigit, Hy. v 15 Comm. ( Thes. ii 330 ). dogní Neide glām ndicend dō, co toralae teorae bulgae for a gruadaibh, Corm. Y 698 . docorastar cess ┐ huamhon for na slúagho gloom and fear fell upon the hosts, Ériu ii 100 . co tarla a dí bond bána fair (he fell) with upturned soles, MU² 987 (LU). dichetal for ochtraig, co rathochra a mbi ina íchtur for a úachtar all that is below comes to the top, Triads 117 . dorala ana mbui . . . a n-íchtar an loch[a] co raibi forúachtar, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 32 . co tarla ind ní bāi ina hichtar co mbōi for a hōachtor, Anecd. ii 57 . con-tachrad cach ní nobith a n-ichtur na fairrgi 'na fuachtur, Lec. 569a7 = gu tocraid , BB 40b8 (pret. pass. instead of the impers. constr.). con-dasrala for combáig comimrama they began to race each other in rowing, LL 235a20 . doscuridar iarum for a rith cētnai they resume their course, Ériu ii 126 . documlaiset for fairgi ┐ docorastar a lūi fri tir their stern was turned to shore, Corm. Y 1059 . feib donrala fri comrád as we have fallen into conversation, SR 1214 . fri tala ind ríg . . . domrala tria tinninas I have crossed the king's will through my hastiness, 6188 , cf. 6013 . ní rádi ní tri thalmaidchi, amal dundchuirethar inna beulu as it rises to his lips (`as he takes it'), Ml. 35d22 . cia dotochra a robaegal though thou fall into great danger, BCC § 348 (poem). docuiredar cach ai i tuaim alaile each of them comes into another's place (of three currents meeting in a whirlpool), Corm. Y 323 = docuirither, LB. dotrala i mbeirn baegail, TBC-I¹ 2648 . dotrala ind, RC vi 183 . doscuiredar i cess they fall into sadness, Ériu ii 112 . darrala tar romuir who came over the great sea, Fél. Dec. 8 (darralad, doralaid, donralad, v.l.). focheird rout n-urchair din liathróit, conastarla dar gincraes a bragat dond archoin so that it went past the watchdog's gullet, TBC-LL¹ 1025 . na cōic mnā nostachair tra | maraen ria n-athair suna came here together with their father, BB 408b16 . atnaid id im choiss indaro fi(u)r . . . Docuirethar iarum ina deguid aitherruch (the withe) comes back after him, i.e. springs off (?), RC x 214 .

Later with indep. pron.: co tarla co Beind E. hí she came to, Ériu iii 152 . co ttarla é go Magh Line, BS 104 . tarlu go teach Laidchinn é, Keat. ii 6282 . co tarla Cormac ┐ isi ar oentaig fo cleith, Lec. 366b25 . lucht in feruinn cusa tárla é (of one cast on shore), Laws i 204 Comm. dorala he (Cain) a mbroind Euba in tan do thomail int uball was conceived, Lec. 385a20 ; ? cf. ba hé tatharla inna broind, IT i 139 (LU) = is he tathlai it bruinn, Eg. dusrala iad a n-ailén aili, RC xxvi 138 . mar dorala a n-imfhoixe chomraic na Fraingce íad as they approached the frontier, Fl. Earls 30 . rothimchill cach a chēle dīb . . . ┐ dorala 'n-a comracaib iad they engaged in combat, Celt. Rev. x 314 . ó tharla gan chroidhe dho é seeing he hath no heart to it, Proverbs xvii 16 . durson damsa . . . na mígníma sin do dēnam dam, gid tre anfhis ┐ aneolus dorala iat they have come to pass, Celt. Rev. vii 116 .

(c) do-m-cuirethar do (ar, fri) lit. it puts me to (on, towards), hence I meet, come upon, come across: docuirethar Banba doib i Sleibh M., Leb. Gab.(i) 250 (possibly pers. constr.). docuiridar simind dóib, RC xxvi 10 (LL). conustarla do díb latrandib he met two robbers, Lat. Lives 90 . tarrla ríg Laighen dóibh, Imr. Brain i 66 . co tarla do sē meic dēg Amalgaid, Lec. 124b26 . tarla dhóib a n-esgcaraid, SG 8 . tárla dh'a chéile iat, ML 16 . tarla da chēli . . . clanna Neill ┐ clanna Chaeman, Lec. 171b41 . ni tharla dia muinntir badēin é, Fl. Earls 28 . go ttárla Carbre ┐ rígh bhfear gC. air a chēile, CF 276 (Eg.). go dtarla é ré moghaibh came upon slaves, Keat. iii 2146 . In reciprocal sense: conustarla do Meidb ┐ do Thindi M. and T. met, Ériu ii 178 . tarla do and ┐ d'Adhamhnan, BB 233b3 . co tarla dō ┐ do Dairi ingen Cathair, 6 . dorala do Césair féin ┐ do lucht innsi Bretain C. and the people . . . encountered each other, CCath. 182 . batar maic Miled bliadain i comrige . . . co tarla doib im na trib druimnib until they quarrelled about, Lec. 30b4 . dorala dam arair fri muintir C. I had a quarrel with, MacCongl. 53 . Cf. further: dorala fri Connacht co mór, ōir do marbsat-som a brāithri he was in feud with C., ZCP i 103 , where the construction may be personal (as in III (b) below).

(d) do-cuirethar form (dul, etc.), lit. it puts on me, hence it is incumbent on me, I must: docorastar fair dul do acallaim na hingine it behoved him (?), TBFr. 13 (but perh. pers. constr. `he took upon himself', Gloss.). docorustair fair techt a Manaind, Corm. Y 1059 . co tarla fair techt i n-ailithre (of Colum C.), Lec. 369b9 .

(e) do-cuirethar etarru they fall out, quarrel: cēin co tochra etraibh fein until you quarrel, BNnÉ 90 . tachair eter na mnaibh, ib. darala eturru ic imbert ḟidchilli ┐ Fergus F. and he quarrelled, LL 103b39 . dorala eturru ┐ Munramar, Ériu i 124 . dorala etorra ┐ clann ócc iarla D., AFM v 1718 . 1874 . dorala itir Luicet ┐ Aed . . . isin chath engaged each other, RC v 197 . go tarrla iter Aichlech ┐ Oedh B. gur fersat comlann fria chēli, Fianaig. 94 . go tarla itir in ríg ┐ in rígain, SG 250 . co tarla eatorro im na tri ndromandaib, BB 42b34 = co tarla doib, Lec. 30b4 . tarrla eturru immon n-es, Acall. 7286 . conad impi sein tarla eturru, LL 242a40 .

III During the Mid. Ir. period, when the infixed pron. began to lose its significance, do-cuirethar and esp. the perf. dorala came to be regarded as an intrans. vb. in personal construction in sense of happens to be (come); it is, however, impossible to decide whether the vb. is pers. or impers. in the sing. except in cases where the accompanying noun has distinct forms for nom. and accus.

(a) Of rest, condition: bid hé dochorad and, BDD § 66 YBL = comad he notocrad and, Eg. = co mbad sé nobeth and, LU; ib. § 54 . ní tharla bó isin recleis ind inbhaid sin, Lat. Lives 72 . ní faca riamh abhann ann, ┐ ó tharla an abhann ann, as greama mur tharrla in droichid tairsi as the river is there, it is well there is a bridge across it, Imr. Brain i 64 . is ann dorála in rí ind uair sin, fó bun darach, SG 413 . an eich dorala foa on which he was mounted, AFM vi 2216 . tug . . . urchor do cloich tarla ina láimh which chanced to be in his hand, iv 788 . dorala ambassadóir righ S. sa gcathraigh in tan sin, Fl. Earls 22 . tarla an uair sin duine uasal . . . i bpríosún ag an bprionnsa, Keat. iii 5027 . tarla an tan soin neach cumhachtach 'n-a bhíodhbhadh ag C., ii 4847 . dorala ben an oirchinnigh ag gabail secha . . ., BS 50 . is ann doralae Onchu mac S. marb sechtmain reimhe O. had happened to die a week before, BColm. 46 . doralatar in dā hapstail [déc] uile i n-oen tegdais, PH 5560 . tarladar ceathrar do chloinn C. 'n-a ngiallaibh ag Niall, Keat. ii 5956 . tarladar triúr mac aige he had three sons, 4844 . do chidhfedh mar tharla an tír he would see the country's plight, O'Gr. Cat. 466 .

(b) With prep., etc., denoting motion: is annsin dorala Becuma amach ar an ḟaithche chanced to come out, Ériu iii 162 . ised dorala anair he came from the east, RC xiii 379 . co tacradh ass a bhiadh cōir do chāch, IT iii 188 . co tocraitis asa tíribh do décsain . . . crotha Hectoir they would have come, TTr.² 1091 . doluid A. for iarraid usci ┐ dorala cosin tobur cétna, RC xxiv 198 . dia tarla sí cusin mbandtrebthaig, IT i 48 . ni thacēra d'iarmēirge, Cog. 225 (LL) = ni ticfa don ērmēirge, 10 . araili ailitir dorala do Toirinis, Todd Nenn. 212 . rosirius Magh Fáil . . . tairlius do Cill Uí S., BS 48 . docurethar in lia forru anair the stone lights on them, TBC-I¹ 1415 (LU). doleig side in gae bulgae . . . co tochrastar annuass for a chathbarr, IT ii1 184 . dorala menma Faelain fuirri, RC xxvii 262 . dorála menma a mátha(i)r uirre, RC xxix 120 . conidh hí comairle forsa tarrla the plan he hit upon, CCath. 1378 (perh. impers.). (With reflex. pron.) dosraladar for merugud they began to wander astray, RC xxiv 196 = SG 328 . is mairg ances a bidbaid | in n-inbaid dochora il-lén when he falls into misfortune, LL 146b38 ( PRIA xix 544 ). lēicid C. in gae fair . . . conid anuas docorastar (tocorastar, LU) in-a mullach, TBC-I¹ 1296 . Cf. 3664 . docoras[tar] casal di nim i n-ucht Pátraic, Trip.² 1228 (impers.?). rotheilg L. in ngai . . . co tarlai il-Laeg, RC iii 178 . tharla tuagh Bhrodair i gceann Bhriain, Ériu i 88 . tus in tochrad i m-aigid to see whether she would meet me, Aen. 626 . dochear Lugaid Riabnderg do chumaid a mna . . . ┐ man a claidem fodein dorala he fell on his own sword (?), Lec. 588a43 . cia tochra int espach eturru though the onlooker should come between them, Laws ii 294 Comm.

(c) Folld. by DO (also AR, FRI) meets, comes upon, falls in with (in some of the follg. exx. the earlier meaning of the vb., not that of an intrans. vb. of motion, is still apparent): dogabh ag luamhairecht an curaigh co tarrla oilen ingnadh dō, Ériu iii 156 . docuir Nae an colum da fis an faighbeadh talamh . . . ┐ tarla dō an talumh ina roibhe, etc., Lib. Flav. i 10a30 . docurastar dam lethbarghen cruithnechta ┐ ordu ēisc = I found, got, RC x 90 (perh. impers.). tarla int ailen-sa ar A., ZCP ii 298 . docuiridar Bricriu dóib forsind ḟaithche, LL 186a42 = RC xxvi 12 . tachraid bocht dó ar in conair, Lism. L. 4305 ( docuirethar , v.l.). tús . . . in taichēradh dō aen duine, Aen. 290 . dorala dam forsin sét mo choimdiu Ísu, PH 1892 . doralai dias fer n-arsatai dóib, SG ii 467 . co tarla do in bantrebtach, Hy. v 73 Comm. ( Thes. ii 345 ). co ttarla ben-gheilt dó ann, BS 108 . do bhrígh nach dtárla dhamh mo dhearbráthair T., 2 Cor. ii 13 . dochuir Banba doib, Lec. 28a30 . do-ralatar a námaitt dó, BColm. 94 . tarladur na trí righdha so da chéle, ZCP ii 38 . is mairg ar a tocherat, TBC-LL¹ 5707 . tárla bean air, Proverbs vii 10 . go dtarladar trí mic C. orra, Keat. ii 1300 ; 1273 . amail doraladar forsin topur, RC xxiv 202 . dorála a chos fri cloich, SG 403 . tárla trócaire ┐ fírinne ré chéile, Psalms lxxxv 10 . do mharbhsat gach a dtarla riú do lucht an bhaile, Keat. iii 5242 . doraladar a triur frisin n-uasal, YBL 191a16 . go dtarladar ladrainn ris, TSh. 1450 .

(d) With FRI encounters, opposes (this use is spec. frequent with the late form tachraid): roḟācaib [Fiacha] a clanna dia ēis . . . do thochar ria Padraic . . . ┐ ni tharla neach aile do cloind Ḟiachach fris acht Fothad F. amain, Lec. 143a37 . ni thagraim leat, a L., | ná re Tadg ré dtarlabhair with whom you are engaged in dispute, Content. xi 15 . mairg thochras ri clērchib cell, LL 149b26 = thochrus fri, SG 70 , 78 . gach nech tochrus ré rí[g] réil, Fianaig. 80 . tachraid re chele, Caithr. CC 52 . ba tresi nā gach trēn rotac[h]rad fris, BB 488b24 . baoi do mhéd a mhenman . . . go ttochairfedh friú, AFM v 1766 . ēcoir d'Fathod tachair frim . . . | ní do deoin Luighdech Meic Con | do thaichérad frim Fathod, Acall. 1137 . gomtis ionchatha ┐ co ttochraitis friu, Leb. Gab.(i) 144 . i mbeilgibh bélchumhgaibh i ttoc[h]raittís re aroile, AFM vi 2112 .

(e) With DO falls to the lot of, happens to, befalls (rarely in this sense with infd. dat. pron. instead of do): nachustarla anfaitchess may negligence never come upon them, BColm. 50 . dorala cōir gāithi doib fochedoir, Lec. 569a25 . co tarla anfud mór doib, Hy. v 13 Comm. ( Thes. ii 328 ). co tarla doib imsreang curad (i.e. they engaged in struggle), Lec. 352a44 . Fiacha Fear dā liach . . . .i. liach do cach echt dorala do, 337b42 . cia imned dorala duib?, ACL iii 225 . dorala gnim n-ingnad do he happened to do a strange thing, Ériu v 114 . o tharla dhuit an gním olc, SG 29 . gia nothachrad écht dó, TBC-LL¹ 1180 . cia and do ná tochradar | bét no bine nó baeghul?, ZCP iv 468 . do Chonall dorala imdegail in chóicid it fell to C. to guard, TBC-I¹ 592 LU. rolaesead dā mac Miled crandchar iar sin forsan aes dāna .i. file ┐ cruitire . . . do Erimon dorala in file, BB 42b13 . certar crandchor léo dūs cia do thoc[h]radh dul . . . Dochuir (dofuit, v.l.) son don tres comalta, RC x 78 . rolaset chrandchor . . . conid don dull dorala tec[h]t sis, Hy. v 13 Comm. ( Thes. ii 328 ). is ann dorala dosom a denam, Hy. i Pref . ( Thes. ii 298 ). is grad epscuip dorala do epscop Mél do thabairt for Brigit, Hy. v 15 Comm. ( Thes. ii 330 ). condarala di turgnom catha Findchorad she happened to be preparing for, Ériu ii 184 . as ag an mbile sin dorala do Dhomhnall do ueith, BS 16 . dia tochrad dó Hectoir do thuitim leis, TTr.² 973 . as maith tarrla dúind an chailleach do marbudh it is well for us that we have killed, Imr. Brain i 65 . dorala do B. beith ag saigdeoracht, Todd Nenn. 38 . is amlaid dorala do C. beith ┐ ingen alaind aici in tan sin C. happened to have a beautiful daughter, Lec. 168b16 . condusrala do Meidb dola co Boind, Ériu ii 178 . dorala intan sin do M. condacaid aislingi, ACL iii 10 . tarla dona beachuibh co ndeachadur . . ., Ériu ii 82 . tarla do beirt saighdiuir go ndechator astech i n-aroile egluis, Fl. Earls 60 .

(f) Hence in general sense of comes to pass, happens, takes place (chiefly in perf. dorala, tarla). With noun as subj. often in sense of there was , or in impers. constr. with inf. phrase or subord. sent.: forcaemnacair (.i. tarla), ACL iii 10 . in tan dorala in scēl-sa and when this event took place, PH 46 . cethracha rig dorala frisrohicad borama | o aimsir Thuathail . . . there were forty kings, Lec. 40b28 (perh. rather to be referred to II (a) = dorala cethrachait r.). ní tharla il-leitrib na lāidib . . . aen-triar ban neither in books nor songs is found a trio, 395a13 (II (a)?). go ttárla sneachta mór fán am sin ann, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 40 . tárla méad meanman na bhfoireann ar gcriothnughadh na long the courage of the crew was aroused, ML 46 . tarla iomchaineadh . . . eitir M. ┐ mhnáoi oile a dispute arose, BS 142 . tarla imressan eturru, Acall. 2717 . an ferand fa tharla imresuin adrum-sa ┐ C., BCC 179 . darala debaigh mor etarru, YBL 164b10 . tohruid (sic) frithnois fuigill etorro an altercation arises, Cog. 142 = tohraid (sic) frithnos, 144 . gidh bedh tochrus do bar comhrag-si whatever be the issue of your combat, Aen. 2968 (= quo res cumque cadent, Aeneid xii 203 ). maith tharla it is well, Keat. ii 4725 . dorala . . . Gortigernd mac G. do gabail airdrigi Breatan, Todd Nenn. 74 . amal dorala na dūile do chumscugud oc cēsad Crist, PH 1078 . dorala conid si sein aimser . . . (= contigit quod), Lat. Lives 5 . dorala co ndechsat immach (= casu accidit ut . . .), 76 . conid tairle co n-ebarthar mac ríg frim mac may it come to pass that, Ériu iv 24 . gé tharla gur fhōbair . . ., Fl. Earls 68 . dorala iar n-ég Gorthemuir . . . doronsat Saxain meabail for B., Todd Nenn. 102 .

IV Invites, summons (this sense may have arisen out of the meaning puts in cases where the vb. was folld. by co): gl. adsciscere, Ml. 25c13 , Sg. 6b18 , 16b8 , 61a7 ; arcessere, Sg. 184a2 ; citare, Ml. 3a1 ; exciere, 16c6 , 18d6 ; invitare, 29b1 , O'Mulc. 527 ; postulare, Corm. Y 77 . tocuiriur etrum indiu inna huli nert-so fri cech nert I summon today all those powers (put . . . between me and?), Hy. vi 48 ( Thes. ii 357 ). docuirethar cétna persan sin persana aili chucae takes other persons to it, Sg. 191a2 . docuiredar gōi, inairben fīr; tocuiredar ēcert, inarben cert, ZCP xii 364 . tócurid [in comdiu] dochum nimi chuci lucht na deirce, FA 1 (LU). tocuirid na sualchi, dichurid na dualchi, PH 5614 , cf. 4992 - 5 . intí is cendais . . . tócuired in fergach co mín (= revocet), 5829 . muna tocuirit fein chuca iat, Laws v 458 Comm. rotochuir an tír chucca, Hugh Roe 36 . rostochuir ┐ rostiomairg fine Gaoidil, Leb. Gab.(i) 234 . rotocuirisdair G. cuice dā druid dēg, Todd Nenn. 90 . romtochuirseat ina ndocum, CCath. 983 . tochuirter iatt gusin gcaislēn, Fl. Earls 70 . co tocuiredh Eoin . . . ó Ispís ad Bathmos, BB 10a4 . rotochuiredh do a brathair, LL 402b52 . rotocuiret dia indsaighidh a slōigh, 404b39 . rodocuirit (ro tochuiritt, v.l.) Dailcais uli cucu, Cog. 74 .

1 enech, ainech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 enech, ainech or
Last Revised: 2013


Forms: ainech, ainech, enech, einic, enig, ainiuch, inchaib, enech, enigh

n o, n. (Ascoli considered the latter form to be originally a distinct word, connected with aingid protects), in later lang. m., and sometimes s in pl.

I Face, front ; as the word is regularly pl. in early Irish the original meaning was evidently brows or cheeks. In the later lang. it is more usually treated as sg.: n p. a di chulaid-som friu ┐ enech Loig, TBC-I¹ 1154 . a p. ní 'na n-enech robitha acht is inna ndrummai (gl. vulnera non aduerso corpore exciperunt, sed auerso) Ml. 100b2 . dubeir cách a chorp hí cotarsnae fria chele .i. enech fri enach (gl. aduersis corporibus) 65b10 . follaig Medb a hainech, LU 6567 . tucastar dóit fri dóit ┐ einech fri einech, CRR 45.48 . goeth garb ina n-enech, FA 26 (LB). nobetis déra geiredh dar eneach gach caratt ZCP vii 268 § 4 . d p. is i n-inchaib atat na cétfaide, O'Mulc. 403 . g p. comlethet a enech di or, LU 20b27 = MU 54.15 . cathbarr ┐ éittidh robaoi foraibh ag...diamlughadh a n-aightheadh ┐ a n-eineach, Hugh Roe, 166.9 (f. 44b) . In later texts the gen. is usually in sg. form: ar son a einich .i. ar son a aighthe, O'Cl. s. eineach, and the word is probably to be taken as sg. in the following exx.: glass robhói a ainech .i. aighed ghlas lais, Cóir Anm. 201 . dorat sígín na croiche dar a enech, RC x 185.14 . dearg a oineach .i. a ghnúis, Keat. ii 2223 (< dearg-ainech robái, Cóir Anm. 21 ). Later form of n p.: nírbo heinighi carat im [sic leg.] fleid in lucht bátar isin tig sin faces of friends at a feast Hib. Min. 52.23 (= aigthe carat, IT i 99.15 ). Of the outer surface of anything: nói mbuilc co n-inchaib órdaib, BDD 119 .

In phrases: ar (for) inchaib over against, in front of: Lia na Fían... | ar inchaib Rátha Senaid, Metr. Dinds. i 18.80 . co torchair for incuibh a duine fessin, Ériu vi 144.10 . badar da tulaigh arda fora n-inchaibh, CCath. 2407.1652 . Leb. Gab.(i) i 208.30 . Hugh Roe² 3.32 (f. 2a) . AFM vi 1898 z . After verb of motion: tainic ar ionchaibh a lethemain came in front of his twin (to shield him) CCath. 2068 ( Luc. Phars. iii 614 ). do dhol ar ionchaibh an Choimdhedh go breithemnus mbratha, BNnÉ 128.17 .

The following seem to belong to this section, but the sense may be that of II b: dorochradar...gleri laech for inchaib a tigernadh, Aen. 2494 . do eirgedar...isin comlonn sin ar inchaib Fergusa `in support of F.' Celt. Rev. iv 22 note m.

ar (for) enech into the presence of (cf. II b). Later also in front of: Ó D. ┐ Ó N. do bheith i ndíbh scoraibh for aineach aroile ó Shamhain go Nodlaicc, AFM iv 1178 x = for enech, AU 1490 . atconnairc T. an t-aingel ina seasamh ar a oinigh [leg. oinech?] gerbo ina diaidh fosraccaibh, Aisl. Tond. 101.9 . Cf. elta dian mag fo ócaib...fert na n-airech ... | décaid ar ainech Etair, Metr. Dinds. iii 106.52 .

fri enech opposite: isind ḟoclúi féinnida fri enech in ríg, BDD 74 . Cf. Ml. 65 b10 and CRR 48 , cited above.

i n-enech against, in opposition to: dolbfamaitni sé muca...a n-einech na sé n-onchon, Anecd. ii 62.15 ; 63.3 . Cf. duberat mo bráthir im ainech mu étchi my kinsmen urge against me my ugliness (cast it in my teeth?) Trip. 152.6 . ? dá mbeith ’na oineach 'if opposed by him' Celtica xvi 91 § 5 .

os inchaib?: airchinnig étrocair bíte ós inchaib martra na nnǽb for dānaib ┐ dechmadaib na hecailsi, FA 25 (this may belong to II).

enech i n-inchaib face to face: tucad cuce in di tabald co mbatar ina lamoib eneuch a n-inchoib facing one another RC xiii 223.53 . dorola airri na hA. doib...eineach i n-inchaip for in muig, CCath. 3058 . With do: do suidhigh [Césair] a longphort ann einech i n-inchaibh do longphort Poimp, 3287 . With fri: gabhsat longport and eineach i n-ionchuibh fri hUltaib, ZCP xiv 228.1 . batar enech i n-ionchaibh friaroile corofighedh iomairecc, AFM ii 908.5 . iii 362.4 . Hugh Roe² 5.32 (f. 3a) . go ranuicc go Dún na nGall eineach i n-ionchaibh frisna Gallaibh, 18.4 (f. 10a) . AFM vi 1926.10 .

e.¤ imm inchaib id.: ro gabh Cesair longphort...enech um inchaibh ríu, CCath. 2286 . Cf. robhai aigidh im inchaib fris directly opposite him Aen. 2857 .

With pref., as adj.:

bán-ainech white-faced: ben bán-ainech, TBC-LL¹ 4314 = TBC-I¹ 2789 (= banaighthech St).

clár-ainech flat-faced: Mo clárainech ( .i. cen sróin lais itir, LB 97 ), Fél. Oct. 12 . in dall clar-enech = cæcum tabulatam faciem habentem Todd Lect. v 86.3 . Cf. ferais tromṡ mbatar clarenig uile coiceda hErend din tṡnechtu so that all the fifths of Ireland were equally level plains TBC-LL¹ 627 .

crunn¤ (cruinn¤ ) round-cheeked: gnúis chorcra chrund-ainech, TBC-LL¹ 5323 .

coím¤ with noble face: Cathbad cóem-ainech, IT i 68.14 . LU 124 az = ZCP iii 236.19 ( ¤oinech). mor cend caem-ainech, BB 420 a36 .

derg¤ ruddy-cheeked: derg-ainech robái coni[d] dé ro lil Enna Derg dé, Cóir Anm. 21 .

gorm¤ swarthy-cheeked: fer gorm-ainech, BDD 75 . fien gorm-ainech, Fianaig. 10 § 8 .

moíth¤ soft-cheeked: ben mæth-ainech, TBC-I¹ 2789 .

COMPDS.: pn enech-glass green-faced: Bressal Enechglas RC xxv 22.10 . Rawl. 117by . B. Ainechghlass, Cóir Anm. 201 . asbert fri Breasal nEineachlais, Lec. 380a7 = Leb. Cert. 194 . rí O nEnechlais, Top. Poems 74.13 = ar Uibh Inechruis, 90.5 (see note, and Leb. Cert. 195 - 6 n.g.). Cf. ...AVI INEQUAGLAS, JRSAI 1898, 57 .

¤nár of noble countenance, or noble repute: Enna enech-nár, Metr. Dinds. iv 182.12 . ri claind Iafeth enechnāir, LL 142a44 . Rawl. 76b20 . ó mac Cumaill einechnáir, Acall. 1417 . Caichni ros ícc Sinchell slán | co himthend co henech-nár, Metr. Dinds. iii 156.18 .

¤réid of gentle face, or of free generosity, lavish: ar ndol don úr enechréigh upon the death of the generous one Miscell. Celt. Soc. 330.3 (cf. ó ṡíol R. an réadhoinigh `generous seed of R.' TD 16.57 ).

II By a transition of meaning apparently connected with the tendency for feelings of shame or humiliation to be reflected in the countenance, enech comes to be used in the sense of honour, repute, good name . The `enech' of an individual might be damaged by unatoned insult or injury on the part of another, or by any act on his own part which was dishonouring to his status, or any failure to fulfil the duties of his rank. Such acts or lapses, when unatoned, left a stain upon his `enech' and thus damaged his status. The contexts in which enech occurs in this sense usually deal with acts which cause humiliation or degradation, or with compensation for such acts, and the word takes on slightly different shades of meaning according to the aspect in which `enech' is regarded. For convenience of reference the exx. given below are grouped as far as possible in accordance with these aspects. In some passages the literal meaning of the word is plainly recognised. In the Laws Text it is treated as pl.; elsewhere it is often sg., though at least some of the instances from early texts are doubtless due to transcribers: gen. einic, Corm. Y 685 . enig, 532 . FB 94 LU. dat. ainiuch, AU 1123 .

(a) honour, repute; dignity, status: ar na torthaiset isnaib sechtaib hi tuitet enech caich...a aér i [= a?] torgabail cen gell dia inchaib, gú-fiadnaisi [sic leg.] gú-test, ailsed nadma, elud rathaigis, dul tria aitiri im ni dichuat fuiri [cf. Laws i 58.1 ff .], cacc for a enech [cf. Corm. Y 685 . ZCP xv 342 § 33 ]. Cid dinigh di inchaibh neich inna .uíí. sa? nach sal aslenna ainech duine biit a tri oca diúnach .i. sleic ┐ usce ┐ anart. is edh is sleíc, fóisitiu in mídénmai fia[d] doínib ┐ in gell nád súifii friiu aitherach. in t-usci, ícc ne[i]ch atball tria mignimiu. anart, penait in midenmai rer [per?] lebor that they fall not in the seven things in which everyone's honour (or countenance) may fall, that is, to be satirized, to transgress without having a pledge on his behalf (or to be satirized for transgressing, etc.?), false witness, false testimony, careless bond-making, evasion of suretyship, breaking through his pledge...(?) [all these bring?] dirt on one's honour. What cleanses from one's honour (or countenance) these seven things? Any stain which soils a person's honour, etc. Laws iv 318.21 ff . Cf. MacNeill, MacNeill, Law of status § 100 ( PRIA xxxvi C 16 ). nā raibh on for inchaibh tuaithe, ACL iii 295 § 27 . on it inchuib, Laws i 232.3 . recht ┐ enech ┐ anim [sic leg.] do rig, enech ┐ anim [sic leg.] do cāch olcena...treidhe do rig recht a timarcain is enech do beth sochaide ┐ imcomet anma do insin for a king, rule and honour and life; for others (only) honour and life. Threefold for a king, i.e. his (power of) constraint (or castigation) is (his) rule, it is his honour to have a retinue, and that guards his life Laws i 230.11ff. Comm. Cf. recht .i. flatha. enech .i. feni .i. ocus filidh. ainim .i. eclasa .i. inas dír do eclais rule, i.e. of the lord; honour, i.e. oj the freeborn native, i.e. and the poet; life (soul ?), i.e. of the church, i.e. what is properly for the church 230.10 . dilsi n-ainech rig a king retains his honour ZCP xv 366 . conagaib ainech ┐ anmain damsa in fer muinteri rucad uam .i. mo chú upheld my honour and my life (i.e. by guarding his stock so that he was never shamed from lack of provender for his guests, and by guarding his own person) TBC-I¹ 534 . secht seoit airech...con-oat enech which maintain (his) honour (i.e. appertain to his status), Cóic Con. 45 § 72 . Cf. Laws i 134 . ní dlegar anim is enech i n-íc n-anma (the loss of) a life need not be requited by both honour and life Metr. Dinds. iv 110.43 . úaisle eineach inā anam, ZCP xiv 251.2 . béo duine d'éis a anma ┐ ní beo d'éis a oinigh [sic leg.] RC xxix 138.4 . Aen. 2203 . Here we may note the punning sentence: olc amser...i mbiat ile cenna, i mbiat uate enig when heads [i.e. severed ones] will be many and countenances [i.e. reputes] will be few LL 188a52 = RC xxvi 36.3 .

To each grade was assigned a certain rate of satisfaction for any act which if left uncompensated would taint the individual's honour and thus affect his standing and reputation. This compensation was proportioned to the nature of the act and the status of the individuals concerned, and based on the valuation termed lóg n-enech ( honour-price ) in the earlier law tracts (`honour-price was the valuation of the freeman's status'; `a valuation of the power and effect of his status at any given time,' MacNeill, l.c. 270 . Another term for honour-price was eneclann, q.v.): digaib do log eneach eireach it diminishes the honour-price of a chief Laws iv 56.26 . is dilis don cele log n-einech dib, ZCP xiv 391 § 59 = Laws ii 336.5 . log enech fuidre, ma[d] doerfuidir, can mittir ? a inchaib a flatha whence is the honour-price of an unfree settler estimated? from the status of his lord Laws v 516.13 ; 108.24 . fer cen selb...a inchuib a mnā direnar side he is rated according to the status of his wife 516.5 . ii 394.27 . log n-ainech cach fuidire acht doer-fuidir direnar as a leth-[th]othchus, v 518.14 . na gradha tuaithe...ailsed nadm[a], no rath, no eteris, no gūfiadnuisi, no gūfoirgiull, no gūbreithemnus, no gūmes, no guin indilsi, no forlosccadh...troethaidh a logh einech umpu, i 58.10 Comm. dia ndenut guin, no fell for corpuib no colluib, fingal no duinethaighe, no etech daime, no adaltrus do graduib ecuilsi tesbuidh a lan-log einech iumpud fo cetoir curu icuit ┐ curo pinnet na grada ecuilsi ┐ ro sothut na grada cetna cinmotha in t-espoc, Laws i 56.24 Comm. ciasingba in ben as a mamaib ni fairben log n-ainech indi fir `if the woman falls from her obedience, it does not subtract from the honour-price of her husband' v 516 z . sechtmad lōge enig cāich iarna míadh, Corm. Y 532 . lān-lōg einig cāigh fo miad, 531 . Cf. dalbach dina tobngar dire n-ainech, ACL iii 294 § 7 . congairim firiu hErinn. nus biathaim gu cenn dechmuidi. fosuidiur a ndana ┐ a ndibergai. forriuth a n-enech ┐ a n-inechgreso amin I help (them to maintain) their status and (to repel) attacks on their honour IT i 141.27 = 325.8 . ZCP iii 236.4 . dodechas o M.A. cuice do cuingidh na muice do chabair a einich M.A. sent to him for the pig to help (him to maintain by his hospitality) his honour Dinds. 112 = IT i 112 . Cf. cit. from TBC-I¹ 534 , above. fó daig na rotubaide fria enech lest his honour should be aspersed IT i 121.30 . dús in fugebmáis tesorcain ar n-enech fri Ingcél, orguin fón orguin dorat dún to see if we could get wherewith to guard our honour from I. (that is,) a reaving to set against the reaving he allowed to us BDD 48 (they had promised him a return reaving and their honour would have been damaged had the promise not been fulfilled). na haithber ar n-einech, a I. (he had reproached them with shrinking from the promised reaving) 80 (ainech YBL). is messi thall cach n-accobor collaide n-airi na beth milliud enech daitsiu and, IT i 128.25 . ni fil imlot n-enig daitso and, 128.28 (LU) = issat slán-sa dot enech, 128.6 (Eg.). guin in meic ro mill a enech `that smirched his honour' (by embracing his wife) Metr. Dinds. iv 110.32 . do dígail ar mná ┐ ar n-ainig ar na Manib, TBC-LL¹ 4572 . an ferann in ro sáraighedh C. a dílsiugad dó 'na enech as compensation for his (outraged) honour Metr. Dinds. iv 268 x . MR 132.4 . olc do inchaib tri eclaind do thutim dib ┐ nad tabrat digail fair, IT ii2 214.51 . bid olc dot inchaib-siu (not to avenge the slaying of his servant), Laws i 6 z . Ériu ix 46 § 8 . foipremm ina ndegaid ┐ liach on, ol M., ┐ is meth n-einig duinn inni sin a blighting of our honour ZCP iv 39.13 . cáemain, a rí... | th'ainech, th'agaid, ocus tabair Ailech d'A. `guard ...thine honour and thy face, and give A. to A.' Metr. Dinds. iv 116.103 . not áirubsa, ol in cainte. ro íccus dom inchaib indiu. aírfatsa Ultu it chinta. ro iccus dia n-inchaib I shall satirize thee [for refusing a request]...I have paid on behalf of my honour to-day. I shall satirize Ulster for thy faults. I have paid on their behalf LL 121a42 - 44 . RC viii 48.25 ; 52.12 . do ænig a fir, 48 z . Cf. ni herfaider dom incaibse ón sibse imme (reply to a challenge) LU 21a18 = IT ii2 213.15 (cf. 210.1 ). ro íccus do chind m' enig indiu chena, LL 121a16 . tanic F. leo dar cend a enig, daig ba hussu lessium a thuttim do gaib gaile ┐ gascid...ná a thuttim de gaaib áire ┐ écnaig ┐ imdergtha, TBC-LL¹ 3022.1738 . berid enech carries off the honour of (by satire, etc.) humiliates, shames: nicon n-etus leo fer du thuidecht ar a chend. is mebul hinnso, ol O. bertar enech di sunn they could not get a man to oppose him, that is shameful, says O. it will cause loss of honour IT iii 239.132 . ni cóir enech cóicid do brith ar ái óenḟir do thesbaid díb, FB 94 . RC viii 48yz . But in a different sense: dosmbidc Cú C. a Delga connach cæmnacair anmanna de duine na chethir ronucad a ainech secha fades C.C. cast at them from Delgu so that no living thing, human or quadruped, was able to get past him unshamed (?) (i.e. without being overcome, but cf. II (b), first cit.) TBC-I¹ 1745 . It was especially harmful to one's honour to refuse a request or to fail in any of the obligations of a host; to show churlishness towards poets or minstrels: meni tuga biad im dorn | berat th'eneach, Laws v 64.22 Comm. conattecht R. in clettín ┐ nad tarddait C. in clettín dó...rádis R. nobérad ainech C., TBC-LL¹ 2068 . TBC-I¹. 1336 (enech). Otia ii 78 z (einech). Cf. O'Dav. 1527 . co mberdais enighe Erenn, Ériu v 116.50 .

do-gní e.¤ maintains (achieves, satisfies) honour, reputa- tion: ar ái óenḟir do thesbaid díb oc denam a n-enig, FB 94 ( = hoc diden a n-oinich, ZCP iv 175 ). ba fearr lais a bās ac denum a enig inās a ēlud fo mebail, Aen. 3117 . nā bīd ...dobrón fort, ar dogéntar th'ainech ┐ ní bía fo mélai (Agamemnon to Menelaus), TTr.² 551 . dia ndernad enech fíal-Ḟind when generous F.'s honour was achieved Metr. Dinds. iv 42.34 . cia enech mór dorigne ? indarbad na nGall...'s ár ar síl I., iii 200 . denu-sa mo eineach don chur-sa ma doronais mo mieineach roimi treat me honourably this time, even though thou didst treat me dishonourably before Anecd. ii 78.16 . In: asbert Agmemnón nírbó santach immon ríge...léor leis namá connerntá [ = connerta, LL 406bw ] enech na Tróianda , TTr.² 1236 , Stokes's emendation conderntá is probably right, though co n-érnta (ernaid) would also make sense. In either reading the context shows the meaning in general to be as he renders it, `that the honour-price of T. be exacted' (i.e. that they might be compelled to render satisfaction fitting to their status. Stokes compares einach .i. eneaclann, O'Cl. ).

tiagait dia tir ┐ a n-eneach leo go home with their honour secure (they had maintained their reputation) Ériu v 32 z . Cf. dobert ainech ris he saved (his) honour thereby (?) Metr. Dinds. iv 94.27 (the meaning seems to be that by reaching the spot with the stone he had given satisfaction for the crime; see p. 102 ib. ).

In adjuration: for fír th'ainich ┐ t'anma, a F., asndíth cia cruth... !, ZCP iv 43.32 . ar ghrádh th'einigh innis damh `for the love of thine honour, tell me' TD 3.43 . ar ghradh h'oinigh [sic leg.], Atlantis iv 220.33 .

aís enig people of degree, nobles: mo dímiad-sa fíad...ǽs enig, SCC 41 ( = LU 49a46 ).

(b) One's honour could be harmed by failure to fulfil a promise or a guarantee, especially a guarantee of protection. Such a lapse was equivalent to failure to protect and maintain one's `enech,' hence the transferred meaning

protection, security, guarantee: here most probably should come: mad fíu lib mo ainech-sa do breith less if you think fit that it have my protection Wb. 14a4 (the gloss is not a mere translation of ut ego eam, but supplements it by the reason for Paul's offer to accompany the collection). Similarly: ní imdidnibter ainech and no one's guarantee will be protected 15c25 (if ainech is pl. the MS. reading is correct). tucad enech Pirr friu fri[a n-] anacul, Aen. 49 . ri feallus for einech (.i. for a comuirce), Laws v 172.17 ; 168.11 ; 368.8 . MR 190.8 . (Saul has promised David his daughter if he slays Goliath:) ainige fris... | a meic Cis...! | rót biat limm anige in tslúaig | ...enech Ioseph uas cech du, | Moisi, Iacob is Iessu | henech...os cech dáil | uaisliu díb (sic leg.) Dia Abaráim pledges for it, son of Kish !...Thou shalt have from me the guarantees of the host...the guarantee of Joseph, etc. SR 5841 - 52 . nā sāraig... | Maísi, Ioséph, Iacób | nā bris báig n-airech no láech | no ainech na fer fírgáeth, 6030 . co tartar glinne ┐ enighe frinn im anacul ógh ar muinteri, TTr.² 1803 . in tan do-n-athmongar cuir tar einaige fer, Laws v 506.13 = tar enech ratha, O'Dav. 980 . Cf. ZCP xiii 23.7 = Bürgschaft 11 § 35 . Fergus... ro rir a einech ar chuirm F. who sold his honour (pledged to protect the sons of Uisnech) for ale IT i 81.7 . gai Táidhg rug C. lais chum na mbroc ar co tísdaís...amach ar enech Taidhg. tangadar na bruic chum C. ┐ do mharbh iat . dochóidh Tadhg iarsin do chaithem na fleidhe bai ag C. ┐ do ḟetir a enech do choll T.'s spear C. took with him to the badgers so that they should come out (relying) on T.'s protection. The badgers came to C. and he slew them. Afterwards T. went to eat C.'s feast, and he knew his protection had been violated Cóir Anm. 239 . can comarci acht eneach B. fein, Cog. 130.15 . ar bith ainig Ḟergusa ara tanac because thou hast come under the safeguard of F. TBC-LL¹ 1884 . conaitig C. cucu a n-eneach no a n-anmain (the fulfilment of) their guarantee or else their lives (i.e. that they should make the defaulters for whom they were pledged give satisfaction or else lose their own lives) BB 389b14 = Dinds. 78 (a n-enoch nó a n-anom). crech lasin nG....for araill do chenel E. baoi for comairce Uí Thaircheirt. rucc O Tairceirt forra... ┐ marbhthar é budh deisin ag cosnamh a einigh, AFM iii 174.10 . ii 1138.5 . vi 2208.1 . Hugh Roe 248.2 (f. 66a) . riar Maol Brighde iarsin hi ccol einicch Pádraicc satisfaction was given to M. for the violation of Patrick's protection (i.e. for invading the sanctuary of Ard Macha) AFM i 542 x . tre miorbailibh na naem isa heneach ro ṡaraigh whose protection they had violated iii 54.2 . térna imorro Ua M. do eineach Chianáin gan mharbhadh through C.'s protection ii 1016.14 . AU 1123 (ainiuch).

ar (for) inchaib under the protection of: nach ingen macdacht...nobid la hUlltai is for a inchuibseom nobitdis noco n-irailtis for feraib in his ward RC x 222.131 . a athair...sul lenus sé in chalann cuil | go mbé in t-anam ar th'ionchuib, O'Gr. Cat. 446.14 . ar fhaosamh nó ar ionchaibh ar Slánuightheóra, TSh. 2717 . a ndioghail an imir sé ar na daoinibh...batar ar a ionchaibh ┐ ar a ḟosdadh under his protection and engaged for his service AFM vi 2148.1 . ar inchaib a enig, MR 248.9 . Cf. cid hē nobeith and...nangonaind-se [nomg—MS.] ar inchaib Ulad even if it were he (his own son) I would slay him in spite of (?) the Ulstermen Ériu i 118.19 . Cf. is ort as chóir a chumhal | d'agra...lucht faghla... | do losgadh mh'arbha ar th'ionchuibh GF, Ir. Monthly 1919, 564 . For exx. of ar (for) i. after verb of motion, see II (c).

ar (for) enech , etc., id. (properly only after verb of motion): is commairgi dait immar einech... Fergusa, TBC-LL¹ 1854 . techt don anam ar h'oineach, YBL 401b8 = Dán Dé xxii 21 . cecib tan docuirethar neach uaidibh for ionchaibh aroile gurbo hiomairgidhe laisiomh dul for eineach Fhélim, Hugh Roe² 8.25 - 26 ( ff. 4b-5a ). gabh ar h'oineach mé, TD 30.26 . Here, probably: toet for m'ainech-sa, ZCP viii 311 w . Cf. in slúag-sa bar th'einech ┐ ar do chommairgi, TBC-LL¹ 6088 . ar th' eineach dhamh I dependent on thee GF, Ir. Monthly 1919, 510 . mé ar h'eineach 'sar eineach nGall, Studies 1924, 243 . TD 30.25 . a milled ar t'inchaib ┐ ar t'einech `if they should be destroyed in spite of thy safeguard and thy honour' IT ii2 123.48 . Cf. dochōid for m'einech ┐ for m'anmain airec co mbúaib my honour and life have been pledged ZCP iv 44.29 . d(i) inchaib by the guarantee of; by means of: co tísad slán d'inchaib a coraigechta-som ZCP iii 206.5 = LU 115b38 . forócrad do B. fácbáil in tigi de inchaib na n-atairi on the security of his guarantors FB 13 (cf. TBC-I¹ 1243 ). ro leicceadh ass...d'ionchaibh a chomairgedh, AFM ii 1072.14 . Cf. gan timdhibhe ferainn for M. gomadh fiadhnach lasna comairgibh a chion, ┐ co ffoccarthaoi slán é d'ionchaibh a chomairgedh, 1072.12 , where the sense may be different: till he should be proclaimed exempt from the protection, etc. (?), and : eirgg es... dem inchaib, RC xxv 346.14 . nod ber as dom inchaib-si, riasu ba marb-sa, ZCP i 105.24 (away from the jurisdiction, peace, of?). With fír: nod gaibim for fir mo enig ┐ mo ḟaesaim, BDD 162 .

fo e.¤ under the protection of: do Thorinis fot ainiuch Tours is under thy protection LL 367 marg. inf. = Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1912, 25. 439 § 8 .

In some contexts equivalent to (c) mercy, clemency, quarter: dober einech don bharda, AU iii 522.2 = ALC ii 224.14 = maithemh n-anacail, AFM v 1334.13 (ann. 1516) . dia ttardta eineach ┐ maithemh n-anacail dóibh quarter and protection AFM vi 207.4 . techt for eineach Uí D. ┐ a óighriar do thabairt dó to cast himself upon O'D.'s mercy AFM vi 2136.8 . ticc D. disccir diairm...amach ar ionchaibh Meic Mic M. throwing himself on M.'s mercy v 1760.12 . go ttiocfadh for ionchaibh an Iustis `would surrender to the Lord Justice' vi 2300.12 . Cf. is truagh dúinn intí beith i n-áit édaingen ar inchaibh a escarad at the mercy of (?) his foes Expugn. Hib. 33 . mar atá airde na neamh ós cionn na talmhan atá a oineach comhmór sin don lucht ar a bhfuil a eagla, Psalms ciii 11 . ná bíodh ann duine do ṡínfeadh oineach chuige, cix 12 . Cf. loghadh (ón einech), IGT, Decl. p. 54.15 - 16 .

In: ro láithea for biastaib | la berga cen enech (`merciless ruffians') Fél., Prol. 42 the meaning seems rather good faith and the rendering faithless ruffians is more likely.

Honour was maintained by open-handedness, bountifulness, hence the sense (d) generosity, bounty, hospitality , cf. in ruidiud tic isin do sin is nomen nāire. fēile immorro ainm don einech bunaid, Corm. Y 983 : ainech coitchend cáich...cen diultad ri nech, LL 148b22 = KMMisc. 268 . ba mór einech in oclaigh sin...uair nír facaib ben cen a coibchi...gilla cen a dliged dingmala...fer cen a tuarustal ┐ nír gell i n-aidci riam ní nach comaillfed i lló, Acall. 4073 . cia díb siut is ferr einech...? is ferr einech in gilla, uair issé dobeir do chāch cach ní dogeib, 4623 . ZCP vii 304 § 12 . BColm. 98.24 . Cas clothach...cloth .i. enech. ar is é nech robo mó enech ┐ ba fearr im cach ní do iarfadh nech fair, Cóir Anm. 9 . ben robudh maith deirc ┐ oineach, AFM iii 414.1 . Acall. 222 . ar mbrath oinigh gach éinḟir, TD 10.40 . ZCP viii 109.13 . Here perhaps: roddet i nArd Macha...ainech aībhda ro mmac nDé delightful hospitality (?) Ériu viii 67.15 . an t-enech sotal soichlech | brondtach díghuind derloicctech (an attribute of the chief), Ériu iv 218.17 . ar mhéid a oinigh d'aoidheadhaibh, Keat. iii 1700 . ó oineach óir is eang generosity with gold and territory Ó Bruad. ii 152.10 . With do-gní: is romhór luach an enigh cidh cia do-ni, ZCP x 51.7 . an tré ghlóir dhíomhaoin doní G. an t-eineach mór úd?, Keat. iii 957 . With concrete sense: conid hé sin enech dedenach Guairi G.'s last act of bounty ZCP iii 218 § 37 = LU 117b18 . dontí do-ní an offráil nó an t-eineach so ar na marbhaibh, TSh. 5280 (cf. 4815 ). Phr.: tré dichell damhna lusa éigin dá faghail dúinni eneach cennach `for love or money' O'Gr. Cat. 120.5 . g s. as attrib.: sluag [sic leg.] an enigh the generous ZCP x 51.13 . With pref.: dobi se fíal degh-enigh, BCC § 136 . As compar.: ni tainicc riam duine ba degh-enich inās é more generous § 157 . ni raibe...duine ba doichlighi ┐ bú droch-enigh ina in G. sin more churlish or more niggardly § 138 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. opunn or


Forms: obunn, opund

adj o,ā. later obunn, -onn, -ann. Quick, swift, prompt : obunn .i. luath, O'Dav. 1305. catha opni erlama `nimble and ready battalions', TTr. 1360 ( LL 225a44 ). co narbtar oipni ri airsclaige na gona dib `prompt to ward off the wounds', TTr. 2056 ( LL 244b4 ). muna dherna aithrighe n-obainn, BNnÉ 25 § 13. In unfavourable sense hasty, precipitate : nibbát ecal ocol opond, SCC 25 ( LU 3468 ). saothor obund no remar, ZCP vii 311 § 15 (oppd. to: in cosmail caol fodae narrow persevering routine). Of events, sudden, unexpected : ēc oponn, Laws v 448.29 Comm. do thámh obunn énuaire, Acall. 1265. do bhásaibh obanna, TSh. 5438. compar. nach obainne bás na croiche ioná an bás nádúrtha speedier, 3786 . Adv. focheirdi erchor uait . . . docuirethar obonn anmandae ar a chind (=an animal suddenly intercepts the missile), Corm. Y 1229 = opund, Corm. p. 43 s.v. taurthait. opund dino atuaid [= aduaid] Eua in uball, LB 111a18 ( MacCarthy 54.11 ). aiti araciallathar tassic a n-opund who secures restitution promptly (?), Corm. Y 1232 = i n-opund LB, tassec opunn LL. la eirgi súas co opund, FB 25. tanic co hopand chucaind sollsi dermáir, PH 3777. étid co hoponn siph arm yourselves quickly, CCath. 5168. abair re B. nā fuirighedh a Temraig ach[t] imthiged asti co hobann at once, Ériu iii 170 § 29. [atá] canosasion chom a dhenta go hobonn air `he will soon be canonised', Fl. Earls 98.2 .

Compd. obann-briathrach cach bras, ACL iii 229.114 (`hasty-spoken', ZCP xvii 63 § 36 ).

1 rec(c)

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 rec(c) or


Forms: arec(c)

in adverbial phrase i rrec, later arec(c). The orig. meaning seems to be absolutely, outright , emphasizing an assertion or word. a llán-indarpe hirecc, gl. abiciuntur, Sg. 10b1 (`directly', Thes.; altogether ?). delb tri tuisel foraib nó it tri tuisil hirec (gl. gerundia cum videantur habere casus obliquos) `three cases simply' ; actually (?), 148b8 . sloind gnimo hirec dogni indidit (i.e. the indicative asserts the action absolutely, without qualification?), 153a3 , cf. PCr. 63b2 (hirrec). noco ría nech dib aréc | donaib dib trebaib déc | co crich Cannan absolutely no one . . . will reach the border of C. (?), SR 4729 (leg. a rec . . . deëc). menadach eter da usci, sech ni teit sis a rrec co dommain lestir it does not sink right down to the bottom of the vessel , Mon. Tall. 74 = a reg, Anecd. i 75.19 . focheirdi erchor uait . . . docuirethar obonn anmannae ar a chind ┐ gonta no benta no marbthae a rrec it wounds it or strikes it or kills it outright. Corm. Y 1229 = irrec, Corm. p. 44 s.v. taurthait ( LL 179a42 ).

In follg. exx. possibly at once, directly, forthwith; cf. rec .i. donithear go hobann, O'Cl. (perh. a reminiscence of Corm. quoted above). dindgnai Lagen . . . na dindgnai, na rátha a rrec `the notable places, and next the raths', Metr. Dinds. iii 66.3 . a ndíth ba ro-moch a rrec `their loss was early and sudden' (? altogether premature ), 140.11 . marbsat na [trí] Ruaid a rrec | Conall C[ernach] na cruadglecc, LL 166b45 . cach doerchland, cach merlech | nā marbthar a rrec, 147a47 ( PRIA iii 552 § 40 ). o creidis inniut a recc | medon laithi . . . | hi parthus iar n-oidche uair | is e gilla docuaid lat ( of the penitent thief), ZCP x 47.17 ; perh. just at noon. ? [Fl]and find Fína . . . ar brú [sro]tha Rēin arrecc | fuair a réir mar ro-lán-dét, Ériu viii 70.91 ; ? ro nas ith ┐ blicht . . . ciche bá rogell a regg | sonend ┐ dubdonend (of the sureties promised for the payment of the Boroma), LL 376a4 . ? acht ma scerter for mo thengaid irecc (MSS. arecha) 'unless it is sprinkled directly on my tongue' EIS 52 § 2 .

1 sin

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 sin or
Last Revised: 2013


Forms: sin, sein, sen, sain, sein, sein, sein, sein, sein, sein, sein, sein, sein, sein, sein, sein, sen, sain, sin, sain, sain, sain, sain, sain, sain, insain, sain, sain, sain, sain, t-ár-sain, sain, séin, iaid-séin, ainnséin, díbh-séin, ei-séin, sine, saine, sene, sini, saine, sine, furri-sene, īarsine, sinee, sei-sean, choigil-sean, n-ainm-sean, dóibh-sean, thoirnsean, orthaibhsean, sion, aigesion, leision, rision, ṡáithsion, bhfághaid-sion, air-sion, san, ionnta-san, ronua-san, a-tá-san, dhol-san, riu-san, dorat-san, atá-san, siad-san, shon-san, son, aitheanta-son, sin, sraitsin, beathaid-sin, deallraidhsin, ṡáithsion, luicht-sin, Maic-sin, bairr-sin, iaid-séin, aim-sin, riui-séin, iarlaisin, dhoi-séin, hÚnai-sin, issin

adv. and demonstr.pron there; that, those (see exx. cited under II (i) below).

Forms. In O.Ir. Glosses always sin, which is the most usual form at all periods. Later also sein, sen, and sain (after non-palatal ending). sein: iar sein , Thes. ii 308.2 ( Hy. ii pref . ). sein (substantival), ib. Thes. ii 308. 23 (do. Comm.). iar sein , SR 3777 (: oentreib). 3705 (: oengein). sein is the form most freq. used by scribe A of LU: í sein , LU 565 . dóib sein , 111 . iar sein , 1231 . ass sein , 4504 . Rare elsewhere in LU: insind aidchi sein , 1545 . sí sein , 8620 . Other instances: Trip.² 447 , 1162 , 2609 . Hib. Min. p. 5.152 , p. 2.29 . MacCarthy 48.22 ( LB 110a ). Corm. Y 206 . From the second half of the Mid.Ir. period this form becomes rare in prose. It does not occur in PH, Aisl. MC or Maund. It remains in bardic verse: (rug) sein, DDána 40.14 (: neimh), 40.13 (gcneidh). It does not occur in TD.

Less freq. sen: Thes. ii 255.7 (Stowe M.), 253.16 (do.), 252.14 (do.). Laws iv 210.y , 206.9 , 190.14 . Corm. Y 110 . LU 911 .

sain: in LU used by both A and M (H seems always to use sin but material not exhaustive). A: and sain , 13 . iat sain , 27 . in recht sain , 133 . isind luc sain , 50 . M: in sét sain , 2158 . isind inud sain , 4094 . insain, 5544 , 9243 . iar sain , 9251 , 9227 .

Other instances of sain: a macsamla sain, SR 5367 (: genair). doib sain , 2761 (: hilberlaib), 4328 (: glain), TBC-LL¹ 5581 . CRR 21 . Laws iv 176.2 . From bardic verse: dhóibh sain , Dán Dé vi 4 (: Peadair). an t-ár-sain , DDána 115.2 (: mhair). sain (substantival), 69.22 (: thosaigh).

Later soin: ō hoin, RSláinte 4747 . ó shoin, IGT Decl. ex. 315 (= Studies 1924, 80 § 6 ). DDána 110.29 (: goimh). ó soin, 54.8 , 39.5 (: thobhoigh).

A form with a long vowel, séin, occurs only in bardic verse and is usually introduced for the sake of the rhyme: iaid-séin, DDána 54.15 (: chéill). ainnséin, TD 21.26 (: féin). Without rhyme: díbh-séin, DDána 96.25 . ei-séin, 80.21 .

Occas. also sine, saine, sene, regarded by Meyer, Wortk. 228 , as an analogical formation on the model of side, saide, sede: iar sini , LU 5245 (H). iar saine (`apart'), Metr. Dinds. iii 114.59 (= LL 195a2 ). ib. 392.81 (iarsine, v.l.) = LL 198b11 . YBL 126b26 . sine, Anecd. ii 35 § 15 (: aile). furri-sene, MacCongl. 3.19 . īarsine (iarsain, v.l. LL), ZCP iv 40.18 (TBFr., Eg.). in tinnscra sinee (sic), ib. 39.7 (= sin, TBFr. App. § 14 (YBL)).

Forms with neutral final first appear in bardic verse ( frie-seon, IT i 75.2 ( LL 260b27 ) is undoubtedly an error for -seom), sean and sion after a palatal ending, san and, rarely, son after a neutral. They occur only as enclitics replacing O.Ir. -som, -si. sean: sei-sean, DDána 69.22 . do choigil-sean , 104.24 . a n-ainm-sean , 100.15 (: lean). dóibh-sean, 63.7 (: cneadh). níor thoirnsean , TD 32.26 . orthaibhsean, 12.11 .

sion (very common in TD): ei-sion, DDána 98.33 (deisiol). aigesion, TD 23.17 . leision, 16.23 . rision, 16.15 . a ṡáithsion , 33.10 . go bhfághaid-sion , Donlevy 42.23 . air-sion, 56.13 .

san: ionnta-san, DDána 122.17 . a cruth . . . ronua-san , 114.26 . a-tá-san, 71.24 . a dhol-san , 69.21 . riu-san, Stair Erc. 1865 . dorat-san, 211 . amhail atá-san , TSh. 284 . siad-san, 4945 . a shon-san , Donlevy 30.16 .

son: a aitheanta-son , Donlevy 52.9 .

With devoicing and delenition of a preceding final: ant sin , Ml. 36a1 . an sraitsin , IGT Decl. ex. 1012 . na beathaid-sin , Dán Dé iv 13 (: fhaicsin). an deallraidhsin , xiv 25 (: thuigsin). But as a rule the final is not affected: in chruth sin, Wb. 12d19 , 13b17 . in chrud sin, 13a6 . and sin, Ml. 72d1 . na . . . maccáin maith sin, Fél. Aug. 2 . a ṡáithsion , TD 33.10 . In bardic verse, sin palatalizes the preceding final (see IGT Introd. § 150 ): an luicht-sin , Dán Dé xvii 26 . an Maic-sin , v 33 . an bairr-sin , DDána 84.42 . iaid-séin, 54.15 . mun aim-sin , 80.22 . TD 8.9 . ag an chrích Albainsin, 24.2 . So also with glide-vowel: riui-séin, DDána 117.2 . don iarlaisin , TD 17.35 . dhoi-séin, Butler Poems 1582 . na hÚnai-sin , 360 .


A As adverb (? original use): `nachamdermainte . . .' ised no biad s.¤ it is `forget me not . . .' that would have been there, Ml. 32d5 . ní epur ní s.¤ `I say nothing therein', Sg. 73b6 . docuirethar cétna persan s.¤ persana aili chucae `a first person here (better there) takes other persons to it', 191a2 . roansat sin in dām, Anecd. i 73 § 214 . cotailsiu s.¤ bic a Chu Chulaind, LU 6310 . ni fil brig s.¤ tra, IT i 140.25 .

B As demonstrative,

I Adjectival (usually enclitic).

(a) with article and noun, that, the above-mentioned, the before-mentioned : in chumal s.¤ , Thes. ii 240.3 (Ardm.). a ndéde s.¤ , Wb. 25d8 . dinaib preceptorib s.¤ , 5a4 . a buidigud dosom int soirtha s.¤ `to thank Him for that deliverance', Ml. 62c6b . in Fiac s.¤ , Thes. ii 307.3 ( Hy. II pref . ). cechtar de na da flesc-sain, SR 4328 . in tUath mac Imomain s.¤ , LU 9006 ( FB 75 ). an t-Iruath s.¤ , Maund. 82 . an triur-soin ón tigh neamhdha, DDána 9.12 . mac inghine an Aodha-soin, TD 13.52 . an bhean úd s.¤ , Keat. Poems 76 . Exx. without article: bethusin, Ml. 53c14 . iarsétsain, SR 1687 .

When the subst. is qualified by an adj., sin follows the adj.: a timne sainemail s.¤ , Wb. 3c33 . in euin utmaill s.¤ , Ml. 127c12 . otha na teora bliadna suiri s.¤ , Laws iv 164.6 . dend Eoganacht áinsin, Fél. Oct. 20 . in cumhadh céatna s.¤ , Leb. Cert. 142.15 . fan Magh Laignechsin, Irish Texts ii 28 § 22 .

uile, however, follows sin: ind rétai s.¤ huili, Wb. 5c16 . a met na ree sein uile, SR 141 .

When the subst. is defined by a definite noun in the gen., sin precedes this: don dlúim máir s.¤ inna pecthach, Wb. 9d5 . in gnim s.¤ in tengad, Ml. 31b24 . na bāi s.¤ Echdi Echbēil, Corm. Y 585 . in laithi sen in brātha, 110 . an Maic-sin Dé, Dán Dé v 33 . ic sibul an mhara s.¤ na hIndía, Maund. 240 . mar do bhí an Conaillsin Cuinn, TD 2.36 .

When the dependent genitive is indefinite, sin follows it: a llaa mbrithemnacte s.¤ , Wb. 6b26 . forsa cenélae metir s.¤ , Sg. 8a13 . an lucht feasa s.¤ , PCT 193 . The follg. are exceptional: in cethardoit s.¤ tire, Laws iv 164.10 . ag an chrích Albainsin, TD 24.2 .

Note also: ar nipa dóir a teg n-oiged s.¤ in spirito, Wb. 4a7 .

(b) With O.Ir. (h)í and follg. sin: adib mogæ indí s.¤ `ye are servants of Him', Wb. 3b15 . dindí s.¤ `of Him', 7a2a . talam nání s.¤ `the land of those (people)', 9b19 . inti s.¤ gl. qui, 15d19 . arnaib hi s.¤ gl. illis, Ml. 117b4 . lasinni s.¤ `with him', 36a7 . donaib hi s.¤ `to them', 54b19 . foropoir indhí s.¤ `that man's special business', Mon. Tall. 16 (133.17) . ised dicit hisindi-sein, Hib. Min. 5.152 . ní beram aichni inní s.¤ `we do not know such a one', Imr. Brain 64 .

(c) (h)í-sin with noun and article: int Alaxander hísin, Wb. 28a20 . ní fristait in béstatid n-isin, 12d39 . a mbás n-isin, 15d12 . trisin n-impúd n-isin, Ml. 93a18 . huana fochaidib hisin, 54a18 . ond rainn inmedonich hísin ind aitrebthado, Sg. 198a13 . in fer hísin, Imr. Brain 32 . frissin cróib ísin, 2 . fri ceilebrad ind líthlaithi hisin, Trip.² 439 . forsain choire n-īsin (MS. niṡin), Corm. Y 323 (p. 28.6) . an tech í-sin, Sc.M² R 5 . ind fer ísin, Mon. Tall. 76 (159.2) . forsin n-imarchor n-ísin, LU 5625 (TBC). lasin screich í sin, IT i 67.8 . issé in t-imper ísin Constantinoble doní patrierca, Maund. 30 (transltd. `the Emperor in C.', ? better that emperor of C. Cf. acan imper C., 23 ). forind arracht n-ingnathach hisin, Stair Erc. 1285 . frisin torathar hisin, 1263 .

(d) with noun preceded by possessive (rare in O.Ir.): a fius sin knowledge of that, Wb. 10b27 . a macsamla sain, SR 5367 . a rád s.¤ , MU² 114 . fail a mor-abba dam-sa sain, CRR 18 . a n-anmanna sin, MacCongl. 77.18 . i ló a bheirthei-sean, DDána 17.24 . atá an fairrgi a comard s.¤ ann comadh dóigh . . ., Maund. 180 . a aitherrach s.¤ do fregra, 27 . a bhfulang s.¤ , TSh. 6218 .

(e) with conjugated prepp. (when the pron. implied has neuter or abstract force, and when the prep. retains the stress, i.e. does not merely replace by the form of 3 s.n. the O.Ir. simple prep.). Here, later, freq. but not always, sin replaces O.Ir. -som, -si (see next section): as s.¤ , PH 3186 . Maund. 8 . is samlid s.¤ dano bid ícc disi tuistiu claindde, Wb. 28b17 . niba samlid doemsa mo thuaid insin `it will not be so that I shall defend my people', Ml. 37c20 . is samlid insin, 34b6 . amlaid s.¤ , LU 2154 ( FA 22 ). ni hamhlaid s.¤ dobí, Maund. 118 . air s.¤ , Imr. Brain 60 . LU 8555 ( FB 41 ). is airi insin rocualasu guth m'ernaigdese, Ml. 50d7 . is airi insin darigensat, Sg. 213a1 . ? is airi nobíth digaimm leo ante ρ sin, 9b10 (Edd.'s note: ` sin might go with is airi ', cf. Ml. 37c20 , cited above). airi sein, LU 767 ( ACC Comm . ). a testa de-s.¤ , Sc.M² 6 . conid de s.¤ atát na trenae samna, LU 3226 ( SCC 1 ). de s.¤ , Stair Erc. 294 . is dó sein arróet som in ainm is Cotraigi, IT i 17.32 . is dó-sin as-rubrad, Sc.M² R 1 . is úas in sluinnsius foi s.¤ , LU 803 ( ACC Comm . ). is sí cétbaid ala n-aile ant s.¤ `that is the opinion of some there', Ml. 36a1 . is [s]ruithiu la Feine in foesam and-sen oldás . . ., Laws iv 206.9 . and s.¤ , Trip.² 168 . and s.¤ there, LU 2096 . ann s.¤ then, Stair Erc. 838 . iarmu s.¤ after that, IT i 120.30 ( TE 5 ). iarma s.¤ , PH 5656 . i comfhat ro bátar immi sain, MU² 306 . imme-sin, PH 12 . uimme-sin, 625 . leis s.¤ do thréig féin a uile mhaitheas, TSh. 364 . batar fri cíana móir oca s.¤ , LU 3289 ( SCC 8 ). do bhí a ḟios aigesion, TD 23.17 . reimhe-s.¤ before, Sc.M² R 18 . riamh roimhe s.¤ , PCT 170 . ná ciontaigh sinn seacha s.¤ , DDána 25a.15 . trit s.¤ on that account, Maund. 26 .

(f) replacing O.Ir. -som, -si with verbs and pronn.: táncatar s.¤ . . . da mórad áig ┐ urgaile, MU² 577 . ra-chuala sain Carpre, CRR 45 . dollotar sain co Tráig mBále, 10 . ro-ercransat s.¤ uli amal foscad no ciaig, PH 4265 . mar [do] mhaith soin, Dán Dé v 30 . atbert s.¤ , Maund. 34 . iaid-séin (: chéill), DDána 54.15 . eision agus i-se, 98.33 . sei-sean, 69.22 . siadsan, TSh. 4945 . íatsan, Maund. 157 . demmun aridralistar s.¤ `a demon has contrived it', Mon. Tall. 66 (153.27) . dosrat s.¤ ina théig libair, MacCongl. 9.21 .

II Substantival (stressed) (in O.Ir. usually in sin see GOI § 482 ) except after prepp.

(a) after simple prepp. (in some cases later replaced by petrified 3 s.n., e.g. faoi sin, ann sin see I (e) above): a s.¤ `therefrom', Ml. 59a21 . is follus a s.¤ tra `hence then it is clear', Sg. 5a10 . amal s.¤ , PH 116 . nonsóirni a dæ ar s.¤ `on account of that', Ml. 136c11 . a eneclainn co s.¤ anall, Críth G. 264 . cen aithgne a litri có s.¤ , Trip.² 97 . fo anmchairdini E. robúisom co s.¤ anald, Mon. Tall. 136.13 . doruménair co s.¤ combá mac dond ríg hé, LU 1676 . scela in chatha co s.¤ , PH 7267 . di s.¤ dulluid in t-aingel cuci `then', Thes. ii 242.3 (Ardm.). ní torban dom níi di s.¤ `nothing of that profits me', Wb. 12b32 . di s.¤ gl. exinde, Ml. 90d13 . is di ṡ.¤ asberr séra , Sg. 183b3 . ro mórad ainm nDé . . . di sein, Trip.² 548 . coir duit mo marbad di ṡhain, SR 1531 . dessimrecht . . . do s.¤ , Wb. 25d8 . is fochetoir trá fo s.¤ `then in that case it is at once (?)', Ml. 42c24 . ind ḟír fo ṡ. `truly according to that', Sg. 106a5 . a canar dind offriund for sen `thereafter', Thes. ii 252.14 (Stowe M.). cid as dénti fri s.¤ , `what is to be done with reference to that', Wb. 12d41 . is i s.¤ rafetar [a]ngil `it is therein that angels know Him', 28c12 . hi s.¤ there, 33b7 . issin therein, 12d5 (ref. to isinbiuthso gl. in hoc mundo, 12d4 ). hi s.¤ here, Sg. 61b13 . ni taet guth isson (`leg. issen = issin?' Edd.) `here no voice cometh', Thes. ii 253.7 (or to son?). dlomis fíacc dóib iar s.¤ `afterwards', 242.14 (Ardm.). isint senmim dedenach ar ni bia senim terchomric iar s.¤ , Wb. 13d18 . iar sein gl. iarum, Thes. ii 315.40 . ní bu chían íar s.¤ coráncatar tír inna mban, Imr. Brain 62 . íar s.¤ , MU² 1025 (LU). iar s.¤ , Maund. 154 . la s.¤ `therewith', Thes. ii 291.15 ( Ml. Poems I ). la s.¤ didiu atraigh in t-ēicsīne, Corm. Y p. 70.3 . o sein (o ṡein, v.l.) ille, Thes. ii 308.4 ( Hy. II pref . ). trīcha laithe . . . | ō ṡ.¤ co cenn a uide, Bruchst. 57 § 128 ( AFM 1022 A.D . ). ro gell . . . na fegbad Erind o ṡein immach from that time onwards, LU 306 ( ACC Pref . ). Áth Féinne a ainm o ṡain ille since then, TBC-LL¹ 4948 . ó shoin i le, Dán Dé vi 5 . ó ṡoin, Maund. 102 . ó s.¤ , ib. ó shoin amach, TSh. 75 . ó s.¤ a le, PCT 75 . ac s.¤ chucut do ríg, PH 4376 . ní cúalatar guth dæ re s.¤ `before that', Ml. 102d7 . ná[d] roga(i)b seilb ná comarbus ria s.¤ , Críth G. 37 . an immon (= immáin) sech s.¤ īarom dognīat na bāi, Corm. Y 674 . tri s.¤ gl. perinde, Ml. 60b15 .

(b) with cenmothá and íarmothá: a chommaín cinn bliadna cenmothā s.¤ , Sc.M² 2 . na ocht grad cenmothá s.¤ , SR 785 . cach fuasnud iarmotha s.¤ cin indurba, Laws ii 290.24 .

(c) after acht: acht sain o tat ina mbiu | nochan fuil . . ., Anecd. ii 35 § 12 . duit ra thócbus cend innocht | acht sain ní bia diar comroc, LL 210b22 .

(d) after the equative: is denithir s.¤ ara-chrin cumachtae inna pecthach `even so swiftly does the power of sinners perish', Ml. 57c12 . amal as suthain riuth gréne síc bith suthainidir s.¤ ainm Solmon `even so lasting', 90b10 . amal as ndínim la nech . . . is dínnímidir insin la dia . . . `so little trouble is it to God', 61b28 . is lerigtir sin, RC iii 346.21 ( Aisl. Óeng. 12 ). is denitir s.¤ rosaigh fudumne pene, Mon. Tall. 85 (162.39) .

(e) accus. with verb: ní pí ciall la nech dogní insin, Wb. 29b11 . fomnid insin `take ye heed of that', 20b15 . Gobban durigni insin, Thes. ii 294.13 ( Ml. Poems III ). asbeir som insin do dia `he says that of God', Ml. 51d25 . mar atchualá Euá insain, SR 1717 . nā ráid ind s.¤ , MacCongl. 61.15 . is i persin Crist dagníusa s.¤ , Wb. 14d26 . intliucht tra conricci s.¤ `(such is) then the sense so far', Ml. 44b10 - 11 . cid ara cuinchi siu sein?, Thes. ii 307.12 - 13 ( Hy. ii pref . ). adcūaid īarom an gilla d'Athairne s.¤ , Corm. Y 690 . ní moladar som s.¤ , Mon. Tall. 23 (135.14) . in ri rodelba sain, SR 331 . ní ḟeadarsa cosaniú s.¤ , BDD² 148 . dorindetur-san s.¤ , Maund. 199 .

(f) nom. with pass. verb: do óis anfoirbthiu tra asrobrad insin, Wb. 12d26 . coṅgaibther huile hí crist insin, Thes. ii 254.19 (Stowe M.). dogéntar uli in-sin, PH 2248 . increchthar sein ar ní deichned iar ndílsi tormach sillaibi, LU 463 . do féchad s.¤ co menic, Maund. 92 .

(g) nom. with subst. verb: ni pia detsiu insin `that will not be to Thee', Wb. 32c12 . ata di thrummai na fochaide insin that is (so) from the weight of the tribulations, Ml. 23a19 .

(h) nom. of active verb: artáott troscud s.¤ `this serves in place of a fast', Mon. Tall. 80 (161.12) . tre n-a croidhe do-chuaidh s.¤ , DDána 16.6 . creud chialluigheas s.¤ , Donlevy 26.18 .

(i) with copula: nitat midrera óisa foirbthi insin, Wb. 22b17 . ni cosmil fri gnímu angil insin, 32c7 . airde serce móre insin, 24c2 (copula omitted before airde). creitmech s.¤ as messa ancreitmech, 28d23 . is briathar de insin, Ml. 31c7 . fo deud s.¤ `this (is) at the end', Sg. 72a6 . `Fiac s.¤' ol D. `F. is the man', Thes. ii 307.14 ( Hy. ii pref . ). sóerchéli na flatha . . . óes insin bís [i] coímthecht do ḟlaith, Críth G. 594 . athgabail in sin ad fenar fo fio that is a type of distraint that . . ., Laws i 256.6 . cóicc noíb in sin do muintir P., Trip.² 820 . fairend . . . s.¤ dogníat trócaire, LU 2194 ( FA 27 ). ní bréc sain, MacCarthy 210.3 ( LL 129b ). lebor s.¤ i follsigther . . ., PH 3985 . ` Ísu conagum' . . . `Is mesi s.¤', 3108 . mairg gaollucht dan séala sain, DDána 20.14 . breath s.¤ do dhearbh gach duine, TD 15.15 . is hed insin a llínn i ngaib diabul peccatores gl. laqueum diabuli, Wb. 29b19 . is hed insin forchun do chách `that is what I teach to every one', 10a13 . in n-ed insin furuar dait, Ml. 44b 10 - 11 . ised dano insin dorosluínd cainchomrac ar mu chnamaibse `that moreover denied peace to my bones', 58a11 . it hé insin .vii. cléithe ó ndírenar cach bóaire, Críth G. 157 . iss é in(n)sin im[m]athoing smachtu, 37 . it é in sin dá macc E., Trip.² 2063 . at he sein in da se rind, SR 257 . bid si s.¤ mini na hesorgni, LU 8655 ( FB 48 ). is í s.¤ cathuir is mó sa doman, Maund. 182 . a phosd cothaighthe is sé s.¤ `that is the post on which he is stayed', TD 22a.5 . gonadh é s.¤ an modh ar ar fhágaibh M. . . . a thighearnas dá éisi, Maguires of F. 99 . is hed for n-ainm insin `that is your name', Wb. 5a17 (cf. is hed bunad mo chlainde `that is my clan's stock', ib. 19 . ) issí écmailte in choscair insin `that is the insolence of the victory', Ml. 33c13 . is ed tír mbó la Féniu insin, Críth G. 92 . is hí immurco foropir cáich lindi indsin `this indeed is what we consider to be the additional labour of each man', Mon. Tall. 16 (133.12) . it é dáilemain adad dech fil i nHérinn in sin those are the best cupbearers, BDD² 1160 . fer fothlai, cid ara ne(i)per[r]? Is é remibí bóairechaib insin, Críth G. 249 . conid e epscop insin cita-ro-oirtned that was the bishop who was first ordained, Thes. ii 241.15 (Ardm.). méit donindnagar fornni fochith issí méit insin donindnagar in díthnad `in proportion as suffering is bestowed upon us, so is the consolation that is bestowed', Wb. 14b15 . issí dias insin oingther leusom, Tur. 4 . ní si accuis insin arinrogab duaid, Ml. 35a8 . is hæ lin pars insin bis i n-obli, Thes. ii 254.18 (Stowe M.). ised uatath in sain conoirg fri sochaid those are the few that . . ., Laws iv 176.2 . air it he teora trebuire in sen nad rithrolat . . . comarbai, 210.y . iss ed ārus indsin i rraba Glass, Corm. Y p. 75.17 . bíadd prantigi dano ised aonach ndedenach indsin is coir do imbirt isna mbelaib iar praind hi sessam ┐ hi praindtig a cetal, Mon. Tall. 83 (162.2) . ba sí úair insin dolluid Fedelm . . . asind rígthig, LU 8223 ( FB 17 ). iss ed eret no bitis Ulaid insin i mMaig Murthemni (leg. eret insin . . .), 3224 ( SCC 1 ).

(j) in vn. constructions: ní áil tra insin do epirt, Wb. 27c8 . ni fíu dúibsi insin do é[it]secht, 18c11 . is mar so is cōir s.¤ do rādh, Corm. Y 684 . ba heicen . . . do ingenaib Emna s.¤ do dénam, Sc.M² R 20 . ro-líset-sum for Ísu s.¤ do ráda, PH 3147 . do gell E. s.¤ do dhigail for L., Stair Erc. 904 .

turthait, turtait

Cite this: eDIL s.v. turthait, turtait or


Forms: taurthait, turthaigh

n act of striking, (accidental ?) blow: turthaid .i. taurrachtid .i. ... focheirdi erchor ūait do ermaisin nach rētae. Docuirethar obonn anmannae ar a chind ┐ gonta nō benta nō marbthae a rrec don turacht sin. Īarom asberar turthait, Corm. Y 1229 = taurthait, Corm. 43 . culturtaid ┐ taebturtaid aithfegtar ann in aith `back striking and side striking,' Laws iii 224.1 Comm. ? eitgi turthaiti trian aithgina ma co torba, O'Curry 595 ( H 3.18, 293 ). as coibdelach tucait ┐ t.¤ , O'Curry 1967 ( H 4.22, 13 ). gidat imdha a turtade | binne foghar na Gairbhe though frequent its buffetings (?) (a stream), Anecd. ii 24 § 14 . ? techt turthaid céim cechaing, RC xv 433.14 = turthaigh, BB 372b42 .